European Journal of Mental Health

Published by Akadémiai Kiadó
Online ISSN: 1788-7119
Print ISSN: 1788-4934
Average values of SOC and self-esteem and the standard error of average according to sex 
Frequency of physical training according to sex
Distribution of the sample according to school types
The study investigates the health-preserving role of sports among 16 and 17-year-olds in the context of sense of coherence (SOC) and self-esteem (SES); revealing their interdependencies, it intends to contribute to discovering the protective factors of health. In Hungary's Southern Transdanubian region, we implemented a health-sociological questionnaire survey on a 1091-person sample representing school types, during which we thoroughly researched young peoples' sporting and physical training habits, measuring their sense of coherence with the 13-item SOC scale and their self-esteem with Rosenberg's 10-item scale. The frequency and level of physical training in both sexes (controlled by parents' education and work, place of residence, and school type) indicated a strong positive correlation with SOC and SES, with meaningfulness as the most significantly connected dimension of SOC. The scale values were significantly higher with boys than with girls. The survey results also mark the significance of internal motivations for sports. © 2015 Semmelweis University Institute of Mental Health, Budapest.
Membership in different organisations -percentage (2000) Multiple answer (N = 1,770)
Civil organisational engagement – 2008 (N = 2018) 
Civil organisational engagement – 2008 (raw percentage) 
Sporting activity – civil activity – 2008 (raw percentage) 
Logistic regression model applied to a limited civil activity in the two periods 
Several studies pointed out the positive effects of social capital in the last 10 to 20 years. Nevertheless, only minor emphasis was put on the formation of social capital. Most authors implicitly presume an effect of socialisation in the background of the formation of social capital. This is also confirmed by studies, using data of panel research, which have demonstrated significant connections between the civil activity of young people and adults and their general level of trust. In our study we examine how membership in civil organisations - which we consider an important indicator of social capital - is influenced by sporting activity in the age range of 15-18. The two surweys examined (Ifjúságkutatás 2000, 2008) show that young people practising sports are more likely to participate in the work of civil organisations, moreover, sport proved to be a more important background variable in our models than the access to economic and cultural resources. Although this is also due to structural reasons, we are convinced that the most important factors for social capital are the participation in a community and the social net deriving from it. And juvenile sporting activity can serve as a good basis for this.
Introduction: The extensive disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to heightened concerns about mental health sequelae. There has been significant interest in identifying factors associated with psychosocial vulnerability or resilience. Aims: This study examined associations of trait gratitude with mental health difficulties among community residents in a southern state of the US. Methods: In this cross-sectional online investigation, 543 adults were assessed during an earlier phase of the pandemic, characterized by the reopening of facilities but mounting infection rates. Participants were evaluated using a validated measure of trait gratitude and clinically relevant screening assess-ments of depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms. Results: After adjusting for a range of pandemic-associated burdens and sociodemographic factors, multivariable analyses indicated that gratitude was significantly related to diminished levels of depres-sion, anxiety, and trauma. These effects remained significant after additional adjustment for other psychosocial resources (religiousness and perceived support). Conclusions: Findings provide novel information regarding relationships between gratitude and reduced mental health difficulties among community residents during a stressful period early in the pandemic. Results set the stage for longitudinal research. A disposition to identify and appreciate beneficial experiences might contribute to more favorable adaptation to communal crises, and warrants further investigation.
Introduction: Changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered the functioning of different social systems, including the educational one. Closing educational institutions and transferring the educational process to online platforms posed new challenges for students’ academic functioning and well-being in these unexpected circumstances. Aims: This study aimed to explore the role of university students’ academic functioning and personality in predicting their subjective well-being during the online studying implemented in Croatia due to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus. Methods: A sample of 505 university students from different Croatian faculties participated in the online survey, which included their ratings of adjustment to the online learning environment, related difficulties in learning and self-regulation, perception of the online education’s quality, the level of life disruption caused by the pandemic, personality traits, and subjective well-being measures (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect). Results: Results generally revealed that certain aspects of students’ academic functioning during online studying as well as their personality explained a significant proportion of the subjective well-being measures’ variance. Also, the perceived level of life disruption caused by the pandemic and neuroticism were the strongest predictors of students’ subjective well-being, followed by extraversion and conscientiousness. Conclusions: Obtained results indicate that some aspects of academic functioning upon the transition to online studying could contribute to students’ subjective well-being and should be considered when planning interventions to increase their well-being and enhance the quality of the online learning environment in these challenging times.
Odds of high risk of depression by sociodemographics in the 'stay-home' period
Odds of high risk of depression by eating behavior, physical activity and sedentary behavior in the 'stay-home' period
Background: Social exclusion usually contributes to an increased vulnerability to mental health problems and risky health behaviors. This study aims to identify the role of health behavior in the increased risk of depressive symptoms among adolescents during the coronavirus pandemic in Hungary. Methods: A total of 705 high school students participated in our study (M = 15.9 years; SD = 1.19). The self-administered questionnaire included items about sociodemographics, eating habits, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and substance use. Depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the Child Depression Inventory. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyze our results. Results: Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was reported by 21.7% and 22.4% of respondents, respectively. The proportion of the respondents reporting daily sweets consumption stood at 13.2%, daily soft drinks consumption was 12.3%, and daily energy drink consumption tallied to 4.5%. More than one-third of the sample (35.5%) reported having breakfast every school day, which rose to 68.1% of the sample reporting breakfast on both weekend days. The rate of students engaged in daily physical activity was 6.5%, while 86.1% of them reported more than four hours screen time in a day. In addition, despite the mandatory confinement, a notable percentage of adolescents engaged in substance use. Consistent with previous studies, girls had a higher risk of depression. Low levels of physical activity and high levels of screen time – as well as alcohol and drug use – were associated with a high risk of depression. Conclusions: We believe our study provided useful information on adolescent health behaviors that can lead to adolescents’ depression, and that maintaining physical activity can prevent it even in these unusual circumstances.
Introduction: Vital exhaustion and the well-being of helping professionals are important issues regarding the sustainability of services, especially in a critical situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate helping professionals’ vital exhaustion and well-being, concerning different groups of background variables during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In the spring of 2020, Hungarian helping professionals (N = 931) were contacted with an online questionnaire. Results: Our results show that indicators of physical well-being are strongly associated with vital exhaustion and subjective well-being (sleeping quality (χ2 (2) = 251.062, p < .001); frequency of meals (χ2 (2) = 99.454, p < .001)). Health and social care workers were more exhausted than members of other helping professions (χ2(4) =37.782, p < .001). There were statistically significant negative correlations between the Vital exhaustion and Well-being Score and satisfaction with work conditions (rs(929) = -.418, p < .001), satisfaction with family life (rs(806) = -.342, p < .001) and its change (rs(807) = -.287, p < .001), family-work balance (rs(675) = -.444, p < .001) and its change (rs(786) = -.515, p < .001). In the prediction of the Vital Exhaustion and the Well-being Score, the addition of physical well-being indicators to the regression model led to the strongest increase in R2 of .344, p < .001. Conclusion: A clear and consensual framework for life and work provides security amid unpredictable external changes.
Introduction: Concerns about student mental health have been rising globally. The COVID-19 pandemic triggered unprecedented disruption in higher education as universities were forced to close and adapt their education delivery. Understanding the impact of this on vulnerable students can inform higher education’s response to future similar events. Aims: To understand the lived experience of first year university students studying in the United Kingdom, who had a history of poor mental health and lived on a low income, we examined the inter-relatedness between mental health, financial strain, remote learning and engagement, and well-being. Methods: At the start of their first year of study, whilst the UK was in periods of lockdown, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 diverse first-year university students. We analyzed data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The pandemic’s impact on student mental health, engagement and learning remained pervasive and serious. Key themes conveyed how isolation triggered past mental health difficulties and a perception that the universities – and government – had forgotten about them. Students also experienced greater difficulty in navigating the liminal threshold between being a child and an adult, and having the additional worry of financial instability left students with fewer coping resources. Conclusions: To mitigate the impact of future pandemic responses, constant and effective communication is needed between faculty and students to safeguard against isolation and low motivation. Vulnerable students need guidance in coping skills to manage mental health risks when they are away from family and familiar support networks.
Introduction: The present study investigates the lockdown experience in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic within a positive psychology framework, focusing on the protective role of the positive anticipatory states: optimism and hope. Aims: The aims were to verify if and how optimism and hope influenced people’s psychological wellbeing and their risk perception of the situation, addressing how individuals portrayed the present and how they imagined the future after the lockdown. Method: Based on the differences between the two constructs, as from the literature, the hypothesis is that individuals with higher levels of optimism would report positive but hazy future scenarios and lower levels of risk perception about the future. Therefore 1,471 participants received an online survey, which was administered as a set of questionnaires investigating three areas: demographic information, psychological wellbeing, and risk of contagion perception. Results: The results showed that positive anticipatory states are positively associated with psychological wellbeing. Moreover, the results highlighted the relationship between optimism and risk perception regarding future scenarios. Conclusions: The presented predictive model demonstrated that positive anticipatory states, sex, and age had a central role in determining the psychological wellbeing during the first wave of the pandemic events in Italy. Practical implications are discussed.
Introduction: In Portugal, two periods of confinement were implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March 2020, January 2021), and closing the educational institutions was one of the containment measures adopted. Medical students felt the impact of these confinement periods because healthcare education has a very high practical component in the context of clinical teaching: it is impossible to teach these healthcare disciplines via distance learning methodology. Aims: This study aims to identify the feelings related to the academic path in higher education students attending healthcare courses as a consequence of confinement. Methods: The sample included 133 students, aged between 18 and 55 years, 77 (68.1%) were female. This was a qualitative and cross-sectional study using a content analysis approach. The measurement instrument included an online questionnaire. Results: From the results, demotivation, anxiety, insecurity and fear of being contaminated stand out as the most present and reported student feelings. All these new feelings led to a shift in the mental health status, which most students currently classify negatively as a result of all the changes ex-perienced during this time. Most students expressed negative feelings resulting from the pandemic, asserting that confinement interfered with their academic path in a negative way regarding their mental health. Conclusions: The decrease in practical classes led to a feeling of insecurity and fear in patient care. It is suggested that the mental health of university students be monitored during epidemics in order to try to minimize the impacts caused on their mental health.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most stressful events in recent times. Medical professionals, including anesthesiologists-reanimatologists, suffered the main blow in this difficult and stressful environment. Aims: This study aimed at identifying the features of anesthesiologists-reanimatologists’ emotional states in different COVID-19 pandemic periods. Methods: The study was conducted through an anonymous questionnaire among anesthesiologists-reanimatologists in two periods. In the First stage – which was carried out in May 2020 (during the first COVID-19 pan¬demic wave) – 58 anesthesiologists-reanimatologists in the Arkhangelsk region took part. During the Second segment – which took place in October 2020 (in the second COVID-19 pandemic wave) – 43 anesthesiologists-reanimatologists were examined. Repeated questioning was carried out among the same participants. Results: In October 2020, compared to May, the number of doctors who noted a high intensity of professional activity increased. Regardless of the study period, one-third of the subjects experienced constant pronounced anxiety. Anesthesiologists-reanimatologists, whose professional activity was directly related to the patients in COVID-19 care, noted a poorer emo¬tional state more frequently in October, accompanied by anxiety, depressed mood, irritability and a high burnout level, which may indicate a depletion of internal resources in this group. Conclusions: The study results showed that for anesthesiologists-reanimatologists, a further depletion of emotional resources accompanied the second pandemic wave. The anesthesiologists-reanimatologists’ emotional state was mediated by a number of social and gender factors, as well as specific labor organization features.
Subscale Mean Total Scores for Questionnaire Measures
Tests of Collinearity for Subscale Measures
Mean Scores on Questionnaire Items by Country for Questionnaire Subscales
Individualistic Versus Collectivistic Culture Scores on Measure Subscales
Introduction: COVID-19 has affected the entire world, including university students. Students are likely to experience COVID-19 related stress that might adversely affect their psychological health and result in various coping strategies. Aims: This study’s objectives were to examine cross-cultural differences and the relationships between stress, psychological health, and coping among university students during the pandemic. Furthermore, the study explored whether coping strategies mediated the relationship between psychological health and perceived distress for this population. Methods: University students (n = 703) were recruited via convenience sampling from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants completed an online quantitative questionnaire consisting of demographics, the Perceived Stress Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Brief-COPE. Results: Perceived psychological distress was significantly associated with poorer general psychological health and both were associated with dysfunctional coping. For all countries, psychological health mediated the relationship between perceived distress and dysfunctional coping. Students from individualistic cultures reported higher stress and poorer psychological health when compared to those from collectivistic countries. The latter tended to engage in more emotion-focused and problem-focused coping and used more dysfunctional coping strategies than the former. Conclusions: Future research should explore other mediators and moderators that affect university students’ responses to pandemics and should include longitudinal studies with larger samples. Findings emphasize the need for providing university students with mental health support during and after COVID-19. It is important to develop and research empirically based strategies for reducing their stress and psychological distress through effective and culturally appropriate coping strategies.
Introduction: Since the introduction of newer psychiatric treatment methods during the 20th century, debates about the effectiveness andappropriateness of such treatment have featured. Advocates among those who promote the sociological, biological, psychological and spiritual understandings of mental illness and its treatment have created tangible tensions with those supporting each position commonly indulging in fierce attacks on the others. Aims: The aim of this paper is to explore some of the principal treatment viewpoints that characterized the late 20th century (1990 onwards) and early 21st century (up till 2020). Ultimately, these debates guided contemporary practice towards a biopsychosocial-spiritual view of mental illness in a move towards holistic person-centered care, which nowadays is the advocated model in many health systems. Methods: The authors undertook a literature search in order to locate published debates on psychiatric treatment during the late 20th century (1990 onwards) and the early 21st century (up till 2020). Results: Debates emerging from 36 articles were identified and synthesized in a narrative review. Conclusions: Exploring the various debates that have characterized mental health care serves as a crucial reflective exercise on what needs to be considered when claiming that contemporary care is based on a holistic and person-centered approach. In this view, critical evaluation is needed so as to avoid repeating the coercive and inhumane mistakes of the past.
Introduction: The Czechia is facing population aging. The number of people with dementia is increasing. Conflicting conclusions of European studies confirm the difficulties of quantifying the disease. Aims: We aim to estimate the number of people with dementia in Czechia until 2050: a) projecting dementia prevalence using prevalence rates from EURODEM and EuroCoDe studies, b) projecting dementia based on mortality tables of individuals living with dementia. Comparing both approaches to dementia estimation. Methods: We conducted a literature review. The projection is based on socio-demographic and health variables; construction of life tables for people with dementia. Results: According to the results a) projecting the prevalence of dementia; over 300,000 seniors aged 60+ will suffer from dementia by 2050; b) estimating the number of individuals living with dementia: The number of men and women with dementia aged 65+ was estimated at over 120 thousand. Conclusions: Czech society is not prepared for this intense increase in the number of individuals living with dementia. We argue early diagnosis as well as appropriate health and social care are urgent.
Sándor Karácsony (1891-1952) was an original, creative and influential representative of Hungarian pedagogical, linguistic and philosophical thinking. As a secondary school teacher and a university professor he established a new school of thought with a lasting impact. The principle underlying his philosophy was that in education, in scientific research, and in all areas of life 'the other person' must be taken into account if we are to achieve valid results. In the 1970s and 1980s his former disciples and co-workers achieved significant results in various fields of science and education, such as mathematics, biology, linguistics, psychology and ethnography by applying and further developing his ideas, and many of them have also been responsible for new schools of scientific thought. Karácsony's pedagogical thinking is very much alive even today. Representatives of the third and fourth generations of teachers who are familiar with Karácsony's ideas believe that education takes place as a joint achievement of teacher and student if the two partners have respect for each other's autonomy, and on this basis they relate to the ideals and values of the school. After 1990 his disciples and their co-workers created several social organisations dedicated to the task of making his work known again to those concerned. A part of this work was re-editing his ten-volume educational theory based on interpersonal logic and interpersonal psychology, and in the past 23 years holding conferences to present his pedagogical principles, which continue to be valid even today, to teachers, students and parents. © 2014 Semmelweis University Institute of Mental Health, Budapest.
At present, the Russian Orthodox Church faces a serious evaluation of the history of the Church in the 20th century. As it is known, the 20th century for the Russian Orthodox Church was a tragic one. The communist regime realised not only mass physical and spiritual terror, but created falsifications and myths of history as well. One of the main ideals of the communist regime was the extermination of Christian faith and the aspersion of religious practice. Therefore one of the essential steps in the direction of renewal of historical truth was the canonisation of the victims - the new martyrs and confessors - of communist terror in the Local Councils of the Moscow Patriarchy. Similarly, saints have always served as examples of religious practice. That would serve as well as a reminder about the goals of human life, the value of life and the highest example for respect towards a person. In the first part of the article, the bloodiest pages of history of the Russian Church are examined, when the Bolshevik, coming into power, started the persecution of the Orthodox Church. The article observes the persecutions commenced by the Soviet state in the 1918-1941 period, as during this time the most ruthless persecutions took place, and the martyrs of this age form the greatest proportion in number within the body of holy new martyrs and confessors of the 20th century. Next, the relevance of studying the archive documents and the methodology of analysis are examined, as the process of canonisation is based on the study and analysis of historical facts; the conformity of the person being canonised is rigorously examined. The second part of the article reviews the very process of canonisation as well as the chronological sequence in accordance with the decisions of the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. Similarly, the decisions of the Synod regarding the veneration practice of saints are attached. The end of the article focuses on the tasks that derive from the fact of canonisation. © 2013 Semmelweis University Institute of Mental Health, Budapest.
Top-cited authors
Ferenc Köteles
  • Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary
Benedek T. Tihanyi
  • Eötvös Loránd University
Peter Simor
  • Eötvös Loránd University
Barbara Csala
  • Eötvös Loránd University