Examines the reasons why administrators of non-profit organizations are reluctant to embrace marketing ideas. Gives the most frequent answer, which is that marketing itself has a tarnished image which is often associated with wasteful expenditure, particularly in the areas of advertising and promotion, where things are very difficult. Differences are shown in background and training, and therefore language and concepts of markets and the administrators of non-profit organisations. States that administrators in non-profit organizations are not surprisingly reluctant to adopt a language, which they can often see as merely offering a rather poor translation of their own concepts. Sums up that marketing practitioners may feel uncomfortable about explicitly acknowledging the existence of such activity.
Postulates that the main purpose here is to merge the ideas of Wroe Alderson, a leading original marketing theorist, using recent works in Austrian economies in order to provide a point of departure for an entrepreneurial-based theory of marketing. States that there are three parts herein: first, reviews Alderson's concepts of market behaviour, integrating them with the Austrian perspective; second, addresses an investigation of the nature of information required in dynamic markets; third, establishes the role of the entrepreneur in the dynamic market as the means of answering this question. Investigates the homogenous market and the discrepant market, discussing these in depth and also discussing entrepreneurship as dynamic marketing behaviour. Concludes that since entrepreneurs are motivated by profit, however defined, then any suppression or taxation of profits will reduce entrepreneurship, lessen marketing activity and decrease the congruence between wants and supplies.
This paper explores why some retail banks are more vigorously promoting and have been more successful in changing their distribution channel structure by introducing new electronic channels, such as PC banking and internet banking, than other banks. Ten hypotheses are formulated relating a number of variables to the banks' promotion and successful introduction of the electronic channels. Responses from 60 key managers in the largest retail banks in Denmark indicate that bank size, advantages for the customers and the banks, attention to the future, senior management support, and willingness to cannibalize existing channels may be important factors in explaining the successful introduction of the electronic channels. Further, the results indicate that different attitudes and perceptions are related to different means of attracting customers to the electronic channels. Finally the paper discusses the implications for the banks and other firms of adopting the Internet as a distribution channel.
The prime objective of our study is to assess whether consumer segments based on relational aspects, service aspects, or price aspects have different preferences concerning these three key decision making variables when buying a car. In addition, we assessed consumer segments resulting from simultaneously incorporating relationships, service package, and price. We investigated a large sample of Mitsubishi drivers in the Netherlands emphasizing consumers’ trade-off between dealer relationship, service package and price. Conjoint analysis showed that dealer relationships (as opposed to price) represent a very important decision making variable when buying a car and consumer preferences concerning relationships provide a useful instrument for segmenting markets. Cluster analyses on the basis of three aspects simultaneously revealed that some consumers do value relationships, while others emphasize the service package in their purchase, both opposed to the third segment that is most probably not inclined to be loyal to a car dealer at all.Our study clearly indicates that different consumer segments can be distinguished on the basis of preferences for relationships and service packages rather than on the basis of price. This knowledge enables car dealers to use their resources more effectively.
This paper studies the regions of parameter space of engineering design in
which performance is sensitive to design parameters. Some of these parameters
(for example, the dimensions and compositions of components) constitute the
design, but others are intrinsic properties of materials or Nature. The paper
is concerned with narrow regions of parameter space, "cliffs", in which
performance (some measure of the final state of a system, such as ignition or
non-ignition of a flammable gas, or failure or non-failure of a ductile
material subject to tension) is a sensitive function of the parameters. In
these regions performance is also sensitive to uncertainties in the parameters.
This is particularly important for intrinsically indeterminate systems, those
whose performance is not predictable from measured initial conditions and is
This paper aims to examine whether order and scale of market entry influence a new product’s market and financial performance, and how marketing and R&D resources strengthen or weaken these effects. Through a mail survey, data were collected on a sample of 136 product launches by Spanish manufacturing firms. A moderated hierarchical regression analysis enabled the assessment of the relevance of order and scale as well as their interactions with marketing and R&D resources to explain a product’s competitive position. Moreover, a mediation analysis allowed us to determine whether market entry strategy (indirectly) affects financial performance. The analyses show that pioneering firms and those entering the market with a full-scale launch achieve advantages in terms of competitive position, and that this variable mediates the relationship of order and scale with profitability. The empirical results also reveal that such advantages are conditioned by the availability of marketing and R&D resources. The decisions regarding order and scale of market entry are contingent. Managers involved in the planning of a new product launch should be knowledgeable about their firm’s resources and capabilities before determining when and how to enter the market. Many papers study the effects of order-of-entry on market share, but other dimensions of a new product launch strategy, such as scale, have largely been ignored. The research examines the effects of both variables on competitive position and profitability. This is also one of the first studies that explores the moderating effect exerted by resources and capabilities in the launch strategy-performance relationship.
The objective of this paper is to estimate technical efficiency in retailing; and the influence of inventory investment, wage levels, and firm age on this efficiency. We use the output supermarket chains¿ sales volume, calculated isolating the retailer price effect on its sales revenue. This output allows us to estimate a strictly technical concept of efficiency. The methodology is based on the estimation of a stochastic parametric function. The empirical analyses applied to panel data on a sample of 42 supermarket chains between 2000 and 2002 show that inventory investment and wage level have an impact on technical efficiency. In comparison, the effect of these factors on efficiency calculated through a monetary output (sales revenue) shows some differences that could be due to aspects related to product prices. El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en la estimación de la eficiencia técnica en distribución comercial minorista, así como en analizar la influencia que la inversión en existencias, el nivel de salarios y la edad de la empresa tienen sobre dicha eficiencia. A tal efecto, se utiliza un output que pretende aislar el efecto de los precios de cada cadena de supermercados analizada, lo que permite estimar un concepto de eficiencia estrictamente técnico. La metodología se basa en la estimación de una frontera paramétrica de naturaleza estocástica. Los resultados de la aplicación empírica sobre una muestra de 42 cadenas de supermercados que operan en España entre 2000 y 2002 muestran que la inversión en existencias y el nivel de salarios ejercen una influencia positiva sobre la eficiencia. Por comparación, el efecto de estos factores sobre la eficiencia económica muestra algunas diferencias que podrían ser atribuidas al efecto de los precios aplicados por los distribuidores.
In this paper we conceptualize the impact of information technology on marketing decision-making. We argue that developments in information technology affect the performance of marketing decision-makers through different routes. Advances in information technology enhance the possibilities to collect data and to generate information for supporting marketing decision-making. Potentially, this will have a positive impact on decision-making performance. Managerial expertise will favor the transformation of data into market insights. However, as the cognitive capabilities of marketing managers are limited, increasing amounts of data may also increase the complexity of the decision-making context. In turn, increased complexity enhances the probability of biased decision processes (e.g., the inappropriate use of heuristics) thereby negatively affecting decision-making performance. Marketing management support systems, also being the result of advances in information technology, are tools that can help marketers to benefit from the data explosion. These systems are able to increase the value of data and, at the same time, make decision-makers less vulnerable to biased decision processes. Our analysis leads to the expectation that the combination of marketing data, managerial judgment, and marketing management support systems will be a powerful factor for improving marketing management. Implications of our analysis are discussed.
Examines the degree to which leading UK charities have adopted the marketing concept in the last five years and how this has affected their performance. Based on Kohli and Jaworski’s (1990) work, an adaptation of the MARKOR scale was used to measure charities’ orientation towards their markets for funds and volunteers (donors). A mail questionnaire was sent to the top 200 UK charity organizations and a response rate of 29 per cent was achieved. Although charities’ orientation towards their donor market is still relatively low, it has significantly increased in the last five years. No differences in the levels of donor market orientation among different type of charities were observed. Donor market orientation was negatively related to the organizational size and the number of departments. A lag effect between donor market orientation and performance was detected. Discusses limitations and recommendations for future research.
In this paper, we investigate the information needs of marketers on the Web for consumer analysis purposes and examine how these can be met. Grounding our work in the existing bases of segmentation in the literature, we propose new Web-specific segmentation variables, by operationalizing and extending the existing variables for consumer analysis and segmentation. We discuss how marketers' information needs could be met from the different information sources available to a marketer, including Web logfiles, secondary sources, and information elicited from the consumer. We conclude that the readily available data in Web logfiles satisfies a significant part of the behavior segmentation information needs of marketers, while most of the demographic, geographic, psychographic and benefit segmentation information needs require information to be elicited from the visitors. 1 1. INTRODUCTION The WWW is the latest entrant in the communication and marketing media alternatives available to marke...
Not-for-profit organizations are faced with several problems in providing services to consumers. In order to attract sufficient funds, they must respond to consumer needs and competitive forces. This requires identifying which aspects of service provision are valued most. However, services are difficult to evaluate before purchase because of their intangibility, heterogeneity and joint production with consumption. Consequently, consumer attitudes towards actual service provision, and its salience, are likely to change over time with experience. This has implications for both service provision and the way it is positioned, and requires that tracking techniques are periodically used to monitor and control consumer satisfaction. A case study shows how this can be achieved. The findings suggest that consumers may not always be prepared to pay for what they want. By selectively increasing the salience of specific aspects, student choice might be influenced; and by interpreting dissonance effects, satisfaction regulated.
Contends that the majority of industrial innovations are of the continuous or dynamically continuous type. Discusses developments of new products, which mostly have their origins in something approaching that which is a substitute for something already marketed. Highlights such developments as being termed 'continuous' and 'dynamically continuous' innovations. States that a study of 'discontinuous' innovations (creation of a genuinely novel product and all that means) is comparatively rare. Moots that the consideration of examples of TV and computers reveal infrequent emergence of such products. Investigates one such agricultural innovation, which has emerged from diffusions of a relatively discontinuous agricultural innovation, from the purchase of rough-terrain forklift trucks (RTFLTs), originally developed for use by builders, to carry out farm duties. Proposes that adoption of RTFLTs by farmers requires new patterns of consumption as it results in purchases of a new piece of farm equipment, diminishing demand for tractors. Uses results from a postal questionnaire to 200 farmers, of which 62 per cent sent usable responses, and uses a table to emphasise results. Concludes that this investigation succeeds in attempts to identify and measure farmers characteristics with regard to innovations with machinery.
Marketing was the last of the major areas of management activity to be entered by operational research practitioners and it is only in the last decade in the UK that any significant progress has been achieved. The application of mathematical programming techniques to the “product mix” problem is well established, of course, but tends to occur more frequently at the production end in cost minimisation terms and as a useful tool for production planning rather than as a major influence on marketing. Attempts to develop total marketing models have met with varying degrees of success looked at scientifically but their influence on marketing decisions has been somewhat limited in general apart from a few outstanding companies. Simulation techniques are being increasingly applied and they are particularly useful in the light they cast on consumer behaviour; their value too as training devices at all levels from marketing director down to trainee sales representatives should not be underestimated. Within the field of advertising, considerable attention has been given to media scheduling and the results are fairly well known to advertising men. This paper is concerned with a number of applications in other areas of advertising of interest primarily to media owners, in particular newspaper publishers: forecasting of advertisement space and revenue; the pricing problem, i.e. the setting of the advertisement rates, for a media owner; some specific applications of OR in planning for a newspapercolour supplement.
In order to analyse consumer response to differing levels of comparative advertising, we have designed a causal model that includes various measurements of advertising effectiveness (cognitive, affective and connative), along with some of the main moderating factors considered in prior academic research. Thus, we carried out an experimental study in Spain using a total sample of 720 consumers spread out over four large geographical areas of the country. The results drawn from estimating the proposed model indicate that the greater the comparative advertising intensity, the lower the consumer's perception of believability. Likewise, the number of counter-arguments presented by the consumer increases, which negatively affects both attitudes and purchase intentions. However, the less well-known brands on the market are those that benefit most from this advertising strategy, increasing the audience's attention and improving purchase intentions.
Analyses the ability of ability of copywriters to perceive the attitudes of various target group towards their advertising material. Uses Swedish copywriters based in Finland as an example. Outlines a trend towards a particular type of copy which uses short-clipped sentences, with abbreviations in headlines and text. Focuses on this type of copy for the survey. Defines four target groups for discussion: Younger women with higher education. Younger women. Men with lower education. Younger men. Reveals findings, inter alia, that: Only traditional copywriters had correct expectations of the target group's attitudes. Pointillist copywriters wrongly anticipated more proactive attitudes towards short-clipped advertising copy. Concludes that more attention should be paid to the linguistic features of advertising copy.
Investigates the use of advertising in marketing and its effectiveness. Suggests the establishment of objectives by setting a market share goal, determining the percentage of the market to be reached and agreeing the necessary budget. Looks into the difficulties of implementing this practice. Presents a list of advantages, main considerations and general areas of objectives and evaluations for this practice. Concludes that the advertising objective can be evaluated for its degree of achievement.
Looks at three groups thought to be representative of consumer reactions — advertising experts, consumerists and students — and asks which one(s) among these can really anticipate consumers" cognitive and affective reactions towards the advertising content. Investigates the reactions of representatives from these groups to advertisements shown in a controlled situation. Concludes that none of these groups proved to be a good substitute for the consumer.
This monograph presents a thorough examination of the phenomena of "threshold" levels of advertising activity and the "wearout' of advertisements and/or campaigns. These are seen as corresponding to the management questions "How little can we spend/How infrequently can we advertise?" and "How much is too much/How infrequently is too little?" In the first section the relevant literature on, or related to, the two issues is reviewed. Section 2 describes a survey aimed at establishing current beliefs in the existence of the phenomena, the practices resulting from these beliefs, and the data which support them. Finally, Section 3 offers an overview on the managerial issues involved in decisions concerning threshold or wearout risks in advertising. It is suggested that wasted expenditure may be occurring in advertising because the believed levels of threshold and wearout are both too high.
This second part examines the role of headquarters management in international advertising from a decision making viewpoint. It presents the results of a study conducted among twenty-eight US-based multinational corporations, focusing on the four key international advertising decision areas of establishing objectives, establishing the budget, determining a creative strategy and media selection.
Report on the findings of two studies—one German/Swiss, the other US-conducted among advertising/marketing leaders into the prominent role of consumer activist groups. Presents views on these groups and the future direction of their regulatory efforts. Reveals that these organizations are playing an ever-increasing role in the move towards stranger advertising regulation, noting the impact which they have achieved. Concludes that European and US business people see consumer organizations as not being representative of consumers in general and also as being anti-advertising.
Despite the fact that almost all consumers have, to a greater or lesser extent, been exposed to television advertising little is known regarding the attitudes of the public towards this form of communication. What is the reaction of the public to the vast sums of money spent on television advertising—soaps and detergents, chocolates and confectionery and beer advertising on television alone came to over £21 million in 1970[1}? An explanation of this lack of research may be the fact that, as Palda states: “(There is) no logical connection between (aesthetic) enjoyment ofan advertisement and the disposition to buy the brand”. Thus although from an academic point of view consumers’ reactions to a particular advertisement or advertising in toto, may be interesting, from a corporate standpoint the emphasis is—and should be, employing a sales or profit objective—on the attitude towards the brand which results from an advertisement, the classical case of incongruity between advertisement and brand attitudes being Daz.
Looks at the opinions and attitudes of advertisers and agencies with regard to pre-testing and pre-test methods in a small market like Belgium. Evaluates the criteria of the study into four components: motivation and/or behaviour; attitude and attitude change; visual impact and recall; and information transfer. Reveals that the importance attached to the criteria increases in the same order. Concludes that the respondents are relatively favourable to message ratings, but have a negative attitude to forced exposure ratings.
Presents the results of a small-scale cross-national study undertaken to compare the characteristics of advertising practices in Canada, the UK and Turkey. Investigates the extent to which managers use advertising developed for one country in another, looking at the similarities and differences in the media mix among the three countries. Gives examples of advertising material for identical products that required changes due to differences in culture, usage, selling patterns and market development. Concludes that in planning and preparing advertising programmes the same decisions regarding message, media and cost are made in all three countries. Reveals, however, that differences in number and type of media and culture and environment require that advertisements be tailored to the specific audience.
Isolates the importance of economic level and cultural level and cultural perceptions in influencing agency selection overseas by major US companies. Recounts that many study findings, relating particularly to the use of local or US-based advertising agencies, are examined. Particular concern is to whether or not such factors as the advertiser's attitudes towards cultural factor importance and market area economic development, are considerations in the placing of preparing and placing non-domestic advertising. Looks at the role of culture and statements to prove advantages and disadvantages in these. Concludes that if a firm uses either US-based agencies for overseas representation or foreign-based agencies, its management is displaying some concern for the cultural and other differences forced between markets.
Compares South Africa's dualistic economy of two economic subsystems — one is an industrialised system, the other a subsistence one. Discusses the four main population groups in the heterogeneous systems, Bantu, Whites, Coloureds and Asians, using tables to show these fully. Looks further at media and its growing availability to both White and African markets — this includes TV and radio as well as newspaper and magazines. Chronicles that, because the average African income per capita is low, owing to most Africans living in rural areas and non-participation in a formal monetary economy, and because the average wage is also low, this does not preclude them in global terms from spending. Submits that even though Africans have low average income per capita their propensity to consume (willingness to buy) is high. Investigates African buyer behaviour and the influence the White man brought to bear following contact between the two races. Views the marketing mix and illustrates with the use of tables, different products and user profiles. Looks at promotion and its utmost importance to stimulate Africans to purchase products. Specifies the importance of distribution and price to Africans. Acknowledges that aggressive marketing to the African segment of South Africa may achieve large volume sales lowering costs — even prices may be brought within scope of households at last.
Explores the impact of recent EEC legislation, in particular the implications of Article 85, plus its regulations, of the Treaty of Rome where arrangements for selective or exclusive dealing can only be exempted from prohibition when the economic importance of the agreement is minor, or when the arrangement results in economic or technical benefits for the consumers. States marketing executives have, therefore, to take note of both national and community legislation in EEC countries. Reports that recently, companies that market in the Common Market countries, have become more aware of the EEC Commission's policy against firms who restrict, to the consumer's detriment, competition. Sums up that the Commission has implemented policy to prohibit selective distribution from 1962 forwards - this can only be avoided when the economic importance of the agreement is minor, considering market share involved.
Although government intervention has long been accepted as a feature in the provision of such social welfare services as education, health, income security, housing, etc., it is not recognised as a characteristic in marketing or in the field of retail services where, traditionally, market forces have been thought to predominate and it has been believed that the profit motive would ensure the best use and provision of resources. Even so, most western-style, capitalist economies, and all communist countries, possess a considerable body of legislation relating to retailing . Much of this is of a negative, rather than a positive, nature but, increasingly, new legislation has been introduced which has taken a more positive, supportive form . In many cases this has emanated from a concern for the protection of public interest and it would seem that certain governments have extended to the retail sector the view that the “principle of free competition, which is applicable to the production of things for private demand, is not applicable to the production of things where public interest is involved” . As this article demonstrates, this certainly appears to be the view of the Norwegian government which, since 1st January 1976, has been operating a programme of aid to retailers in sparsely-populated areas.
This monograph argues that boardroom marketing must be integrated with purchasing and distribution activities in a synthesised role focused on customer policy. The author sees this as the next step forward and argues that such a new alignment in company thinking would enable it to take account of the host of societal pressures it encounters, as well as improving management approaches toward channel members. Issues of independence/interdependence, professionalism, educational imperatives, and materialism are all examined and a customer policy audit proposed with suitable guidelines. It is a radical and provocative think-piece worthy of widespread attention amongst senior marketeers, purchasing and distribution executives.
Investigates the contribution of anthropology to marketing which has been thought of as being negligible. Reviews its potential as we move towards market analysis and model building strategies for marketing. Suggests that it is likely to play a role in international marketing.
Suggests that cultural anthropological analysis affords a neglected tool for new product design and product improvement and this helps to minimise complexity and improve market effectiveness. States there are three objectives herein: examines the type of market where economic data alone may not be enough to make a proper market evaluation; evaluates the sort of factors which might be germane to choosing alternative markets for the current product and skills available; and suggests how such a qualitative analysis may be quantified in terms of cost variances to complete the necessary analysis. Conclusions are that only a when a wider range of data is available can a comprehensive new market strategy be finalised.
Purpose - This paper aims to investigate collective identity construction process and applicability of resistance dimensions to the Freegan phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach - Data triangulation approach combines netnography of the Freegan online discourses, and content analysis of mainstream consumer views of Freeganism. Findings - Participation in shared practices facilitates Freegan collective identity construction through convergence of radical consumer resistance and market-mediated anti-consumption. Research limitations/implications - Multi-dimensional conceptualization of resistance is applicable to analyzing consumer movements. Originality/value - Through data triangulation, this research offers an analysis of internally negotiated and externally ascribed Freegan group identities.
– This paper aims to contribute to the special issue theme by analysing intentional non‐consumption through anti‐consumption and consumer resistance lenses.
– A total of 16 in‐depth interviews with women who intentionally practise non‐consumption for sustainability were completed.
– Two major themes where identified: I versus them: the careless consumers, and The objective/subjective dialectic in mundane practices.
– While it is tempting to delineate one concept from another, in practice, both anti‐consumption and consumer resistance intersect and represent complementary frameworks in studying non‐consumption.
Says that the use of energy has always been a key to the supply of food, to physical comfort and to quality of life in general. Posits that the plethora of energy use and low cost since the 1950s had made radical improvements in lifestyle and social and economic structure to Western society. Suggests that some important questions for today's energy policy, these are as follows: what consumer will do in terms of energy conservation; which consumers are most likely to cut down on their energy use; and what influences could best effect a move towards more conservation. Attempts to clear up these questions for the benefit of part of the Dutch public. Data were gathered in April 1978, by use of mail questionnaires sent to consumers in four residential areas in Amsterdam, The Netherlands - these were selected to represent various types of living accommodation (apartments, attached single-family units, etc.). Discusses the results in depth, offering explanations. Concludes that the essential question in energy policy today is: which consumers are making substantial efforts to conserve energy and what can be done to influence people to conserve?
Looks at the marketing literature on the subject of multi-attribute utility models. Reviews the multiple objective and multi-dimensional preference models within the framework of multiple attribute utility theory. Suggests that much of the research in this area has been information- rather than decision-oriented and, as a result, this has not been integrated successfully into the field of strategic marketing policy-making.
Provides case studies from the industrial market of practical problems faced by companies in organizing new product activity. Places emphasis on the complexity and uniqueness of organizational planning for individual firms. Concludes that there is a need for a contingency approach to new product organization and also development of the managers responsible for such an approach.
Provides an appreciation of the style of the overseas Chinese businessman, with regard to entry into the varied south-east Asian markets. Looks, particularly, at the role of the ethnic Chinese in the Asian marketing mix, tracing the starting point of 960-1279 in the South China Sea, known as the 'nanyang', using an historical perspective. Discusses the influence and character of Chinese enterprise and also the approach to business of the Chinese. Concludes that the Chinese approach way of doing business is quite distinctly different compared with any other, so that to do business in South East Asia this must be appreciated.
Examines the interrelationship between price, product and investment policy and costs, interdependence of product and price polices, and the effect of fluctuation in economy. Posits that there are several intrusive factors operating on this system of relationships with respect to the sales market, e. g. the state of the economy, competition and technical advances. Identifies three strategies which may be employed in the case of changeover from one state to another. Concludes that the policy employed by an organization is dependent on the market position of a product and its durability pre-recession.
Investigates those aspects of the communication process which relate to the conditions determining the receptiveness of the individual buyer to marketing communicative and the manner in which he/she searches the market. Examine the factors which stimulate search behaviour and identifies the extent of market search by buyers. Studies the relationship between the reasons for and the extent of search as well as other characteristics such as those of the buyers and their companies.
Looks at the problems and advantages of the application of sociological and social psychological concepts to marketing science. Deals with the problem of selecting relevent concepts from the behavioural sciences, and discusses the explicative power of some of these concepts. Suggests guidelines for the selection of behavioural science ideas, which are both practically and educationally appropriate.
Identifies the relationship between price and the consumer's evaluation of product quality with regard to developing a pricing strategy. Assesses the effects of price changes, and investigates the influence of advertising on perceived product quality.
Suggests that there are six major dimensions that influence students' attitudes on postgraduate marketing education selections and these are: practical considerations; curriculum requirements; convenience factors; experience with the institutions; academic factors; and admission considerations. Emphasises that with new, progressive business teaching postgraduate marketing programmes sprouting up, the face of European and UK marketing and business schools is changing rapidly. Investigates the attitudes of the major business schools in the UK towards the variables that influence the selection of marketing studies, focusing on finding relationships between dependent variables. Sums up that the expansion of the marketing concept to higher education industry, requires the adaptation and implementation of these findings, in order to improve.
Undertakes a pilot study, the results of which are reported here, into the degree to which marketing techniques are being applied in the local authority sports/leisure centre situations in the UK. Details the use of a questionnaire which focused attention on both marketing tools and major aspects of marketing philosophy. Finds evidence of marketing thinking having penetrated various organisational areas. Concludes that the study may have been of a pilot nature but there is evidence so far at least of marketing thinking being applied under one or more of the topic areas included in the questionnaire.
Attempts to use developments in the international automobile industry to explore the validity of international product life cycle theory. States that tendencies towards entropy in the automobile industry are apparent, and multinationals are not guaranteed existence.
Highlights the significance of market segmentation, preferring either to try to be all things to all people, or in other cases, attempting to sell to so-called 'market segments', which are based on definitions of product or service. Posits that market segments should fit three criteria: be measurable; be accessible; be substantial. Further states that UK banks have been guilty of following a similar approach to making only one product rather than problem solving, and that banks operate in five businesses: cash accessibility; asset security; money transfer; deferred payment; and financial advice. These terms identify needs from the customer's point of view. Uses figures and tables to explore further the points mentioned and explain the thought behind these. Maintains in conclusion that a more 'market' or 'customer' oriented approach by a banking company can yield benefits to the organisation and also to the customer.
Investigates school-leavers and students, but more importantly, primary groups of schoolchildren are being targeted, because of their growing power as consumers - even affecting others in purchasing products - such as own family members. Chronicles that the majority of children seem to save extensively at school or the Post Office, building society or bank, etc., and examines this in detail - particularly school savings schemes. Looks at different school systems, numbers of children involved and schools without a scheme. Discusses further pros and cons of saving schemes and also the implications of these for bank marketing. Concludes that the present project has been essentially exploratory, but further research might well be required.
Describes the Moyer model of price bargaining process with some extensions. Provides evidence supporting the model and findings based on research into part of the UK textile manufacturing and distributive industries. Suggests that the Moyer model provides support to the theory that the channel relationships affect the bargaining interval and buying price.
Examines the roots of bargaining power in the nature of market structure, financial resources, sub-situation possibilities and the innate skills of those doing the bargaining. Looks at the effects of these in pricing strategy. Concludes that, although highly "visible" bargaining is not the main determinant of price, but rather one of a series of factors.
Analyses the effects of peer pressure on a group of youngsters, using a ten-speed bicycle as an example. Uses a survey of 12-14 year old upper middle class youngsters on the outskirts of a large Norwegian city as a model. Shows how youngsters who do not have a speed bike are left out and looked down upon by their peers. Outlines how demand for a speed bike from youngsters impacts on the families' resources. Concludes, inter alia, that: Acquisition and use of products may affect group membership and social structure; Children and teenagers may develop remarkable knowledge regarding certain products, and may thus become the expert of the household, even in cases where other members exert considerable influence on the purchase decision; Children and teenagers may actively seek information initiated by the marketer. Affirms that through improved knowledge about consumers and their behaviour, manufacturers might develop more effective marketing programmes.
Investigates whether consumers are subject to the money illusion during a period of accelerated inflation. Looks at how consumers adjust their habits and purchasing behaviour in response to perceived price rises. Presents evidence from a survey carried out in the USA and Germany into differences between national reactions to economic changes. Reveals that consumers are generally not well informed about price indices.
Pricing policies and pricing behaviour in retail markets are important both to society in general and, of course, to retailers themselves. For the retailer, prices charged determine gross margins and hereby profitability. For society, retail prices directly affect aggregate price levels of the economy and hence consumer welfare. The study to be reported focuses on one aspect of pricing—the use of short-term price deals. deals. The study is disaggregate as the individual store is the unit of analysis A unique feature of the study is the introduction of a set of subjective or “intermediate” factors as predictors of price dealing intensity, in addition to traditional objective indicators of market structure. The article is organised as follows: previous research, theoretical framework, method and results.