European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education

Published by MDPI AG
Online ISSN: 2254-9625
Print ISSN: 2174-8144
Publications
Models of mediation of moral disengagement in the relationship between the dark triad (machiavellianism [Panel A], psychopathy [Panel B], narcissism [Panel C]) and the use of masks. Routes a and b indicate the indirect effect of the dark triad on the use of masks, through moral disengagement. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 (two tails).
Descriptive measures and correlations of the study variables (n = 534).
Not wearing a face mask, despite the sanitary recommendation, represented a public health risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, the aim of the study was to determine the mediating role of moral disengagement in the relationship between the dark triad and face mask wearing during the second wave of the pandemic. We worked with a sample made up of 534 adults, who were administered the Dirty Dozen Dark test, the Moral Disengagement Mechanisms Scale and a questionnaire on the frequency of use of face masks. The results showed that moral disengagement mediates the effect of each trait of the dark triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism) on the use of face masks. It is concluded that those who possess any of the dark personality traits morally disengage in order not to use a face mask, exercising a reckless behavior of the possible contagion of COVID-19 to others.
 
Cont.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, university education and feedback guidance have inevitably moved to online platforms, becoming a global trend. This study focuses on a case of Sookmyung Women’s University in South Korea, which has operated an online discussion clinic for university general education for more than a year as a case study. There are two main research methods. A frequency analysis was conducted to confirm what kind of counseling the students preferred at the discussion clinic based on the answers written in the students’ applications. The students whose applications were used for the analysis were divided into 57 teams, and there were two to six members per team. The results were as follows: In the survey results, students wanted help with the preparation process necessary for the discussion and the practical strategies for facilitating discussions. They wanted personalized counseling, demonstrating that discussion education provided in the foundational curriculum is insufficient. Second, the educational model of the discussion clinic and educational examples were examined. The findings confirmed that online discussion education is effective if the system is technically supplemented. Instructors and researchers are prepared to meet students’ demands for feedback and individual counseling, even if these are not provided through face-to-face discussions. Additionally, face-to-face guidance can be operated more effectively by taking advantage of online systems. The findings also demonstrate that further research on designing and operating online discussion centers is required. This study is a preceding study on developing online systems and educational guidelines for higher educational institutions to present new insights into smart learning. This paper also includes suggestions for educational and scientific discussions. The online discussion instructional model shown in this paper explores methods of scientific communication through a debate on scientific issues.
 
Changes in mental health indicators in women and men between the two phases of epidemic (PE)-differentiated between current working status (CWS) (Note: covariates evaluated at the value Age = 37.84).
Changes in mental health indicators in women and men between the two phases of the epidemic (PE)-differentiated between four age groups.
Sample description, data means (M) and standard deviations (SD) for anxiety and depression (HADS test), and distress (SRQ20 test).
Summary of results and effects of the main factors: gender, current working status, phase of the epidemic, and age group.
The article presents research evidence on psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economically active Czech population aged 18–64 (n = 1603; 365 men and 1238 women) within a one year perspective. The aim is to describe the differences in the reported mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, and distress) for women and men in the four age groups, two groups with different working statuses (continuation of work/interrupted working status), and between two phases of the epidemic (March to May 2020 and September 2020 to February 2021). The results point to elevated scores of negative mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, and distress) in different subgroups. More negative experiences in a pandemic situation were found, especially in groups of women, people under the age of 35, and among people with interrupted working status. The results also indicate a deterioration of symptoms over time during the epidemic.
 
The circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have taken a psychological toll on parents. Thus, understanding the impact of these contextual stressors on parents is important to help inform the development of family-based health promotion interventions. The present study examined parents’ perception of various sources of stress resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N = 294) completed an open-ended question about their primary source of stress during the pandemic, which we coded into one or more of the following categories: family, work, health, and finance. We used chi-square tests to determine whether gender, marital status, financial strain, and education level were significantly related to each of the four primary sources of stress. We found that female, married, and financially strained participants were more likely to report family-related stressors. Further, we found that participants who expressed concern over health-related stressors were more likely to have pre-existing health conditions. Finally, we found that single participants were more likely to express concerns over financial stressors. Our findings shed light on parental concerns following the pandemic and inform new research directions, clinical approaches, and policy issues at the individual, community, and societal levels.
 
How much I feel able to address the topics listed through teaching in the presence.
How much I feel able to address the topics listed through distance teaching.
Teachers self-efficacy in the distance and face to face learning mode.
Focus Group Guide.
The Coronavirus pandemic has impacted the entire school population’s emotions and the disruption of the organization of the school world. In this context it is important to reflect on the role of health promotion at school. The present study aimed at exploring school leaders’ and teachers’ perspectives and experiences about COVID-19 pandemic and its effects in the school and education system. The first objective was to gather the experience of school leaders regarding the change in school organization, with particular attention to organizational and health promotion aspects. The second was to investigate the perception of health promotion and self-efficacy of teachers in primary, middle and high schools. The research was conducted using qualitative (focus groups for the school leaders) and quantitative methods (questionnaires for the teachers). The findings showed new ways of improving wellbeing at school and implementing health promotion through the sharing of good practice between school leaders. The need for time and space to reflect among school leaders on the educational and didactic aspects of school organization also emerged. Teachers showed a low to medium level of self-efficacy regarding the adoption of strategies in line with health promotion; specificities for each grade and level will be discussed.
 
The mediated effect of teachers' self-efficacy. * (p < 0.05), *** (p < 0.001).
The estimates of the internal validity of the ECAD-EP.
T test for independent group: ECAD-EP (Time 1 and Time 2).
Multivariate two-step hierarchical modeling of burnout on the socio-emotional factors (pandemic phase).
Prolonged school closures, forced isolation, and mutations in social interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have posed challenges for actors in the educational context; teachers, in particular, have had to develop new instructional strategies to ensure that lessons could continue. The present research measures in a group of 374 Italian teachers—curricular and specialist support teachers—the relationship between self-perceived instructional competence, self-efficacy, and burnout. The present research, conducted between April and December 2020, represents the second part of a larger study conducted from November 2018 to October 2019, which was replicated during COVID-19. Participants completed an anamnestic questionnaire, the Assessment Teaching Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory in both phases of research; an ad hoc questionnaire (to measure teaching practices) and the Teacher Sense of Self Efficacy Scale were added in the second phase. Data confirm that general level of burnout increased and personal accomplishment was reduced during the pandemic; elevated personal accomplishment appears to be a predictor of emotional, socio-relational, and didactic competences before and during the pandemic. Feelings of frustration and accomplishment represent some manifestations of distress caused by the pandemic condition; these dynamics favor the crystallization of roles and behaviors towards the perception of metacognitive teaching processes.
 
COVID-19 (2019 coronavirus) patients on intensive care units in The Netherlands. Abbreviations: IC = intensive care. Data from reference [3].
Weekly mortality rates and number of hospitalizations. (A) shows the total weekly mortality rate for the Dutch population for 2017-2020. Data were obtained from reference [4]. (B) shows the number of confirmed COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths. Data were obtained from reference [5].
Schematic representation of hypothesized lockdown effects. Note: + sign refers to increase; −sign refers to decrease.
Main demographics of the CLOFIT database. The sample distribution is presented according to sex (A), Age (B), and education level (C).
Number of participants that completed the survey components.
This article provides an overview of the design and methodology of the “Corona lockdown: how fit are you?” (CLOFIT) study, including the questionnaires and scales that were included in the online survey. The aim of the CLOFIT study was to investigate the psychosocial and health consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Netherlands. The survey was conducted among the Dutch population to collect data on immune fitness and the psychological and health consequences of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown in the Netherlands. The CLOFIT dataset contains measures from N = 1910 participants and is broadly representative of the Dutch general population. The dataset represents both sexes, a range of ages including the elderly, different education levels, and ethnic backgrounds. The cohort also includes people with a diverse health status and range of medication use.
 
Doodle by participant of small parts arranged complexly. Doodle by participant of small parts arranged complexly.
Doodle by participant of small parts arranged complexly. Doodle by participant of small parts arranged complexly. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 1
Doodle on the day the participant said he was losing energy.
Doodle participant described as "the view outside my window". Doodle participant described as "the view outside my window".
Pre-COVID-19, doodling was identified as a measure of burnout in researchers attending a weekly, in-person health narratives research group manifesting team mindfulness. Under the group’s supportive conditions, variations in doodling served to measure change in participants reported depression and anxiety—internal states directly associated with burnout, adversely affecting healthcare researchers, their employment, and their research. COVID-19 demanded social distancing during the group’s 2020/21 academic meetings. Conducted online, the group’s participants who chose to doodle did so alone during the pandemic. Whether the sequestering of group participants during COVID-19 altered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of depression and anxiety was investigated. Participants considered that doodling during the group’s online meetings increased their enjoyment and attention level—some expressed that it helped them to relax. However, unlike face-to-face meetings during previous non-COVID-19 years, solitary doodling during online meetings was unable to reflect researchers’ depression or anxiety. The COVID-19 limitations that necessitated doodling alone maintained the benefits group members saw in doodling but hampered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of burnout, in contrast to previous in-person doodling. This result is seen to correspond to one aspect of the group’s change in team mindfulness resulting from COVID-19 constraints.
 
Anthropometric and descriptive characteristics of all the samples and of boys and girls.
Level of self-reported PA for all the samples and of boys and girls.
Level of self-reported physical fitness for all the samples.
Correlation between the level of self-declared PA and self-reported PF.
Only 20% of children worldwide reach the suggested physical activity (PA) levels, and the COVID-19 restrictions seemed to have worsened this situation. In addition, physical fitness (PF) is a crucial marker of health and combined with PA could predict future health status. The aim of this study was to compare reported PA and PF levels in a sample of Italian adolescents. We administered the International PA Questionnaire and International Fitness Enjoyment Scale to 208 adolescents aged 16.0 ± 1.5 (N = 166 females, 16 ± 2.0 years) recruited from a high school in the province of Milan (Italy). The majority of the subjects were “Minimally active” but reported adequate PF levels. In particular, subjects who reported a “Very good” PF perception, had a lower PA level. The misperception of reported PA and PF from our sample could reduce the future PA level in adolescents and lead to a negative spiral of disengagement in PA. These findings should lead to more attention on and improvements to PA promotion in the adolescent population after the restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Research model. Research model.
Moderating role of COVID-19 in the relationship between digital literacy and life satisfaction.
Descriptive statistics and correlation matrix.
The results of hierarchical regression analyses predicting LS.
Although the impact of digital literacy (DL) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) on life satisfaction was verified in previous literature, little is known about how the impact of two given variables can be differentiated during the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to empirically analyze whether the influence of DL and PSU on life satisfaction has changed as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. We applied a cross-sectional study design to analyze data obtained from a nationwide survey on smartphone overdependence conducted in 2019 and 2020 by the South Korean Ministry of Science and ICT and the National Information Society Agency. Large-scale data obtained from 41,883 individuals were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. The results show that the positive relationship between digital literacy and life satisfaction was further strengthened post-COVID-19 rather than pre-COVID-19. In addition, the results suggest that the negative relationship between PSU and life satisfaction is further strengthened during post-COVID-19 rather than pre-COVID-19. The findings indicate that the roles of digital literacy and PSU are more important after the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Background: This study aimed to analyze the experiences related to distance learning in a large sample of students in upper secondary school during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and to explore the potentialities of distance learning for students' well-being. Methods: Between 22 April and 1 May 2020, 1017 students completed an online survey about the characteristics of online didactic, the availability of devices for distance learning, and the psychological experiences related to e-learning. Results: All Italian schools have adopted distance learning, even if each teacher employs different approaches to e-learning. Students are aware of the importance of distance learning for the containment of the pandemic and of the need to continue with online teaching to avoid the resumption of the infections. However, distance learning is associated with a significant increase in student workload and a consequent psychological distress related to homework. Specifically, students are more distracted in studying, have difficulty organizing study and are concerned that their school career may be adversely affected by the lockdown. Furthermore, a significant percentage does not perceive adequate support from teachers. Conclusions: Future studies will have to explore the impact of distance learning even in the subsequent waves of contagion, taking into account the persistence of the stress from the pandemic.
 
Descriptive statistics and correlations.
Frequency of ruminant thoughts.
Linear regression (men and women).
Linear regression (women).
Means, standard deviation, and ranges of the study variables.
The current situation in schools in relation to COVID-19 can generate a decrease in academic performance due to factors intrinsic to students. Therefore, rumination about COVID-19 could interfere with students’ attention, resulting in a decrease in their academic performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the perception of vulnerability to the disease and rumination about COVID-19 from a cross-sectional sample of post-compulsory education students. The differences in the perception of vulnerability to disease and rumination in different groups were analyzed, separated by gender. Our data suggest a positive relationship between the perception of vulnerability to the disease and ruminants’ thoughts about COVID-19 (r = 0.29). Gender differences are significant, with women having higher scores than men in both variables.
 
Raincloud plot for the individual data of the study participants. Panel (A), weight, Panel (B) BMI (Body Mass Index), Panel (C) (WHR) Waist Hip Ratio, Panel (D) (FP) Fat Mass Percentage, Panel (E) (FM) Fat Mass in Kilograms, Panel (F) (FFM) Fat Free Mass in Kilograms.
Anthropometric and body composition parameters measured.
Anthropometric and body composition measurements according to WHO BMI classification.
Dietary and energy intake.
(1) Background: During the COVID-19 lockdown, high rates of physical inactivity and dietary imbalances were reported in both adults and adolescents. Physical separation and isolation not only have a significant impact on the performance of physical activity but also affect people's lives, particularly their dietary habits. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether or not bioelectrical impedance-derived body composition parameters and dietary habits were affected during the pandemic-associated lockdown in postmenopausal Spanish women. (2) Methods: Sixty-six women participated in the study (58.7 ± 5.4 years) before (between July-October 2019) and after (August-October 2020) the lockdown, which occurred as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. Body composition parameters were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis while dietary intake of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, and energy was measured by a food frequency questionnaire. (3) Results Regarding body composition, no differences were observed in fat mass in % (mean increase 0.05 (2.74); p = 0.567), fat mass in kg (mean increase -0.07 (4.137); p = 0.356) or lean mass in kg (mean increase 0.20 (1.424); p = 0.636). Similarly, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two study periods for any of the nutrients studied, nor for energy intake (p > 0.05 in all cases). (4) Conclusions: After comprehensively assessing body composition and dietary intake of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy before and after COVID-19 lockdown in healthy adult women in Spain no changes in the parameters studied were observed during the period analyzed in the women examined.
 
Bivariate associations for DASS-21 subscales.
Cont.
Multivariable associations for BRS.
COVID-19 has impacted mental health and affected education due to the shift to remote learning. The purpose of the current study was to assess the mental health of pharmacy students one year following the onset of the pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to pharmacy students. The severity of depression, anxiety, and stress was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), and resilience was assessed by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). COVID-19-related economic, educational, and health stressors, and students’ vaccine attitudes were surveyed. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analysis were used, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. A total of 561 students participated; 37% had mild-to-moderate depression, 37% had severe-to-extremely-severe anxiety, and 52% demonstrated normal stress levels. Severe depression, anxiety, and stress were associated with smoking and feeling isolated due to COVID-19. Around 40% of students had low resilience, associated with smoking, being in the third or fourth year of pharmacy study, and the consumption of caffeinated beverages. The mean score of satisfaction with online learning was 60.3 ± 21.3%. Only 5% of participants were vaccinated, of which 87% trusted the benefits of vaccines and their role in controlling the pandemic. One year after the onset of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress, and low resilience were observed among pharmacy students; the investigation of the long-term mental effects of the pandemic on university students is warranted.
 
Degree of satisfaction of university students with the teaching.
Difficulties perceived by university students in the dual teaching received.
The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has led to changes in many areas, with educational scenarios being affected. In this sense, university education has undergone significant changes owing to the impossibility of following the fully face-to-face mode of teaching. Given this situation, the general objective of this study is to analyze the university educational scenario in the context of COVID-19 and, more specifically, to identify the difficulties perceived by students. Using a mixed quantitative–qualitative methodological approach, an ad hoc questionnaire was designed, and data were collected from a sample of 238 students of the Bachelor’s Degree in Teaching during the 2020/2021 academic year. The results obtained have shown that students have experienced numerous difficulties in adapting to the hybrid teaching model. In this sense, it is worth highlighting the decrease in motivation, the feeling of loneliness, technical connection problems, and less interaction with the teaching staff and other students. The degree of satisfaction with the teaching received is also moderate. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the difficulties identified recommend the introduction of actions to improve the application of the teaching model implemented in favor of university excellence.
 
Recruitment process for participation in the study.
Body mass index and FAT% obesity classification.
Intake of selected vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
Background: Monitoring nutritional status data in the adult population is extremely important to mediate their health status. Unfortunately, for Slovenia (2.1 million European Union citizens), data on the body composition status of the general adult population are currently rare or nonexistent in scientific journals. Furthermore, dietary intake was last assessed several years before the COVID-19 epidemic period. Methods: We randomly recruited 844 adult Slovenes from all regions of Slovenia. The primary aim of the cross-sectional study was to examine body composition status (using a medically approved electrical bioimpedance monitor) during the post-COVID-19 epidemic period. In addition, we assessed dietary intake (using a standardized food frequency questionnaire) and compared the obesity propensity for both sexes separately using the body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%) obesity classification of the World Health Organization. Results: Regarding BMI classification, 43% of the whole sample was overweight (28%) or obese (15%), and there were more older adults than adults (64% vs. 42%, p < 0.001). The average FAT% of adult females and males was 26.9% and 19.5% (p < 0.001), respectively, while for older adult females and males, it was 32.7% and 23% (p < 0.001). In addition, a comparison of the proportions of obese people between the two cut-off obesity classifications (BMI vs. FAT%) showed a significantly underestimated proportion of obese female participants based on BMI classification (13% vs. 17%, p = 0.005). In terms of the dietary intake of the assessed nutrients in comparison with the national dietary reference values for energy and nutrient intake, the participants, on average, had lower intake than the recommended values for carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins C, D and E (for males) and calcium, and higher intake than the recommended values for total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sodium and chloride (for males). Conclusions: The results urgently call for the need to not only improve the overall national nutritional status but also for regular national monitoring of body composition and dietary intake statuses.
 
Digital collaborative storytelling can be supported by an online learning-management system like Moodle, encouraging prosocial behaviors and shared representations. This study investigated children’s storytelling and collaborative behaviors during an online storytelling activity throughout the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 home confinement in Spain. From 1st to 5th grade of primary school, one-hundred-sixteen students conducted weekly activities of online storytelling as an extracurricular project of a school in Madrid. Facilitators registered participants’ platform use and collaboration. Stories were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the Bears Family Story Analysis System. Three categories related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic were added to the story content analysis. The results indicate that primary students worked collaboratively in an online environment, with some methodology adaptations to 1st and 2nd grade. Story lengths tended to be reduced with age, while cohesion and story structure showed stable values in all grades. All stories were balanced in positive and negative contents, especially in characters’ behavior and relationships, while story problems remained at positive solution levels. In addition, the pandemic theme emerged directly or indirectly in only 15% of the stories. The findings indicate the potential of the online collaborative storytelling activities as a distance-education tool in promoting collaboration and social interactions.
 
Path model for positive and negative affects.
Descriptive and correlations between the variables.
Italy was quickly hit hard by the coronavirus. ‘Lockdown’ has significantly impacted the psychological health, personal wellbeing and quality of life of the people. The study aims to explore the relationship between positive and negative affect, as well as positive (spiritual well-being and flourishing) and negative outcomes (psychological distress caused by a traumatic life event in terms of perception of PTSD symptoms) on Italian adults during the lockdown period. Data was collected between April and May 2020. The participants were 281 Italian adults aged between 18 and 73 years. The survey was composed of the following measures: Flourishing Scale, Jarel Spiritual Well-Being scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Impact of Event Scale—Revised, Fear of COVID-19. The mediational analysis shows that fear of COVID-19 fully mediates the relationship between negative affect and spiritual well-being and flourishing; fear of COVID-19 partially mediates the relationship between negative affect and PTSD symptoms; the positive affect shows only direct effects on positive outcomes. Therefore, fear of COVID-19 does not play any mediation role. Implications for psychological interventions and future research will be discussed.
 
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to global reports of hazards to mental health. However, reports regarding lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. Using a convergent mixed methods design, we conducted individual interviews with twelve occupational therapy students and interpreted the results by content analysis. We completed a survey of Thai Sensory Patterns Assessment (TSPA) concerning perspectives from occupational therapy students (n = 99). They identified two major themes: (i) adaptive responses were consistent with areas of occupation during the COVID-19 pandemic; (ii) multidimensional challenges were related to sensory patterns of purposeful and meaningful activities. The participants reported both positive and negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives. It had both positive and negative effects on the lifestyle of students affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The positive effect was that most students learned better ways to protect and care for themselves. During the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy students were most concerned about their online learning activities, economic problems, isolation from society, and lifestyle. The negative effects of this include stress, anxiety, loneliness, frustration, boredom, and exhaustion for occupational therapy students. As an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy students adapted to new lifestyles and experienced mental health issues related to their studies, families, friends, economics, social climate, and future job opportunities. Educators may use the findings of this study to prevent negative impacts on mental health and promote academic achievement in the future, as well as general well-being, efficacy, and empowerment of students in the new normal post-COVID-19 pandemic era.
 
As COVID-19 has spread worldwide, conspiracy theories have proliferated rapidly on social media platforms, adversely affecting public health. For this reason, media literacy interventions have been highly recommended, although the impact of critical social media use on the development of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has not yet been empirically studied. Moreover, emotional dysregulation may play another crucial role in the development of such theories, as they are often associated with stress, anxiety, lack of control, and other negative emotions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that emotion dysregulation would be positively associated with conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 and that critical use of social media would attenuate this association. Data from 930 Italian participants (339 men and 591 women) were collected online during the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. A moderated model was tested using the PROCESS Macro for SPSS. Results showed that: (1) emotion dysregulation and critical social media use accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19; and (2) critical social media use moderated the effect of emotion dysregulation on conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19. Implications for preventing the spread of conspiracy theories are discussed.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns were accompanied by an abrupt transition from face-to-face education to online education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic functioning and mood in Dutch pharmacy students and PhD candidates. A total of n = 341 participants completed an online survey including questions on mood and academic functioning, assessed retrospectively for before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, during COVID-19 lockdown, significantly more time was spent on academic activities, and study grades/output significantly improved. However, the overall effects were of small magnitude, and there was great variability among students, reporting either improved, unchanged or poorer academic functioning. Compared to before COVID-19, the lockdown periods were associated with significantly increased levels of stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and loneliness, and a significant reduction in optimism and happiness. Significant negative correlations were found between ‘performance quality’ and stress, ‘performance quality’ and fatigue, ‘study grades/output’ and stress, and between ‘study grades/output’ and fatigue. Correlations of mood and items related to academic interactions were not statistically significant. Differential effects were seen when the data was analyzed according to sex, living situation, and ethnicity, revealing that women, students living alone, and those with a migration background reported that COVID-19 lockdowns had greater negative mood effects and a more negative impact on academic functioning. Poorer sleep quality and reduced quality of life were significantly associated with reduced mood, as well as reduced academic performance quality and role satisfaction. Regression analysis revealed that being young and not having a non-Western migration background were predictors of improved performance quality. However, only being young was a significant predictor of improved study grades/output during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased levels of stress and fatigue were significant predictors of both reduced performance quality and poorer study grades/output during the COVID-19 pandemic. In conclusion, for the sample as a whole, the transition to online education during the COVID-19 lockdown was judged as having significant positive effects on academic performance. The lockdown periods were associated with significantly reduced mood and reduced social interactions. It should be taken into account that about one third of students reported academic functioning to be poorer during the COVID-19 pandemic. This represents a substantial group of students who require more attention and guidance to make a successful transition to online education and cope with lockdown-associated stress and fatigue.
 
The demographic dispersal of participants.
Comparative results between groups per lines of study.
Two-way ANOVA tests for effects of group, language and interaction between them.
Two-way ANOVA results by language/group.
Two-way ANOVA results by gender/group.
This study is part of a doctoral thesis conducted at the Faculty of Psychology of Babes-Bolyai University in collaboration with the University of Medicine, both from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The starting point of the study was based on the eternal question of the medical student—“How should I learn to manage to retain so much information?” This is how learning through conceptual maps and learning by understanding has been achieved. In the study, a number of 505 students from the Faculty of General Medicine were randomly selected and divided into groups, to observe changes in the grades they obtained when learning anatomy with the concept mapping method vs. traditional methods. Six months later, a retest was carried out to test long-term memory. The results were always in favor of the experimental group and were statistically significant (with one exception), most notably for the 6-month retesting. It was also observed that the language of teaching, different or the same as the first language, explains that exception, at least partially. Other results were taken into account, such as the distribution of bad and good grades in the two groups. Other parameters that influenced the obtained results and which explain some contradictory results in the literature are discussed. In conclusion, the use of conceptual maps is useful for most students, both for short and long-term memory.
 
Number of videos from each pornography website used in current study.
Same-sex and mixed-sex sexual behaviors coded for across MMF and FFM videos by year.
Descriptive information for MMF and FFM videos by year.
Means and standard deviations for other-sex and same-sex behaviors by year.
Aggression, initiation, persuasion, and exploitation results for MMF and FFM videos by year.
Viewing online pornography is common among US adults, with mixed-sex threesome (MST) videos being one of the top 10 most popular categories of pornography for both men and women. The current content analysis applied sexual script theory to understand the themes present in these mixed-sex threesome videos. Independent coders viewed a total of 50 videos (25 MMF and 25 FFM) at each timepoint (2012, 2015, 2020) and coded for different sexual behaviors and themes in each video. By examining both same-sex (female–female, male–male) and other-sex (female–male) behaviors, as well as themes of aggression and sexual initiation in different videos and across three timepoints, it was determined that other-sex behaviors are more common in MST videos than same-sex behaviors. Same-sex behaviors between two female actors were more common than same-sex behaviors between two male actors. Aggression was a common theme in videos, with male actors being more aggressive on average than female actors. Most of these trends did not change across 8 years, suggesting that the impacts of traditional sexual scripts are pervasive in pornography, even in current online content. Important implications for both researchers and clinical professionals are discussed.
 
Graphical visualization of multiverse analysis involving M = 162 models for country standard deviations σ for countries Austria (AUT; upper left panel), Spain (ESP; upper right panel), Netherlands (NLD; lower left panel), and USA (lower right panel). The dashed line corresponds to the value from the reference model. Country standard deviations colored in blue, gray, or red indicate that they are larger, similar, or smaller than the reference value, respectively.
Results of a multiverse analysis for PISA 2018 mathematics for country means.
Results of a multiverse analysis for PISA 2018 mathematics for standard country deviations.
In educational large-scale assessment (LSA) studies such as PISA, item response theory (IRT) scaling models summarize students’ performance on cognitive test items across countries. This article investigates the impact of different factors in model specifications for the PISA 2018 mathematics study. The diverse options of the model specification also firm under the labels multiverse analysis or specification curve analysis in the social sciences. In this article, we investigate the following five factors of model specification in the PISA scaling model for obtaining the two country distribution parameters; country means and country standard deviations: (1) the choice of the functional form of the IRT model, (2) the treatment of differential item functioning at the country level, (3) the treatment of missing item responses, (4) the impact of item selection in the PISA test, and (5) the impact of test position effects. In our multiverse analysis, it turned out that model uncertainty had almost the same impact on variability in the country means as sampling errors due to the sampling of students. Model uncertainty had an even larger impact than standard errors for country standard deviations. Overall, each of the five specification factors in the multiverse analysis had at least a moderate effect on either country means or standard deviations. In the discussion section, we critically evaluate the current practice of model specification decisions in LSA studies. It is argued that we would either prefer reporting the variability in model uncertainty or choosing a particular model specification that might provide the strategy that is most valid. It is emphasized that model fit should not play a role in selecting a scaling strategy for LSA applications.
 
Almost 217 million secondary school students (60% of the world’s adolescents) do not reach minimum levels in reading proficiency at the end of secondary school, according to objective 4.1 of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. Therefore, the early and efficient identification of this disadvantage and implementation of remedial strategies is critical for economies. In 2018, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessed the reading skills of 15-year-old students in 80 countries and economies. This work introduces a methodology that uses PISA’s data to build logistic regression models to identify the main factors contributing to students’ underperforming reading skills. Results showed that socioeconomic status (SES), metacognition strategies, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills, and student–teacher relationships are the most important contributors to low reading abilities.
 
Frequency distribution of missing item responses (left panel) and not reached items at the student level.
Descriptive statistics of the PISA 2018 mathematics sample.
Model parameters from the latent ignorable model (MO2) and the Mislevy-Wu Model (MM2).
Missing item responses are prevalent in educational large-scale assessment studies such as the programme for international student assessment (PISA). The current operational practice scores missing item responses as wrong, but several psychometricians have advocated for a model-based treatment based on latent ignorability assumption. In this approach, item responses and response indicators are jointly modeled conditional on a latent ability and a latent response propensity variable. Alternatively, imputation-based approaches can be used. The latent ignorability assumption is weakened in the Mislevy-Wu model that characterizes a nonignorable missingness mechanism and allows the missingness of an item to depend on the item itself. The scoring of missing item responses as wrong and the latent ignorable model are submodels of the Mislevy-Wu model. In an illustrative simulation study, it is shown that the Mislevy-Wu model provides unbiased model parameters. Moreover, the simulation replicates the finding from various simulation studies from the literature that scoring missing item responses as wrong provides biased estimates if the latent ignorability assumption holds in the data-generating model. However, if missing item responses are generated such that they can only be generated from incorrect item responses, applying an item response model that relies on latent ignorability results in biased estimates. The Mislevy-Wu model guarantees unbiased parameter estimates if the more general Mislevy-Wu model holds in the data-generating model. In addition, this article uses the PISA 2018 mathematics dataset as a case study to investigate the consequences of different missing data treatments on country means and country standard deviations. Obtained country means and country standard deviations can substantially differ for the different scaling models. In contrast to previous statements in the literature, the scoring of missing item responses as incorrect provided a better model fit than a latent ignorable model for most countries. Furthermore, the dependence of the missingness of an item from the item itself after conditioning on the latent response propensity was much more pronounced for constructed-response items than for multiple-choice items. As a consequence, scaling models that presuppose latent ignorability should be refused from two perspectives. First, the Mislevy-Wu model is preferred over the latent ignorable model for reasons of model fit. Second, in the discussion section, we argue that model fit should only play a minor role in choosing psychometric models in large-scale assessment studies because validity aspects are most relevant. Missing data treatments that countries can simply manipulate (and, hence, their students) result in unfair country comparisons.
 
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The main goal of this research is to explore whether there are any differences by gender regarding the Digital Competence of Teachers (DCT), both in-training and in-service. Simultaneously, the specific goals of the research are to analyse which are the methodologies, including technological, that are being implemented in university classrooms and to evaluate possible new interventions to reduce the digital gender gap. This study is exploratory and descriptive. It relies upon three instruments that have been validated by experts: a questionnaire to collect teachers’ in-training perception, a second questionnaire to show in-service teachers’ perception regarding their knowledge of technologies, and a rubric to analyse in-service teachers’ self-perception regarding methodologies that employ technology. Over three academic years, data were collected from a sample of 914 trainee teachers and 194 professors from several Spanish universities. The results show that, concerning the teaching task, compared to men, the female participants have a very poor self-perception in terms of their Digital Teaching Competence, as well as a lower predisposition towards technologies. We conclude by emphasising the need to transform teaching methodologies in initial teacher education by means of the correct inclusion of ICT tools.
 
El envejecimiento y la calidad de vida han emergido con fuerza en el ámbito científico teniendo en cuenta el auge de la esperanza de vida. Sin embargo, no existen demasiados trabajos centrados en el estudio de los componentes que más influyen en la calidad de vida en personas mayores de 60 a 90 años físicamente activos. En el presente trabajo se evalúa la calidad de vida y la práctica de actividad física en 397 personas mayores físicamente activas de la provincia de Alicante. El objetivo de la investigación es conocer cuáles son los factores que consideran las personas mayores físicamente activas que más influyen a su calidad de vida. Los resultados concluyen que los componentes que más influyen en la calidad de vida están relacionados con la salud, relaciones, autonomía funcional y mantenerse activo como los principales factores de influencia en la calidad de vida de los mayores activos frente a la economía, pensión, vivienda o renta. Los resultados forman la antesala de nuevos estudios que tengan en cuenta el perfil de las personas mayores físicamente activas atendiendo a diferencias por deporte practicado.
 
Descripción del caso: Mujer de 79 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, fibrilación auricular (FA) permanente anticoagulada (acenocumarol) e insuficiencia mitral. Barthel 90, Lowton-Brody: 2. Acude a urgencias por dolor costal (osteomuscular) de dos semanas de evolución, sin otros síntomas, siendo dada de alta y acudiendo nuevamente por epistaxis y disnea. Exploración y pruebas complementarias: destacar en la auscultación cardio-pulmonar: tonos arrítmicos con soplo sistólico en reborde esternal izquierdo, crepitantes hasta campos medios, con murmullo vesicular disminuido. Radiografía de tórax: masa hiliar derecha con engrosamiento pleural derecho, e infiltrado bilateral. Hemograma: hemoglobina 7.9 g/dl (previa 11.6 g/dl), leucocitos 11.57x10l. Bioquímica: PCR 72.90mg/l, urea 85 mg/l. Coagulación: INR indeterminado, actividad protrombina 4 aumenta el riesgo de sangrado. Se trata de un paciente pluripatológico, dependiente moderada, con mal cumplimiento tratamiento y de control de anticoagulación. Ante estos datos (anemización, ausencia de signos de infección o insuficiencia cardiaca), y los resultados de las pruebas, nos decantamos por la hemorragia alveolar como primera posibilidad diagnostica.
 
Descripción del caso: Mujer de 79 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, fibrilación auricular (FA) permanente anticoagulada (acenocumarol) e insuficiencia mitral. Barthel 90, Lowton-Brody: 2. Acude a urgencias por dolor costal (osteomuscular) de dos semanas de evolución, sin otros síntomas, siendo dada de alta y acudiendo nuevamente por epistaxis y disnea. Exploración y pruebas complementarias: destacar en la auscultación cardio-pulmonar: tonos arrítmicos con soplo sistólico en reborde esternal izquierdo, crepitantes hasta campos medios, con murmullo vesicular disminuido. Radiografía de tórax: masa hiliar derecha con engrosamiento pleural derecho, e infiltrado bilateral. Hemograma: hemoglobina 7.9 g/dl (previa 11.6 g/dl), leucocitos 11.57x10l. Bioquímica: PCR 72.90mg/l, urea 85 mg/l. Coagulación: INR indeterminado, actividad protrombina <12.5%. Juicio Clínico: Hemorragia alveolar bilateral. Diagnóstico diferencial: Hemorragia alveolar bilateral, neumonía bilateral, insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (Edema Agudo de Pulmón). Conclusión: El 0.5% de la población usa anticoagulantes orales, entre el 6.8-11.1% por FA, un INR>4 aumenta el riesgo de sangrado. Se trata de un paciente pluripatológico, dependiente moderada, con mal cumplimiento tratamiento y de control de anticoagulación. Ante estos datos (anemización, ausencia de signos de infección o insuficiencia cardiaca), y los resultados de las pruebas, nos decantamos por la hemorragia alveolar como primera posibilidad diagnostica.
 
Composición de la muestra por grupos de edad  
El primer objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y estudiar la evolución de las etapas de deterioro cognitivo y los niveles de dependencia en pacientes mayores de 65 años, ingresados en un hospital de agudos, así como la relación entre estos dos factores y las diferentes variables demográficas. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de dependencia experimenta una caída repentina en el momento de la admisión, que evoluciona hacia una recuperación leve en el momento del alta, continuando esta recuperación en el domicilio posteriormente al alta, pero sin llegar a los niveles independentistas antes de la admisión. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, estado civil y nivel educativo. De una manera general, nuestros resultados proporcionan evidencia sobre el hecho de que las personas especialmente propensas al aumento de la dependencia funcional y el deterioro cognitivo severo durante el ingreso hospitalario son los ancianos hombres, mayores de 80 años de edad, sin estudios y viudos.
 
El primer objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y estudiar la evolución de las etapas de deterioro cognitivo y los niveles de dependencia en pacientes mayores de 65 años, ingresados en un hospital de agudos, así como la relación entre estos dos factores y las diferentes variables demográficas. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de dependencia experimenta una caída repentina en el momento de la admisión, que evoluciona hacia una recuperación leve en el momento del alta, continuando esta recuperación en el domicilio posteriormente al alta, pero sin llegar a los niveles independentistas antes de la admisión. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, estado civil y nivel educativo. De una manera general, nuestros resultados proporcionan evidencia sobre el hecho de que las personas especialmente propensas al aumento de la dependencia funcional y el deterioro cognitivo severo durante el ingreso hospitalario son los ancianos hombres, mayores de 80 años de edad, sin estudios y viudos.
 
Entre la población mayor, uno de los pilares centrales de la calidad de vida es la salud, adquiriendo especial importancia la condición física como capacidad para mantener la independencia funcional. El objetivo general es medir el efecto sobre el equilibrio estático y dinámico, la fuerza y la flexibilidad de ambas extremidades tras un periodo de 3 meses de intervención y posteriormente las consecuencias de otros tres meses sin ejercicios.Metodología: Estudio pre-post intervención en una muestra de 36 ancianos institucionalizados mayores de 65 años con deterioro cognitivo normal-leve, divididos en 3 grupos: ejercicios vestibulares, ejercicios de potenciación y grupo control sin intervención. Resultados: Mejoría significativa del equilibrio, la flexibilidad y la fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores en cada uno de los grupos de intervención con respecto al grupo control. Disminución de la capacidad funcional medida a través de una batería de test tras 3 meses sin intervención. Conclusiones: El equilibrio, la fuerza y la flexibilidad de extremidades inferiores y superiores en personas mayores de 65 años institucionalizadas del presente estudio mejoran con la realización de los protocolos de tratamiento diseñados a partir de ejercicios de potenciación de miembros inferiores y de ejercicios vestibulares, en relación al grupo control. La capacidad funcional va disminuyendo si no se realizan de forma continua ejercicios encaminados a fomentarla.
 
Case description: Woman, 79 years old. Medical history: hypertension, Atrial fibrillation (AF) permanent treated with acenocoumarol and mitral insufficiency. Barthel 90, Lowton-Brody. 2. The patient came to the emergency room for rib pain (musculoskeletal) in last two weeks, without other symptoms. We initiated analgesia and the patient was discharged. She came back with new symptoms: epistaxis and dyspnea. Exploration and complementary tests: cardio-pulmonary auscultation arrhythmic tones with sternal border systolic murmur left, crakling sounds in the lungs, with decreased breath sounds. Chest x-ray: right hilar mass with right pleural thickening, and diffuse bilateral infiltration. CBC: hemoglobin 7.9 g/dl (First: 11.6 g/dl), WBC 11.57x10l. Biochemistry: PCR 72.90 mg/l, urea 85 mg/l. Coagulation: INR undetermined, activity prothrombin <12.5%. Diagnosis: bilateral alveolar hemorrhage. Diagnosis Differential: bilateral alveolar hemorrhage, bilateral pneumonia, heart failure congestive (Acute Lung Edema). Conclusion: 0.5% of the population uses oral anticoagulants, between 6.8-11.1% by FA an INR>, increases the risk of bleeding. This is a patient with multimorbidity, moderately dependent, with poor treatment compliance and anticoagulation control. Given these data (anemia, no signs of infection or heart failure), and the test results, we opted for the first possibility alveolar hemorrhage diagnosed.
 
The first objective of this research is to establish and study how the different stages of cognitive impairment and the levels of dependence evolve in patients over 65 years of age, admitted to an acute care hospital, as well as the relationship between these factors and the different social and demographical variables. The results show that the level of dependence decreases suddenly at the time of admission and undergoes a slight recovery at the time of discharge. Although this recovery continues at home after discharge, patients do not get the same level of independence that they used to have before admission. In addition, significant differences in terms of age, marital status and education level were found. In general, our results show that elderly men over 80 years of age, without no education and widowers are more likely to suffer from severe cognitive impairment and be more functionally dependent when admitted to hospital.
 
Entre la población mayor, uno de los pilares centrales de la calidad de vida es la salud, adquiriendo especial importancia la condición física como capacidad para mantener la independencia funcional. El objetivo general es medir el efecto sobre el equilibrio estático y dinámico, la fuerza y la flexibilidad de ambas extremidades tras un periodo de 3 meses de intervención y posteriormente las consecuencias de otros tres meses sin ejercicios.Metodología: Estudio pre-post intervención en una muestra de 36 ancianos institucionalizados mayores de 65 años con deterioro cognitivo normal-leve, divididos en 3 grupos: ejercicios vestibulares, ejercicios de potenciación y grupo control sin intervención. Resultados: Mejoría significativa del equilibrio, la flexibilidad y la fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores en cada uno de los grupos de intervención con respecto al grupo control. Disminución de la capacidad funcional medida a través de una batería de test tras 3 meses sin intervención. Conclusiones: El equilibrio, la fuerza y la flexibilidad de extremidades inferiores y superiores en personas mayores de 65 años institucionalizadas del presente estudio mejoran con la realización de los protocolos de tratamiento diseñados a partir de ejercicios de potenciación de miembros inferiores y de ejercicios vestibulares, en relación al grupo control. La capacidad funcional va disminuyendo si no se realizan de forma continua ejercicios encaminados a fomentarla
 
Results of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the SNAddS-6S: Factors loading and reliability estimates.
Results of the EFA of the SNAddS-6S when fixing six factors for extraction: Factors loading and reliability estimates.
Correlation analyses.
The use of social networks has increased exponentially, especially among youth. These tools offer many advantages but also carry some risks such as addiction. This points to the need for a valid multifactorial instrument to measure social network addiction, focusing on the core components of addiction that can serve researchers and practitioners. This study set out to validate a reliable multidimensional social network addiction scale based on the six core components of addiction (SNAddS-6S) by using and adapting the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. A total of 369 users of social networks completed a questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed, and different competing models were explored. The external validity of the scale was tested across its relations with different measures. Evidence for the validity and reliability of both the multidimensional SNAddS-6S and the unidimensional Short SNAddS-6S was provided. The SNAddS-6S was composed of 18 items and five different factors (time-management, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, and conflict), with the time-management factor as a higher-order factor integrated by salience and tolerance as sub-factors. The Short SNAddS-6S was composed of six items and a unifactorial structure. This scale could be of relevance for researchers and practitioners to assess the extent to which individuals suffer from social network addiction and to study the potential predictors and risks of such addiction.
 
MNA in men by age group
MNA in women by age group
MNA by age group
Average values of the analytical by gender
Loneliness has always been associated and reported as a risk factor of malnutrition in the elderly. People over 80 who live alone have deserved this study to detect their situation and potential for action to improve their quality of life. Objectives: To determinate the nutritional status of people over 80 living alone in the area of “La Laguna”, Cádiz. Material and method: In PIAMLA`80 program analyse those parameters and their possible correlations in a group of 342 elderly living alone over 80 years old. Different parameters were measured: Integral Geriatric Evaluation, Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Lobo, Gijon, specific analytical blood chemistry and MNA. Results: In a population of 984 people, were selected 342 initially, but finally the group decreases to 247 people. The mean Barthel was 80.42 points, 5.76 Lawton and Gijon from 11.3 Lobo 26.48. The MNA for the whole population was 24.25/30 detecting only a risk age group in women of 85-95. Correlation between nutrition and the biochemical test values showed positive for haemoglobin (0.19), total protein (0.26), Fe (0.32) and albumin (0.46). Conclusions: In our research we have not detected malnutrition in any age group or gender. The use of nutrition test MNA and its MINI version must be generalized as an accurate, clear, quick and easy tool to use.
 
La soledad siempre se ha asociado como factor de riesgo en la vejez. La población de personas mayores de 80 años que viven solas son el objetivo de estudio para determinar su situación y potencial para poder mejorar su calidad de vida. Objetivos: Determinar el estatus nutricional de la población mayor de 80 años que vive sola en el área de “La Laguna” en Cádiz. Material y métodos: El programa PIAMLA’80 analiza estos parámetros y sus posibles correlaciones en un grupo de 342 sujetos. Se han medido diferentes valores como test de Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Lobo, Gijón, MNA y valores bioquímicos sanguíneos. Resultados: En una población de 984 sujetos, fueron seleccionados inicialmente 342, pero finalmente el grupo disminuyó a 247. La media de Barthel fue de 80,42 puntos, 5,76 para el Lawton, 11,3 para Gijón y 26,48 para Lobo. El MNA para la población total fue de 24,25/30, detectando solo un grupo de riesgo en mujeres de 85 a 95 años. La correlación entre nutrición y parámetros analíticos fue positiva para Hemoglobina (0,19), proteínas totales (0,26), Hierro (0,32) y albúmina (0,46). Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio no hemos detectado malnutrición en ningún rango de edad ni género. El uso del test MNA debe generalizarse como rápido, fácil y efectivo.
 
La soledad siempre se ha asociado como factor de riesgo en la vejez. La población de personas mayores de 80 años que viven solas son el objetivo de estudio para determinar su situación y potencial para poder mejorar su calidad de vida. Objetivos: Determinar el estatus nutricional de la población mayor de 80 años que vive sola en el área de “La Laguna” en Cádiz. Material y métodos: El programa PIAMLA’80 analiza estos parámetros y sus posibles correlaciones en un grupo de 342 sujetos. Se han medido diferentes valores como test de Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Lobo, Gijón, MNA y valores bioquímicos sanguíneos. Resultados: En una población de 984 sujetos, fueron seleccionados inicialmente 342, pero finalmente el grupo disminuyó a 247. La media de Barthel fue de 80,42 puntos, 5,76 para el Lawton, 11,3 para Gijón y 26,48 para Lobo. El MNA para la población total fue de 24,25/30, detectando solo un grupo de riesgo en mujeres de 85 a 95 años. La correlación entre nutrición y parámetros analíticos fue positiva para Hemoglobina (0,19), proteínas totales (0,26), Hierro (0,32) y albúmina (0,46). Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio no hemos detectado malnutrición en ningún rango de edad ni género. El uso del test MNA debe generalizarse como rápido, fácil y efectivo.
 
The focus of this article is on the attitudes among 8th graders in European countries on future unemployment and attitudes towards cooperation among European countries to guarantee high levels of employment and strengthen their economies. This article uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches. For the qualitative approach, a systematic literature review was performed using four databases, starting from 16,873 search results for the 2016–2021 period before systematically limiting them to identify possible predictors used in quantitative analyses. The quantitative part uses secondary analyses of data obtained from 52,788 upper secondary students from 14 EU and one EU associated country from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2016, which is the last available cycle with publicly available data since 2018. The techniques used to analyse the data are descriptive statistics, linear and binary logistic regression, Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients, and Principal Component Analysis. This article also considers the theoretical base of the sustainable development definition—it explores youths’ present perceptions of the future in the economic and financial domains.
 
Summary of logistic regressions overall.
Summary of logistic regressions by race.
To investigate racial and ethnic differences in the protective effects of parental education and marital status against adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts in the U.S. As proposed by the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), parental education generates fewer tangible outcomes for non-White compared to White families. Our existing knowledge is very limited regarding diminished returns of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempts. To compare racial groups for the effects of parental education and marital status on adolescents’ depressed mood and suicidal attempt. This cross-sectional study included 7076 non-Hispanic White or African American 8-11 years old adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The independent variables were parental education and marital status. The main outcomes were depressed mood and suicidal attempts based on parents’ reports using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS). Age and gender were the covariates. Race was the moderator. Logistic regression was used to analyze the ABCD data. Overall, parental education was associated with lower odds of depressed mood (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67–0.99; p = 0.037) and having married parents was associated with lower odds of suicidal attempts (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28–0.91; p = 0.022). In the pooled sample, we found interaction terms between race with parental education and marital status on the outcomes, suggesting that the protective effect of having married parents against depressed mood (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.00–2.37; p = 0.048) and the protective effect of having married parents against suicidal attempts (OR = 6.62; 95% CI = 2.21–19.86; p = 0.001) are weaker for African Americans when compared to Whites. The protective effects of parent education and marital status against depressed mood and suicidal attempts are diminished for African American adolescents compared to White adolescents. There is a need for programs and interventions that equalize not only socioeconomic status (SES) but also the marginal returns of SES for racial minority groups. Such efforts require addressing structural and societal barriers that hinder African American families from translating their SES resources and human capital into tangible outcomes. There is a need for studies that can minimize MDRs for African American families, so that every individual and every family can benefit from their resources regardless of their skin color. To achieve such a goal, we need to help middle-class African American families secure tangible outcomes in the presence of SES resources.
 
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sociometric types, behavioral categories, and intellectual abilities in a sample of 1349 (51.7% boys) Spanish adolescents, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. The students' sociometric nomination was performed by the Programa Socio and academic self-concept was measured by the Primary Mental Abilities Test (PMA; Thurstone, 1938; TEA, 1996). The hypotheses of the study suggest, firstly, that students positively nominated by their peers will present significantly higher scores on different scales of the PMA than students negatively nominated by their peers and, secondly, that intellectual skills will be a predictor variable statistically significant of sociometric types and behavioral categories. Results show that students nominated positively obtained significantly higher scores on the different intellectual abilities that nominees negatively. Intellectual abilities were a significant predictor of sociometric types because with increasing the score on the different intellectual abilities students were more likely to be nominated by their peers positively.
 
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sociometric types, behavioral categories, and intellectual abilities in a sample of 1349 (51.7% boys) Spanish adolescents, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. The students' sociometric nomination was performed by the Programa Socio and academic self-concept was measured by the Primary Mental Abilities Test (PMA; Thurstone, 1938; TEA, 1996). The hypotheses of the study suggest, firstly, that students positively nominated by their peers will present significantly higher scores on different scales of the PMA than students negatively nominated by their peers and, secondly, that intellectual skills will be a predictor variable statistically significant of sociometric types and behavioral categories. Results show that students nominated positively obtained significantly higher scores on the different intellectual abilities that nominees negatively. Intellectual abilities were a significant predictor of sociometric types because with increasing the score on the different intellectual abilities students were more likely to be nominated by their peers positively.
 
Within the elderly population, the specific circumstances that some of the elderly find themselves due to certain socio-cultural factors make them more likely to be abused while residing in assisted living residences, due to the facts that the abuse is coming from the organisation it is unlikely to be reported, or brought to the attention of others, making it difficult to detect and, as a result, an issue not often discussed. We intend to investigate these possibilities; however, due to lack of information on this subject, we aim to address this issue by investigating the number of elderly people living in nursing homes who have suffered abuse due to agents outside of the organisation, such as the family, other residents and Friends. A brief questionnaire was created on an Excel Spreadsheet for the collection of data for this study, these questionnaires where then passed on the social workers of 4 assisted living residences, in the geographical scope of the Murcia region. The data collected correspond to the time period between January and December 2013. The results lead us to believe that the principal risk factors associated with this type of abuse is being a woman, a widow and with and age of about 80 years. Psychological abuse from family members was the most frequently reported type of abuse in the study.
 
Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Methods: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusions: Drug abusers seem to be less accurate on elaboration of facial, body and disgust emotions. Considering that the participants were not cognitively impaired, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from the damage of cognitive functions.
 
Top-cited authors
Ghulam Abid
  • Kinnaird College for Women
J. Garssen
  • Utrecht University
Gillian Bruce
  • University of the West of Scotland
Joris Verster
  • Utrecht University
Márió Gajdács
  • University of Szeged