European Journal of International Management

Published by Inderscience
Online ISSN: 1751-6765
Print ISSN: 1751-6757
Based on expectancy theory, goal-setting theory and control theory we propose a model in which perceived fairness mediates the relationship between characteristics of employee performance management systems and their perceived effectiveness by employees. The model was tested on a sample of 3192 employees, using structural equation modelling. The findings advance research to the role and functionality of performance management systems by showing that (a) the manner in which performance management systems are shaped and executed is of fundamental importance for their effectiveness, (b) fairness partially mediates the relationship between performance management system characteristics and their effectiveness, and (c) the three motivational theories appear useful for understanding the consequences of performance management practices on individual employees.
Review of Leadership Insight by Nancy J. Adler, published 2010 by Routledge, London and New York, 182pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-415-87762-6
This article introduces the research studies of 11, mostly young, European academics. Then it poses the question, will the work of these excellent young researchers be cited? In speculating about the future of their work, the wider question of using citation frequency to evaluate the performance of business school professors is discussed. Empirical data of published articles between 1990 and 2007 in the top five general management journals is analysed. The results of this examination suggest that (1) a dissemination bottleneck is being formed that slows down the exchange of research findings in a timely manner, (2) most articles published in the top five journals are not highly cited (median = 24, mean = 74, mode = 1), and (3) articles may need at least ten years after publication before reaching their maximum citation frequency.
Firms engage in online exports with varying levels of success, yet limited understanding concerns explanations for these differences in performance. This study investigates antecedents of Online Contribution to Export Performance (OCEP), defined as the extent to which an export firm's objectives are achieved via online activities. The paper examines how online capabilities, complementary capabilities in exporting, IT resources and intentional efforts on the part of the firm affect OCEP. The results, based on a cross-industry sample of 603 SMEs, show that whilst some capabilities positively affect the performance of online export activities, others have a detrimental effect. Managers are advised to focus on relational online capabilities rather than necessarily invest in online transactions as these do not seem to be associated with increased online performance. Managers are also advised against treating online exporting as a substitute for offline exporting practices.
The paper explores the effects of organisational change on UK managers' perceptions of their organisation and on their well-being. Cost reduction is the prime driver for change and has been implemented using delayering, redundancy, downsizing and off-shoring often supported by culture change programmes. These changes have resulted in work intensification, have not delivered productivity gains and have had a negative effect on managers' well-being. The effects of change were perceived differently by directors and other managers. Despite continuous cost reduction, productivity in the UK remains below that of European competitor nations. This calls into question the prevailing cost reduction ethos as a means of delivering increased productivity in the UK.
This article presents a dynamic approach to liquidity based on uncertainty as conceptualized by Knight, developed in a theory of long-term expectations by Keynes, and applied to banking by Minsky. This perspective reveals that banks perform maturity transformation and create monetary liabilities by overcoming uncertainty about the future based on generally accepted conventions of safety. When uncertainty returns to the forefront, acceptance of private money is compromised and a liquidity crisis may ensue.On this basis, the article illustrates how banking should be regulated ex-ante and supported ex-post by central banks in order to reduce financial instability. Regulation and the safety net should be complemented by corporate governance committing bank managers to long-term horizons. Rules on managerial remuneration are insufficient for this purpose. Insulating bankers from market pressure for high-risk, high-returns strategies should be allowed too.
p2 parameters for the effect of dissimilarities on the selection of advisors
Positive correlation between indegree and outdegree centralities in the advice network at the inter-organisational level
A paraître We explore inter-organizational collective learning by assuming that authority relationships are different at the inter- from the intra-organizational level. This difference has implications for the way in which a collective solves the problems related to the creation of a hierarchy between different bodies of appropriate knowledge. At the intra-organizational level, cognitive conflicts are solved by centralization and alignment with opinion leaders who often have formal and epistemic authority. In this context, members tend not to seek advice from others « below » them in the organizational status hierarchy. At the inter-organizational level, we show that the absence of a formal hierarchy encourages entrepreneurs to invest heavily in relational activity. This behaviour allows them to keep their status in a context where epistemic conflicts become entrenched, following a polarization process, in different epistemic communities. We illustrate this phenomenon with an empirical study of entrepreneurs in the French biotech industry. oui
Percent of firms participating in forms of social responsibility
Motives for and formalisation of social responsibility practices
This paper investigates the impact of national institutional contexts on firms' socially responsible practices, the motives for such practices and methods of organising social practices. Surveys of firms in a liberal market economy (USA) and those in a coordinated market economy (Finland) are compared. Findings indicate that social practices differ between the contexts, providing empirical support for the theory of explicit and implicit forms of corporate social responsibility. The paper offers insight into how social practices are organised in different contexts and a new conceptualisation of the motives for social responsibility. Results suggest that national institutional context should be accounted for in empirical studies of business social practices.
Russian capitalism is 20 years old - it is two decades since the first private companies, disguised as "cooperatives," were formed in the Soviet Union in 1987. Since then the Russian economy has gone through a major transformation, which has encompassed distinct periods of activity: the creation of private firms, price liberalization, mass privatization and the restructuring of former state-owned companies, the development and growth of the stock market, financial crisis, currency devaluation and economic rebound, and the introduction of corporate governance standards. The next big challenge for Russian business is founder-CEO succession. In recent years some prominent Russian business leaders, such as Vladimir Yevtushenkov, the founder of the multi-billion dollar Sistema conglomerate, and Dimitry Zimin, the founder of telecoms giant VimpleCom, have passed the CEO's baton to professional executives. Hundreds of other less well-known owners followed suit. Since most outgoing Russian founders are relatively young and enjoy a significant level of ownership control, their departure is intriguing and raises a number of questions. Why do they relinquish executive power? What triggers founder-CEO succession in Russia? Is it voluntary or forced? Who follows the founder? What becomes of the founder? What impact does the succession have on company performance? If this trend is sustained, it will be critically important for the Russian business community to understand what kind of succession process, leading to improved company performance and founder satisfaction, will be successful in Russian companies. This paper is a first step toward creating such understanding. After summarizing findings from succession research in the West, I describe the specific - and frequently unusual - conditions under which succession takes place in Russia. I examine six cases of founder-CEO succession in Russia, in an attempt to define good and bad practice, and identify an essential element of the process which I call the Russian succession paradox. From this, I develop a conceptual framework and suggest directions for future qualitative research. What is the Russian succession paradox? I use this term to explain the process whereby a company goes through all the motions of seeking and appointing a successor to the founder, only to award the chosen person with a merely nominal role as CEO, while the old regime continues de facto to run the company. The Russian succession paradox means that far from passing on the baton, the founder does not go away. He retains, or regains, power without assuming executive responsibility, while the new CEO shoulders all the accountability for the organization's results. As the cases in this paper show, the Russian succession paradox operates to a greater or lesser extent within many Russian companies.
This study examines the factors associated with the cross-national diffusion of HRM systems within Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) through the lens of the strategic choice and neo-institutional perspectives. Both perspectives are successful in predicting diffusion. The institutional contexts of business units within multinationals and key strategic context variables are shown, in a study of 20 UK multinationals in Europe, to have significant and interacting relationships with the degree of similarity between affiliate HRM systems and those of their parent counterparts.
As social collectives operate through more complexity their coherence suffers and their pathologies become more apparent. Generic modelling of pathologies will be explored in terms of the knowledge cybernetics schema. Two models will develop, one which is transitive in nature and the other lateral. The transitive model distinguishes between different realities in autonomous collectives, and an example is the distinction between thinking and doing. The lateral model distinguishes between different states of being within the same reality. Examples of a lateral schema is the distinction between two competing corporate agents in a given frame of reference seeking the same observable good (e.g., market share), and the more coded example of the interaction between the ideology and ethics of social collectives that affect both the autopathic (endogenous) and sociopathic (exogenous) nature of the pathologies of collectives.
Full-text of this article is available at This paper seeks to reveal the potential of the concept of national competitiveness as a practical analytical tool. The paper offers suggestions on how research on national competitiveness can contribute to setting targets for socio-economic agenda in transition economies with special focus on Russia. We start by stressing the importance of the institutional context as an element of national competitiveness and then concentrate on generalised trust. We analyse the situation with generalised trust in modern Russia and suggest that the development of corporate social responsibility is the most credible remedy for the deficiency of trust and, eventually, to competitiveness, in the short term.
Means, standard deviations and correlates of central variables 
Research model
Diverse teams are becoming widespread in the workplace. However, previous research shows that many organisations fail to successfully manage diversity. Using survey data collected from 27 teams in ten different countries, we investigate the link between team diversity and intra-team conflicts. Building on a contingency approach, we analyse moderating effects of the surrounding organisational context of teams, namely organisational supportiveness and openness. The results of our quantitative study show that the diversity-conflict relation strongly depends on a team's context. This presents interesting alleys for future research and leads to implications for practice regarding the design of a team's context.
Innovations are rarely generated in complete isolation. Due to inherent uncertainty, high knowledge requirements, and high financial investments, many firms search for external partners to develop new products and processes. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether firms who cooperate with diverse external partners such as suppliers, customers and governmental research institutions see increased innovation performance as compared to firms who cooperate with a less diverse range of collaborators. This paper investigates how diversity in cooperation networks affects firms' innovation performance output as measured by sales share of innovative products. To address this question, the authors analyze a large-scale sample of microdata from Swiss firms from four waves (1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008) of the Swiss innovation survey using panel data analysis. The findings suggest that firms with greater diversity in their cooperation network benefit by generating new product innovations, and that small firms benefit more from diversity of collaborators as compared to other firm sizes. The study further detects a curvilinear relationship between diversity of collaborator types and innovation performance, and emphasizes the importance of appropriate HRM and knowledge management policies and practices to provide firms with an effective mechanism for maximizing benefits from a diversified cooperation network.
In the first sentence of the introduction to the very first issue of EJIM we noted that European management was exceedingly difficult to define. Much the same can be said of the notion of ‘corporate Europe’. But, if something defies definition that is not the same as saying that it can not be clarified. In this introduction, we attempt to clarify the term corporate Europe in such a way as to set the scene for the five contributions in this issue.
Characteristics of CSR as perceived by Russian managers 
CSR pressure by categories of stakeholders 
Stakeholder influence and CSR perceptions (Pearson r)
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in European Journal of International Management, published by and copyright Inderscience Publishers. This paper investigates the sources of socially responsible behaviour of firms with reference to a survey of managers of medium and large firms in Russia. We argue that agency-oriented analysis is not a good fit for the institutional environment existing in Russia. Consequently, a meaningful management-stakeholder dialogue acquires particular importance. Our results offer some support to the proposition of a link between the interests of the dominant stakeholder and the interpretation of corporate social responsibility entertained by the management of the firm. However, more data are needed to increase the accuracy of results.
The essence of CCKM  
This paper responds to calls for pragmatic context-dependent cross-cultural scholarship. Specifically, with regard to global organisations, we attempt to reconcile the imbalance between global and local concerns by proposing a framework that merges a new understanding of culture with a classical leadership approach. The objective is to achieve more effective cross-cultural practice. The article makes the case for an appreciation of what we call 'cross-cultural knowledge management' and the role of wisdom in global business leadership in a modern culturally diverse knowledge economy.
Descriptive statistics -country level
Correlations -company level
Human Resource Management (HRM) has a history of striving for acceptance and legitimacy in relation to top and line management. The identification of factors influencing HRM status, therefore, is very important for the field. One of these relevant factors is gender. On the occupational level, there is evidence from various occupations that an increase in the proportion of women is associated with a status loss in these occupations. Besides one stream of literature that states that gender is an omni-relevant and -present category, there are also other approaches which hold that the category of gender has lost its relevance, and functional attributes are the dominant categories in the workplace today. Using a multilevel model of 1508 companies located in 17 countries, this study analyses the impact of gender composition and functional attributes on the organisational status of the HR department. It reveals that while gender still has a significant influence on status, education and experience are more important.
This research seeks to develop a theoretical model of transcultural project leadership (TPL) based on a conceptual framework crafted from the literature and Populated and progressively validated by primary data drawn from international project practitioners. A composite multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ)-TPL survey instrument was developed with a view to: conducting an international quantitative survey across industries, countries and project sizes; contributing to the literature on organisational leadership, project management and cross-cultural management; informing best practice among project practitioners; aiding the selection, deployment and evaluation of international project managers and developing a theory of transcultural project leadership to facilitate greater understanding of HR issues when undertaking organisational change.
Conceptual model  
Businesses' and students' perceptions about the highest influence of the programme (scored five on the Likert scale) on students' entrepreneurial attitudes (average percentage)  
Revised conceptual model  
This study analyses an entrepreneurial learning initiative developed in the south of Spain through a partnership approach between a high-level educational institution - the University of Huelva, located in a rural area of the south of Spain - and the business community. Using a case-study approach and taking the institutional economic theory as a theoretical framework, the influence of the initiative on stimulating the students' entrepreneurial mindsets is examined. The main findings reveal that, in areas with low levels of entrepreneurial activity such as some rural areas of the south of Spain, additional actions to promote entrepreneurship would be necessary. This research also has several practical implications for policy makers in terms of designing governmental initiatives to promote entrepreneurship education and, consequently, entrepreneurial mindsets.
This paper explores Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in foreign-owned subsidiaries in Kazakhstan and examines the development of HRM and the extent to which practices and policies are reflective of their countries of origin, older-style Soviet and post-Soviet practices, or an emerging Kazakhstan. The discussion is based on findings which utilised a questionnaire-based survey, secondary data and interviews with HR managers. The paper concludes that HRM and employee relations practices utilised are a hybrid of old-style Soviet and Western-based approaches (US and European), and also provided are some implications for theory and managerial practice. Yes Yes
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how social network analysis can support talent management initiatives in knowledge intensive work environments. Based on case studies of two R&D divisions, this paper illustrates how social network analysis can aid talent management interventions on two fronts; a) through talent positioning i.e. having the right talent at the right place at the right time, and b) responding to a talent raid i.e. a sudden exodus of star performers. This paper contributes to the advancement of the talent management concept by integrating a social network perspective into the research agenda. The extant literature has tended to focus upon the individuals’ attributes when deciding who is to be deemed ‘talented’. In contrast, social network theory posits that it is the ties and relationships between individuals - and not individual attributes - that really matter.
This paper outlines the findings of a longitudinal study of knowledge transfer processes within a hotel chain in Iran. The company was of interest because it had adopted a deliberate strategy of bringing in new management ideas from other countries. We focused on their adoption of new HRM practices. Key findings were that cultural and religious factors influenced their choices of which countries to adopt as models for their practice, the relative lack of translation of the chosen practices, difficulties in transferring practices from HQ to the hotels in the chain and the important influence of culture on the transfer process. These findings suggest that the biggest barrier to knowledge transfer was the organisation's absorptive capacity.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak represents an extremely stressful experience across the global population. People are anxious about their health, source of income, and daily routines. These COVID-19 related anxieties can lead to changes in consumer attitudes and behaviour. This study thus investigates the relationship between anxiety, materialism, and voluntary simplicity by consumers across generations during the outbreak in Thailand. Conducting survey research, our results show that this anxiety has had a direct effect on voluntary simplicity, particularly for Generation X and Generation Y. It has also had an indirect effect on voluntary simplicity through materialism on all generations, except Generation Y. This research offers insights into how to promote simplicity in living among different generations in a developing country. Keywords: COVID-19; anxiety; materialism; voluntary simplicity; cross-generation; sustainable consumption; Thailand; baby boomers; Generation X; Generation Y; Generation Z.
The goal of this research is to identify the internal and external factors that influence nascent entrepreneurial activity in Chile and Spain, with emphasis on the impact caused by the economic crisis originated by the COVID-19. We also analyse whether this crisis affected senior entrepreneurship. We used two samples of 16,436 and 27,065 individuals from Chile and Spain, respectively, in 2019-2020, obtained from Global Entrepreneurship Monitors APS which allows us to know what happened during the first moments of the pandemic. A logistic regression model was performed, establishing a causal relationship between the factors and the rate of nascent entrepreneurs. This research shows that this economic crisis negatively affected nascent entrepreneurial activity in both countries. However, nascent senior entrepreneurs have not been affected in Chile, while in Spain their activity increased. Our results may help governments to better understand the factors that influence nascent entrepreneurs and the impact of the economic crisis on them.
COVID-19 pandemic has created an unparalleled social and economic calamity that has impacted organisational performance worldwide, thus, accelerating both employers and employees to switch to digitalisation. Using the Resource-Based View (RBV) of the firm, the study aims to explore the impact of digitalisation (both business and HRM) on performance of SMEs operating in both local and international markets as well as on their employees’ well-being. The study outcomes add value to the emerging research on SMEs’ digitalisation in the era of the pandemic and advance our understanding of the necessary conditions to achieve it. To this end, the role of digital leadership is proposed as a moderator in the above-mentioned relationships. The study supports that business digitalisation improves SMEs’ performance in the era of the pandemic. Yet, digitalisation of HRM has negatively affected employees’ wellbeing, although the later associates positively with SMEs’ performance. The study outcomes also reveal the role of digital leadership as a facilitator to employees’ well-being and provides implications for both theory and practice.
This paper explores three groups of antecedents of sustainable consumption (SC) and how different generations approached sustainable consumption during Covid-19. In this study, which includes 2202 respondents, the authors use Binary Logistic Regression to explain the behavioural change (the adoption of a more sustainable approach) during Covid-19. Analysis of variance and posthoc testing were used to fill the gap in generational theory by explaining the behavioural differences of diverse generations. The findings demonstrate that change adopters to a significant degree are Generation X females with an above average income, living with a partner in big cities. Education seems to have no significant effect. Worldwide comparison of three main SC dimensions of 5 generations according to gender, household type, education, income during crisis makes this study highly valuable. The lack of cross-cultural behavioural comparison is the main research limitation. Managers should prioritize financial responsiveness over other dimensions of SC.
Having a meaningful connotation with the longevity of the existence, the concept of heritage is being considered as a key element for international organisations to sustain the competitive advantage. The ample research on heritage made an enquiry to the domain of the research essential. Based on ISI Web of Knowledge, this paper evaluates the knowledge structure of corporate and brand heritage by reviewing 78 relevant articles with 941 citations in 50 journals from the business and management domain, between January 2006 and November 2019. By adopting co-citation analysis and multidimensional scaling, we identified five research groups. Co-occurrence network and algorithmic historiography were also utilised to identify the key themes, emerging and evolution of the seminal works. Based on the recent highly cited, a future model was proposed for researchers as well as international marketers that can provide insights on the evolving topics and trend areas within the research domain.
The tourism sector in Portugal has been experiencing unequal levels of development in its different counties. These different regions display different natural, economic and social characteristics that impact on the internationalisation process and affect the attractiveness of foreign hotel chains. Supported by the existing literature, in this paper, we present logistic models, based on data from 2015, to estimate the probability associated to the decision for internationalisation of the hotels’ industry or to the establishment of foreign hotel chains in Portuguese territory. The logistic regression model concludes that the existence of a high degree of knowledge, access to inherited or developed resources and the participation on the international trade, affect the probability of internationalisation of hotels. In turn, the probability of foreign hotels establishing their activity in a certain region varies according to the international trade, the endowment of natural and historical-cultural resources and its climate.
This study explores the role of absence and contextual factors on burnout, including shiftwork rotation, stressful work units, and understaffing. The efficacy of absence as a coping mechanism is examined in the most and least stressful work units under conditions of shiftwork rotation and understaffing, respectively. The sample consists of 304 hospital nurses in Argentina. Results reveal that absence mitigates the impact of emotional exhaustion on diminished personal accomplishment among fixed shift nurses who work in the least stressful units. Absence buffers the impact of emotional exhaustion on diminished personal accomplishment in understaffed units. Its role changes when it comes to buffering the impact of emotional exhaustion on depersonalisation across levels of understaffing. We argue that absence plays an attenuating role only when specific contextual factors cohere. Nurses who are aware of this contextual confluence manage their mental health better. These findings have practical implications for healthcare management.
This study explores the role of contextual factors of significant relevance to hospitals and their impact on burnout. These include shiftwork rotation, stressful work units, and understaffing. The efficacy of absence as a coping mechanism in managing nurse burnout is examined in both the most and least stressful work units under conditions of shiftwork rotation and understaffing, respectively. The sample consists of 304 hospital nurses in Argentina. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that absence plays a complex and differential role in moderating the impact of shift work on nurse burnout. Absence mitigates the impact of emotional exhaustion on diminished personal accomplishment among fixed shift nurses who work in the least stressful units. But the pattern is different in more stressful units. Absence buffers the impact of emotional exhaustion on diminished personal accomplishment in units that are substantially understaffed. But its role changes when it comes to buffering the impact of emotional exhaustion on depersonalisation across levels of understaffing. Consequently, we argue that absence plays an attenuating role only when specific contextual factors cohere. Nurses who are aware of this contextual confluence manage their mental health better. We suggest that these findings have significant implications for health care management in Argentina.
Top-cited authors
Shlomo Tarba
  • University of Birmingham
Hugh Scullion
  • National University of Ireland, Galway
Pamela Bethke
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft Zürich
Bruno Staffelbach
  • Universität Luzern
David G. Collings
  • Trinity College Dublin