European Journal of Innovation Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1460-1060
Publications
Forces on R&D activities, and geographical results
Article
Theories on R&D organisation draw on globalisation literature as well as on communication theories. This mixed discourse is a problem, since mixing levels of logic sometimes cause faulty conclusions. How is this double logic handled in organisations, and what is the effect on R&D organisation? This study investigates R&D activities in multinational companies with several production sites and markets, focusing what reasons and forces are mentioned in relation to the geographical structure of the R&D activities. We assume that there are opposing forces, both dispersing and contracting the R&D activities geographically. The purpose of the paper is to investigate perceived geographically dispersing and contracting forces on R&D activities, and how a possible conflict between these is handled. This is done by studying how the level of dispersion has come to be, what events or decision has caused the dispersion of R&D. We show that trends in R&D dispersion are active in two directions, one dispersing and one contracting, and that these are partly working at separate organisational levels. The dispersing forces are more prevalent at strategic levels, while the contracting forces are more pronounced at the operational level.
 
Four types of ba 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the failure of science parks to become a central actor in the knowledge economy and, with the help of new organizational theory, to propose new solutions. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews a number of recent studies of science parks and their effect on innovation and economic growth, measured by revenue or survival rate of new firms, but demonstrating no positive result of the parks. The paper then introduces modern organization theory, specializing in analyzing the processes of creating, managing, organizing, and transferring knowledge distributed through a number of networks and other volatile organizations in order to investigate the set-up of science parks in the knowledge economy. Findings - Using Nonaka's concept of ba as a metaphor for the new tradition in organizational theory, the paper finds very few - if any - signs of these new ways of organizing in traditional science parks. The paper argues that principles from modern knowledge organizations has to be installed in science parks if the parks are to regain the initiative and become an important actor in the new regime of knowledge production. Otherwise, science parks must be viewed as an outdated institution, left over from the industrial society. Practical implications - The paper proposes a system of certification and quality assessment that might speed up the change in science parks from organizations formed by the industrial society to organizations serving the needs of the knowledge society. Originality/value - The paper is an original contribution to the theory of science parks and innovation policy. The use of new organizational theory on knowledge management, illustrated by Nonaka's concept of ba , presents a new solution to overcome the traditional thinking on how to organize science parks.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how product modularity (PM) is related to mass customization (MC) capability and plant competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The paper tests hypothesized relationships using structural equation modeling with an international dataset. Findings - PM is not directly related to plant competitiveness. Inter-functional design coordination (IDC) is found to be critical in fostering plant competitiveness. Practical implications - Managers need to put IDC mechanisms in place to foster MC capabilities and, thereby, enhance plant competitiveness. Originality/value - While the existing literature mostly argues for a direct relationship between PM and competitiveness, the paper shows that IDC and MC capability are crucial intervening variables in this relationship.
 
Conference Paper
Purpose – The adoption of XBRL presents new opportunities for considerably enhancing the business information supply chain. However, its diffusion has proved to be very challenging. The purpose of this paper is to draw upon stakeholder and social network theories to evaluate issues surrounding the diffusion of XBRL in Australia. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative empirical evidence collected via interviews is used to identify XBRL stakeholders and to assess their salience which is considered to be a key characteristic of stakeholder networks. Findings – It was found that there is a lack of salience among the current XBRL stakeholders in Australia. While all stakeholders were found to have a legitimate basis for adopting XBRL, most lack power or centrality and none possesses urgency claims for XBRL which collectively are likely to have a significant impact on its diffusion. As a remedy, instrumental measures, such as knowledge building and deployment, subsidy, mobilisation, and innovation directive, by way of which organizational stakeholders can positively affect XBRL diffusion, are critically assessed. The need for normative action is also highlighted. Practical implications – This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by enhancing understanding of the complex phenomenon of the diffusion of network innovations, such as XBRL. This helps recognize the potential of individual stakeholders to effect innovation diffusion using their salience. Taken together, this information can help in designing proactive adoption and diffusion strategies for network innovations. Originality/value – There is a paucity of research in the area of the diffusion of network innovations. This work constitutes, therefore, an extension to the existing body of knowledge.
 
An integrative model of factors limiting innovation adoption
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this article is to integrate existing theoretical explanations for innovation diffusion across the disciplines of marketing, innovation and sociology research. Design/methodology/approach - Literature reviews and historical case analysis were used to support an integrative model. Findings - Innovation diffusion is affected by technological, social and learning "conditions" while operating in the contextual "domain" of the individual, community or market/industry. Research limitations/implications - The model is drawn from new product development and marketing theory. Both fields are dominated by the assumption that users adopt new technology to maximise their utility. Also, the model does not integrate the overlapping effects of the different contexts and domains. Practical implications - The article provides a sound model for orienting new product development strategy, since it may reduce the risk of low and slow user adoption of radical innovations due, for instance, to their technological, social, and cognitive differences with former products. A second critical managerial implication is that technological, social and learning conditions clearly have an effect on marketing actions and competitive strategies. Originality/value - The article provides a literature review of resistance to technology adoption through a multidisciplinary lens.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to bring better understanding to how involving users in the development process of new mobile phone services can increase understanding of the overall service experience in a technology-based service setting. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on an experimental setting which aims to emulate the involvement of users in a service development process in order to provide information regarding the overall service experience. This is done by letting users evaluate both user- and company-created services. Findings - Users are found to be an important information source when it comes to understanding the overall service experience of technology-based services. The paper shows that users are to some extent better at coming up with services regarding value in use. The findings show that some of the most important experience outcomes that are demanded, functionally related outcomes, are better met by user-created services. Research limitations/implications - The paper provides empirical evidence regarding the importance of a user perspective when it comes to understanding both the functional and emotional parts of the overall technology-based service experience. The result of this paper implies a more advanced user focus during service development in order to be able to know what it is that creates value for technology-based service users. Just how technology-based services are functionally and emotionally experienced by their users is a fairly new research area and more empirical studies regarding this subject will be called for in the future. Originality/value - This paper provides evidence of the importance of a user perspective when creating value propositions for technology-based service users. From a managerial point of view, it is of interest to see whether it will be possible to learn more about the users' service experience of technology-based services by involving them in the development process.
 
The modern university: synergies between the three tasks
The exploration stage of the Danish triple helix in China
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and make sense of the internationalization of the triple helix (TH) model. Design/methodology/approach – As this study is exploitative in nature, an inductive approach is adopted in data collection and data analysis. The Danish TH's experiences in China are used as empirical evidences. Primary data are collected from in-depth interviews and discussions, filed observations, and personal experiences. Secondary data such as the government policies and documents, companies’ annual reports, and reliable web sites are also included. Findings – The paper conceptualizes the internationalization of the TH into three stages: pioneering stage, exploration stage, and integration stage. In the pioneering stage, the authors see the establishment of each of the three helix spheres abroad, i.e. internationalization of companies, universities and governments; in the exploration stage, the three spheres start to interact abroad and collaborate with their counterparts in the host country; in the integration stage, helix to helix collaboration is emerging. Originality/value – This study has both theoretical and practical significance. It expands the existing TH theory by proposing a model for the internationalization of it. On the other hand, this study gives implications regarding utilizing global knowledge resources and enhancing innovation performances overseas.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define co-exploitation, co-exploration, and alliance ambidexterity from the perspective of organizational learning; to analyze how knowledge bases, structural arrangements, and control mechanisms of R&D alliances influence co-exploitation and co-exploration; and to discuss how to achieve alliance ambidexterity by managing paradoxes around knowledge bases, structural arrangements, and control mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper focussing on how to balance exploitation and exploration at the alliance level through managing three paradoxes of cooperation: similarity vs complementarity, integration vs modularity, and contracts vs trust. Findings – While technological similarity, structural integration, and contracts are more likely to promote co-exploitation, technological complementarity, structural modularity, and trust are more likely to facilitate co-exploration. Alliance ambidexterity, which is beneficial for alliance performance, derives from either the combination of technological complementarity, structural integration, and contracts, or the combination of technological similarity, structural modularity, and trust temporally. Research limitations/implications – Researchers should analyze the possibility of building alliance ambidexterity in other types of interorganizational relationships, and find other possible antecedents of interorganizational learning. Practical implications – Managers should not simply treat R&D alliances as one of exploratory interorganizational relationships, but pay equal attention to co-exploitation and co-exploration. To achieve this balance, practitioners should combine technological complementarity with structural integration and contracts, or integrate technological similarity with structural modularity and trust. Originality/value – This paper is one of the first contributions that analyze how an R&D alliance could gain its ambidexterity through the management of nested cooperation paradoxes.
 
Article
New product development (NPD) is crucial to the survival and thriving of a business entity and a firm’s sources of advantages are important to the NPD success. This paper explores the marketing and technical resources adequacy of Australian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in NPD. A survey of 276 Australian SMEs in the chemical and machinery industries was conducted. Analytical procedures include factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. Findings from these analyses suggest that three distinct groups in terms of their NPD resources exist in Australian SMEs: one group with rich marketing and technical resources and skills, one with rich technical resource only, and one with rich technical skill only. The organisational and managerial characteristics of each group of these firms are described. The findings imply that different resource groups need to adopt different strategies in NPD.
 
Article
Purpose – Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory typically concerns attributes that steer the process of inducing new ideas through various communication channels, which essentially diffuse different types of innovations into different systems. After Rogers, Tornatzky, and Klein presented 30 such attributes (five of which were Rogers’) that steered the process of innovation diffusion. The purpose of this paper is to use a systematic approach in reviewing the literature pertaining to these 30 attributes, followed by the meta-analysis of the articles collated in relevance to these attributes. Design/methodology/approach – Publications in the time frame of 1996-mid 2011 in this field of literature have been shortlisted for this review. A total of 223 innovation articles are studied in detail to collate the relevant data needed to reflect on the various informative trends exhibited by the shortlisted innovation attributes. Findings – An analysis of these trends will be carried out across three different categories – first, subjective analysis; second, seven features of an ideal innovation attribute study (approach, dependent variable, study type, instrument, measure, number of attributes, number of innovations, adopting unit); and third, antecedents and descendants of the innovation attributes, which altogether will be used deduce findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research from this review. Originality/value – No recent study has analysed existing research on less explored innovation adoption attributes. Therefore, analysis and findings presented in this research is original and will make adequate contribution to the existing research on this topic. Findings presented in this submission would be helpful for researchers, authors, reviewers, and editors.
 
Knowledge exchange among weak ties across technological fields
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering.Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish HTSF's inter-organizational activities.Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over.Research limitations/implications – By not engaging in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed.Practical implications – An organization that can span both technological boundaries and weak ties is in a unique knowledge brokering position. The findings indicate how the barriers of an open transfer of complex knowledge across weak ties can be partially overcome by letting an R&D department be the networking department.Originality/value – Very little research has examined the organizational processes at stake when spanning organizational, technological and network boundaries.
 
Organisational structure of a project house  
Organisational structure of a science to business center  
Different NBD tools at Degussa  
Article
Abstract: Purpose - To analyse different organizational tools of business development used in practice. This analysis seeks to address the question of how an organization can achieve the recurring shift from exploration to exploitation and at the same time manage to balance its open and closed innovation tools. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical basis for analysing the organizational implications of open vs closed innovation is built by Creavis, the business venturing arm of Degussa AG, a specialty chemicals company headquartered in Germany. Findings - Companies face the ambiguity of creating new business options and exploiting these at a later stage. Since exploitative and explorative units require a different organizational set-up, it is difficult for a company to shift its exploratory endeavours to exploitative means. The presented case study offers an answer to this dilemma by showing how organizations manage to combine both by a unique organizational set-up allowing for an evolutionary approach of shifting exploratory work into exploitative results. Practical implications - The insights derived from the case study clearly present a way of dealing with ambidexterity in new business development. The in-depth analysis advances the understanding of how organizations may successfully conduct business development and, in particular, which organizational tools they may use. Originality/value - Is based on an original case study by . It integrates management theory with a real life example to foster management research in new business development and the particular question of how to deal with the need of organizations to combine both exploratory and exploitative units and support their interaction as well as employing different approaches to innovation, i.e. open vs closed innovation
 
Article
Purpose – Based on an Israeli innovation incubators program, aims to describe a procedure to define relevant categories in order to reduce the complexity of representing the population of projects supported by an innovation program in a meaningful way. Design/methodology/approach – Provides a concise description of the Israeli innovation incubators program and presents the characteristics of the data available. Introduces the analysis methodology and describes in detail its application to the specific data set and the classification scheme that it induces. Discusses the information that can be obtained based on this classification, and outlines some policy implications. Concludes with remarks regarding possible applications and extensions of the methodology. Findings – Finds that the classification induced by the iterative category exclusion (ICE) procedure can serve as the basis for more sophisticated analysis using statistical tools such as regression analysis. Once the relevant categorization is obtained, it becomes easier to collect meaningful data about incubator performance for analysis at various levels of aggregation. The ICE procedure has the advantage that it does not give a priori preference to any category or to any relationship between categories, and does not require a priori identification of the categories that are to be kept and those that are to be deleted. Further, it does not need to classify categories under headings such as "scientific and technological" on the one side, and "sector applications" on the other. Both are seen as equal from the beginning to the end and thus avoid any bias in the process. The subjectivity inherent in the selection process is reduced, perhaps even eliminated. The same values provided the basis for the identification and quantification of overlap and proximities between the final categories, throwing some light on their mutual dependencies and interactions and leading to a level of representation from which strategic assessment and thinking can start. Originality/value – The core principle of ICE is to eliminate categories that do not convey sufficient information to justify the additional complexity. This principle is universal and can be applied to a wide variety of situations that suffer from too much data and not enough information. (Publication abstract)
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to validate cognitive style (i.e. linear, nonlinear, and balanced thinking) with innovation intentions and behaviors. It was hypothesized that a balanced linear/nonlinear thinking style and the inclination toward more innovative intentions are strongly related. Design/methodology/approach – A survey questionnaire of business students in the USA and France was employed. Formally validated measures of thinking style and innovation were replicated in this project. Findings – The results of an analysis of 186 respondents found a significant, direct relationship between balanced thinking style and innovative intention and behavior measures. Research limitations/implications – The results demonstrate that cognitive style and innovation are related, but the direct validation of actual innovative behaviors, in situ, needs to be included in the next step of this research stream. Further, the composition of groups can also be evaluated using these measures. Practical implications – This is the first successful attempt to validate cognitive style measures with innovation outcome measures. These measures are now available for organizational testing, field research, and assessing team composition. Originality/value – This is one of the first criterion-validity assessments of a cognitive measure related to linear and nonlinear thinking style. There are two important implications of these results. First, the authors now have a better understanding of one the links between cognition and innovation. Second, the authors have established a solid base for future research on this subject, including the importance of this effect in practice.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine which stakeholder values are created by a well-performing network-structured university-industry collaboration (UIC). These results should provide initial conclusions for the design of UICs with the aim to overcome critical barriers to effective technology transfer. Design/methodology/approach – The research is designed as a comprehensive single case study and follows a qualitative approach in order to obtain a deep understanding of the various stakeholder values created by Austrian Center of Competence in Mechatronics (ACCM), a unique, well-performing UIC-network. Findings – The results show that on the one hand ACCM provides stakeholder values that are largely common for UICs or networks (access to resources and industry problems, funding, know-how dialogue, solution of practical problems, etc.). On the other hand ACCM offers very special values which are often realized in UICs to a low degree only. The study indicates that by the special construct of ACCM, with its deep value added chain, the common problem of converting basic research results into industrial solutions can be managed. Practical implications – The research shows that the ACCM construct of a network-structured UIC has many benefits for the stakeholders and offers a new way to overcome critical barriers to effective technology transfer. Originality/value – Given the absence of fundamental work in this area, the study is significant both academically as well as practically in terms of effective technology transfer in network-structured UICs and their values for various stakeholders.
 
Article
European Journal of Innovation Management Vol.13 Nr.1, 100 - 119 In this case study we explore collaboration in open innovation communities. We focus on the following two research problems: How can users be motivated to collaborate in open innovation communities and what kind of tools and methods can support collaboration in open innovation communities? The study includes three innovation intermediaries originated in three different countries: France, the Netherlands and Finland. The primary data source consists of the open-ended questions posted to the maintainers and users by email. The data includes 5 responses from the maintainers and 12 responses from the users. The secondary source is the Internet document review. The classification of the factors in the preliminary framework is derived from reading and rereading the answers of the respondents until the themes started emerging from the data. Thereafter, the data was coded according to the chosen themes. Results suggest that monetary rewards are not always the best way to motivate contributing users. Instead, contributors appreciate many intangible factors, such as community cooperation, learning new ideas and having entertainment. Contributors also appreciate good support and the right cooperation tools from their service provider. Companies should provide community members with tools that are easy to use, allowing people to express themselves and share their personal details. It seems to be important that maintainers are involved as visible members of a community, which includes telling about themselves in a more detailed way This study is one of the first papers focusing on the collaboration perspective of open innovation communities. The data was based on three cases and a limited amount of participants. Therefore, it may be that in gathering empirical data from a larger group of cases, some new factors will be found.
 
Tension field of knowledge sharing and protection
Article
Purpose of this paper: This paper investigates the paradox that arises when firms simultaneously share and protect their knowledge in an alliance with other organizations. The goal of this paper therefore is to explore this tension field in such a coupled open innovation process and to identify which strategies can be developed to cope with this tension. Design/methodology/approach: The study was initially guided by a literature review and exploratory interviews, and it ultimately develops an inductive framework based on a multiple case study approach. The paper presents eight cases of a focal firm involved in a particular R&D collaboration. The case studies are based on a variety of data sources, including a number of semi-structured interviews. Findings: This paper unravels the tension field of knowledge sharing and protection in R&D collaborations, with the knowledge characteristics at the core and with the knowledge embodiment and relational dimension as mediating factors. These forces are in turn influenced by the collaboration characteristics and environment. Moreover, the case studies show different ways to cope with the tension between knowledge sharing and protection, such as an open knowledge exchange strategy and a layered collaboration scheme with inner and outer members. Licensing is moreover presented as a concrete way to implement such coping strategies. Originality/value: This paper provides a holistic perspective on the knowledge paradox in R&D collaborations as a coupled process of open innovation. It moreover describes two concrete strategies to cope with the tension field as well as the role and implications of licensing as a particular mechanism to overcome the open innovation paradox.
 
Feedbacks between supply and demand in the industrial emergence of commercial inkjet
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how supply and demand interact during industrial emergence. Design/methodology/approach – The paper builds on previous theorising about co-evolutionary dynamics, exploring the interaction between supply and demand in a study of the industrial emergence of the commercial inkjet cluster in Cambridge, UK. Data are collected through 13 interviews with professionals working in the industry. Findings – The paper shows that as new industries emerge, asynchronies between technology supply and market demand create opportunities for entrepreneurial activity. In attempting to match innovative technologies to particular applications, entrepreneurs adapt to the system conditions and shape the environment to their own advantage. Firms that successfully operate in emerging industries demonstrate the functionality of new technologies, reducing uncertainty and increasing customer receptiveness. Research limitations/implications – The research is geographically bounded to the Cambridge commercial inkjet cluster. Further studies could consider commercial inkjet from a global perspective or test the applicability of the findings in other industries. Practical implications – Technology-based firms are often innovating during periods of industrial emergence. The insights developed in this paper help such firms recognise the emerging context in which they operate and the challenges that need to overcome. Originality/value – As an in depth study of a single industry, this research responds to calls for studies into industrial emergence, providing insights into how supply and demand interact during this phase of the industry lifecycle.
 
Article
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to provide anunderstanding of the various factors that enable intrapreneurship inestablished firms. The paper reports on a case study of intrapreneurship in alarge knowledge-intensive industrial firm. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the existing literature, it issuggested that the use of different factors can either enable or inhibitintrapreneurship and five enabling factors that are identified. Based oninterviews, on-site observations and documents and reports the five factorswith a potential influence on intrapreneurship are examined and alternativefactors considered. Findings – The five enabling factors that are identified in the literatureare not sufficient to enable intrapreneurship in knowledge-intensive companies,and it is concluded that three additional factors enabling intrapreneurship inestablished firms should also be taken into account. Practical implications – The knowledge of what makes factors either enablersor inhibitors are incomplete and to enhance the intrapreneurial ability of anorganisation, managers must learn which factors to use in differentsituations. Originality/value – Only very few papers have studied intrapreneurship inspecific organisations. This paper contributes with a synthesis of theliterature in the area and with a suggestion of a model that is used in theempirical analysis and augmented based on that. The paper furthermorecontributes to the body of literature on the factors enabling intrapreneurshipin general. (Publication abstract)
 
Article
Purpose – Innovation education has been identified as a key contributor to enhancing the innovative behavior of individuals, organizations and economies; yet very little literature exists on the development and assessment of innovation education programs (IEPs). This is particularly so in the higher education and vocational education domains. The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap in the literature, by proposing a conceptual framework of a multi-dimensional IEP. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs a transparent and reproducible procedure and critical appraisal of the literature; coupled with emergent inquiry and case study implementation of a leading international IEP. Findings – The study provides a framework by which innovation education facilitators may develop and evaluate their IEPs. The proposed framework provides a thematic appreciation of the multi-dimensional relationships between components. Research limitations/implications – Limited within the context of this case study, geographical context and scant literature on IEPs and reproducible procedure. Originality/value – The study provides a conceptual innovation education framework, based upon a successful international innovation management program.
 
Article
Purpose – Given the immense gains in productivity in agriculture and mining over the last decades, the purpose of this paper is to study knowledge transfer from Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) into primary sector producers. The authors inquire which of these RTOs are successfully competing for public funding, and how these funds are used. Also, the authors study what makes an RTO more (financially) successful in technology transfer than their peers and which RTOs transferred technology that was new to the Russian market. Design/methodology/approach – This research is based on 62 RTOs which reported technology transfer to enterprises with main economic activities classified by NACE rev 1 as “A – agriculture, hunting and forestry” and “B – fishing” and “C – mining and quarrying,” including oil and gas extraction. Findings – The authors found remarkable differences between the Russian RTOs and their OECD peers, but also differences between agriculture and mining. Interestingly, competitive funding plays a different role in both industries. In agriculture, a more conservative funding paradigm prevails, and competitive funding is less important and more reliance on classical annually revolving funds is given. Competitive funding here is more used to strengthen basic R&D and to generate patentable knowledge, while in mining, these funds support technology transfer. Originality/value – This is, to the knowledge, the first detailed study on Russian RTOs servicing her primary sector. The authors believe that studying these RTOs is of great value as RTOs are broadly under-researched and various scholars have called for more fine-grained analyses to better understand their role in the innovation system.
 
Article
Purpose – To examine the literature on corporate entrepreneurship and innovation and to develop a combined definition of these two terms. Moreover, the literature is used to construct a holistic model that seeks to explain the links between corporate entrepreneurial activity and the innovation process. Design/methodology/approach – A number of published works on entrepreneurship and innovation are critiqued. The findings from this literature review are used to develop a framework illustrating the relationships between the corporate entrepreneur and the innovation process. Findings – The paper presents a combined definition of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation and, from the literature review, concludes that previous models on entrepreneurship and innovation are fragmented because there is little exploration on the relationships and dynamics between these two factors. A framework of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation is constructed by synthesising the information gathered from previous literature. This model shows that there are missing links between the entrepreneur and the innovation process. The paper discusses three factors that may explain both the dynamics and the relationships between the entrepreneur and the innovation process. These are entrepreneurial attitudes, vision and actions. Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified gap in the literature, namely the lack of investigation into the links between the corporate entrepreneur and the innovation process, and suggests three factors that could be used to explain this gap. Part 2 of this paper will present a new holistic model of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation that illustrates the relationships between these two areas in more detail.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of customer knowledge-enabled innovation (CKEI) and suggests a scale for its eventual measurement. The process of the scale development is presented in detail following the Churchill (1979) paradigm. CKEI is defined as the capacity of the organization to introduce new products and services on the basis of effective management of customer knowledge. It reflects the degree to which the company is endowed with the expertise of managing properly customer knowledge in order to enhance innovation. Design/methodology/approach – The CKEI raw scale is mainly composed of 57 items. In an effort to purify the scale measurement, test and validate its psychometric specificities, two surveys were administrated among two independent samples. Respondents were new product managers or marketing managers. One manager per firm was interviewed. The convenience sampling method was applied. Findings – The CKEI scale has been intended to be uni-dimensional. It encompasses three main facets: the integrative capacity of the firm, the structural capacity and the internal management capacity. The developed scale is valid and highly reliable (composite reliability=0.90; variance extracted=0.5). After exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, a pool of ten items was retained for the eventual measurement of the CKEI scale. Research limitations/implications – CKEI has been tested in a Tunisian context; continued refinement of the proposed CKEI scale is, undoubtedly, possible and even desired, based on further research in other business environments. Such refinements and modifications could necessitate the inclusion of new items, or the deletion of original ones. In some cases, the hypothesized factor structure may need modifications. To keep abreast with the ever-changing business environment, the paper strongly urged to incorporate these relevant aspects in the scale into the future research, so that a valid measure of CKEI can be ensured on an ongoing basis. Practical implications – The scale is offered to provide managers with a practical tool for the evaluation of their forces and weaknesses in managing customer knowledge in organizations. It is considered as a barometer allowing them to adjust and to modify continually their innovation strategies focusing on the intellectual capital management. Originality/value – CKEI is a new concept that is introduced in this research as a knowledge-based capability which helps companies to sustain competitive advantage. The relevance of the CKEI is that it is considered as a dynamic capability integrating both innovation and customer knowledge management theories.
 
Article
Purpose - Time and time again companies with leading positions in the market place lose their dominance when a radical change occurs in the technological basis. In some cases, the survival of companies is in jeopardy because old technology-investments hinder managers from adopting new technologies. Following on from the resource-based view, the purpose of this paper is to develop an approach which explains the ability of a company to generate radical product innovations through the willingness of managers and employees to put aside their existing knowledge and acquire new skills. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a causal analytic model to demonstrate the key influences on radical product innovations. The model incorporates formative indicators and we use a partial least squares approach to fit it. Since the central termini of this approach embody hypothetical constructs, causal modeling is the best-suited approach to capture complex theoretical phenomena. Findings - The results show that the willingness to abandon investments strongly determines radical product innovations. There obviously are key elements for cutting off traditional-style investments with respect to new ideas that in turn foster radical outcomes. Research limitations/implications - Since a causal analytic model is used, can be pictured a "real-world" innovation making process only to a certain extent. Even though this paper covers only a partial view of reality, it cannot fundament an approach that is absolutely free of errors. As for any other model, retests are suggested. Originality/value - This paper extends the 1998 findings of Tellis and Chandy by offering a more detailed analysis of radical innovation drivers. Results address researchers as well as practitioners, providing insights on coping with difficulties of abandoning traditional investments.
 
Article
Purpose: The objectives of this paper are: (i) to address the issue of the tensions pertinent to exploratory and exploitative innovation activities from the organizational learning perspective; (ii) to conceptualize how organizational diversity and shared vision, as two core components of organizational culture, help resolve these tensions; and (iii) to discuss the organizational configurations necessary for instilling organizational diversity and shared vision for achieving innovation goals. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that focuses on the role of organizational culture in promoting corporate entrepreneurship from the organizational learning perspective. Findings: Organizational diversity and shared vision are important for a balanced approach to exploratory and exploitative learning. Organizational parameters must be aligned to instill the two types of organizational culture to achieve either simultaneous or sequential ambidexterity. Research limitations/implications: The key theoretical arguments regarding the role of organizational diversity and shared vision in entrepreneurial learning may be adopted for empirical testing in future research. Practical implications: The arguments of the paper caution that organizations must focus not only on entrepreneurial values in terms of diversity and creativity, but also promote goaloriented behavior through instilling a shared vision to integrate individual learning in organizational learning and to balance the need for different types of learning in the corporate entrepreneurship process. Originality/value: The paper articulates the different learning styles and mechanisms involved in the exploratory and exploitative learning and then elaborates on the role of organizational diversity and shared vision on resolving the paradox of exploration and exploitation. Paper type: Conceptual paper
 
Article
In der vorliegenden Dissertation wurde untersucht, welche Variablen Mitarbeiter motivieren, sich mit Verbesserungsvorschlägen am Ideenmanagement eines Unternehmens zu beteiligen. Dabei wurden Charakteristika der Mitarbeiter (proaktive Persönlichkeit, Wohlbefinden), der Führungskräfte (kreativitätsunterstützendes Verhalten, transformationale Führung) und des Ideenmanagements in ihrer Wirkung auf die Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge zu entwickeln und einzureichen, berücksichtigt. Die Charakteristika des Ideenmanagements wurden in Strukturen (positives / negatives Feedback auf Verbesserungsvorschläge, Dauer bis zum Erhalt eines Feedbacks, Höhe einer Prämie), Einstellungen der Mitarbeiter (Valenz des Ideenmanagements) sowie Systeme und Prozesse (distributive, prozedurale und interaktionale Gerechtigkeit) unterschieden. Aufbauend auf theoretischem und empirischem Hintergrund sowie dem transaktionalen Modell der Leistung (Burke & Litwin, 1992) wurden eine Vorstudie und drei Hauptstudien durchgeführt. Für die Vorstudie wurde die Datenbank eines deutschen Versicherungsunternehmens mit allen eingereichten Verbesserungsvorschlägen des Ideenmanagements zwischen 2003 und 2008 analysiert (N = 13 724). Es wurde in einem Längsschnittdesign explorativ untersucht, ob sich die folgenden Variablen der Strukturen des Ideenmanagements auf die Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen, auswirken: Positives / negatives Feedback auf Verbesserungsvorschläge, Dauer bis zum Erhalt des Feedbacks und die Höhe einer monetären Prämie auf Verbesserungsvorschläge. Es zeigten sich keine systematischen Einflüsse auf die Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen. Daher wurde in den drei Hauptstudien die Bedeutsamkeit der weiteren Charakteristika des Ideenmanagements, nämlich Einstellungen der Mitarbeiter gegenüber dem Ideenmanagement und Systeme und Prozesse desselben sowie der Charakteristika der Mitarbeiter und der Führungskräfte analysiert. Studie 1 (Büch, Stegmaier, & Sonntag, submitted) prüfte basierend auf der sozialen Austauschtheorie (Blau, 1964), der Gleichheitstheorie (Adams, 1963, 1965) und der sozialen Lerntheorie (Bandura, 1977), welchen Einfluss Charakteristika der Mitarbeiter, der Führungskräfte und des Ideenmanagements (Systeme und Prozesse) auf die Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen, haben. Dies wurde mittels eines Fragebogens in einem mittelständischen Logistik-Unternehmen in Deutschland untersucht (N = 189). Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die angenommenen Zusammenhänge: Proaktive Persönlichkeit der Mitarbeiter und kreativitätsunterstützendes Verhalten der Führungskraft verstärken jeweils als Moderatoren den positiven Zusammenhang zwischen distributiver Gerechtigkeit des Ideenmanagements und der Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen. In Studie 2 wurden gemäß den Theorien der prozeduralen Gerechtigkeit (Thibaut & Walker, 1975) und der transformationalen Führung (Bass, 1985a, 1985b; Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003) Hypothesen zu Zusammenhängen von Charakteristika der Führungskräfte und des Ideenmanagements (Systeme und Prozesse) mit der Motivation der Mitarbeiter abgeleitet. Die Zusammenhänge wurden an derselben Stichprobe wie Studie 1 getestet (N = 189). Die Ergebnisse bestätigten die Annahmen und ein moderierte Mediationsmodell: Der indirekte positive Zusammenhang zwischen transformationaler Führung und der Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen, vermittelt über Motivation, Verbesserungsvorschläge zu entwickeln, wurde für geringe prozedurale Gerechtigkeit, nicht aber für hohe prozedurale Gerechtigkeit bestätigt. In Studie 3 (Büch, Michel, & Sonntag, 2010) wurden basierend auf der sozialen Austauschtheorie (Blau, 1964; Cropanzano, Prehar, & Chen, 2002) und der Theorie der Ressourcenverteilung (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989; Kanfer, Ackerman, Murtha, Dugdale, & Nelson, 1994) Annahmen zu Charakteristika der Mitarbeiter und des Ideenmanagements (Einstellungen der Mitarbeiter, Systeme und Prozesse) aufgestellt. Die Daten eines deutschen Unternehmens, das Geräte herstellt (N = 123), stützen die Annahmen und ein moderiertes Mediationsmodell: Es wurde der indirekte positive Zusammenhang zwischen interaktionaler Gerechtigkeit des Ideenmanagements und der Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge einzureichen, vermittelt über die Valenz des Ideenmanagements, für hohes Wohlbefinden der Mitarbeiter, aber nicht für geringes Wohlbefinden gezeigt. Die Ergebnisse der Vorstudie und der drei Hauptstudien wurden in dem transaktionalen Modell des Ideenmanagements zusammengefasst. Es besagt, dass für die Motivation der Mitarbeiter, Verbesserungsvorschläge zu entwickeln und einzureichen, Charakteristika der Mitarbeiter (proaktive Persönlichkeit, Wohlbefinden), des Ideenmanagements (Einstellungen der Mitarbeiter: Valenz des Ideenmanagements; Systeme und Prozesse des Ideenmanagements: distributive Gerechtigkeit, prozedurale Gerechtigkeit, interaktionale Gerechtigkeit) und der Führungskräfte (kreativitätsunterstützendes Verhalten, transformationale Führung) ausschlaggebend sind. Die Strukturen hingegen als drittes Charakteristikum des Ideenmanagements (positives / negatives Feedback auf Verbesserungsvorschläge, Dauer bis zum Erhalt eines Feedbacks, Höhe einer Prämie) zeigen keinen systematischen Einfluss auf die Motivation der Mitarbeiter. The present dissertation examines variables that contribute to employees’ involvement with suggestion systems. Specifically, the dissertation addresses the relationships between characteristics of employees (proactive personality, wellbeing), supervisors (creativity-supportive behavior, transformational leadership), and suggestion systems and employees’ motivation to develop new suggestions and to submit suggestions. Characteristics of suggestion systems were further divided into structures (positive / negative feedback, length of time until feedback was received, amount of a monetary reward), attitudes of employees (valence of the suggestion system), and systems and processes (distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice). Based on theoretical and empirical background, and the transactional model of organizational performance (Burke & Litwin, 1992), a preliminary study and three main studies were conducted. The preliminary study was carried out using the data base of a German insurance company comprising every suggestion made between 2003 and 2008 (N = 13 274). Applying a longitudinal design, the following characteristics of the suggestion system (structures) were exploratively examined in their effects on employees’ motivation to submit suggestions: Positive / negative feedback, length of time until feedback was received, and the amount of a monetary reward. As suggestion system’s structures showed no systematic relations to employees’ motivation to submit suggestions, the three main studies investigated the two remaining characteristics of suggestion systems (attitudes of employees, systems and processes) together with characteristics of employees and of supervisors. The first study (Büch, Stegmaier, & Sonntag, submitted) was based on the social exchange theory (Blau, 1964), the equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965), and the social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). The study investigates relationships between employees’, supervisors’, and suggestion system’s characteristics (systems and processes). Data were collected from a sample of 189 employees of a middle-sized German logistics company. The results supported the assumptions: As was hypothesized, the positive relationship between the suggestion system’s distributive justice and employees’ motivation to submit suggestions was moderated and strengthened by proactive personality on the part of the employee and by creativity-supportive behavior on the part of the supervisor. Based on procedural justice theory (Thibaut & Walker, 1975) and transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1985a, 1985b; Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003), the second study investigated relationships between characteristics of employees, supervisors, and suggestion systems (systems and processes) and employees’ motivation to develop and to submit suggestions. Results (sample was the same as for study 1) supported a hypothesized moderated mediation model, in that employees’ motivation to develop new suggestions mediated the positive relationship between transformational leadership and motivation to submit suggestions when procedural justice of the suggestion system was low, but not when procedural justice was high. The third study (Büch, Michel, & Sonntag, 2010), based on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964; Cropanzano, Prehar, & Chen, 2002) and resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989; Kanfer, Ackerman, Murtha, Dugdale, & Nelson, 1994), investigated characteristics of employees and suggestion systems (attitudes of employees, systems and processes). Data were collected from a sample of 123 employees of a German manufacturing company. Results supported the hypothesized moderated mediation model, in that valence of the suggestion system mediated the positive relationship between interactional justice of the suggestion system and employees’ motivation to submit suggestions when employees’ wellbeing was high, but not when wellbeing was low. The results of the preliminary study and the three main studies were integrated into the transactional model of suggestion systems. It comprises the following variables as they have a notable effect on employees’ motivation to develop and submit suggestions: Characteristics of employees (proactive personality, wellbeing), supervisors (creativity-supportive behavior, transformational leadership), and suggestion systems (attitudes of employees: valence of the suggestion system; systems and processes: procedural justice, distributive justice, interactional justice). The structure of suggestion systems (positive / negative feedback on suggestions, length of time until feedback was received, amount of a monetary reward), representing the third characteristic of suggestion systems, was not found to systematically influence employees’ motivation.
 
Article
Purpose – The paper is concerned with spin‐off firms and the process by which a new firm is created and formed from a university. The objectives are to examine characteristics of firms generated by this process, and the intensity of the spin‐off firms' network activity with the parent organisation and the local environment during this process. Design/methodology/approach – The findings are based on a case‐study consisting out of three firms spun‐off from a research centre at Linköping University in the area of visualisation and computer graphics. The source data are gathered from semi‐structured interviews. No generalisation should be drawn from this study due to the small number of firms interviewed and the scope of the technological area addressed. Findings – The results show the importance of collaboration between the university spin‐off, with both the parental organisation and outside organisms, to acquire external competencies in the technological area. The parental organisation plays a pivotal role in the spin‐off process, especially in its early stage where its catalyses the emergence of the business idea by supporting the spin‐off firm with infrastructure and expertise in a specific field of mentorship. However, as the spin‐off evolves, this pre‐incubation service complements yet more support services of municipality and region, which stand to be more important in the technological and business development of the spin‐off. Originality/value – University spin‐offs have an important place in the innovation process, but their promotion must be part of a wider policy package encouraging networking not only with the host university, but with industry and the public sector as well. For universities and public research organisations, it is advisable to take a more active role in the spin‐off process beyond the pre‐incubation stage.
 
Research model 
Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and Cronbach's alpha coefficients
Structural Path Estimations
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Purpose – What leads to new product success (NPS) is a very complex issue. Although prior research widely demonstrates that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a determinant for NPS and environmental turbulence is a form of unpredictability which impacts on the success of a product, little research has been conducted to examine if and to what extent environmental turbulence induces the EO behaviors of a firm and how these behaviors contribute to NPS. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This study, which used data collected from 244 China-based electronics manufacturers, proposed and tested the theoretical relationships among the three constructs in the context of the electronics industry in China. Findings – Results revealed that the three dimensions of EO (innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking) drive NPS. Environmental turbulence strongly influenced all three dimensions of EO, though its influence on NPS was mixed as there existed a strong negative but insignificant direct association between the two constructs. Innovativeness, which was found to be most effective in driving NPS in the EO and NPS relationship, was relatively less responsive to environmental turbulence than proactiveness. The study confirmed the postulated role of environmental turbulence in inducing the EO behaviors of a firm, signaling environmental turbulence, if tactfully leveraged, can play a positive role in new product development (NPD). Research limitations/implications – The study is quantitative using data emanating from the electronics manufacturing industry in China, further empirical study would be useful to verify and complement the results in other industries and other countries. Originality/value – This study contributes to the scholarly inquiry of EO and NPD by exploring the influences of environmental turbulence and EO on NPS. As environmental turbulence induces EO and EO mediates the relationship between environmental turbulence and NPS, simultaneous consideration of these two constructs can lend useful insight into their joint impacts on NPD. Theoretical and managerial implications were examined and policy implications, especially the practicality of the findings to policymakers in China, were discussed.
 
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the longevity implications of exploitation and exploration. It examines the main effect of exploitation, the main effect of exploration, and the interaction effect of exploitation and exploration on organizational longevity. Design/methodology/approach – This study employs Cox Proportional Hazard Model in analyzing 20-year data from the hard disk drive industry. Findings – Exploitation, independent of exploration, has a positive impact on organizational longevity. Exploration, independent of exploitation, has a curvilinear impact on organizational longevity. Jointly, exploitation weakens the curvilinear relationship between exploration and organizational longevity. Research limitations/implications – This study challenges the dualistic view that exploitation is for “current viability” and exploration is for “future viability.” It suggests that firms need to actively engage in (instead of compromise) both exploitation and exploration in order to prolong their lifespan despite the counter force triggered by the negative dynamics between exploitation and exploration. Practical implications – In order to prolong organizational longevity, firms need to fully engage in (but not compromise) their existing product-market domains, actively explore (but not over-explore) their new product-market domain, and to embrace (but not avoid) the tension between exploitation and exploration. Originality/value – This study is one of the few that systematically and empirically examined the longevity implications of exploitation and exploration. It adds specificity and precision to the understanding of how exploitation and exploration, independently and jointly, affect organizational longevity.
 
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In the 1980s, a profound change in the information technology (IT) market forced IBM to modify the organisation and management of its selling structure. There was only an internal sales channel at first and IBM had interactive relationships with individual customers. The process of change began when the number of customers increased and their average size decreased. IBM began to support its internal channel of sales representatives with an external channel of business partners for the distribution of high volume products. Having to face new problems, like business partner loyalty and the loss of market control, IBM has decided to adopt, as a general strategy, a new go-to-market model called the hybrid model. By mixing and coordinating direct activities, such as mailings, phone calls and tele-coverage, with commercial business partner actions and operations, IBM now has a new competitive advantage.
 
Conceptual framework 
The percentage of product ideas terminated in the NPD phases 
The implemented approach to NPD 
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of online networking during the innovation process, including its role(s) in communication, cooperation and coordination. The paper neither implicitly assumes that online computer-based networking is a prerequisite for the innovation process nor denies the possibility that innovation can emerge and successfully survive without it. It merely presupposes that, in cases of innovation where information and communication technologies play a substantial role, non-proprietarity may offer an interesting alternative to innovations based on proprietary knowledge. The paper borrows from the theory of communities-of-practice, which takes into account social relations, contacts, and the transfer and incorporation of knowledge. Open source innovation is not the exclusive preserve of computer nerds, but also has implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current ways of communicating, cooperating and coordinating during the innovation and product development process. Moreover, it challenges the traditional business model in that it forces the actors involved to shift the focus from the innovation itself to the identification of new supporting services higher up the value chain. Last, but not least, it blurs the boundary between development and use, since the developer remains the key user.
 
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Purpose – Sets out to investigate business modeling techniques (BMTs) which can be used to support and improve innovation processes within small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – Based on a literature review, different analysis perspectives on innovation processes are identified and discussed, and some firm needs and problems are pointed out. The importance of BMTs to firms is further tested by an empirical study whose initial results are reported. Finally, by matching problems and techniques characterized by the same ontology, the BMTs most suitable to address SME needs are identified and their role within the innovation process discussed. Findings – The main result of the paper is the identification of the problems facing SMEs in innovation processes and the possible support offered by BMTs. Though methods and models alone do not assure the success in the innovation development process (IDP), they are enabling factors and can support the creation of strategies, reasoning, insights and communication. Originality/value – The adoption of such BMTs, facilitating the codification of the characteristics of the IDP, might be particularly useful in those environments where, due to the lack of specialized resources, it is difficult to structure all of the information related to the innovation process and to exploit the related benefits and opportunities
 
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Purpose – Aims to ascertain whether a well‐known theory within consumer research – a means‐end chain (MEC) – can be used as a catalyst to achieve market oriented product development. Design/methodology/approach – Describes a case study, involving a Danish food manufacturer, where a MEC approach was introduced to a cross‐functional development team at two different stages of the development process. Findings – Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in the early stages of the development process and that lack of a learning orientation may inhibit the effects of a MEC approach. Originality/value – The MEC approach shows clear advantages for market oriented product development.
 
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JEL classification – D22, L2, L83, O31, O12 The authors thank the Editor and two anonymous journal reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments that improved their work. All remaining errors are the authors’ responsibility.
 
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework of complex relations among innovation characteristics, organizational capabilities, innovation potential and innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach – The model is tested using partial least squares (PLS) modeling and 22 high- (96 respondents) and 16 (93 respondents) low-performing innovation projects from nine companies from the European industry. Findings – The results show that the level of innovativeness of the project is an important determinant of product potential, whereas the complexity entailed in innovativeness entices integrative communication among innovation project team members. As expected, projects which are new to the company are related negatively to adequateness of the existing functional capabilities of the firm. The negative effects can be mitigated through integrative communication capabilities. Management can foster communication and knowledge integration through adequate databases and communication structures as well as social relations. Also, higher project potential and successful project performance can be attained through focus on product superiority and quality but also on speed of product introduction into the market. Originality/value – An integrated framework which includes innovation characteristics, organizational capabilities which bring together project execution proficiency and synergy of firm capabilities with the innovation project, as well as innovation potential and performance is absent in the existing literature. The absence of an integrated framework may be the reason why still a large number of innovation projects result in failure. The emphasis on management of complexities in innovation in the paper requires the focus on the under-explored effect of innovativeness and newness of innovation projects on the functional and integrative communication capabilities of firms. While studies which focus on the synergy between firm capabilities and the innovation project regard mainly the functional capabilities, the inclusion of also the integrative communication capabilities allows the present paper to integrate the synergy view with the view that proficiency of project execution is decisive for innovation project performance (Harmancioglu et al., 2009).
 
Probit Estimation of Equation (1)
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Purpose ‐ Recent reports argue that eco-innovation is the key to realising growth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors which drive eco-innovation and test if eco-innovating firms perform better than non-eco-innovating firms. The paper provides insights into the role government regulation can play in directing and stimulating eco-innovation. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The approach utilised by this paper is empirical in nature. Using a sample of 2,181 firms, gathered as part of the Irish Community Survey 2006-2008, the authors estimate a modified innovation production function in order to assess the impact of regulation, consumer expectations and voluntary agreements on the performance of eco-innovation, subsequently a knowledge augmented production function is estimated to assess the impact of eco-innovation on firm performance. Findings ‐ The findings suggest that regulation and customer perception can explain a firm's decision to engage in eco-innovation. Eco-innovation is also found to be more important than non-eco-innovation in determining firm performance. Research limitations/implications ‐ Due to the limited availability of accounting data this paper uses turnover per worker as the measure of firm performance. As a result, it is not possible to assess the impact of eco-innovation on firm costs. Social implications ‐ The finding that regulation drives eco-innovation, and that there is no trade-off between eco-innovation and higher profit margins for innovating firms, suggests that regulators and policy makers can stimulate growth and create a greener society. Originality/value ‐ This paper provides an empirical analysis of the Porter and van der Linde's theory of environmental regulation and firm performance using novel real world data from over 2,000 Irish businesses.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the spatial organisation of the open innovation model in the wine industry in Canada. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper employs a micro-firm level survey among 146 wine firms in Canada. Descriptive and non-parametric tests are used in the analysis. Findings ‐ The results on the occurrence of collaborations depict modest collaborative activities with external sources. Most of the collaborations and information are sourced locally because the local climate and growing conditions are so specific that alternative sources and collaborations are less relevant. The results also show that the firm's openness strategy has a weak influence on innovation capacity but firms that introduce more innovations are those that embrace an open innovation strategy to a greater extent than the less innovative. Research limitations/implications ‐ The number of respondents is still limited (i.e. about 150). Moreover, only the relationship between some firm-specific factors related to innovation and the degree of openness is studied. Practical implications ‐ The paper provides managerial implications because it suggests that firms adopting an open innovation strategy through collaborations have a higher impact on innovation development by means of introducing new types of innovation and on R&D activities. Originality/value ‐ The paper introduces the spatial dimension of the open innovation strategy in the wine industry in order to understand the link between the geographically-dispersed open innovation networks and their impacts on innovation capacities and innovation development of winery firms.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of inside-out open innovation (as opposed to closed innovation) on firm innovation performance. Inside-out open innovation involves the exploitation of existing internal technologies through innovation and commercialization. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses are tested empirically using survey data collected from stock-listed companies in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The data include the complete responses from 141 R&D managers for the period from 2004 to 2008. Findings – The results reveal that companies that emphasize inside-out open innovation are more likely to create radical innovations and tend to sell a greater number of new products. Companies pursuing closed innovation are more likely to exhibit a higher incremental product innovation performance. Research limitations/implications – The cross-sectional data approach and its dependency on the perceptions and experiences of the respondents has its limitations. Future research should extend the focus and concept of this study and explore additional closed and open innovation strategies. Originality/value – The adoption of open innovation in practice has not been examined in depth. This study provides empirical insights into the open innovation approaches in German-speaking countries and, by drawing important conclusions and implications for managers involved in the R&D processes, fills a gap in the innovation management literature.
 
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of implementing a standardised innovation management system (SIMS) in accordance with the Spanish UNE 166.000 standard on technological and administrative innovations and company performance. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypotheses with a sample of 200 manufacturing companies. Findings The results obtained show that implementing the SIMS promotes all types of innovations and their results. In addition, a positive relationship is found between administrative and technological innovation. Research limitations/implications The results of this paper show the importance of innovation management systems for the effective development of innovation processes. Despite the limitations that may arise from differences between the measurements and actual implementation, the application of a system of standard-based innovation management encourages the development of different types of innovation. Practical implications The research validates the use of standardisation for the development of innovation as a useful tool for the management of innovation in the company. The UNE 166.000 standard provides a guide for those companies that intend to develop more effectively administrative and technological innovations. Originality/value This is the first known paper testing the implications of UNE 166.000 SIMS on both organisational innovation and performance in a sample of companies.
 
The paper's filtering process and definition of final database
Coding tree from the analysis of the interviews and the focus group
Article
Purpose The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global digitalization of organizational activities: the pandemic forced people and organizations to profoundly review values, purposes and norms. However, the research on how digital technologies impact human relationships and interactions at work results fragmented. Still, the importance of understanding which behaviors and norms enhance social interactions and organizational performances in digital environments remains critical, especially after COVID-19 advent. Therefore, this study explores how human relationships change in a wholly digital environment and what to expect for the new normal. Design/methodology/approach The study first explores the research gap through a systematic literature review to clearly understand what emerged so far. Second, through semi-structured interviews and a focus group, an empirical analysis was conducted. Findings Findings suggest that both work and emotional dimensions are crucial to nurturing human relationships in a digital environment. More precisely, the study unveils the need for innovative leaders to review their approaches to communication and the work experience and consider the emotional dimension in terms of community purpose and individual well-being, while identifying rituals as an overlapping tool. Finally, the authors propose a parallelism between these results and the agile revolution to inspire leaders to rethink their leadership and behaviors getting closer to the agile approach, which may represent a valuable way to rethink human relations in our professional environment. Originality/value The paper sheds light on an ongoing phenomenon that touches the lives of each organizational actor. The two-step structure hopes to provide both a structured base of the knowledge developed to date, proposing a systematic view of what has been studied since the outbreak of the pandemic to date and to provide insights for future developments.
 
Article
Purpose This paper explores how exaptive innovation process might be considered a useful innovation model in constraint-based environments. Through an in-depth case study, it illustrates clearly the antecedents of exaptation processes, which are particularly relevant in rapidly changing environments requiring new solutions under time and resource constraints. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopt a single case study approach that is particularly suitable in case of an inductive research design, which is required because of the novelty of the topic. The research is inspired by the use of the snorkeling mask EASYBREATH, commercialized by the giant Decathlon, as a medical device, a respirator to treat patients affected by coronavirus in Italy. The authors organized the evidence according to a novel taxonomy grounded in the literature. Findings The case study stimulates reflections on the existence of some antecedents to the exaptive innovation process in constraint-based environments: (1) the availability of specific actors in the innovation process; (2) the creation of platforms of interaction between people with different competences, nurtured by collective bottom-up financing systems; (3) the role of the community of makers, in particular, and of the 4th industrial revolution, in general, for creating enabling technologies; (4) multidisciplinary individual background of key actors in the innovation process is crucial to ensure the exaptive path to be in place. Research limitations/implications This work has some limitations, due to the choice of limiting the analysis to a single case, nevertheless, it offers a first glance on a new technological trajectory available in constraint-based environments. Originality/value The case study results underline the importance of new digital collaboration platforms as knowledge multipliers, and illuminate on the potential of the fourth manufacturing revolution, which, through new technologies, creates opportunities for distributed forms of innovation that cross long distances.
 
Article
Purpose Innovation is one of the most important foundations on which to create and sustain competitive advantages in companies, but at the individual level, employee innovative behavior has recently been jeopardized by the situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g. changes in workplaces, employee interaction, motivation). This study analyzes wellness programs and actions through which organizations have tried to adapt to the new situation caused by COVID-19 and their effect on employee innovation behavior. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling by means of the partial least squares technique was used to test the study's hypotheses after collecting survey data from Spanish companies, providing evidence that wellness programs and measures to deal with COVID-19 through perceived organizational support and affective commitment encourage employee innovation behavior. Findings The results suggest that efforts developed by firms focused on employee well-being to overcome difficulties caused by the pandemic strengthen innovative behaviors by means of intrinsic motivation based essentially on personal commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed by the paper's authors. Originality/value This paper corroborates and extends previous research regarding wellness programs, perceived organization support and affective commitment. It provides a comprehensive model of relationships that predicts employee innovative behavior. It analyzes the influence of enterprise wellness programs based on protective COVID-19 measures.
 
Article
Purpose This purpose of this study was to examine the impact of social and organisational capital on service innovation capability among service firms in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach To test the proposed research model, data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 188 private and public service sector managers in the UAE. Partial least square-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine the research model's validity and reliability and to test the research hypothesis. Findings The empirical evidence indicates that during this pandemic the relationship between social capital and service innovation capability was fully mediated by strategic environmental scanning, while partially mediating the relationship between organisational capital and service innovation capability. Practical implications Managers in service organisations must be proactive during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, they should emphasise effective environmental scanning and the tracking of customer preferences to provide customised services that are valued and meet the emerging requirements of their customers. Prioritising investment in organisational capital to enhance innovation capacity is also recommended. Originality/value This study is the first to examine strategic environmental scanning as a mediator between social and organisational capital and service innovation capacity during a pandemic. There were significant differences between the findings of our study and previous studies: the authors found that, during crises, management priorities change, and businesses become more reliant on organisational capital to develop service innovation capability.
 
Article
Purpose European rural development programmes are driving multi-actor interactive innovation initiatives and alliances to create an environment in which innovation acts as a tool for accelerating rural development processes. In Europe, where rural areas are facing many challenges, identifying which challenges, difficulties, obstacles or risk factors that interactive innovation projects have had to face in rural areas while being planned and set up would be interesting. The objective of this research work was to, therefore, identify and analyse the risk factors of 200 rural projects and initiatives that were selected as case studies from the whole of Europe. Design/methodology/approach The employed methodology consisted in conducting interviews to subsequently perform statistical independence analyses of the qualitative variables characterising the found projects and risk factors. Findings The findings indicated that most of the risks that rural projects and initiatives faced were related to the social domain which was, in turn, the fundamental pillar of interactive innovation. Dependence was found between social risk factors appearing and the innovation type carried out; the risk factors corresponding to the political–legal risks category and the project or initiative coordinating country; and the economic–technical risks category and the initiatives' geographic magnitude. Originality/value This paper exposes the main risks identified within various rural innovation initiatives and projects around Europe. For this purpose, a statistical analysis of independence was performed, allowing us to generate reliable and accurate results of the main risks associated with certain descriptive characteristics (coordinating region, domain, innovation type, gender balance and geographic magnitude) of the initiatives studied.
 
Results of the factor analysis
The final model
Clustering variables -Descriptives and ANOVA
Results of the regression analysis -Moderation of organizational and managerial
Article
Purpose Currently, the expectancy that surrounds the Fourth Industrial Revolution, commonly referred to as Industry 4.0 (I4.0), is huge. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to unveil whether and how organizational and managerial practices are associated to different levels of adoption of I4.0 technologies. Design/methodology/approach To reach this aim, the authors carried out a survey involving Italian manufacturing firms. Then, the authors used a cluster analysis and t -test to analyze data. Findings Results show that two clusters of firms based on their level of adoption of I4.0 technologies (high vs low) can be identified. Then, using a t -test, the authors found statistically significant higher levels of a number of organizational and managerial practices for firms with a higher level of adoption of I4.0 technologies. Practical implications This paper contributes to the debate surrounding I4.0 by stressing the organizational and managerial challenges that firms willing to undertake an I4.0 transformation have to face, which goes beyond the sole application of I4.0 technologies. Social implications Entrepreneurs and managers need to be aware that the path toward I4.0 requires not only focusing on the application of the I4.0 technologies, but also on the development of a series of organizational and managerial practices that become key to face the fourth Industrial Revolution. Originality/value The authors posit here that I4.0 requires firms to bridge the capability gap, as well as overcome cultural barriers preventing entrepreneurs and managers to change their way of doing business. To this regard, this study highlights I4.0 is an all-encompassing paradigm that involves many dimensions of the firm.
 
Article
Purpose The use of modern technologies of the fourth industrial revolution, commonly known as “Industry 4.0” (I4.0), is believed to have considerable potential for product customisation. In this context, this paper aims to explore whether or not using these technologies impacts customer participation (CP) in a firm's new product development (NPD) process. Design/methodology/approach To empirically test the proposed relationships, the authors collected the North Italian manufacturing firms' data and applied regression analysis. Findings Empirical results indicate that, on the one hand, the technologies have their specific and individual impacts, and on the other hand, the firms which use more I4.0 technologies allow more customer participation in their product design and production process. This positive impact is more robust in product design than in the production process. Practical implications Managers aiming to benefit from CP should broaden the scope of adopting I4.0 technologies and consider different roles concerning the design and production phases of the new product development process. Recognising the importance and allowing CP in NPD will enable firms to meet the customised demands. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, the proposed relationships of this study have been extensively debated theoretically in the I4.0 context but never empirically tested before. It is one of the few studies which discusses the strategic adoption and the combined use of I4.0 technologies to create more opportunities for product customisation.
 
Top-cited authors
Pervaiz Ahmed
  • Monash University (Australia)
Ellen Caroline Martins
  • University of South Africa
Jeroen P.J. de Jong
  • Utrecht University
Catherine L Wang
  • Brunel University London
Deanne N Den Hartog
  • University of Amsterdam