European Journal of Experimental Biology

Online ISSN: 2248-9215
Sampling site of Stichopus cf. monotuberculatus around Hengam Island (Persian Gulf) 
A. Stichopus cf. monotuberculatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833), B. tables from the ventral body wall; C. Cshaped rods from the ventral body wall; D. tables and rosettes from the dorsal body wall; E. modified rods from the ventral body wall; Scale A = 24 cm, B = 20 microns, C = 60 microns D,E = 100 microns. 
In Iran, sea cucumbers are not well known and they are not consumed as food. With this respect and the lack of scientific knowledge about them, this study has been conducted in order to identify the present species in the Northern part of Persian Gulf. Sample collected on intertidal zone of Hengam Island (Persian Gulf) via scuba diving on November 2011.The literature review on the distribution was revaluated that this is the first report of Stichopus cf. monotuberculatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) in Persian Gulf.The species identification was done through morphological keys and review of their ossicles.
A. Stichopus herrmanni Semper, 1868. B sticks of C-shaped dorsal integument; C. Turrets and sticks ventral integument; D. Rods of tentacles; E. a rod podion. Scale A = 18cm, B & C = 10 microns, D= 100 microns, E = 50 microns. (Photos A-E by Ehsanpour Maryam).
This study has been conducted to identify the present species in the Abu Musa Island (Persian Gulf) .Two species of sea cucumber (one belonging to the genus Holothuria and the other to Stichopus) were collected in the intertidal zone of the Abu Musa Island (Persian Gulf) via scuba diving. The literature review on the distribution was determined to be the first report of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt) 1835 and Stichopus herrmanni Semper 1868 from Abu Musa Island (Persian Gulf). The species identification was done through morphological keys and review of their ossicles. Keywords: Holothuridea, Stichopotidea, Abu Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.
The current biological study deals with the various activities like Antioxidant, anticancer,cytotoxicity and antimicrobial of the methanolic and chloroform extract of Saussurea lappa. The anti-oxidant assay were carried out using DPPH method and reducing power assay using ascorbic acid as positive control. The study revealed significant activity of the plant when compared to the standards. Anticancer potential of the plant was studied using MTT assay for cell proliferation of DLA cell lines. Cytotoxicity studies and antimicrobial studies were also carried out to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] of different extracts of the plant which gave significant results.
Biplot based on first and second components of drought tolerance indices 
Genotype codes
Screening drought tolerance indicators using biplot analysis. 
Three-dimensional plot between Yp, Ys and STI
In order to study the response of twenty different bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) landraces to drought stress, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications under rainfed and irrigated conditions during 2010-2011 cropping season. Significant positive correlation was found between grain yield in the stress condition (Ys) with indices stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI), drought response index (DRI), drought resistance index (DI), relative drought index (RDI), abiotic tolerance index (ATI), stress non-stress production index (SNPI) and modified stress tolerance index (MSTI). Significant negative correlation was found between Ys with RDY and SSI indices. Principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that first and second PCA accounted for 98.87% of variations among the indices. Biplot diagram indicated that the most suitable indices for screening drought tolerant genotypes were GMP, MP, STI, K 1 STI, K 2 STI, YI, DRI, DI, SNPI, RDI and YSI. Screening drought tolerant genotypes using ranking method discriminated genotypes (18), (10), (2) and (5) as the most drought tolerant. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance in common wheat.
Examples of MAS Selection in crop plants. 
Climate change has been a threat to food security challenges. Climate change presents an additional stress on food security challenges as it affects production of food in many ways. Among various stresses, drought is a big concern and rising at an alarming rate with climate change. Scientific approaches are being tried to understand the mechanisms of drought stress. The emergence of new molecular biology approaches and new sequencing as well as phenotyping platforms good research progress has been made in regard to drought and drought resistance mechanisms via identification of quantitative trait loci or genes responsible for drought tolerance mechanisms through Qtl mapping, Family based Qtl mapping, Linkage disequilibrium, Structural and Functional genomics approaches. Genome wide selection methods have been used for the current world concern of drought which will eventually lead to climate resilient crops and will solve the problem of food insecurity in near future. Huge data are being derived from genome wide selection (GWS) studies at the transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics levels, but how efficiently to explore and exploit these data to extract the essential functional pathways or networks for genetic improvement of drought resistance remains a significant challenge.
Phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic extracts Ziziphus mucronata. Key:'-' Absent, '+' Present. 
IC 50 values of methanol and aqueous extracts of Z. mucronata barks and Albendazole exposed to eggs of H. contortus. 
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic nematode parasites in small ruminants’ worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance and high cost of drugs has prompted evaluation of medicinal plant extracts which can be used as alternative drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ziziphus mucronata barks against H. contortus stages isolated from a sheep in Kenya. Barks of Z. mucronata were collected from Chad, air-dried, ground and extracted with methanol and distilled water. The crude extracts were qualitatively screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The anthelmintic activities of the extracts were evaluated using the egg hatch assay and larval mortality assay. The percentage extraction yields for methanol aqueous and aqueous methanol were 4.5% and 2.6%, respectively. The phytochemicals found in both extracts were saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. The results showed that methanolic extract had a significantly (p<0.05) higher activity with IC50 value of 3.9 mg/ml as compared with aqueous extract which had IC50 value of 14.7 mg/ml. In larval mortality assay, the methanolic extract had significantly (p<0.05) higher EC50 (7.5 mg/ml) than that of aqueous extract (2.7 mg/ml). The effects of Albendazole on egg hatchability inhibition and larval motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the two extracts. All the assays showed extract concentration dependent response. In conclusion, this study has shown that Z. mucronata extracts have anthelmintic activity on eggs and larvae of H. contortus parasite. The activity could be related to the presence of phytochemicals such as saponins and tannins. The effects of larval mortality were higher compared to that of egg hatchability. Therefore, extracts from Z. mucronata can be developed further as novel anthelmintic drug for control of H. contortus and hence improve production of small ruminants.
Top-cited authors
Ezatollah Farshadfar
  • Razi University
Marghoob Hasan
  • Public Care Diagnostics & Research Centre
Chandrashekhar Unakal
  • University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
Nasrollah Moradi-Kor
  • Institute for Intelligent Research
Gizachew Yismaw
  • University of Gondar