European Journal of Entomology

Published by European Journal of Entomology
Online ISSN: 1210-5759
Publications
Article
The abundance of Coleoptera, Diptera and Collembola on different species of fungi was investigated in relation to the size and abundance of fungal resources at different spatial scales; i.e., the size of the fungal fruiting body, the quality of resource in terms of number of conspecific sporophores growing within a radius of 50 cm, crowding of the clumps of fruiting bodies, and the quality of resource within a plot (20 m × 30 m). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the influential spatial scale varied among the arthropod orders. The amount of resource at the scale of a clump made a significant contribution to the abundance of Coleoptera, and the fruiting body size significantly affected the abundance of Diptera on each fungal species. Collembolan abundance was significantly affected by the crowding of the clumps of fruiting bodies and the number of fruiting bodies per plot. These results suggest that the spatial distribution of fungal fruiting bodies may determine whether they are selected by arthropods visited. 機関リポジトリへの掲載不可.
 
Article
The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) constructs webs over leaf surfaces and usually lives under these webs. T. kanzawai produces two types of excreta, black and yellow pellets, and uses its webs as a place for excretion. T. kanzawai also uses its webs as a refuge when the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is present. To clarify what factors deter N. womersleyi from foraging on T. kanzawai webs, I experimentally examined the effects of T. kanzawai excreta on its own fitness (fecundity) and the foraging behaviour of N. womersleyi. When the excreta of T. kanzawai was put on leaf surfaces, the fecundity of T. kanzawai adult females was reduced by the black but not the yellow faecal pellets. On the other hand, predation by N. womersleyi was reduced by the yellow but not the black pellets. Although this effect of the yellow pellets on N. womersleyi did not last on leaf surfaces, it deterred N. womersleyi from staying on the web regardless of its freshness. These results suggest that T. kanzawai deposits black pellets on webs to avoid its negative effect on their own fitness, and yellow pellets are deposited on webs to reduce the risk of predation.
 
Article
A combination of biological control and host-plant resistance is needed to control greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The high level of susceptibility of several host plants to whitefly, based on their performance on these plants, is well documented. These studies only provide information on the overall host-plant acceptance by whiteflies. Here, we use a method that allows an examination of the different tissue layers in the overall acceptance. The effects of plant tissue factors on whitefly probing profiles were monitored using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) method. The EPGs of whitefly originating from a culture on glasshouse cucumber, were recorded for 8 hours on sweet pepper, tomato, gerbera and cucumber plants produced in a glasshouse. On sweet pepper the graphs showed that whitefly made many short probes, had long xylem phases, short phloem phases, and the shortest duration of first probes. An opposite probing profile was found on cucumber: longer probes, shorter xylem phases, fewer phloem phases but of longer duration, and longer first probes. The values of these parameters for gerbera and tomato were intermediate. Whiteflies encountered the greatest stimulation or the least resistance in the tissues of cucumber, and the least stimulation or the greatest resistance in the tissues of sweet pepper. Rejection of host plants probably occurred before the phloem tissue was reached, as the probes prior to a whitefly leaving a host plant were so short that the stylets cannot have reached the phloem. But phloem factors also determine host-plant rejection, as phloem probing on sweet pepper - a poor host plant - was much shorter than on the other host plants. Resistance factors seem, therefore, to be located both in the epidermis/mesophyll and in the phloem. We hypothesize that the factors encountered by whitefly in the different tissue layers during probing contribute to the acceptance or rejection of a host plant. Based on the performance of whitefly on these plants, which is also reflected in the values of the EPG parameters, the order of acceptance ranked from high to low is cucumber > tomato = gerbera > sweet pepper.
 
Transmission electron micrographs of A. ephemerella compound eye. A – transverse sections through the distal region of the rhabdom of the male, B – proximal rhabdom region of the female. Air filled tracheae (arrows) become more numerous as one moves proximally. Note that rhabdoms formed by 7 as well as 8 rhabdomeres can be seen in both sections. Rhabdomeres 1 and 8 can be recognised by their triangular shape and lighter stain. C, D – transverse section through midlevel region of the rhabdom in the eye of a male and a female. Here the two rhabdoms are formed by 7 receptor cells. The rhabdomere of receptor cell 1 is always triangular in shape and less electron dense than the others and its microvilli are always aligned perfectly parallel to each other. E, F – transverse section through the midlevel region of the rhabdom in the eye of a male and a female. Here the rhabdoms are formed by 8 receptor cells. Rhabdomeres of both receptor cells 1 and 8 are triangular in shape, less electron dense than the other, and orientated in the same direction. Desmosomes (arrowheads) are developed between adjacent retinula cells. Scale bar s: A, B, 4 µm; C–F, 2 µm.  
Transmission electron micrographs of A. ephemerella compound eye. A, B-transverse section through the most proximal rhabdom region of the eye of a male and a female; a ninth (basal) retinula cell (BC) that contains its own screening pigment (white arrow) contributes a small rhabdomere to the rhabdom. At this level the other 8 retinula cells have turned into axons (Ax) surrounding the basal cell. C, D-transverse section through the region of the basement membrane in the eye of a male and a female, showing axon bundles with 9 fibres and the location of the nucleus of the basal retinula cell (BCN). Tracheoles (Tr) and axon bundles (arrow) penetrate the basement membrane (BM) together. Scale bars: A-C, 1 µm; D, 4 µm.
Light micrographs of A. ephemerella compound eye. A, B – longitudinal sections, male. A – dark-adapted, B – lightadapted . Note the different positions of the screening pigments in both distal and proximal positions. The clear-zone (CZ) separates cornea (C) and crystalline cones (CC) from the rhabdom layer (Rh). C, D – dioptric apparatus. C – male, dark-adapted state; D – female, light-adapted state. The dark-adapted eye shows the retinula cell bodies (RCB) in close approximation to the cone tips and screening pigment granules packed between the cones (CC). In the light-adapted eye, pigment granules have dispersed into the clearzone ; the retinula cell bodies (RCB) have migrated proximally, leaving behind (in the region which they had occupied earlier) a crystalline cone tract (arrowhead), thus narrowing the aperture through which light can reach the receptors. The arrows indicate the location of the nuclei of the cone cells. E, F – transverse section through the retina with its rhabdoms (Rh) surrounded by a tracheal tapetum (arrows). E – male; F – female. In both the rhabdom forms an almost continuous layer. Scale bars: A, B, 50 µm; C–F, 20 µm.  
Article
In the highly sexual-dimorphic nocturnal moth, Acentria ephemerella Denis & Schiffermüller 1775, the aquatic and wingless female possesses a refracting superposition eye, whose gross structural organization agrees with that of the fully-winged male. The possession of an extensive corneal nipple array, a wide clear-zone in combination with a voluminous rhabdom and a reflecting tracheal sheath are proof that the eyes of both sexes are adapted to function in a dimly lit environment. However, the ommatidium of the male eye has statistically significantly longer dioptric structures (i.e., crystalline cones) and light-perceiving elements (i.e., rhabdoms), as well as a much wider clear-zone than the female. Photomechanical changes upon light/dark adaptation in both male and female eyes result in screening pigment translocations that reduce or dilate ommatidial apertures, but because of the larger number of smaller facets of the male eye in combination with the structural differences of dioptric apparatus and retina (see above) the male eye would enjoy superior absolute visual sensitivity under dim conditions and a greater resolving power and ability to detect movement during the day. The arrangement of the microvilli in the rhabdom of both genders suggests that their eyes are polarization-sensitive, an ability they would share with many aquatic insects that have to recognize water surfaces. Although sexual recognition in A. ephemerella is thought to chiefly rely on pheromones, vision must still be important for both sexes, even if the females are wingless and never leave their watery habitat. Females swim actively under water and like their male counterparts, which fly above the surface of the water, they would have to see and avoid obstacles as well as potential predators. This, together with a small incidence of winged females, we believe, could be the reason why the eyes of female A. ephemerella are less regressed than those of other sexually dimorphic moths, like for instance Orgyia antiqua. Another, but difficult to test, possibility is that male and female A. ephemerella have diverged in their behaviour and habitat preferences less long ago than other sexually dimo rphic moths.
 
Article
The head is traditionally considered to be the site of production and release of the egg development neurosecretory hormone (EDNH), involved in ovarian maturation in dipterans. We find, however, that the thorax and abdomen of the mosquito Aedes aegypti each possess factors which resemble EDNH in both physiological and biochemical properties. Extracts of thoraces or abdomens each stimulated the dose-dependent appearance of ecdysteroid in incubations of A. aegypti ovaries in vitro. In addition, each extract is capable of stimulating ovarian maturation in vivo in decapitated Aedes atropalpus. The head contains higher levels of activity, absolute and specific, than either the thorax or abdomen, but extracts of all three body portions yield similar chromatographic patterns of activity. Gonadotropic activity in all three extracts elutes in two molecular weight ranges, large (approx. 6,600-7,700 MW) and small (approx. 4,150-4,250 MW). In each tissue, the small molecular weight component is more active than the large component. The roles of these non-cerebral ecdysiotropins and gonadotropins are not clear, but their similarities to cerebral EDNH suggest a function in ovarian maturation.
 
Comparison of wing induction mechanisms in the case of crowding (left) and attack by natural enemies (right).  
Dependence of aphid colony size on initial adult aphid number (F = 287.023, p < 0.001) and alarm pheromone treatment (F = 0.674, p = 0.414).  
Dependence of mean percentage of winged offspring on initial adult aphid number (t = 4.675, p < 0.001) and alarm pheromone treatment (t = 9.290, p < 0.001).  
Article
The aphid alarm pheromone is known to trigger wing induction in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). In reaction to alarm pheromone, aphids drop off the plant or walk away. While searching for a new feeding site they repeatedly encounter other members of the aphid colony and this increased contact rate is assumed to be important for wing induction ("pseudo-crowding" hypothesis). Because the encounter rate is a function of aphid colony size, wing induction in aphids in the presence of a predator should be a function of the number of aphids on the plant. We placed two, seven or 13 adult pea aphids on bean plants, and exposed the different-sized colonies to synthetic alarm pheromone to test the density-dependence of predator-induced wing induction. The mean percentage of winged morphs among the offspring produced on the plants ranged from 10 to 80 percent and increased both with aphid number and exposure to alarm pheromone. There was no synergy between aphid number and alarm pheromone exposure indicating that both factors are additive. The implications for aphid metapopulation dynamics are discussed.
 
Article
Fianoniella stenognatha sp. n. from the Columbretes Islands (Castellón, Spain) is described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished by its longer and narrower mandibles with parallel or divergent rims in the apical half, wider clypeus, hind ocelli more separated and closer to the eyes, and longer flagellar segments. Additional notes to complete the original description of the closest species F. laeviscutum (Horstmann), are given. A key to the European species of Fianoniella is provided. The research was supported by the Project GV-1175/93 from Generalitat Valenciana.
 
Article
A 1962 bp cDNA clone of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (purH) was isolated from diapausing adults of Leptinotarsa decemlineata using RT-PCR and 3' and 5'-RACE. The probe generated from this clone hybridized to a transcript approximately 1960 bp in length on northern blots. The clone encodes for a deduced protein 594 amino acids in length with 73% identity, 83% similarity to purH from Drosophila melanogaster. Northern blot (total RNA) analysis determined that L. decemlineata purH (LdpurH) was downregulated in diapausing beetles stored at 10°C. Developmental studies revealed that LdpurH is expressed at nearly constant high levels in both nondiapausing and prediapause adults. LdpurH expression during the first 20 days of diapause is equivalent to that seen in nondiapausing beetles, after which expression decreases. Exposing 70 day old diapausing beetles to 20°C for 24 h induced an increase in expression of purH indicating that purH is regulated by temperature in diapausing/overwintering beetles.
 
Article
The intra- and interspecific variability in the West Palaearctic tibialis-group species of the subgenus Pandasyopthalmus (Diptera: Syrphidae: Paragus) was analysed. Novel immature and molecular characters were studied and the traditionally used adult characters reviewed with the aim of establishing the status of the most widespread taxa of the tibialis-group in the Palaearctic region. Moreover, a review of the morphology of the larvae of the subgenus Pandasyopthalmus is also presented and includes the first description of the chaetotaxy of the larval head of Syrphidae. The larval morphology showed a continuum between two extremes. There is intraspecific variability in the male genitalia characters typically used for diagnostic species identification in this group. Molecular characters of the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI) was invariant for the West Palaearctic Pandasyopthalmus taxa analysed. Despite the fact that no great differences were found when compared with Afrotropical tibialis-group individuals (uncorrected pairwise divergence 0.17–0.35%), the divergences of the West Palaearctic vs. Nearctic and Austral-Oriental tibialis-group taxa varied between 1.15–2.75% (uncorrected pairwise divergence). Molecular characters of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) revealed several molecular haplotypes of a dinucleotide repeat that was not constrained to morphospecies or to populations of the same geographic origin. The closely related and morphologically similar species of the tibialis-group known from the West Palaearctic region are separable in most cases only by the shape and size of male postgonites. The results of this study support the presence of a single polymorphic taxon in the West Palaearctic region (or a very recent origin of the taxa studied). Moreover larval morphology and the lack of a clear relation between ITS2 haplotypes and the geographic distribution or adult morphology, support the taxonomic implications of barcode taxonomy based on mitochondrial DNA for this speciesgroup of Syrphidae.
 
Article
This study investigated whether Lathrolestes ensator, a parasitoid released as a biological control agent against the European apple sawfly in Canada, is successfully attacked by the cocoon parasitoid A. nigrocincta. In a no-choice situation in the laboratory, there was no significant difference between the acceptance of unparasitized hosts and hosts containing an egg of L. ensator by females of A. nigrocincta. In addition, A. nigrocincta attacked mature larvae of the larval parasitoid to the same degree as they attacked unparasitized hosts. Survival of A. nigrocincta offspring was close to 100% regardless of whether they developed in unparasitized hosts, in hosts containing an egg of L. ensator or in host cocoons containing mature larvae of L. ensator. This is discussed in the context of the possibility of releasing A. nigrocincta as an additional biological control agent of the European apple sawfly.
 
Sampling design for measuring dispersal within the field.
Density (expressed as lady beetles per 5 sweeps) of marked and released Coccinella septempunctata in the release area and at six distances from the release area in the course of time in three field experiments in alfalfa. Results for Expt 2 are given with and without data for release area to show clearly the densities within and outside the release area, which differ an order of magnitude.
Residence time (1/; h.) of marked and released Coccinella septempuncatata in sugar sprayed and control plots, in three field experiments in alfalfa.
Density of naturally occurring (unmarked) Coccinella septempunctata (expressed as lady beetles per 8 sweeps) in sugar sprayed and control alfalfa field plots in the course of time after release of marked beetles, in three field experiments in alfalfa. Sugar was sprayed immediately prior to the release of marked beetles.
Article
Dispersal of the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, was measured in a series of mark-release-recapture experiments in Utah alfalfa. In three experiments, samples were taken in a radial pattern around the release point. Released beales for the most part left the 0.36 ha (68 m diameter) sample area within 24 hours, and their average residence time in the sample area was calculated as 12, 6 and 1.6 h in the three experiments, respectively. The spatial distribution of beetles around the point of release could be described with normal distributions whose variance increased linearly in time with 3.8. 1.1 and 0.34 m2 per hour. In three additional field experiments the departure of marked beetles was compared between sugar-sprayed plots and control plots. Residence time was 20-30␕onger in sugar-sprayed plots than in control plots, with mean residences of 5.3, 3.6, and 2.9 h in the sugar-sprayed plots in the three experiments, respectively, and means of 4.4, 2.7, and 2.4 h in the control plots. The density of unmarked beales rose by a factor of 10-20 in the sugar sprayed plots during the first 4 to 6 hours following early morning spraying of sugar. This rapid and substantial increase in density cannot be explained by the slightly longer residence time in sugar-sprayed plots. We hypothesize that the aggregation in sugar-sprayed plots is mostly due to greatly increased immigration into those plots, in response to volatiles produced by the plant-pest-predator assembly.
 
Article
We tested the laboratory susceptibility of four endemic and two exotic species of North American Coccinellidae to a single rate (2.5 x 10⁵ conidia/ml) of Beauveria bassiana derived from different sources. The endemic species Olla v-nigrum, Cycloneda munda and Hippodamia convergens were susceptible to B. bassiana Isolate B which was originally isolated from O. v-nigrum and the rate assayed was known to represent the LC50 against O. v-nigrum. However, neither the endemic C. maculata nor the exotic species Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata were susceptible to this isolate at this rate. Additionally, all species of endemic and exotic Coccinellidae used in these assays were resistant to B. bassiana strain GHA and BbAR1 at that rate. We discuss the implications of these results in regard to the establishment of exotic species in new habitats.
 
Article
Cardiocondyla is one of the few ant genera in which winged dispersing males coexist with wingless fighter males, which predominantly mate inside their maternal nests. Male polymorphism is not genetically determined but induced by environmental conditions (e.g., a decrease in temperature). The factors leading to the production of winged males were studied in more detail by exposing colonies of C. obscurior to a specific set of rearing conditions. A "stressful" environmental condition (rearing temperature lowered on average by 5°C) experienced for at least two days, the decrease of temperature by a minimum of 3°C, and the addition of protein-rich food triggered the development of winged males. In contrast, a smaller decrease in temperature, starvation, encounters with workers from other species, and encounters with alien, conspecific winged males did not induce the production of winged males. Colonies differed strongly in their reaction to changing environmental conditions, which might indicate a difference in their threshold sensitivity. The results are discussed and compared with data from other dimorphic insect species.
 
Overall detection rates of two parasitoids of D. noxia in west-central Great Plains during the two study years. Asterisks indicate when significant effects of farm-scale and regional-scale vegetation were detected (P < 0.05). Error bars represent standard errors of means.  
August through October comparisons of A. albipodus detection across region-scale (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and farm-scale (diverse and simple farms) vegetation classes. Late season plant growth bridging across wheat harvest, sunflower and grassland maturation, and replanting of wheat. Statistically significant cases are featured and views of means of all treatment combinations and field types (w – wheat; s – sunflower; f – fallow; g – grassland) are inserted in a box. Different letters in the featured graph indicate significant differences between means. Error bars represent standard errors of means.  
August through October comparisons of L. testaceipes detection across region-scale (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and farm-scale (diverse and simple farms) vegetation classes. Late season plant growth bridging across wheat harvest, sunflower and grassland maturation, and replanting of wheat. Statistically significant cases are featured and views of means of all treatment combinations and field types (w – wheat; s – sunflower; f – fallow; g – grassland) are inserted in a box. Different letters in the featured graph indicate significant differences between means. Error bars represent standard errors of means.  
Parasitoid (A. albipodus or L. testaceipes) prevalence (detection frequency of parasitism) associated with shifts in aphid abundance (percent of sunflower plants infested with A. helianthi or percent of wheat tillers infested with D. noxia) estimated one month before. Only significant associations were plotted. Significant interactions across the vegetation diversity gradient [farm-scale: diverse and simple vegetation; region-scale: heterogeneous (hetero) and homogeneous (homo) vegetation classes] were considered first, and simple covariate-parasitoid functions were plotted if no interaction was detect ed.  
April through June comparisons of A. albipodus detection across region-scale (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and farmscale (diverse and simple farms) vegetation classes. Early season plant growth from wheat and grassland regrowth and early sunflower establishment through wheat maturation and sunflower and grassland vegetative growth. Statistically significant cases are featured and views of means of all treatment combinations and field types (w – wheat; s – sunflower; f – fallow; g – grassland) are inserted in a box. Different letters in the featured graph indicate significant differences between means. Error bars represent standard errors of means.  
Article
Functioning of plant-aphid-natural enemy interactions may be associated with the structure and composition of within-field vegetation, neighborhood fields and field borders, and the regional plant community of cropped and noncropped areas. Farm-and region-scale vegetation in the wheat-growing area of the North American Great Plains was hypothesized to effect the abundance of two hymenopteran parasitoids, that differ in physiological and behavioral attributes, of the key pest aphid of wheat, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). The parasitoids had greater sensitivity to farm-scale vegetation (wheat strip rotation with or without spring-sown sunflower) than region-scale vegetation (degree of diversification with other crops and wheat fields converted to conservation grasslands). A two-way factorial design of scale (farm- and region-scale) revealed that parasitoid abundance in grass-dominant (homogeneous) areas especially benefited from adding sunflower to the wheat-fallow strip crop rotation. Considerable sensitivity of the analysis was added when adjusting for seasonality of vegetation, revealing that the region-scale effects were most prominent late season. From a management viewpoint, adding sunflower into the wheat production system, especially in relatively homogeneous vegetation regions, tends to promote local parasitoid populations during the summer when spring-sown plants are maturing and wheat is not in cultivation. Contrasting results for A. albipodus and L. testaceipes were consistent with expectations based on behavioral and physiological attributes of the two aphid parasitoid families they represent. Still, the general management interpretation seems robust for the two parasitoids and has relevance to both farm- and region-scale management schemes that are occurring in the wheat production zone of North American Great Plains.
 
Article
There is increasing evidence that chemical cues play a pivotal role in host selection by the natural enemies of aphids. We use Vinson's (1976) division of the host selection process into habitat location, host location and host acceptance for both parasitoids and predators and review what is known about the role of semiochemicals in aphid selection by natural enemies. For habitat location (i.e. detection of the host plant), volatiles emitted by plants after aphid attack have been described for a number of plant-aphid interactions. These synomones indicate not only the presence of an aphid host plant to the predator or parasitoid, but also the presence of aphids. Volatiles emitted from undamaged host plants are often attractive to aphid parasitoids, but less so for predators. Host location by the natural enemy on the food plant is guided by semiochemicals that mostly originate from the aphids, in particular aphid alarm pheromone, honeydew, or the smell of the aphid itself. Host acceptance is guided by contact chemicals for both predators and parasitoids. In parasitoids, host recognition may be based on visual cues or on contact chemicals on the aphid's cuticle, whereas host acceptance is ultimately based on as yet unknown substances within the aphid's hemolymph. While it appears that many predators and parasitoids are attracted to the same semiochemicals, synergistic and antagonistic interactions among chemical substances have only rarely been investigated. More research into model systems is needed, not only to identify important semiochemicals, but also to determine their range of attraction. Recent progress in the development of analytical techniques has created new opportunities to improve our understanding of the chemical ecology of aphid-natural enemy interactions in the coming years.
 
Results of an ordination analysis by multidimensional shading. Open symbols show the results for the rough-barked trees; shaded symbols, the trees with bark of intermediate roughness; and, the black symbols, those with smooth bark.
Species rarefaction curves for each of the three types of bark investigated.
Morphospecies richness, family richness, proportions of rare species and diversity indices for each category of bark roughness, with the outcomes of one-way analyses of variance (see text).
Mean abundance of total individuals and certain taxa (with standard errors), and average sizes of beetles, across bark types level and associated ANOVA results (see text).
Article
We have investigated the relative importance of bark roughness and host tree species in determining the diversity and make-up of coleopteran assemblages on the trunks of trees in sub-tropical rainforest in south-east Queensland, Australia. There are clear, statistically significant, patterns in the composition of the assemblages which reflect bark roughness. Rougher bark had associated greater species and family richness, a higher proportion of "rare" species, a higher value for Shannon diversity and lower values for the Simpson and Berger-Parker Index (measures of dominance within the sample). The data support strongly the idea that there is a bark-specific beetle assemblage. The rougher bark was associated with significantly greater numbers of an anobiid species, Dorcatoma sp., and of the latridiid species Aridius australicus. Rougher bark also harboured significantly larger species. The most likely explanation for this seems to be related to the physical heterogeneity and biological complexity of the habitat, presenting, as it does, greater opportunities for shelter, feeding specialisation and intra-species aggregation. Rougher bark contained a higher proportion of both predatory and xylophagous groups than did smoother categories. No clear influence of tree species could be detected although some trends were evident. Yes Yes
 
Article
The incidence of sibling cannibalism in clutches of Harmonia axyridis infected by the male-killing Spiroplasma was compared with that in uninfected clutches, and the way in which fitness compensation was realized by sibling cannibalism was investigated. Primarily the rate of sibling cannibalism was determined by the hatching rate as all unviable eggs were consumed both in infected and uninfected clutches. Per capita consumption of roughly 0.1 individuals was estimated for uninfected clutches in the present study, as compared to 0.3 individuals in previous studies. The per capita consumption in infected clutches was 1.4, showing that the male-killing behavior of the Spiroplasma provides an approximately 4¿14 fold increase in the chance of sibling cannibalism. Both in infected and uninfected clutches, the median of the starting time of sibling cannibalism was soon after that of the completion of hatching. Larvae started to disperse from their egg clutches only about 7.5¿8.5 h after the initiation of hatching. These time sequences indicate that sibling cannibalism occurs at the earlier stage of the hatching process and the density of aphids in the area has little or no influence on incidence of the sibling cannibalism. During the maintenance of the infected line for five generations, exclusively females were produced and the median of the hatching rate was 0.395, suggesting a very high rate of vertical transmission of the Spiroplasma infection. Although the measurement of other parameters, such as the effect of Spiroplasma infection on fecundity or longevity, are necessary, the high compensation rate shown in the present study, together with the very high vertical transmission, may explain the prevalence of the present male-killing agent in the local populations of the ladybird beetle
 
Article
The diapause initiation and maintenance phases of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, were screened. Eight transcripts were found to be downregulated as the beetles enter the diapause maintenance phase of diapause development after day 15 postemergence. These transcripts were also expressed in early nondiapausing adults. Using BlastX, the transcripts were placed into six broad categories: regulatory (serpin), structural (apidermin), protease (serine protease), retinol binding protein (CRALBP), carbohydrate metabolism (ss-glucosidase, ss-mannosidase, and cellulose II), and unknown function.
 
Article
The Neochauliodes sundaicus species-group is newly proposed, containing six species and endemic to Indo-Malaysia. All six species are described and illustrated, including two new species: Neochauliodes parvus Liu, Hayashi & Flint, sp. n. and N. peninsularis Liu, Hayashi & Flint, sp. n. Full species status is given to N. maculatus Stitz, 1914, stat. n. and N. borneensis van der Weele, 1909, stat. n. A cladistic analysis is conducted to reconstruct the species level phylogeny of the N. sundaicus group based on the morphological data. Combining the present morphological phylogeny and historical geography of Indo-Malaysia, the origin and speciation of this species-group is briefly discussed.
 
Article
Six microsatellite markers were developed for the larch budmoth Zeiraphera diniana Guénée 1845, using two enrichment protocols. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15 per locus and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.09 to 0.98 for the 69 individuals genotyped. Using these markers significant genetic differentiation between one population from Poland and samples from Alpine populations in France and Switzerland (overall FST = 0.0298) was detected. However, the two Alpine samples did not differ significantly. These microsatellite markers are valuable tools for studying the population genetics of Zeiraphera diniana.
 
Article
Diapause intensity (DI) is a physiological trait represented by the duration of diapause under given conditions of environment. In many species, it is highly variable, probably being controlled by multiple genes and tends to form a cline in response to the latitudinal gradient of selection pressure. DI clines could be established artificially by crossing between lines of a cricket selected for different levels of DI, indicating the importance of genetic factors in the adaptive variation of DI. However, DI may be modified in response to seasonal cues both before and after the onset of diapause. Polymorphism in the intensity of prolonged diapause may split adults of a single population to emerge in different years. A unimodal distribution of DI may also result in polymodal termination of diapause, if DI variation is so large that chilling in one winter is not enough to terminate diapause for all members of a population. Bimodal termination of diapause after overwintering suggests heterogeneity in the final phase of diapause that requires high temperatures in spring. Polymodal termination of diapause subserves a bet-hedging strategy. Variability in DI thus provides insects with an important means of adaptation to their environments changing in space and time.
 
Article
Crickets are convenient systems for studying life-cycle evolution. They show a considerable diversity in life-cycle types, being homodynamic in some parts of the tropics and heterodynamic with various kinds of diapause and other regulatory responses in the temperate region. Crickets are relatively free from constraints by food supply, because they are omnivorous. Therefore, their geographical variation may clearly reflect climatic selection as exemplified by latitudinal dines in adult size, egg size and ovipositor length. These morphometric dines are closely related to development time, egg diapause and photoperiodic responses, indicating that crickets are highly variable within the framework of their species-specific patterns of life cycle. More fundamental variation is divergence in life-cycle pattern that may be associated with speciation, because closely related species are often different in their life-cycle patterns (e.g., homodynamic versus heterodynamic, or egg overwintering versus larval overwintering). Evolutionary flexibility of life-cycle traits may be assessed by studying cricket populations under special natural or artificial conditions. In Japan, a population of the nemobiine cricket (Dianemobius mikado) introduced from a temperate to a subtropical island has almost lost egg diapause presumably in the last 130 years. At volcanic geothermal spots in the northern island (Hokkaido), presumptive relict populations of the nemobiine species Dianemobius nigrofasciatus occur and sing in mid-winter, but this cricket retains the photoperiodic response of a southern bivoltine type. In the subtropical nemobiine D. fascipes, artificial selection has been effective in changing the incidence and depth of diapause, and strains comparable to the tropical and temperate forms were established. The responsiveness to photoperiod in wing-form determination was also remarkably changed by selection, but this change was not associated with a change in critical photoperiod. Alternated selection in the opposite directions at photoperiods above and below the critical value to be selected was necessary to shift the critical photoperiod.
 
Article
Based on field data collected during three consecutive years, in experiments with leek and leek intercropped with subterranean clover (Trifolium, subterraneum), the relationship between larval populations of Thrips tabaci on leeks, the level of injury and the market quality of the product were described. This resulted in a way to monitor both thrips populations and market quality during the growing season by the feeding symptoms and in damage thresholds in monocropped and intercropped leeks. It was found that a given number of thrips larvae per plant caused less injury on intercropped leek plants than on monocropped leeks. This proved to have consequences for the damage thresholds in both growing systems. The total effect of intercropping in leeks is based on thrips population suppression and a reduced development of feeding symptoms.
 
Article
A review of all known descriptions of immature stages of the species of the genera Scaeva Fabricius, 1805, Ischiodon Sack, 1913 and Simosyrphus Bigot, 1882 is presented using SEM illustrations. The third instar larval and/or pupal morphology of Scaeva dignota (Rondani, 1857), Scaeva mecogramma (Bigot, 1860) and Simosyrphus grandicornis (Macquart, 1842) are newly described. All species of the genera studied in this paper are very similar for all the studied characters of their immature stages, including the chaetotaxy. Molecular characters of the mitochondrial cox1 gene (1128bp) were used for inferring relationships of the studied taxa. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was additionally applied for species delimitation of the closely related species Scaeva selenitica and S. dignota. The Palaearctic Scaeva species could be split into two groups based on the analysis of morphology of posterior respiratory process. These groups were previously diagnosed as S. selenitica-group [i.e., S. selenitica (Meigen, 1822), S. dignota (Rondani, 1857), S. mecogramma (Bigot, 1860)] and S. pyrastri-group [i.e., S. pyrastri (Linnaeus, 1758), S. albomaculata (Macquart, 1842), S. latimaculata (Brunetti, 1923)]. Semiscaeva Kuznetzov, 1985 and Scaeva Fabricius, 1805 are the available names for these two natural groups that should be classified as subgenera; the former name is proposed for S. selenitica-group and the latter for S. pyrastri-group. Mecoscaeva Kuznetzov, 1985 syn. n. is transferred as a junior synonym of the subgenus Semiscaeva Kuznetzov, 1985 according to the principle of the first reviser. Based on the analysis of immature stages, the generic name Ischiodon Sack, 1913 syn. n. is proposed as a junior synonym of the genus Simosyrphus Bigot, 1882. The similarity of immature stages between Scaeva s. str. And Simosyrphus grandicornis Macquart, 1842, Simosyrphusaegyptius (Wiedemann, 1830) comb. n. and Simosyrphus scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805) comb. n. is discussed. All the proposed subgeneric and generic taxa based on morphological studies received high support employing molecular characters. Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Environment (040/2002) (C. P-B., M-G.), University of Alicante, Spain (GRE04-25) (C. P-B., S.R) and from Finnish Ministry of Environment (G.S.).
 
Article
This study is a revision of the Iberian Merodon Meigen, 1803 species, including an illustrated key, a discussion of taxonomic characters and a morphological diagnosis for all included species. Descriptions are provided for nine new species: M. antonioi sp. n., M. arundanus sp. n., M. cabanerensis sp. n., M. crypticus sp. n., M. hurkmansi sp. n., M. legionensis sp. n., M. longispinus sp. n., M. luteihumerus sp. n. and M. quercetorum sp. n. The taxon M. escorialensis Strobl, 1909 is redescribed and lectotype is designated. Lectotypes are designated for four taxa: M. albifrons Meigen, 1822; M. spinipes obscuritarsis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909; M. spicatus Becker, 1907; and M. spinipes grossus Gil Collado, 1930. Three varieties are redefined and considered as valid species: M. obscuritarsis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909 (as var. of spinipes); M. grossus Gil Collado, 1930 (as var. of spinipes); M. unicolor Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909 (as var. of aeneus). The following new synonymies are proposed: M. affinis Gil Collado, 1930 syn.n. (= junior synonym of M. longicornis Sack, 1913); M. lusitanicus Hurkmans, 1993 syn.n. (= junior synonym of M. serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822); M. andalusiacus Paramonov, 1929 syn.n., M. bolivari Gil Collado, 1930 syn.n., M. hispanicus Sack, 1931 syn.n. (= all three are junior synonyms of M. unguicornis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909); M. spicatus Becker, 1907 syn.n. (= junior synonym of M. chalybeus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822); M. fuerteventurensis Barkemeyer, 2002 syn. n. (= junior synonym of M. obscuritarsis Strobl, 1909); and M. spinipes grossus (Gil Collado, 1930) syn.n. (= junior synonym of M. albifrons Meigen, 1822). Status of M. serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822 is revised. Four species: M. longicornis Sack, 1913, M. pumilus Macquart, 1849, M. ottomanus Hurkmans, 1993 and M. segetum (Fabricius, 1794) are new for the Iberian Peninsula. Male genitalia are illustrated for all the species and a key of the 34 Iberian species (+ M. hurkmansi sp. n.) for males and females (except for the unknown female of M. longispinus sp. n.) is appended. Distribution and biological data for the Iberian species are also included. A brief zoogeographic discussion is also presented. The level of endemism of genus Merodon on the Iberian Peninsula is extremely high (almost 50%). Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (040/2002), Generalitat Valenciana (GV04A-576), Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (CGL2005-07213/BOS), Ministry of Science, Technology and Development of the Republic of Serbia (project number 143037) and Provincial Ministry of Science and Technological Development, Autochtonous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia – project: Maintance of Biodiversity – Hotspots on the Balkan and Iberian Peninsula (Insecta, Diptera, Syrphidae).
 
Article
The taxonomy of European Eristalinus syrphid flies is reviewed. New data on their life histories, biological notes and a key to species using pupal characters are provided. The larvae and puparia of Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) and Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794) are described for the first time, including new morphological characters of the thoracic respiratory process of all species. The morphology of the male genitalia of E. megacephalus is described and compared with that of E. taeniops. The results of our morphological studies of the male genitalia and molecular data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA) do not support the traditional adult classification based on the patterning on the eyes (fasciate vs punctate). We present a phylogeny of the species based on molecular data. The molecular and morphological data indicate that the relationship between some species with punctate eyes and those with fasciate eyes may be closer than with other species with punctate eyes. Moreover the results of the molecular studies support two clades, which does not accord with the traditional arrangement of this group of Syrphidae. Accordingly we propose that the characters of male genitalia stated by Kanervo in 1938 (but subsequently largely ignored) for arranging the European species of the Eristalinus-Eristalodes-Lathyrophthalmus complex, are suitable for classifying these species. Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (AGL 2000-0342-P4-02 and BOS 2000-0148) and Universidad de Alicante, Spain (GR02-09).
 
Article
While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termites (at least 126 species) has been reported to feed on a wide range of mammalian dung (18 species). Predominantly, wood-feeding and polyphagous wood-litter feeding species were found to feed also frequently on dung. Moreover, we found that termites can quickly remove large amounts of mammalian dung, especially in the dry season, when on average about 1/3 of the dung deposited in a given habitat is removed by termites within one month (with the highest rates observed in savannas). No distinctive preference for mammalian dung over other organic food sources was observed for fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae), whereas the majority of the non-fungus growing taxa studied prefer dung over other food. As termites bring large quantities of dung below the soil surface, disturb and enrich soils with nutrients, dung feeding by termites appears to be a previously underestimated process important in the functioning of tropical ecosystems.
 
Morphology of females of Enclisis species. 11-14-heads, dorsal view. 11-E. infernator; 12-E. schwarzi; 13-E. ornaticeps; 14-E. dichroma. 15-18-basal antennomeres. 15-E. infernator; 16-E. schwarzi; 17-E. ornaticeps; 18-E. dichroma.
Morphology of males of Enclisis species, heads in dorsal view. 19-E. infernator; 20-E. schwarzi; 21-E. ornaticeps; 22-E. dichroma.
Antennal morphology of males of E. dichroma. 23-11 th-14 th flagellar segments showing tyloids (ty); 24-tyloid of 12 th flagellomere showing cuticular pores (p); 25-pores of tyloid (p); 26-internal ultrastucture of tyloid showing numerous secretory cuticular ducts (cd).
Article
Two new species of Enclisis Townes, 1970 from Spain are described and illustrated: E. dichroma sp. n. and E. schwarzi sp. n. The new species are distinguished from the closest species E. infernator and E. ornaticeps by head and leg characters and body colour. Data on their phenology and a key to these four European species are presented. External and internal scanning electron microscopy of male tyloids revealed that these structures, in both new species, have a secretory role. This research was supported partially by Projects BOS2000-0148 and AGL2000-0342-P4-02 from Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (DGI) of Spanish Government.
 
Schematic presentation of time scale of the geophysical events in relation to speciation time estimates of Sardinian taxa inferred from molecular data (see main text for references).
Article
ErratumGrill A., Gkiokia E. & Alvarez N. 2006: Evolutionary history and patterns of differentiation among European Maniola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). Eur. J. Entomol. 103(3): 613-618.In Fig. 1 (on p. 615) of the above paper the name of the outgroup species in the cladogram should be the same as in text and Table 1, i.e., Pyronia cecilia, not Pyronia tithonus.
 
Article
ErratumIn our recent publication:Lau T.F.S., Gross E.M. & Meyer-Rochow V.B. 2007: Sexual dimorphism and light/dark adaptation in the compound eyes of male and female Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 104: 459-470.the referenceSchwind R. 1993: Reflection-polarization pattern at water surfaces and correction of a common representation of the polarization pattern of the sky. Naturwissenschaften 80: 82-83.fails to mention the co-author of that paper and, thus, should have beenSchwind R. & Horvath G. 1993: Reflection-polarization pattern at water surfaces and correction of a common representation of the polarization pattern of the sky. Naturwissenschaften 80: 82-83.We regret this oversight of ours and apologize to the authors.Ting Fan (Stanley) LAU, Elisabeth Maria GROSS and Victor Benno MEYER-ROCHOW
 
Caledoderus monteithi sp. n., adult, dorsal habitus.  
Most parsimonious cladogram of the Cantacaderinae. Solid black circles represent non-homoplasious acquisition of a state; white circles indicate homoplasious acquisition of a state; bootstrap values at each node are in italics.  
Caledoderus monteithi sp. n., fifth instar, dorsal habi- tus.  
Article
A new genus and new species of Cantacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) is described, Caledoderus monteithi. A key to genera is provided. The phylogenetic relationships among the Cantacaderinae, including this new genus and species, are revisited. The results are congruent with previous studies. However, the Ceratocaderini is a sister group of Carldrakeaninae and not Cantacaderini, even if only weakly supported by the analysis. Therefore, the status of Ceratocaderini and Cantacaderini is maintained, whereas Carldrakeanini stat. nov. is reduced to tribal level and they are all included in the Cantacaderinae.
 
Localization of the 28S ribosomal genes in male meiotic cells of species of Cassidini using FISH with a 28S rDNA probe. aAgroiconota inedita, diplotene-2n = 20II + Xy p ; b-Charidotella immaculata, metaphase II-n = 10 + X; c-Charidotella sexpuctata, metaphase II, n = 10 + y p ; d-Deloyala cruciata, metaphase II-n = 8 + X; e-f-Microctenochira gnata, pachytene and metaphase II (n = 9), respectively; g-Microctenochira optata, metaphase II-n = 8 + X; h-i-Microctenochira stigmatica, pachytene and metaphase II (n = 11), respectively. SV-sex vesicle. The red regions on the chromosomes (arrow) correspond to major rDNA sites. Scale bar = 10 μm. 
The species of Cassidinae analyzed in the present study, including the number of individuals and the locality where collected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Localization of the 28S ribosomal genes in species of Mesomphaliini revealed using FISH with a 28S rDNA probe. a-Chelymorpha cribraria, mitotic metaphase-2n = 20 + Xy p ; b-Chelymorpha infl ata, diakinesis-2n = 10II + Xy p ; c-Cyrtonota cyanea, diakinesis-2n = 19II + Xy p ; d-Paraselenis fl ava, diplotene-2n = 20II + Xy p. The red regions on the chromosomes (arrow) correspond to major rDNA sites. Scale bar = 10 μm. 
Article
In this study, we examined for the first time the distribution of the 28S ribosomal genes in beetles of the subfamily Cassidinae. More than 55% of the species in this subfamily have a similar karyotype, 2n = 16 + Xyp. For this work, we selected species belonging to the tribes Cassidini and Mesomphaliini, which have, respectively, the most conserved and diversified karyotype characteristics within the Cassidinae. An analysis of 11 species revealed that rDNA sites on one pair of autosomes is the most frequent pattern, occurring in 10 species. This condition occurs in the seven genera examined and in species of both of the tribes, Cassidini and Mesomphaliini. Nevertheless, the differences in the locations of 28S rDNA were more pronounced in the tribe Cassidini and among species with similar karyotype characteristics. On the other hand, in Mesomphaliini, the increase in the diploid number was not accompanied by an increase in the number of ribosomal sites. Moreover, the comparison of the number and localization of major rDNA sites with the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin indicates that there is no direct correlation between the dispersion of constitutive heterochromatin and 28S rDNA genes in Cassidinae. © Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice.
 
Reflectance spectra recorded for 13 species of butterflies belonging to the tribe Theclini. A – black species; B – orange species ; C – blue species, with that of the two sexes presented separately (M = male, F = female); D – males of four dimorphic species. For species codes see Table 1.  
Sensitivity spectra recorded for 13 species of butterflies belonging to the tribe Theclini. A – black species; B – orange species ; C – blue species; D – four dimorphic species. Results for the two sexes are presented for those species for which a difference was detected as shown in Table 2, and for species AP. For species codes see Table 1.  
Article
The correlation between dorsal wing colours and spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of 13 species of thecline butterflies, consisting of 8 sexually monomorphic and 5 dimorphic species, was investigated. Spectral reflectance of the dorsal surfaces of the wings was measured using a spectrophotometer and spectral sensitivities using electroretinography. All 13 species examined showed a common basic pattern of spectral sensitivity with a primary peak at a wavelength of 440-460 nm. Detailed analyses of the deviations in sensitivity from the basic pattern revealed a correlation in monomorphic species with conspicuous wing hues, especially in males.
 
Article
In the present work, we have characterized the chromosomes of 13 Cassidinae beetles, belonging to four tribes, the broad aim being to increase the cytogenetic data and establish the mechanisms involved in chromosome evolution of this subfamily, which appear to be conserved karyotypically, i.e. 2n = 16 + Xyp. The analysis of mitotic and meiotic cells revealed a high diversity of diploid numbers (2n = 18, 2n = 22, 2n = 26, 2n = 32, 2n = 36, 2n = 40, 2n = 42), and the presence of sex chromosome system of the Xyp type in most species, with the exception of two representatives that exhibited Xyr and XY systems. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin predominantly localized in the pericentromeric region of the chromosomes, but differences regarding the number of chromosomes with positive C-bands, intensity of the blocks, and presence of additional bands in autosomes and/or sex chromosomes were observed among the species investigated. Our data revealed that the karyotype 2n = 16 + Xyp does not occur in all 13 tribes of the Cassidinae characterized cytogenetically, seeming to be only a shared feature among the species of the Cassidini. Variations in the C-band pattern, mainly in closely related species, suggest that the interspecific karyotype diversification occurred as a result of changes in the quantity and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The occurrence of the Xyp sex chromosome system in the tribe Mesomphaliini, which showed the highest diversity of simple and multiple systems among the coleopteran as a whole, reinforces the view that derived systems originated by chromosome rearrangements involving the Xyp ancestral system.
 
Article
Hall J.C. & Evenhuis N.L.: Homeodactyla and Asilomorpha. In Griffiths G.C.D. (ed.): Flies of the Nearctic Region. Vol. V, Part 13, No. 7, Bombyliidae. pp. 657-713. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 2004, 60 pp., 46 Figs. ISBN 3-510-70027-9.
 
Article
Jäch M.A., Kodada J., Brojer M., Shepard W.D. & Čiampor F. Jr. 2016: Coleoptera: Elmidae and Protelmidae. World Catalogue of Insects, Vol. 14. Brill, Leiden / Boston, xxi + 318 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-29176-8 (hardback), 978-90-04-29177-5 (e-book). Price EUR 93.00.
 
Article
Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune & Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 375 pp. ISBN 2-88414-026-3. Price CHF 56.00.
 
Article
Centre Suisse de cartographie de la faune & Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 2007, 523 pp. ISBN 978-2-88414-028-7. Price EUR 56.00, USD 83.00.
 
Article
In pyrrhocorids, digestion of food occurs mainly in the midgut, which is divided into four parts (M1-M4), and takes between three and four days. Food is retained in M1 for about 5 h and passes quickly through M4. However, food is retained in M2 and M3 much longer, about 70 to 90 h. The different stages in digestion may be influenced by different microbial populations in the different parts of the midgut. In the present study, the microbiota in the four parts of the midgut of Pyrrhocoris sibiricus were analysed in detail using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region. The most abundant bacteria in M3 were Actinobacteria (Coriobacteriaceae) whereas it was Proteobacteria (gammaproteobacteria) in M1, M2 and M4. Actinobacteria was the second most abundant bacterial group in M2. According to the PCA analysis, M2 and M3 have the most similar bacterial communities. Burkholderia, which is closely related to the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, was also found in M1, M2 and M4. Predictive functional profiles of the metagenomes revealed that metabolism mostly occurred in M2 and M3. The PICRUSt results were consistent with the 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis and indicate that the bacteria in M2 and M3 play an important role in degrading complex dietary components.
 
Article
Phylogenetic relationships among 16 genera of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were investigated using sequence data from three genes: the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S), 18S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial ATPase 6. All sequences were downloaded from the GenBank database. A total of 2775 base pairs of aligned sequence were obtained per species from these three genes. The results support the existence of three-tribes: Ephedrini, Praini and Aphidiini, with the Ephedrini occupying the basal position; Aphidiini could be further subdivided into three subtribes: Monoctonina, Trioxina and Aphidiina. The genus Aphidius is a paraphyletic group. The taxonomic status of the subfamily Aphidiinae within the Braconidae is probably closer to the non-cyclostome than the cyclostome subfamilies.
 
Article
Novel microsatellite markers for the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) are identified and characterized using next generation sequencing technology. 18 polymorphic loci were obtained by screening 10,684 reads and tested on 35 bark beetle samples from different locations in Bavaria, Germany. Allelic richness ranged from two to 38 alleles, observed heterozygosity from 0.03 to 0.66 and expected heterozygosity from 0.08 to 0.97. Four loci showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage between loci was detected. The 18 loci, along with another six loci previously described, provide effective analytical tools for analyzing the fine-scale genetic structure of bark beetle populations. The result of this study demonstrates that next generation sequencing technology is a valuable method for isolating microsatellites of a coleopteran species.
 
Article
The monotypic genus Silvispina M. Wang & Soulier-Perkins, gen. n. and new species S. changpotou M. Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. n. belonging to the family Lophopidae Stål, 1866, from Yunnan Province in China, is described and illustrated. The peculiarity of the first metatarsal segment of this genus is stressed and the taxonomic position of this new genus is discussed. The ornamentation and shape of metatibia and first tarsal segment (the characters that currently distinguish the subfamilies Menoscinae and Lophopinae) do not agree with either subfamily and the new genus is placed as incertae sedis in the Lophopidae. The genus Ridesa Schumacher, 1915 is removed from the family Lophopidae and placed in the Achilidae. © Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice.
 
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