European Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Published by Mokslines leidybos deimantas, MB
Online ISSN: 2538-9181
Publications
(a) 5 axis Friction stir welding machine developed for FSP, (b)FSP tool used, (c) Crown appearance of the specimen after one pass showing macrostructural defects
Tensile properties of the composite samples.
In this study, metal matrix composite is fabricated on 1100 Aluminium alloy by multi pass friction stir processing using different reinforcement particles namely Fly Ash, Palm Kernel Shell Ash, Ti62222 and 304 Stainless steel. Metal matrix composites with average grain size of 6.5 μm are achieved. The addition of reinforcements at the stir zone has enhanced the mechanical properties of the 1100 Al alloy, finer grain structure is also evident after three cumulative passes. Higher strength ranging from 268 to 454 MPa is achieved. Microhadrness of the developed metal matrix composites reinforced with various particles exhibits an improved average microhardness values that ranges from 75 to 95 HV. 304 stainless steel serves as the best reinforcement to be used, offering higher hardness values and good tensile strength of 454.18MPa. The sets of new alloys fabricated in this study can be considered for typical surface engineering applications
 
Layer orientation at infill density 100% from the top: 90° and 45°.
Influence of infill type on cost and production time of mirror housing
Average results in static bending test for each of 8 series.
The paper presents optimization of the weight of elements printed in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. For this purpose, the static bending test was carried out. Thetest was carried out in compliance with PN-EN ISO 178:2011 standard. Samples were made of polylactide (PLA). The influence of such parameters as filling density and type of filling or its orientation was examined. The collected data allowed to calculate the maximum stresses in the material used to improve the Silesian Greenpower car. Compared infill patterns and their density allowed to choose the optimal printing method.
 
Stress-strain diagram
Average test results for each sample
The paper presents research on the method of 3D-printing ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Series of specimens were 3D-printed in FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology with variable parameters. The influence of the following parameters has been checked: temperature of printing and infill density. Moreover, the material properties of raw, unprocessed ABS have been inspected. The tensile strength of specimens and Young’s modulus have been determined in a static tensile test. Tests were carried out in compliance with the ASTM D638-14 standard. Obtained results were then compared with the material datasheet. Optimum printing method has been defined. The carried out research resulted in optimizing the printing method for ABS vehicle parts applied in Silesian Greenpower electric car. The car has been developed by students of The Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland as an interfaculty students’ project. Results of the tensile test research have been analysed and discussed and conclusions have been presented in the following article.
 
Stress results of the FEM simulation of brake lever after optimization. Further, different infill pattern has been used in order to reduce the weight of the element. It has been changed from full infill with layer orientation 45° to honeycomb infill pattern with 25% density (Fig. 6).
Influence of shape and structure optimization of manufacturing process.
The paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of 3D-printed parts and further shape optimization. Information obtained from the static bending test allowed to carry out the FEM analysis in Siemens NX software with Nastran module. The first part of the research was a comparative analysis of FEM analysis of a single specimen with real-life data collected for polylactide (PLA) specimens made in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. Next step was FEM analysis of a PLA brake lever which is used in Silesian Greenpower electric vehicle. Silesian Greenpower team uses 3D-printing for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of customized parts of almost any shape for their car. Purpose of the Finite Element Analysis was shape optimization of the lever in order to ensure adequate safety and ergonomics of use. The strains during its operation should not exceed the maximum permissible for the material used. As this is a key element of safety, a safety factor of level 3 has been adopted. FEM analysis contributed to weight reduction and shape optimization to withstand applied forces.
 
Polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid nanoparticles (PEG-PLA NPs) represent a new generation of parenteral therapeutics systems. Following administration, these NPs possess the potential to interact with biological machinery. Therefore, it is essential to get a systematic understanding of the biological fate of these NPs to evaluate their safety. In the present study, two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) of technetium-99m labeled PEG-PLA NPs were administered intravenous (i.v.) and oral into mice and the distribution was assessed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post administration. Biodistribution and blood kinetic profiles revealed the extended systemic circulation of the NPs. Dose-dependent presence of NPs (p<0.05) was detected in the blood, liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of i.v. injected mice, and also in the blood, lung, spleen, stomach, and intestine of oral administered mice. The consequences of NP interaction with the biological components were studied by measurement of hematology, oxidative stress, genotoxic and histological parameters. Significantly increased levels of oxidative stress markers such as glutathione were observed in the liver, and spleen of i.v. injected mice and liver, stomach, and intestine of orally treated mice. Decreased lipid peroxidation levels (p<0.05) were observed in the liver of orally treated mice versus untreated mice. Even though PEG-PLA NPs have been shown to induce oxidative DNA damage, interestingly no histological lesions were observed in selected organs except lung of i.v. treated mice, which showed moderate vascular congestion. Such insights on in vivo distribution and understanding of nano-bio interactions at molecular and genetic levels are considered fundamental for the designing of safer nanoparticles for biomedical applications.
 
Challenges posed by the natures of Computing/IT technologies
The rapid advances in Computing, Communications, and Information Technologies have had tremendous impacts on various aspects of the lives of vast sections of humanity in such a short time. They have (a) created numerous kinds of new jobs, (b) made several other kinds of jobs to disappear due the kinds of automation they have created, and (c) transformed many professions based on their penetration in various facets of workflow. While these technological advances have resulted in many benefits to our society, they have also created many problems. Also, there are several other more prevalent problems in today’s society than in the past, and the advances of technologies have yet to be put to effective use to solve them. These technological advances and their effects on our lives, on the jobs landscape, and the demands on these technologies to solve societal problems are expected to grow further in the near future. In the wake of these, from a higher education point of view, there are tremendous challenges in keeping the curricula in the Computing/IT disciplines up-to-date and relevant. In this paper, we will (a) briefly trace the major milestones in the developments of Computing, Communications, and Information Technologies, (b) give an overview of the current pressing societal problems, (c) present the projected trends in jobs landscape, and (d) outline some ways of keeping curricula in Computing/IT relevant in the wake of the challenges.
 
The behavioral study of non-Newtonian fluids with heat transfer is a very active field of research. Researchers are more interested in the heat developed in cylindrical pipes, in forced convection. We were interested in this thermal transfer work during a flow of a non-Newtonian fluid which is an aqueous Agar Agar solution, through a cylindrical heating pipe and horizontal heat flux imposed in a capillary installation.
 
"Real" and convex surface of aggregate grain
Decrease (red) of micro texture values due to coating of aggregate by bituminous binder, (a): clear aggregate, (b) coated aggregate
Bitumen content of usage asphalt mixtures
Values of volumetric parameter Zvd for coated and clear aggregate grains and determination of average value of microtexture change value (MCV)
Calculated values of theoretical bitumen film thickness and average value of microtexture change
Asphalt pavement micro texture values primarily depend on aggregate properties used in asphalt pavement mixture and by aggregate surfaces is secured the basic contact medium with vehicle tires. It often happens that new asphalt surfaces have not required skid resistance properties and is needed a certain period of time to eliminate film of bitumen binder which is coating the aggregate grain on the surface of pavement by action of vehicles. In most cases, the investigation of the aggregate micro texture impact on the pavement skid resistance properties is carried out under laboratory conditions and generally relates only to measurements on natural aggregate samples (without bitumen). However, due to coating of aggregate by bitumen binder, valleys between the individual peaks of aggregate are filled. Obviously, it can be supposed that the usage of high amount of bitumen content can leads to decreasing of aggregate micro texture values. From this point of view, it can be expected that change in micro texture values depends on the content of binder in the asphalt mixture. Particular aggregate grains were taken from asphalt mixtures samples (AC 8, AC 11 and SMA 11) produced in the laboratory, in order to determine the impact of aggregate coating by bitumen binder on micro texture change. Each usage asphalt mixture was produced with three different bitumen binder contents. Digital image analysis method was used for subsequent evaluation. Changes in the micro texture values depending on the amount of used bitumen binder and also on the calculated theoretical bitumen film thickness are investigated in the conclusion.
 
Comparison of the values of volumetric parameter Zvd with the values of statistical texture parameters Ra and MPD -fractions 4/8 and 8/11
Comparison of the values of volumetric parameter Zvd with the values of statistical texture parameters Rsk and Rku -fractions 4/8 and 8/11
At the present time, a lot of laboratory measurement and evaluation approaches exist for investigation of aggregate texture, which is necessary to assecurate a basic level of friction between tire and asphalt pavement. In this contribution, two laboratory methods based on three dimensional and two dimensional analyses of aggregate texture investigation are presented. The values of three dimensional texture parameter were compared with the values of the two dimensional texture parameters. The measurements by both these methods were performed on the same grains of aggregates. Three dimensional evaluation outputs were obtained from measurement by optical microscope method and two dimensional evaluation outputs were obtained from measurement by profilometry method. All of analyzed aggregate texture parameters (three dimensional and two dimensional) give information about texture depth and therefore can be compared to each other. Parameters of regression and correlation analysis were used to find relation between the three dimensional and two dimensional texture parameters and obtained results were analyzed and discussed.
 
The danger of shooting civil aircrafts with artillery units is increasing day by day due to the number of war and skirmish zones in the world. Considering the danger of shooting a civilian aircraft, a safe flight zone must be defined for civilian aircrafts. Data mining techniques can quickly and accurately identify safe flight zones. In this study, we firstly discover the civilian aircraft busy routes using a novel dataset and several clustering algorithms. We perform a comparison among algorithms based on their ability to create air corridors. Keywords: Clustering, Air Corridors, DBSCAN, HDBSCAN, OPTICS
 
The Albanian map with 7 district regions of Albania tested for serological studies for the presence of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis IBR.
Collected serum samples.
The results obtained from testing 263 serum samples by using indirect ELISA test.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), is considered to be the most common viral pathogen found in bovine. Virus enters through aerosol route or by direct contact with the nasal secretion in case of respiratory tract infection and by direct contact or by semen containing virus in case of genital infection. For the first time in Albania, this study was conducted to know the status of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibodies in the bovines of the selected area of Albania. Antibody level was measured using a commercial indirect ELISA. A total of 263 collected serum samples from 7 areas of Albania were subjected to serum neutralization test for detection of BHV-1 antibodies by using of Indirect-ELISA kits. The chi-square test was used for comparison of results between regions and in this study p Values>0.01 was considered statistically no-significant at the 0.01 level. From these results we had an indication about the antibody prevalence of IBR infection respectively, 96% in Terpan-Berat, 52% in Fejza-Has, 50% in Kavajë, 33% in Rrëshen, 14.3% in Guras-Pogradec, 10% in Drenovë-Korçë and 0% in Fier. The prevalence was ranged from 10% to 96% among seropositive herds in this study. In conclusion, results of this study clearly established for the first time that BHV-1 is subclinical prevalent virus in bovine in Albania. Further studies are needed to prevent the spread of this viral infection in Albania.BHV-1
 
This research work propounds and analyses the comparison of solution to the issue of height adjustment of tool in four way tool post. The customary way of tool lifting in tool post to centre of work i.e. by adding/removing metal packing, is altered by introducing a design alternative for tool lifting, an upgradation in the former proposed design named solid double cone threaded pin (SDCTP). It is explicitly studied to investigate its limitation and scope for further design amendments. In the premise, a revised design is proposed including modifications named as solid cone threaded pin (SCTP) and is fabricated along with its assembly. Mathematical calculations of least count and screw thread analysis are performed on both the pins. Finite element analysis on CREO is executed to calculate stresses induced for diverse loads to analyze pin failure conditions. The results of new modified design is compared with the erstwhile concluding that SCTP design is preferable over SDCTP design entailing precise tool adjustment, saving time and higher efficiency in machining operations. The paper subsequently explores conventional tool lifting method and its shortfall, shortcomings of former design, revised design and its comparison, fabrication of revised design, conclusions and future ambit.
 
The application of aluminum foam materials is increasing rapidly due to the high demand during the last decades. This research presents an overview of the characteristics and architectural applications of aluminum foam materials. Moreover, it represents the most relevant properties, in particular, physical and mechanical aspects and figures out the prospects and growth rate of these materials in architectures by considering the economic benefits. Besides, based on these specific characterizations, the most valuable applications along with advantageous in architectural works are discussed.
 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant regular type of dementia that causes damage in brain cells. Early detection of AD acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. Our proposed model in the first stage, apply the medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS) to extract new features for select the best features to improve the performance of the classification process due to eliminating obscures. In the second stage, we applied a dataset to a stacked hybrid classification system to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. All experiments conducted on a laptop with an Intel Core i7- 8750H CPU at 2.2 GHz and 16 G of ram running on windows 10 (64 bits). The dataset evaluated using an explorer set of WEKA data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction performs better than proncipal component analysis (PCA), and lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art result. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was equal to 95.5%. Also, the experiment on MRI images Kaggle dataset of CNN classification process with 80.21% accuracy result. The results of the proposed model show an accurate classify Alzheimer's clinical samples against MRI neuroimaging for diagnoses AD at a low cost.
 
The picture of copper foam, paraffin, and pinned heat sink
The velocity profile exported from reference [12] and the calculated electrical power
The comparison of active, passive, and hybrid TMSs under the real driving state
A hybrid thermal management system (TMS) for high power lithium-ion battery modules of EVs with low energy consumption and high reliability was tested under a real state driving condition. An experimental investigation was performed to compare the hybrid TMS with an active air-cooling and a passive TMSs. We employed all three TMSs in standard weather condition of 24 °C. For dynamic mode, a study of driving cycle in comparison with US, Europe, and Japan driving cycle data was conducted to perform a dynamic model based on a high traffic city to challenge our TMSs in a real driving state including high and standard discharge rate and a stop mode in which there was no air convection. The results showed that just in the hybrid TMS, the cell surface could reach a steady state under 60 °C while the active TMS could keep temperature only for three cycles. Furthermore, our test proved that the proposed hybrid TMS maintains outstanding reliability and efficiency in the hot weather condition of 40 °C.
 
Sketches
The house plan
Mapping with LIDAR
Together with the developing technology, robotic systems are used in many areas such as defence technologies, manufacturing industry, search and rescue. The integration of these systems into different areas decreases the need for manpower and has a positive effect on cost. From the past to the present, architectural structures have been made by man-power. On the other hand, the effects of robotics systems in the construction have been observed in recent years. Especially with the usage of 3-dimensional printers and building materials, the construction time is shortened and large financial gains have begun. The use of technology is also seen in the field of interior architecture. By means of machine learning and deep learning algorithms, different furniture and home decorations have been selected according to the dimensions of the room. For example, the algorithm chooses the highest accuracy to have the best visualization and usage area of the furniture to be selected considering the room size and shape. In this paper, it is aimed to map the interior decoration environment through the LIDAR. It is clear that it is difficult to take measurements and prepare plans with traditional methods. The LIDAR, an advanced laser distance measuring sensor, measures the distance as a result of returning the beam spread by itself. The time of LIDAR measurement can be as short as 1 minute. Although it is not a millimeter, it is possible to map draft plans and space sizes in a very short time. Using the Hector Mapping algorithm, a house mapped with LIDAR was found to give high results in terms of accuracy, while it was found to be a great gain in terms of time. The house was fully mapped and the reference door width was entered and the place was made ready for interior decoration.
 
This study aimed at investigating the effect of molasses on the workability of concrete with Saw Dust Ash (SDA) as partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in normal strength concrete of C25/30. Concrete samples with varying percentages of SDA, Molasses by weight of cement was made, cured at 28 days and tested for workability and strength. Results of the study indicated that the slump values increased linearly with increase in percentage of molasses from 0.1% to 0.20% respectively. The 0.15% of molasses added to 10% replacement of cement with SDA gave a slump of 110 mm along with the highest Cylinder strength result of 30.2 Mpa at 28days. From the study, it was seen that the slump values remained in the range of 100-110mm for 0.10% and 0.15% of molasses added and this implied that molasses can maintain acceptable workability of concrete up to 0.15% by mass of cement.
 
The paper refers to the analysis of flow fields inside a vaned diffuser and performance assessment of a laboratory-type centrifugal pump operating with air. The study deals with numerical simulation of the flow at design flow rate, with focus on velocity and pressure distributions across a diffuser passage. The aim is to highlight the flow structure how it leaves the impeller and evolves through the diffuser to understand the mechanism of pressure recovery. The performance assessment consists of evaluating diffuser effectiveness. The numerical results are compared to experimental measurements for validation.
 
The Simulation Model of the Proposed MLI
THD of Voltage of a Resistive Load (R=10 Ω) Connected at the Output of the Proposed MLI
Harmonic Spectrum of (a) Vand (b) Current of Resistive Load (R = 10 Ω) at í µí±š í µí±Ž = 0.1
In recent years, multi-level inverters have emerged as a feasible power conversion solution for medium and high power applications due to better harmonic performance and ability to operate at high voltage/power when compared to traditional two-level inverters. Since the output level of the multi-level inverters depends on the number of the switching elements, as more levels are required, more switching elements are used. This situation makes the circuit and the control design complex and the losses to upsurge. To overcome these limitations and produce low harmonic content at the output, reduced switch count topologies are popular. In this study, a single-phase asymmetric hybrid multi-level inverter is proposed by combining diode clamped and cascaded H-bridge topologies. The inputs of the proposed inverter are selected as two unequal DC voltage sources. In this regard, fewer switching elements are used to obtain the same number of voltage levels at the output when compared to traditional multi-level inverters. The efficiency and the harmonic performance of the proposed topology is both verified by simulation and experimental studies. The gating signals of the semiconductor switches are produced by phase disposition pulse width modulation with carriers’ frequency of 4 kHz. It is shown by the experiments that a maximum efficiency of 94 % and a total harmonic distortion of 29 % are attained in the case studies.
 
The General Electric Company Of Libya (GECOL) suffers from power theft phenomenon which is considered as one of the main causes that leads to the load shading problems. This work proposes a system that provides a solution to this problem. Power theft occurs mainly by premises that require a high power consumption like houses, factories and farms. The system automatically detects the illegal users by placing a current sensor on an energy meter that supplies a certain area with electricity. The sensor will assist in the distinction of the illegal consumption. It will be connected to the Arduino to compare the sensed value that represents the actual consumption with the specified consumption value set by GECOL which is stored in the Microcontroller memory. The Arduino is interfaced between the energy meter, current sensor, voltage sensor, and relay. The proposed model is simulated by Proteus as the 1 KW distribution line with three loads. Power system output checks continuously the status of the user connection and displays which line got power theft. Once power theft detected the system is cutting the user connection using relay as a punishment. Then the system is enabling the user connection again. The system can also sends a notification message to inform GECOL that there is an additional unexpected consumption detected in that particular energy meter. As a result, GECOL can ensure weather this detected power is authorized by the company.
 
River bank erosion can cause undesired river bank expansion, distortion of the river course thereby slowing the river velocity and hindering the water carrying capacity of the river. Slow velocity of the river course can result in fast sediment accretion and accumulation at the bottom of the river. If these trends are not checked, the river may wind down and at best begin to become a delta at its middle course. The focus of this study is to apply GIS and analytical RUSLE equation to estimate soil loss within the Nun Basin. Core sediment samples were collected from relatively undisturbed areas (nine different stations) using Uwitec Triple sediment cutter. The sediment samples were processed in the lab for sediment particle size analysis (PSA) and Pb-210 atmospheric deposition with age using alpha spectrophotometer. Spatial rainfall data of the study location were employed to generate the rainfall erosivity map in order to determine the erosivity factor (R). Particle size distribution analysis was validated using Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was employed to create the soil erodibility map which was subsequently used to determine the erodibility factor (K). The cover management factor (P) was determined using the land use land cover map and the resulting data were then employed to model the river bank erosion around the study area. Result of the study revealed that the maximum annual average soil loss rate was estimated to be 0.66 tons/ha. /year around the Nun River based on GIS application using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE).
 
Integrating higher shares energy mix of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies, such as wind and solar PV, in the energy transition process presents many challenges in its operation. One of the required services needed in this activity is the Primary Frequency Regulation (PFR). Many studies have studied various ways to provide PFR services, such as using the Conventional Generating Unit (CGU) and Lithium Battery Energy Storage (LiBESS). This paper presents several battery sizing methods used for comparison between the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of a CGU and the Levelized Cost of Storage (LCOS) of a LiBESS, which used as PFR of a VRE penetrated grid system in a case study: the grid of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. The results show that the LCOE of LiBESS is still below the LCOE of the CGU, but for projections in 2030, the LCOS LiBESS shows a competitive number compared to the LCOE of CGU.
 
Photocatalysis has the best potential to replace the traditional wastewater treatment techniques such as activated carbon adsorption, chemical oxidation, and biological treatment. Photocatalysis is a combination of a catalyst semiconductor is titanium dioxide TiO2 with an ultraviolet light source as the sun. It has the added advantage of not introducing additives in the medium to be treated. However, when applied in slurry form, agglomeration of nanoparticle will lead to serious decrease in photocatalytic performance due to hinderance effect. Further, the present study has made an effort to use a support for the immobilization of catalyst for treating the pesticide polluted water by photocatalytic degradation. In the present paper, we present the performance of 2 kinds of Titanium dioxide (Commercial Media Ahlstrom and impregned TiO2 on glass) as photocatlytic support in fixed bed reactor for the degradation of Metribuzin herbicide under solar radiation. The degradation Performance was studied under various conditions such as substrate and pH solution. Solar photocatalytic degradation rate can reach 100% during 180 min of treatment with using TiO2 immobilized on commercial support media 1048.
 
GIS map of the study area
GIS map of locations of a) wastewater and b) plant species samples collected
ICP results of the soil samples collected around Al-Buraihi sewage station
Pearson correlation test for common parameters of Soil and plant samples collected around at Al-Buraihi sewage station
Soil pollution or soil contamination is an important environmental concern that causes health for both flora and fauna worldwide. The majority of pollutants have anthropogenic origins. However, some contaminants can occur naturally in soils as components of minerals and can be toxic at high concentrations. The biological materials like microorganisms, plants and animals have been studied to be used in biomonitoring of pollution. Plants are important bioindicators for heavy metals environmental pollution. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), an animal fodder in Yemen, has been used in this study as a bioindicator for monitoring soil pollution around Al-Buraihi sewage station, Taiz, Yemen, using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. The concentrations of Cr and Pb were acceptable in all samples according to FAO and WHO, while those of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn were exceeding the limits of WHO in all plant species samples and accordingly recommended not to be used as animal fodder.
 
Buildings consume significant amount of energy to keep interior environment at comfort conditions. Most heat losses occur in building envelope, causing the interior comfort conditions to be affected negatively. This leads buildings to consume more energy for keeping interior temperature at comfort level. This paper aims to propose building envelope details that limits the energy consumption and meets the required thermal comfort conditions for Erzurum city, locating at the coldest region in Turkey, and Mardin city, locating at the warmest region in Turkey. There is limited information about energy conservation of buildings in Erzurum city, and comparing of modern and traditional materials’ performances for both warm and cold regions in Turkey. Traditional buildings in Erzurum and Mardin cities have been constructed mostly as masonry which is traditional construction technic, whereas modern buildings are mostly built as reinforced concrete structural system. In this paper, the effect of building envelope on thermal performance has been analyzed for Erzurum and Mardin cities. 25 different building envelope detail alternatives, made up of modern and traditional materials with different insulation and covering materials, have been designed. Reinforced concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete and perforated brick have been chosen as a core material for modern building envelope details, whereas masonry stone, adobe brick and wooden frame have been chosen for traditional building envelope details. In the second part of study, different building envelope alternatives have been modelled in Design Builder software with Energy Plus simulation engine. Heating, cooling and total energy loads of these alternatives have been calculated for Erzurum and Mardin cities. The results of simulation are provided along with the evaluation and comparison. It was showed that adobe brick alternative has the lowest total energy consumption among all building envelope alternatives for both cities.
 
One of the most common crucial cancer that occur in femal is the ovarian cancer. Approximately evaluated new cases 21,550 and deaths 14,600 from ovarian cancer in the America in 2009. "Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 1" HER2 it's once of agents stands and is a protein show higher rate of offensive in ovarian cancer. HER2 most famous protein which target in Herceptin therapy of ovarian cancer in metastatic status in case the tumor resulting of protein over expression. FISH technique used on TMA with HER2 specific probes it is the most commonly prove method had been use and have important role in analysis for HER2 status revelation and copy number changes. In this study we detected HER2 overexpression and cytogenetic analysis in ovarian cancer patients by using new technology tissue microarrays (TMA) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). In tumors with low malignant potential there is no amplification also that we are found in Benign ovarian tumors. While we notice that HER2 increase in malignancies tumor, low malignant ovarian tumors and finally in benign ovarian tumors. In conclusion conceder the detecting and simultaneous quantification of HER2 overexpression gene by means of FISH assay, might enable the showing of a more precise stratification of ovarian cancer patients.
 
The current paper described an experimental investigation about the effect of fiber orientation angle on the crashworthiness characteristics of carbon/epoxy fiber reinforced composite pipes subjected to quasi-static axial compression. The samples, having three different fiber orientation angles as ± (40°), ± (55°) and ± (70°), were fabricated by filament winding technique. Crushing parameters, in terms of load-displacement response, load carrying capacity, energy absorption capability and mean crushing stress, were determined for each sample. The results showed that the fiber orientation angle were found to have significant influences on crashworthiness of composite pipes. The increase in fiber orientation angle resulted with decrease in energy absorption capability and increase in crushing load efficiency. In the view of specific energy absorption aspect, minimum value of 32.20 J/g was obtained in ± (70°) fiber orientation and improvements up to 46% were achieved by increasing in orientation angle. Also, detailed investigations on fracture mechanisms were performed to understand failure modes. All samples were exhibited the progressive crushing in types of lamina bending or brittle fracturing.
 
Twitter sentimental analysis is the way to examine polarity in tweeted opinions. The computational process involves implementing machine learning classifiers to categorize the tweets into positive, negative and neutral sentiments. To identify a suitable classifier for the task is a prime issue. In this paper we have presented the performance comparison of base classification techniques like Decision Tree, Random Forest, Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbour and Logistic Regression on analysis of tweets. The results thus obtained show Logistic Regression analyze tweets with highest accuracy rate of 86.51% and the least performer comes out to be K-Nearest Neighbour with an average accuracy rate of 50.40%.
 
Columns, being a very important component of the building structure, are required to be strong enough and also sufficiently deformable to withstand all possible static and dynamic loads to maintain the integrity of the structure throughout their entire life. The strength and the deformability of the columns can be increased by confining the concrete with lateral reinforcements provided in the form of the spirals, hoops or ties. Several experimental and analytical studies have been carried out by various researchers over the years to determine the extent of improvement that can be made to the strength and ductility of the columns, subjected to concentric loading, by confining them using lateral reinforcements. In the present study three-dimensional finite element models of confined concrete columns have been made using ANSYS and analyzed under the application of static concentric loading to find out the effects of lateral confinement. Suitable material models for both concrete and steel have been chosen and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of laterally confined three-dimensional concrete column models have been carried out. The numerical methodology, at first, has been verified against previous experimental results. Then different types of lateral confinements have been modeled and the stress-strain responses and the complex stress distribution patterns have been studied and compared to find out the better type of confinement.
 
1 H NMR spectrum of 2-[(1Z)-N-hydroxyethanimidoyl] quinoline-4-carboxylic acid.
LC-MS studies of 2-[(1Z)-N-hydroxyethanimidoyl] quinoline-4-carboxylic acid
BET specific surface area of ZnO coated films
Current-voltage curves (Jsc-V) for the ZL0, ZL10, ZL40 and ZL50 samples.
The one side selective synthesis of quinoline carboxylic acid oxime complex was carried out successfully. The as-prepared quinoline carboxylic acid oxime complex was complexed with nickel (II) salts to form nickel (II) oxime complex. These complexes were further adsorbed onto ZnO films containing ZnO nanoparticles of various sizes. ZnO films containing a diverse proportion of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell. The as-synthesized complex was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Ultra violet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1Hydrogen Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR), Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and Attenuated total reflection Infra-red spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The combination of large and small ZnO nanoparticles has significantly improves the photovoltaic efficiency. The optimum mixing ratio for the best performance (0.127%) of a dye-sensitized solar cell is achieved by mixing the small: large ZnO particles in a ratio 60:40. The increased efficiency is due to the harvesting of light caused by scattering effect from larger sized ZnO particles. The ZnO layer consisting of smaller particles which are very next to the ZnO bigger particles makes a good electronic contact between film electrode and the Indium-doped tin oxide glass substrate resulting in the increases in the dye molecules adsorption. The over-layered, large-sized ZnO particles enhance the light-harvesting by light scattering effect. Compared to the other mixtures of ZnO films, there is a decrease in the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell when ZnO particles (small and large in a ratio 1:1) were adsorbed onto the Ni (II) oxime complex, which are caused due to the decrease in the surface area and dye aggregation.
 
In this article, we develop a new algebraic public key cryptosystem, which is based on generally non-commutative ring. Firstly, we define the polynomials over the non-commutative rings and then take it as underlying work structure. The hard problem of the scheme is the mixture of matrix discrete log problem under modular classes and polynomial symmetric decomposition problem. Using matrices of higher order and large modular classes resist the brute force and other well-known attacks exists in the literature. We also discuss the computational complexity of proposed scheme. On the other hand, we propose a signature scheme over a non-commutative division semiring. The key idea behind the signature scheme is that, for a given non-commutative division semiring, we build a polynomial and then implement digital signatures on multiplicative structure of semiring.
 
Mean visit duration.
Purchased Customer Flows.
Non-Purchased Customer Flows.
A sample of event log
customer paths can be used for several purposes, such as understanding customer needs, defining bottlenecks, improving system performance. Two of the principal difficulties depend on discovering customer paths due to dynamic human behaviors and collecting reliable tracking data. Although machine learning methods have contributed to individual tracking, they have complex iterations and problems to produce understandable visual results. Process mining is a methodology that can rapidly create process flows and graphical representations. In this study, customer flows are created with process mining in a supermarket. The differences between the paths of customers purchased and non-purchased are discussed. The results show that both groups have almost similar visit duration, which is 87.5 minutes for purchased customers and 86.6 minutes for non-purchased customers. However, the duration of aisles is relatively small in non-purchased customer flows because customers aim to return or change the item instead of buying.
 
Chemical composition of API 5L X42 carbon steel
Improve the reliability of the gas and oil transportation process is a primary objective of the pipeline designers because it interests the safety of the goods and the people, the availability and the performance of pipelines as well as the economy of the hydrocarbon transport. Corrosion is a present phenomenon that occurs inside and outside of buried pipes, causing the pipeline to be pierced, leading to gas and oil leaks and causes consequences of the major economic losses. In this context, our study focused on the corrosion monitoring of metals used in the transport of hydrocarbons by two approaches based on electrochemical techniques. Monitoring the evolution of the corrosion potential using an elaborated reference instead of a commercial reference electrode, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with the gravimetric method. The obtained results showed the efficiency of our approach for the realization of a corrosion sensor intended for the monitoring of corrosion in pipelines.
 
Top-cited authors
Andrzej Baier
  • Silesian University of Technology
Paweł Żur
Alicja Żur
  • Silesian University of Technology
Muhamnad Irfan
  • Macquarie University
Shoaib Saleem
  • University of Management and Technology, Sialkot