In this study, metal matrix composite is fabricated on 1100 Aluminium alloy by multi pass friction stir processing using different reinforcement particles namely Fly Ash, Palm Kernel Shell Ash, Ti62222 and 304 Stainless steel. Metal matrix composites with average grain size of 6.5 μm are achieved. The addition of reinforcements at the stir zone has enhanced the mechanical properties of the 1100 Al alloy, finer grain structure is also evident after three cumulative passes. Higher strength ranging from 268 to 454 MPa is achieved. Microhadrness of the developed metal matrix composites reinforced with various particles exhibits an improved average microhardness values that ranges from 75 to 95 HV. 304 stainless steel serves as the best reinforcement to be used, offering higher hardness values and good tensile strength of 454.18MPa. The sets of new alloys fabricated in this study can be considered for typical surface engineering applications
The paper presents research on the method of 3D-printing ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Series of specimens were 3D-printed in FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology with variable parameters. The influence of the following parameters has been checked: temperature of printing and infill density. Moreover, the material properties of raw, unprocessed ABS have been inspected. The tensile strength of specimens and Young’s modulus have been determined in a static tensile test. Tests were carried out in compliance with the ASTM D638-14 standard. Obtained results were then compared with the material datasheet. Optimum printing method has been defined. The carried out research resulted in optimizing the printing method for ABS vehicle parts applied in Silesian Greenpower electric car. The car has been developed by students of The Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland as an interfaculty students’ project. Results of the tensile test research have been analysed and discussed and conclusions have been presented in the following article.
The paper presents optimization of the weight of elements printed in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. For this purpose, the static bending test was carried out. Thetest was carried out in compliance with PN-EN ISO 178:2011 standard. Samples were made of polylactide (PLA). The influence of such parameters as filling density and type of filling or its orientation was examined. The collected data allowed to calculate the maximum stresses in the material used to improve the Silesian Greenpower car. Compared infill patterns and their density allowed to choose the optimal printing method.
The paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of 3D-printed parts and further shape optimization. Information obtained from the static bending test allowed to carry out the FEM analysis in Siemens NX software with Nastran module. The first part of the research was a comparative analysis of FEM analysis of a single specimen with real-life data collected for polylactide (PLA) specimens made in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. Next step was FEM analysis of a PLA brake lever which is used in Silesian Greenpower electric vehicle. Silesian Greenpower team uses 3D-printing for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of customized parts of almost any shape for their car. Purpose of the Finite Element Analysis was shape optimization of the lever in order to ensure adequate safety and ergonomics of use. The strains during its operation should not exceed the maximum permissible for the material used. As this is a key element of safety, a safety factor of level 3 has been adopted. FEM analysis contributed to weight reduction and shape optimization to withstand applied forces.
Polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid nanoparticles (PEG-PLA NPs) represent a new generation of parenteral therapeutics systems. Following administration, these NPs possess the potential to interact with biological machinery. Therefore, it is essential to get a systematic understanding of the biological fate of these NPs to evaluate their safety. In the present study, two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) of technetium-99m labeled PEG-PLA NPs were administered intravenous (i.v.) and oral into mice and the distribution was assessed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post administration. Biodistribution and blood kinetic profiles revealed the extended systemic circulation of the NPs. Dose-dependent presence of NPs (p<0.05) was detected in the blood, liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of i.v. injected mice, and also in the blood, lung, spleen, stomach, and intestine of oral administered mice. The consequences of NP interaction with the biological components were studied by measurement of hematology, oxidative stress, genotoxic and histological parameters. Significantly increased levels of oxidative stress markers such as glutathione were observed in the liver, and spleen of i.v. injected mice and liver, stomach, and intestine of orally treated mice. Decreased lipid peroxidation levels (p<0.05) were observed in the liver of orally treated mice versus untreated mice. Even though PEG-PLA NPs have been shown to induce oxidative DNA damage, interestingly no histological lesions were observed in selected organs except lung of i.v. treated mice, which showed moderate vascular congestion. Such insights on in vivo distribution and understanding of nano-bio interactions at molecular and genetic levels are considered fundamental for the designing of safer nanoparticles for biomedical applications.
The rapid advances in Computing, Communications, and Information Technologies have had tremendous impacts on various aspects of the lives of vast sections of humanity in such a short time. They have (a) created numerous kinds of new jobs, (b) made several other kinds of jobs to disappear due the kinds of automation they have created, and (c) transformed many professions based on their penetration in various facets of workflow. While these technological advances have resulted in many benefits to our society, they have also created many problems. Also, there are several other more prevalent problems in today’s society than in the past, and the advances of technologies have yet to be put to effective use to solve them. These technological advances and their effects on our lives, on the jobs landscape, and the demands on these technologies to solve societal problems are expected to grow further in the near future. In the wake of these, from a higher education point of view, there are tremendous challenges in keeping the curricula in the Computing/IT disciplines up-to-date and relevant. In this paper, we will (a) briefly trace the major milestones in the developments of Computing, Communications, and Information Technologies, (b) give an overview of the current pressing societal problems, (c) present the projected trends in jobs landscape, and (d) outline some ways of keeping curricula in Computing/IT relevant in the wake of the challenges.
The behavioral study of non-Newtonian fluids with heat transfer is a very active field of research. Researchers are more interested in the heat developed in cylindrical pipes, in forced convection. We were interested in this thermal transfer work during a flow of a non-Newtonian fluid which is an aqueous Agar Agar solution, through a cylindrical heating pipe and horizontal heat flux imposed in a capillary installation.
At the present time, a lot of laboratory measurement and evaluation approaches exist for investigation of aggregate texture, which is necessary to assecurate a basic level of friction between tire and asphalt pavement. In this contribution, two laboratory methods based on three dimensional and two dimensional analyses of aggregate texture investigation are presented. The values of three dimensional texture parameter were compared with the values of the two dimensional texture parameters. The measurements by both these methods were performed on the same grains of aggregates. Three dimensional evaluation outputs were obtained from measurement by optical microscope method and two dimensional evaluation outputs were obtained from measurement by profilometry method. All of analyzed aggregate texture parameters (three dimensional and two dimensional) give information about texture depth and therefore can be compared to each other. Parameters of regression and correlation analysis were used to find relation between the three dimensional and two dimensional texture parameters and obtained results were analyzed and discussed.
Asphalt pavement micro texture values primarily depend on aggregate properties used in asphalt pavement mixture and by aggregate surfaces is secured the basic contact medium with vehicle tires. It often happens that new asphalt surfaces have not required skid resistance properties and is needed a certain period of time to eliminate film of bitumen binder which is coating the aggregate grain on the surface of pavement by action of vehicles. In most cases, the investigation of the aggregate micro texture impact on the pavement skid resistance properties is carried out under laboratory conditions and generally relates only to measurements on natural aggregate samples (without bitumen). However, due to coating of aggregate by bitumen binder, valleys between the individual peaks of aggregate are filled. Obviously, it can be supposed that the usage of high amount of bitumen content can leads to decreasing of aggregate micro texture values. From this point of view, it can be expected that change in micro texture values depends on the content of binder in the asphalt mixture. Particular aggregate grains were taken from asphalt mixtures samples (AC 8, AC 11 and SMA 11) produced in the laboratory, in order to determine the impact of aggregate coating by bitumen binder on micro texture change. Each usage asphalt mixture was produced with three different bitumen binder contents. Digital image analysis method was used for subsequent evaluation. Changes in the micro texture values depending on the amount of used bitumen binder and also on the calculated theoretical bitumen film thickness are investigated in the conclusion.
The danger of shooting civil aircrafts with artillery units is increasing day by day due to the number of war and skirmish zones in the world. Considering the danger of shooting a civilian aircraft, a safe flight zone must be defined for civilian aircrafts. Data mining techniques can quickly and accurately identify safe flight zones. In this study, we firstly discover the civilian aircraft busy routes using a novel dataset and several clustering algorithms. We perform a comparison among algorithms based on their ability to create air corridors.
Keywords: Clustering, Air Corridors, DBSCAN, HDBSCAN, OPTICS
A MATLAB model was built for the preparation of initial designs for the establishment of an EAHE system for the purpose of heating and cooling buildings. The purpose of creating this model is to save time and effort by creating a new model capable of providing us and specialized designers with initial perceptions of the size of the appropriate system for the functional requirements for the purpose of cooling and heating buildings. A parametric analysis was then performed to evaluate and investigate the factors affecting the efficiency of the EAHE system. It was found that the pipe diameter is directly proportional to the pipe length, and inversely to the airflow velocity, pressure losses, and AFP. Airflow velocity reduced from 77.05 m/s to 0.1926 m/s, and AFP decreased from 9223 W to 0.058 W when diameter increased from 0.1 m to 2 m. The inlet air temperature affects the length of the pipe in four phases, it is inversely proportional in the first and third phases and directly in the second and fourth phases. These phases depend on the values of soil, inlet, and outlet temperature. This paper presents new equations to determine these phases to determine excluded range which is recommended should not use an inlet air temperature value through this range. The pipe number is directly proportional to pipe length. Pipe length increased from 57.16 m to 344.9 m when the pipe number increased from 1 to 10 pipes. The number of pipes has no influence on the overall airflow velocity or total heat transfer. The length of the pipe is directly proportional to the soil temperature in the first and third phases and inversely proportional in the second and fourth phases. Designers could get an idea of this range by utilizing the equations presented in this paper. There is no direct effect between the soil temperature and power, but rather it affects it through the length of the pipe, as it is directly proportional to pipe length.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), is considered to be the most common viral pathogen found in bovine. Virus enters through aerosol route or by direct contact with the nasal secretion in case of respiratory tract infection and by direct contact or by semen containing virus in case of genital infection. For the first time in Albania, this study was conducted to know the status of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibodies in the bovines of the selected area of Albania. Antibody level was measured using a commercial indirect ELISA. A total of 263 collected serum samples from 7 areas of Albania were subjected to serum neutralization test for detection of BHV-1 antibodies by using of Indirect-ELISA kits. The chi-square test was used for comparison of results between regions and in this study p Values>0.01 was considered statistically no-significant at the 0.01 level. From these results we had an indication about the antibody prevalence of IBR infection respectively, 96% in Terpan-Berat, 52% in Fejza-Has, 50% in Kavajë, 33% in Rrëshen, 14.3% in Guras-Pogradec, 10% in Drenovë-Korçë and 0% in Fier. The prevalence was ranged from 10% to 96% among seropositive herds in this study. In conclusion, results of this study clearly established for the first time that BHV-1 is subclinical prevalent virus in bovine in Albania. Further studies are needed to prevent the spread of this viral infection in Albania.BHV-1
This research work propounds and analyses the comparison of solution to the issue of height adjustment of tool in four way tool post. The customary way of tool lifting in tool post to centre of work i.e. by adding/removing metal packing, is altered by introducing a design alternative for tool lifting, an upgradation in the former proposed design named solid double cone threaded pin (SDCTP). It is explicitly studied to investigate its limitation and scope for further design amendments. In the premise, a revised design is proposed including modifications named as solid cone threaded pin (SCTP) and is fabricated along with its assembly. Mathematical calculations of least count and screw thread analysis are performed on both the pins. Finite element analysis on CREO is executed to calculate stresses induced for diverse loads to analyze pin failure conditions. The results of new modified design is compared with the erstwhile concluding that SCTP design is preferable over SDCTP design entailing precise tool adjustment, saving time and higher efficiency in machining operations. The paper subsequently explores conventional tool lifting method and its shortfall, shortcomings of former design, revised design and its comparison, fabrication of revised design, conclusions and future ambit.
The application of aluminum foam materials is increasing rapidly due to the high demand during the last decades. This research presents an overview of the characteristics and architectural applications of aluminum foam materials. Moreover, it represents the most relevant properties, in particular, physical and mechanical aspects and figures out the prospects and growth rate of these materials in architectures by considering the economic benefits. Besides, based on these specific characterizations, the most valuable applications along with advantageous in architectural works are discussed.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant regular type of dementia that causes damage in brain cells. Early detection of AD acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. Our proposed model in the first stage, apply the medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS) to extract new features for select the best features to improve the performance of the classification process due to eliminating obscures. In the second stage, we applied a dataset to a stacked hybrid classification system to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. All experiments conducted on a laptop with an Intel Core i7- 8750H CPU at 2.2 GHz and 16 G of ram running on windows 10 (64 bits). The dataset evaluated using an explorer set of WEKA data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction performs better than proncipal component analysis (PCA), and lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art result. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was equal to 95.5%. Also, the experiment on MRI images Kaggle dataset of CNN classification process with 80.21% accuracy result. The results of the proposed model show an accurate classify Alzheimer's clinical samples against MRI neuroimaging for diagnoses AD at a low cost.
A hybrid thermal management system (TMS) for high power lithium-ion battery modules of EVs with low energy consumption and high reliability was tested under a real state driving condition. An experimental investigation was performed to compare the hybrid TMS with an active air-cooling and a passive TMSs. We employed all three TMSs in standard weather condition of 24 °C. For dynamic mode, a study of driving cycle in comparison with US, Europe, and Japan driving cycle data was conducted to perform a dynamic model based on a high traffic city to challenge our TMSs in a real driving state including high and standard discharge rate and a stop mode in which there was no air convection. The results showed that just in the hybrid TMS, the cell surface could reach a steady state under 60 °C while the active TMS could keep temperature only for three cycles. Furthermore, our test proved that the proposed hybrid TMS maintains outstanding reliability and efficiency in the hot weather condition of 40 °C.
The hydrodynamic/water quality model is an important tool in water environment management. It is used to gain a deeper understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes and to develop models capable to represent surface waters with realism. A hydrodynamic model can give essential data to sediment, noxious, and eutrophication modelling. Models enable decision-makers to select alternatives for water quality management that are superior and more scientifically justifiable. They also provide a basis for economic analysis to evaluate environmental significance and cost-benefit ratio. The presented study reviewed a variety of research that used various techniques for surface water modeling. The first section focused on the studies conducted on the Shatt Al Arab River and its branches in Basrah province southern Iraq. The second section included studies conducted on various local and global applied cases. As for the third section, it reviewed the studies that used the method of linking models to produce a more effective system, which is the approach we recommend using it in building a comprehensive model of the Shatt al-Arab river. The model will connect the HEC-RAS software, which is known for its competence in modeling complex two-dimensional situations, with the WASP program, which has a high ability to represent a wide range of water pollutants that HEC-RAS cannot represent, especially in a two-dimensional model.
Together with the developing technology, robotic systems are used in many areas such as defence technologies, manufacturing industry, search and rescue. The integration of these systems into different areas decreases the need for manpower and has a positive effect on cost. From the past to the present, architectural structures have been made by man-power. On the other hand, the effects of robotics systems in the construction have been observed in recent years. Especially with the usage of 3-dimensional printers and building materials, the construction time is shortened and large financial gains have begun. The use of technology is also seen in the field of interior architecture. By means of machine learning and deep learning algorithms, different furniture and home decorations have been selected according to the dimensions of the room. For example, the algorithm chooses the highest accuracy to have the best visualization and usage area of the furniture to be selected considering the room size and shape. In this paper, it is aimed to map the interior decoration environment through the LIDAR. It is clear that it is difficult to take measurements and prepare plans with traditional methods. The LIDAR, an advanced laser distance measuring sensor, measures the distance as a result of returning the beam spread by itself. The time of LIDAR measurement can be as short as 1 minute. Although it is not a millimeter, it is possible to map draft plans and space sizes in a very short time. Using the Hector Mapping algorithm, a house mapped with LIDAR was found to give high results in terms of accuracy, while it was found to be a great gain in terms of time. The house was fully mapped and the reference door width was entered and the place was made ready for interior decoration.