European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Published by Springer Nature

Online ISSN: 1432-1041


Print ISSN: 0031-6970


0.25% Prednicarbate cream and the corresponding vehicle induce less skin atrophy than 0.1% Betamethasone-17-valerate cream and 0.05% Clobetasol-17-propionate cream
  • Article

February 1992


60 Reads

H C Korting


D Vieluf


The atrophogenic potential of medium-potent topical glucocorticoids is still controversial. In a double-blind controlled trial 24 healthy volunteers either applied 0.25% prednicarbate cream or the corresponding vehicle to one and 0.1% betamethasone-17-valerate cream or 0.05% clobetasol-17-propionate cream to the other forearm twice daily. Skin thickness was regularly assessed during the six week period of application and for further three weeks thereafter, using both the B- and A-mode of a 20 MHz ultrasound scanner. Both betamethasone-17-valerate and clobetasol-17-propionate cream significantly reduced skin thickness as compared to cream base while prednicarbate cream did not. Given that 0.1% betamethasone-17-valerate- and 0.25% prednicarbate cream are reported to be about equipotent in the treatment of atopic eczema the latter preparation shows an increased ratio between its desired anti-inflammatory and its unwanted atrophogenic effect.

Plasma concentrations of bupivacaine after wound infiltration of an 0.5% solution after inguinal herniorrhaphy: a preliminary study

February 1993


47 Reads

H Kastrissios


E J Triggs


F Sinclair




After routine inguinal herniorrhaphy we gave 12 patients a wound infiltration regimen of bolus doses of 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine via a catheter within the wound and rectally administered indomethacin (100 mg). Peak venous plasma bupivacaine concentrations ranged from 0.07 mg·l−1 to 1.14mg·l−1 (mean (SD) 0.47 (0.33) mg·l−1), and occurred at between 0.25 and 2 h after the first dose. Plasma concentrations were well below the toxic threshold of 4 mg·l−1 and there was no accumulation. The regimen provided satisfactory analgesia. There were no wound infections nor signs of toxicity.

Evaluation of the effect of thymoxamine solution 0.5% on mydriasis induced by ibopamine solution 1%

February 1993


18 Reads

The effects of thymoxamine 0.5% solution and of a placebo solution (mannitol) on the mydriasis induced by ibopamine 1% solution were evaluated in 8 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with eye diseases. One drop of ibopamine was instilled into each eye and 30 min later 1 drop of thymoxamine was instilled into one eye and 1 drop of placebo into the contralateral eye. Pupillary diameter was measured before and 30 min after the instillation of ibopamine, immediately before the treatment with thymoxamine and placebo and 30, 60 and 90 min after the instillation of thymoxamine or of placebo. Within 30 min of treatment, ibopamine had produced a statistically and clinically significant mydriatic effect. In eyes treated with thymoxamine, prompt reversal of mydriasis was observed, the baseline diameter being observed within 60 min. No difference in the time-course of the mydriatic effect was detected between healthy subjects and patients. The pupillary response to thymoxamine was not influenced by the colour of the iris. The tolerability of ibopamine and of thymoxamine was good. No local or systemic adverse events were seen or reported.

Residual effects of repeated doses of 0.5 and 1 mg flunitrazepam

February 1982


39 Reads

9 normal subjects were tested on a large battery of tests the morning after a hypnotic dose of flunitrazepam (0.5 mg and 1 mg) and a placebo. Each drug was given for 8 nights and assessments were made 10 and 13 h later on days 1, 4 and 8. Self-ratings of sleep were made every morning. The tests comprised mood and bodily symptom self-ratings, taping rate, visual reaction time, symbol copying and substitution tests, critical flicker fusion threshold, digit span and cancellation test. The EEG was recorded under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and analysed using broad waveband filters. Subjectively, the 0.5 mg dose was associated with increased alertness, contentment and calmness, the 1 mg dose with minimal decrease in alertness and contentment. Sleep onset was accelerated by flunitrazepam initially but effects on quality of sleep were not major due to subject selection. The 1 mg dose occasionally impaired performance on tapping, symbol copying and substitution and critical flicker fusion. The 0.5 mg dose marginally impaired symbol substitution and improved symbol copying. The EEG showed definite dose-related effects which tended to increase over the 8 nights of ingestion of the drug. It is concluded that whereas the 1 mg dose may sometimes be associated with definite residual effects the next day, the 0.5 mg dose possesses positive qualities in producing useful subjective effects the next day without appreciable impairment of psychological performance.

Haemodilution therapy in ischaemic stroke: Plasma concentrations and plasma viscosity during long-term infusion of dextran 40 or hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5

February 1987


10 Reads

In 21 patients with ischaemic strokes we have monitored plasma viscosity, total plasma concentration, numeric average molecular weight (Mn), and weight average molecular weight (Mw) of Dextran 40 (dextran) and hydroxyethylstarch 200/0.5 (HES) during 10 days of treatment (days 1-4, 2 X 500 ml; days 5-10, 1 X 500 ml). Plasma concentrations of dextran increased during the first 4 days (8.3 mg X ml-1 on the first day to 18.0 mg X ml-1 on the fifth day), reached an apparent steady state of 17.2 mg X ml-1 during the next 6 days, and declined subsequently with a half-time (t1/2) of 4.03 days. After ten days treatment Mn and Mw were shifted towards higher values. Plasma viscosity increased from 1.26 mPas to 1.69 mPas on Day 10 (p less than 0.01) and was linearly correlated with the total plasma concentration of dextran (p less than 0.001; r = 0.88). Total plasma concentrations of HES averaged 11.7 mg X ml-1 on Day 1 and 12.4 mg X ml-1 on Day 5. The molecular weight distribution did not change during the infusions but decreased in comparison with the administered solution. Plasma viscosity fell from 1.40 mPas to 1.30 mPas at Day 10 (p less than 0.05) and was not related to the concentration of HES. The haemodiluting effect, as indicated by a decrease of the haematocrit, was 22% and 16.8% for dextran and HES respectively. These data suggest several advantages of HES compared with dextran in haemodilution therapy of ischaemic stroke.

Exposure equivalence between IV (0.8 mg/kg) and oral (1 mg/kg) busulfan in adult patients

June 2009


126 Reads

This study was conducted to retrospectively compare the area under the curve (AUC) and the total clearance of busulfan (Bu) following oral and intravenous (IV) administrations and to determine which intravenous dose generated equivalent exposure to that of the oral form that has been marketed for decades. Patient pharmacokinetics were assessed at dose 9 during a conditioning regimen for stem-cell transplantation and included data from 277 patients for oral Bu (71 from fixed-dose studies and 206 from studies with dose adjustment allowed) and 120 patients for IV Bu (fixed dose). AUCs were compared between patients with fixed dose of oral Bu (n = 71, 1 mg/kg) and those of IV Bu (n = 120, 0.8 mg/kg). Total clearances were calculated for all 277 patients with oral Bu and compared to those with IV Bu, with the ratio of IV-to-oral clearance representing the absolute bioavailability of the oral form. Oral and IV populations differed on disease-type distribution but presented comparable demography parameters. IV Bu dosing was mostly based on the ideal body weight index while actual body weight or adjusted ideal body weight indexes were mostly used for oral. When normalised to comparable indexes, bioequivalent AUCs were achieved between oral and IV populations. Oral Bu bioavailability was about 80% when calculated from the ratio of IV-to-oral total clearances. This retrospective study carried out on a large set of data showed that similar plasma exposures were achieved with 1.0 mg/kg oral Bu or 0.8 mg/kg IV Bu.

Antiepileptic drug use in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly: A nationwide study of over 1 300 000 older people

April 2011


20 Reads

To investigate whether institutionalization is associated with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and to compare the association between use of AEDs and psychotropics in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly, after adjustment for age, sex and co-morbidity (i.e. number of other drugs). We analyzed data on age, sex and dispensed drugs for individuals aged ≥65 years registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register from July to September 2008, record-linked to the Swedish Social Services Register (n = 1,345,273: 1,258,565 community-dwelling and 86 708 institutionalized elderly). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze whether institutionalization and use of psychotropics (i.e. antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives and antidepressants) were associated with the use of AEDs. AEDs were used by 2% of the community-dwelling and 9% of the institutionalized elderly. The most commonly used AEDs were carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Institutionalization was strongly associated with AED use (OR(adjusted) = 3.98; 95% CI 3.86-4.10). In community-dwelling elderly, AED use was associated with an increased probability of use of all types of psychotropics. However, among institutionalized elderly, the associations between use of AEDs and psychotropics showed a mixed pattern. AED use seems to be common among Swedish institutionalized elderly, and institutionalization is a strong determinant of AED use. Our results may also indicate an off-label prescribing of AEDs as an alternative to psychotropics in the institutional setting. This finding needs to be confirmed by others and evaluated with respect to outcomes of this treatment in institutionalized elderly.

Effect of a synthetic prostaglandin E2 analogue, RS-86505-007, on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia: efficacy and tolerance of treatment and response in different apolipoprotein polymorphism groups

February 1995


14 Reads

A double-blind, placebo-controlled ascending dose trial was carried out to evaluate the hypocholesterolaemic efficacy and tolerance of RS-86505-007, a prostaglandin E2 analogue, in moderately hypercholesterolaemic patients. Twenty-four patients received an oral dose of RS-86505-007 3 micrograms t.i.d. and a separate group of 26 patients 6 micrograms t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations decreased after 2 weeks of treatment, and the reductions were dose dependent. After 6 weeks of treatment (6 micrograms t.i.d.), the reductions from baseline in total and LDL cholesterol concentration were 14.6% and 18.5%, respectively. No changes in the plasma concentration of triglycerides or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were observed. RS-86505-007 tended to reduce total and LDL cholesterol concentrations less in patients with the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E than in those with epsilon 3 allele. In contrast, the XbaI or EcoRI polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene seemed to have no effect on the hypocholesterolaemic efficacy of the drug. The drug had no effect on the lipoprotein (a) concentration. Sixty-three percent of patients receiving 3 micrograms t.i.d. and 81% receiving 6 micrograms t.i.d. had adverse events, two-thirds of which related to the gastrointestinal tract. One patient in the 3-micrograms group and three patients in the 6-micrograms group terminated the study prematurely due to adverse effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Comments on Duran et al.'s systematic review of anticholinergic risk scales (EJCP 2DOI 10.1007/s00228-013-1499-3)
  • Article
  • Full-text available

June 2013


226 Reads


EPA-0298 – Pregabalin abuse among opiate addicted patients

August 2013


158 Reads

Pregabalin is a novel GABA-analogue approved for the treatment of partial onset seizures, neuropathic pain, and general anxiety disorder. Pregabalin has been classified as a Schedule V drug with a low risk of inflicting abuse or addiction. However, some publications have indicated that pregabalin may have a potential for abuse among patients with past or current opiate addiction. Thus, we hypothesized that pregabalin might be abused by patients who were undergoing an opiate replacement therapy and never had an indication for taking pregabalin on medical grounds. Urine specimens from 124 patients with opiate dependency syndrome and from 111 patients with other addiction disorders (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cannabis, amphetamines) were screened for pregabalin by means of a mass spectrometer analysis. We found 12.1 % of all urine specimens from patients with opiate addiction to be positive for pregabalin. None of the patients concerned had a medical indication for using pregabalin. In the control group, 2.7 % of the patients were tested positively for pregabalin, due to their taking it regularly for chronic pain or general anxiety. Our data suggest that pregabalin is liable to be abused among individuals with opiate dependency syndrome Thus, vigilance and caution are called for when patients with a past or current opiate dependency are exposed to treatment with pregabalin.

The pharmacokinetics of a new radiosensitiser, Ro 03-8799 in humans

February 1984


6 Reads

A new hypoxic cell radiosensitiser, Ro 03-8799 has been administered intravenously to human volunteers and its kinetic parameters derived from plasma and urine data. Good penetration of drug into tumour tissue is found, consistent with its large volume of distribution. The plasma clearance of this compound is rapid due to high metabolic and renal clearances. These parameters combine to produce an elimination half-life of 5.6 h, approximately half that of misonidazole, a well studied radiosensitiser. It is hoped that this decrease in total body exposure will also reduce the cumulative toxicity seen when misonidazole is administered repeatedly.

Plasma concentrations and effect on testosterone metabolism after single doses of MK-0434, a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, in healthy subjects

February 1994


42 Reads

A four-period, two-panel, single-rising-dose study (0.1–100 mg) was conducted in healthy males to investigate the pharmacodynamics, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MK-0434, a steroid 5α-reductase inhibitor. MK-0434 was associated with a significant reduction in dihydrotestosterone, which was maximal at 24 h and maintained through 48 h post treatment. The maximum reduction was approximately 50 % and occurred at all doses above 5 mg (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg). MK-0434 appeared to have no effect on serum testosterone at these single doses. Rising single doses of MK-0434 were associated with an increase in Cmax and AUC but the changes were less than proportional to dose, most likely due to nonlinear absorption. MK-0434 given in single doses up to 100 mg was without significant adverse effects in healthy male volunteers. In summary, MK-0434 is a well-tolerated, potent, orally active 5α-reductase inhibitor in man.

The effect of MK-0524, a prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist, on prostaglandin D2-induced nasal airway obstruction in healthy volunteers

March 2007


50 Reads

Nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis results from tissue edema and vasodilatation in the nasal mucosa. Of the mediators released by mast cells in response to allergens, prostaglandin (PG) D(2) is regarded as the most potent inducer of nasal congestion. Intranasal administration of PGD(2) reproduces the nasal blockade experienced by patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) via its action on the PGD(2) (DP) receptor to induce nasal vasodilatation. Intranasal challenge with PGD(2) can be a useful tool for evaluating DP-receptor antagonists. The main purpose of this study was to examine the ability of MK-0524, a DP receptor antagonist in development for the treatment of SAR, to block PGD(2) induced nasal congestion in healthy volunteers. To this end, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 3-period study was performed in 15 healthy subjects. During each period, subjects received MK-0524 25 mg, MK-0524 100 mg or placebo qd for 3 days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, nasal provocations with PGD(2) were performed to determine the PD(75), which is the intranasal dose of PGD(2) that provokes a 75% increase in baseline total nasal airway resistance as performed by active anterior rhinomanometry. Following treatment with MK-0524, the PD(75) (mean+/-SD) was significantly shifted from 15.8 +/- 18.3 mug/nostril during the placebo period to more than 512 mug/nostril both following the 25- and 100-mg (maximum challenge dose tested) dose regimen. Whether this >45 fold increase in PD(75) will induce a clinically meaningful effect of MK-0524 will require clinical study in participants with SAR.

Pharmacokinetics in renally impaired subjects of NXY-059, a nitrone-based, free-radical trapping agent developed for the treatment of acute stroke

October 2002


28 Reads

NXY-059 is a nitrone-based, free-radical trapping agent being developed for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Elimination of NXY-059 is primarily renal. The objective of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of NXY-059 in subjects with renal impairment. Twenty-four subjects with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ranging from 19 ml/min to 100 ml/min received NXY-059 intravenously over a 24-h period. Drug in plasma and urine was measured for 72 h. One-hour loading infusion rates were proportional to body weight, while maintenance infusion rates were proportional to GFR. Target plasma levels were 60 micro mol/l for subjects with mild (GFR 50-100 ml/min) and moderate (GFR 30-49 ml/min) renal impairment, and 30 micro mol/l for subjects with severe renal impairment (GFR <30 ml/min). GFR was measured as sinistrin clearance. The data indicated no tolerability or safety concerns with NXY-059. The half-life, which normally is approximately 2-4 h, was in the order of 10-12 h in subjects with moderate and severe renal impairment. The distribution parameters steady-state volume of distribution (V(ss)) and unbound fraction in plasma at 13-15 l and 0.53-0.58, respectively, were virtually the same as previously observed in healthy subjects. Plasma clearance of NXY-059, which ranged from 9 ml/min to 76 ml/min, was directly proportional to kidney function (GFR) with no discernible contribution by non-renal clearance. The correlation coefficient squared (r(2)) was 0.93, both when the renal function parameter was GFR and when it was creatinine clearance estimated from serum creatinine, age, weight and sex. Non-renal elimination of NXY-059 appeared to be insignificant even in subjects with low renal capacity. Patients with renal impairment should have their dose of NXY-059 adjusted for renal function, conveniently assessed from serum creatinine.

PY 108-068 - Acute effects of a single oral dose in chronic stable angina

February 1986


6 Reads

PY 108-068 is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study in 6 patients with chronic stable angina, we compared the acute effects of a single oral dose of placebo with 25 mg and 50 mg of PY 108-068. Investigations were performed on 3 mornings at weekly intervals. Resting supine and erect heart rate and blood pressure were measured before the dose and repeated 75 min later. At approximately 90 min after the dose each patient performed a standardised exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. The mean area (number of points) of ST-segment depression on 16-point precordial exercise maps was 13.1 with placebo, 4.5 with 25 mg of PY 108-068 and 4.3 with 50 mg of PY 108-068 (NS). The rate-pressure product at initial ST-segment depression greater than 1 mm was 15.6 X 10(3) with placebo, 17.8 X 10(3) with 25 mg of PY 108-068 and 18.5 X 10(3) with 50 mg of PY 108-068. Resting supine heart rate was significantly faster with both 25 mg of PY 108-068 (65 beats/min) and 50 mg PY 108-068 (67 beats/min) compared with placebo (59 beats/min). The mean reduction in supine blood pressure from that with placebo was 12/7 mmHg with 25 mg of PY 108-068 and 10/8 mmHg with 50 mg of PY 108-068 (NS). These results confirm the modest acute antianginal efficacy of a single oral dose of PY 108-068. The absence of reflex tachycardia found in previous chronic oral dosing studies with this drug appears to take some days to develop in humans.

Single ascending oral dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics study of EV-077: The specific inhibitor of prostanoid- and isoprostane-induced cellular activation

July 2012


18 Reads

Purpose: This study was performed to determine the oral pharmacokinetics (PK) of EV-077 and its effects on pharmacodynamic (PD) markers. EV-077 blocks prostanoid-induced and isoprostane-induced cellular activation, and is in development for the treatment of vascular inflammation and associated complications of type-2 diabetes.. Methods: This single-ascending-dose mono-centre study was randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded within each dose group. Seven EV-077 doses were administered sequentially as an oral solution: 0.0125, 0.125, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 1.875 and 2.5 mg/kg body weight. PK, platelet aggregation, bleeding time and safety parameters were measured. Seven to eight healthy male subjects were dosed per group: five to six subjects received EV-077 and two subjects received placebo. Results: Tmax was reached rapidly between 0.5 h and 1.0 h. Both Cmax and AUC increased linearly with the dose. The apparent terminal half-life (t½z) increased with the dose, most likely reflecting the increasing last quantifiable concentration with increasing dose; at 2.5 mg/kg, it was 2.7-6.9 h. Measurement of platelet aggregation showed no effect at 0.0125 mg/kg, and a full and reversible inhibition at doses of 0.125-2.5 mg/kg. The average bleeding time was dose-dependently prolonged, but was always below 9 min. The PK/PD profile showed that at plasma concentrations above 20 ng/ml, EV-077 platelet aggregation was completely inhibited (>90 %). All tested doses were well tolerated. Conclusions: Orally administered EV-077 was well tolerated, readily absorbed, reached Cmax within 1 h, with a linear PK based on Cmax and AUC. The inhibition of platelet aggregation was complete and reversible at doses of 0.125 mg/kg and higher, and average bleeding time was below 9 min.

Effect in bronchial asthma of a new beta-adrenergic blocking drug atenolol (ICI 66, 082)

February 1977


35 Reads

The bronchial effect of intravenous atenolol (ICI 66.082) has been studied in a double-blind cross over trial in 10 patients with pronounced, labile bronchial asthama. A single i.v. dose of atenolol 3 mg. sufficient to cause a fall in heart rate and systolic blood pressure at rest, induced only a slight and clincially almost negligible impairment of ventilatory function. An ordinary therapeutic dose of salbutamol by inhalation far outweighed the bronchial effect of atenolol. The drug appears promising with regard to its cardio-selective properties.

A comparison of the antihypertensive effect of atenolol (ICI 66 082) and propranolol

April 1976


34 Reads

Propranolol was given to 30 patients with essential hypertension following randomised, double-blind administration of either placebo or a new cardioselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, atenolol (Tenormin, ICI 66 082). Both atenolol and propranolol caused statistically significant reduction of recumbent and erect blood pressure and heart rate. There were no important differences between these variables on comparison of atenolol and propranolol.

Metabolic and analytical interactions of grapefruit juice and 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) in man

February 1996


19 Reads

Grapefruit juice is known to inhibit mammalian cytochrome P450 isozymes such as CYP3A4. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the juice on the fate of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) metabolized by CYP2A6 in man. Its potentially inhibitory effect was examined when low and high amounts of grapefruit juice were taken. In crossover studies, doses of 10 mg coumarin (Venalot) were given orally to an healthy male volunteer. The drug was taken either with water or with grapefruit juice, at different volumes (300 ml or 4 x 250 ml at intervals of 30 min). Urine samples were collected up to 24 h after dosing. After in vitro hydrolysis they were analysed fluorimetrically for umbelliferone, the metabolite of coumarin, and cumulative excretion curves were established. HPLC and TLC served to identify fluorescent metabolites from the juice. If coumarin is given in water its excretion is complete after 6 h and 70% of the dose is recovered. Grapefruit juice (300 ml) given simultaneously slightly retards the appearance of the fluorescent metabolite in the urine within the first few hours. The recovery of coumarin remains unaffected. One litre of juice enhances the delay and increases the recovery of coumarin to nearly 100%. Respective controls with grapefruit juice alone lead to remarkable excretions of a fluorescent material identified as conjugated scopoletin, which strongly interferes with the analysis of the coumarin experiment. The precursor of scopoletin is widely present at different concentrations in commercially available grapefruit juices. However, the autoinhibition of the juice is correlated neither to the concentration of naringin nor to that of scopoletin. Only grapefruit juice given at high doses (1 L) retards the appearance of the main metabolite of coumarin administered orally but increases its recovery. Due to scopoletin formed from the grapefruit juice, experiments especially with coumarin are strongly affected.

The character of inhibition of the metabolism of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) by grapefruit juice in human

February 1997


11 Reads

Constituents of grapefruit juice are known to interfere with mammalian cytochrome P450 isozymes such as intestinal CYP3A4 and hepatic CYP2A6, lowering the biotransformation of drugs and increasing their bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of naringin is demanded for the inhibition of the coumarin 7-hydroxylase in man or other compounds are responsible for it. In cross-over studies, doses of 10 mg coumarin, together with combinations of grapefruit juice, water and naringin, were given orally to one healthy male volunteer, We investigated increasing amounts of grapefruit juice, keeping the volume of liquid constant at 1 L; increasing doses of naringin given in water; increasing amounts of juice, keeping the dose of naringin constant; or increasing doses of naringin, keeping the amount of juice constant. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h after dosing and 7-hydroxycoumarin was quantified fluorimetrically in urine hydrolysates after HPLC separation to determine the excretion rates. While increasing amounts of grapefruit juice delay the excretion of 7-hydroxycoumarin by 2 h, increasing doses of naringin in water up to twofold (i.e. naringin content of 2 L grapefruit juice) do not cause any alteration in the time course of excretion. Experiments with increasing amounts of juice, keeping the dose of naringin constant, indicate that the inhibitory potency of small amounts of grapefruit juice can be amplified by naringin. The same is true when the ratio between juice constituents and naringin is enhanced up to threefold by adding naringin. As naringin alone is ineffective, the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice on the metabolism of coumarin is caused by at least one compound other than naringin. The persistency of the primary inhibitor not identified yet can obviously be modulated by the naring(en)in-system.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine, Tacrine

February 1990


26 Reads

The pharmacokinetics of 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine; tacrine, THA, was studied after intravenous administration and following the first and last oral doses of a seven week clinical trial involving 8 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS. Two surgical patients given intravenous THA for reversal of postoperative sedation were also included. Plasma concentration of THA and in some cases the metabolite, 1-hydroxy-THA, were assayed using a selective and sensitive method with high performance liquid chromatography. After an intravenous dose of 30 mg THA, the plasma concentrations were fitted to a two-compartment model. Plasma clearance showed a threefold interindividual variation with a mean of 2.42 l.h-1. Volume of distribution, V alpha varied 100-680 l with a mean of 349 l. The plasma half-lives of distribution and elimination were 1.8 and 98.2 min, respectively. Oral bioavailability showed large interindividual differences and ranged 6-36% in the four subjects studied. After seven weeks treatment with oral THA, plasma concentrations immediately prior to medication were below 10 ng/ml in three patients and above 100 ng/ml in two patients. At the same occasion the plasma metabolite concentrations considerably exceeded those of THA. THA medication was associated with side effects in the majority of the patients.

Associations between CYP2E1 promoter polymorphisms and plasma 1,3-dimethyluric acid/theophylline ratios

August 2006


29 Reads

Theophylline is metabolized to 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), 3-methylxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine by CYP1A2 and partly by CYP2E1. Because 1,3-DMU is the major metabolite of theophylline, the 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratio is viewed as a good indicator of theophylline metabolic clearance. Here, we investigated the associations between 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratios and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were performed to analyze CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 promoter polymorphisms in 62 Korean asthma patients. Plasma theophylline and 1,3-DMU levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms including Ins(96), -1566 T>A, -1515 T>G, -1414 C>T, -1295 G>C, -1055 C>T, -1027 T>C, -930 A>G, -807 T>C, -352 A>G, and -333 T>A were detected in the 5' flanking region of the CYP2E1 gene (numbering according to GenBank Accession number NT_017795). Of these, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-1566 T>A, -1295 G>C, -1055 C>T, -1027 T>C, and -807 T>C) were closely linked. Another three polymorphisms (Ins(96,) -930 A>G, and -352 A>G) and two polymorphisms (-1515 T>G and -333 T>A) were also closely linked. The five closely linked polymorphisms were associated with significantly different 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratios between heterozygotes plus homozygotes of a rare allele (n=23, 0.0368+/-0.0171) and common allelic homozygotes (n=39, 0.0533+/-0.0343) (p=0.024 by Mann-Whitney U test). In the CYP1A2 gene, the -2964G>A polymorphisms exhibited a significant difference in 1,3-DMU/theophylline levels between heterozygotes plus homozygotes of a rare allele (n=30, 0.0406+/-0.0272) and homozygotes of a common allele (n=32, 0.0534+/-0.0316) (p=0.032). We confirm that hydroxylation at the 8 position of theophylline (1,3-DMU) is significantly affected by genetic polymorphism in CYP2E1 in addition to CYP1A2.

Table 2 Predicted change of clearance from in vitro data by 1,4- dihydropyridine calcium antagonists 
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: Prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions

March 2000


584 Reads

Objective: 1,4-Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as nifedipine are potent vasodilators. It is now commonly agreed that the oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridine into pyridine, which is one of the main metabolic pathways, is catalysed by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoform. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of 13 kinds of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists clinically used in Japan on human CYP-isoform-dependent reactions were investigated to predict the drug interactions using microsomes from human B-lymphoblast cells expressing CYP. Results: The specific activities for human CYP isoforms included 7-ethoxyresorfin O-deethylation (CYP1A1), phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation (CYP2B6), S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylaion (CYP2C19), bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1), and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4). Benidipine and amlodipine competitively inhibited the CYP1A1 activity. Nifedipine, nisoldipine and aranidipine competitively inhibited the CYP1A2 activity. No 1,4-dihydropyridie calcium antagonists used in this study inhibited the CYP2A6 activity. Barnidipine and amlodipine inhibited the CYP2B6 activity. Nicardipine, benidipine, manidipine and barnidipine competitively inhibited the CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 activities. Inhibition extent of the CYP2E1 activity by nifedipine and aranidipine were weak. Nicardipine, benidipine and barnidipine inhibited the CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities. Among the human CYP isoforms investigated, the inhibitory effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists were potent on human CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 as well as CYP3A4. Furthermore, the isoform selectivity of inhibition by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists was clarified. Conclusions: In consideration of the Ki values obtained in the in vitro inhibition study and the concentration of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists in human liver, the possibility of in vivo drug interactions of nicardipine and other drugs which are mainly metabolised by CYP2C9 and/or CYP3A4 was suggested. The inhibition of human CYP isoforms by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists except nicardipine might be clinically insignificant.

Interaction of citrus juices with pranidipine, a new 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in healthy subjects

December 1998


23 Reads

Objectives: The study was conducted to investigate whether oral co-administration with citrus juices significantly affects the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of pranidipine, a new 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in healthy male subjects. Grapefruit juice and orange juice, which were both commercially available, were used in this study. Methods: Sixteen healthy male Japanese subjects participated in this study and were divided into two groups for grapefruit juice and orange juice treatment. The study followed an open-labelled crossover design, comparing the effects of a single oral dose of 2 mg pranidipine taken together with 250 ml citrus juice or 250 ml water. Serum pharmacokinetics of pranidipine, adverse reactions, blood pressure, heart rate, 12-lead ECG, haematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis were measured throughout the study. Results: For grapefruit juice, mean Cmax and AUC0-24 h were significantly higher than those of water (P=0.0003 and 0.0005, respectively, ANOVA) with the ratios of log transformed values being 1.50 and 1.74, respectively. There were no differences in tmax and t1/2 between the juice and water treatments. A significant increase in heart rate (P=0.0240, ANOVA with repeated measurements) was observed in the juice treatment whereas there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two treatments. For orange juice, a small decrease in mean Cmax was observed compared with water (P=0.0218, ANOVA) with the ratio being 0.86, but there was no significant difference in AUC0-24h between the two treatments. No marked differences were observed in tmax and t1/2. Oral pranidipine administration with orange juice did not affect heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures or other parameters for safety evaluation. Conclusions: Oral co-administration with grapefruit juice and pranidipine was associated with increased bioavailability and changed the pharmacodynamics of pranidipine, particularly with regard to heart rate. Orange juice intake with pranidipine did not markedly affect the pharmacokinetics and no clinically significant changes were observed in the pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation.

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