In response to the need of new knowledge about the international joint venture (IJV), the purpose of this study presents an analysis of the basic characteristics of these IJVs and their variation of characteristics depending on the nationality of the foreign partners, coming from three regions: Triad countries (USA, Western Europe and Japan); non‐Triad countries; and a mixed region, encompassing combinations of partners from the above two regions.
The advantage of the study is the use of official data from the database, established in cooperation between the author and the National Statistical Institute, on the entire non‐homogeneous population of 722 IJVs in the 1989‐2003 period.
The generalized results of the study confirm the existence of common trends and trends diverging from those registered in previous studies both on the conventional IJV, set up by foreign and local partners, and on the non‐conventional IJV, formed by foreign partners alone.
Notwithstanding the generalized results obtained, owing to the coverage of the entire population of IJVs, future studies regarding their characteristics in Bulgaria should have not only structural, but also motivational and outcome variables superimposed.
The research can serve for international comparative studies and for the elaboration of national and European Union policies regarding the creation of official databases on the IJVs.
With the presentation of new knowledge both on the conventional and on the non‐conventional IJVs, the present study extends and supplements the theme regarding the characteristics of the IJVs.
Despite attempts to secure harmonisation of accounting practice, significant variations in accounting rules and practice continue to arise in European countries, variations which give rise to compliance costs for multinational companies. Firstly, this paper considers the relevance of international accounting harmonisation for European business. It then proceeds to examine accounting regulation in three countries: Spain, Sweden and Austria, highlighting the key regulatory issues of the 'true and fair' view requirement and the link between taxation and accounting. The three countries are selected because of the interesting contrasts which they provide; these contrasts are examined in detail in the paper. The work is based upon a series of interviews carried out with leading accounting practitioners in the three countries during 1996-97. The paper concludes that there are significant obstacles to accounting harmonisation in Europe and that there is potential for continuing diversity of national accounting practice.
Die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Landes hängt von der Stärke der einzelnen Unternehmen, der Branchen und den Sozioökonomischen
Systemen ab. Wettbewerbsvorteile müssen genutzt werden. Ein logischer, effizienter Prozess zur Entwicklung nationaler Wettbewerbsstrategien
im globalen Umfeld wird entwickelt. Herangezogen wird die TOWS Matrix. Anwendungsbeispiel ist die Volksrepublik China.
This paper considers tax competition and tax harmonization in the presence of agglomeration forces and falling trade costs. With agglomerative forces operating, industry is not indifferent to location in equilibrium, so perfectly mobile capital becomes a quasi-fixed factor. This suggests that the tax game is something subtler than a race to the bottom. Advanced 'core' nations may act like limit-pricing monopolists toward less advanced 'periphery' countries. Consequently, integration need not lead to falling tax rates, and might well be consistent with the maintenance of large welfare states. "Limit taxing" also means that that simple tax harmonization - adoption of a common tax rate - always harms at least one nation and adoption of a rate between the two unharmonised rates harms both nations. A tax floor set at the lowest equilibrium tax rate leads to a weak Pareto improvement.
This paper develops a simultaneous equations model to test the process of interaction between foreign direct investment, exports and economic growth in three Middle Eastern countries: Egypt, Jordan, Oman, and test for any possible feedback effects. Most of the FDI in these countries flows from the EU. The simultaneous equations model results suggest that higher rates of economic growth result in a greater inflow of foreign capital. The regression results also suggest that interest rate differentials exert a much stronger effect than economic growth on the attraction of foreign capital in the case of Egypt. However, this variable does not seem to play a significant role in the case of Oman. Moreover, the simultaneous equations model results suggest that there is a feedback effect in the relationship between economic growth and capital inflow in all sample countries. A greater inflow of foreign capital leads to growth in the exports of good and services. The expansion in exports leads to growth in GNP, which in turn, encourages the attraction of more foreign capital.
This paper discusses the question whether the Russian aviation industry has restructured sufficiently to create a position for itself as a supplier of aircraft. It describes the collapse of the market for aeroplanes in Russia which wiped away domestic demand for airplanes and discusses the policies of privatisation and restructuring of the industry. The results are of a mixed nature. On the one hand, a deep restructuring has been avoided only to become more pressing. On the other hand, firms have shown great creativity in surviving and the Putin government pursues a process of further concentration and consolidation.
– This paper analyses the Mohammed cartoons controversy, the boycott of Danish products in the Middle East, and the consequences for the Danish companies involved.
– The objectives have been achieved by means of a ideology‐critical discourse analysis of Danish newspaper articles on the subject.
– The wider ramifications of an insult and freedom of expression discourse are shown. Managerial consequences of the boycott are outlined for Jyllands‐Posten and Arla Foods.
– The paper is of value for researchers and managers who want to understand the politicisation of markets and the major consequences for management and marketing strategy.
To extract the secrets of the marketing of Dan Brown's world‐wide bestseller, The Da Vinci Code .
Case study research based on secondary sources and close reading of relevant texts.
The staggering success of The Da Vinci Code is contrary to conventional marketing wisdom, but conventional wisdom is increasingly inappropriate intoday's entertainment economy.
Case study research. Needs replication in additional domains. The accepted approaches to best marketing practice need re‐evaluation.
Approaches topic from unconventional direction. Tries to capture the spirit of Brown's writing.
– The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the reason behind a sustainable guanxi network through the introduction of the collaborative strategy in the Taiwanese shoe industry.
– Literature review in the area of Chinese business culture, and guanxi network is used to elaborate the information obtained from the company.
– This paper highlights that the belief of sincerity and trustworthiness has refined to the organization culture that supports the sustainability of Taiwanese guanxi network. Besides, the transaction cost theory, resource‐based view, and specific relationship investment has become a hinder strategy for Taiwanese organization to maintain the business relationship. This paper introduces an interesting collaborative strategy between three parties, the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supplier, the machinery manufacturer, and the end‐user (the branding). Although there is no direct business flows between the end‐user and the machinery manufacturer, the specific relationship investment between these two parties are tight and cannot be separated. This has ensured the proper business flows between the OEM supplier and the end‐user as well as the OEM supplier and the machinery manufacturer.
– This paper illustrates that a guanxi network is not sufficient to ensure a long‐term business relationship to be established. Indeed, the organization culture as well as the consideration on the transaction cost and resources from each party does have a great impact on the collaboration relationship to be successful.
To familiarize readers with the nature, scope and history of macromarketing and, more specifically, with the European contribution to macromarketing.
The paper is based on a selective literature review and personal observation with a focus on the past, the present and the likely future of macromarketing.
The paper reports both on the limited degree of emphasis placed on macromarketing by marketing scholars and the reasons why macromarketing has not received more attention.
This paper provides a heretofore missing overview of the nature and scope of an important subdiscipline within academic marketing. The European contribution to macromarketing is discussed in considerable detail. Some personal views on the likely future development of this area are also offered.
States that the usefulness of theory, developed in the United
States, in international settings, is of particular interest. The wider
the domain to which theory can be applied, the greater its value to the
body of knowledge to which it belongs. Examines the applicability of
Michael Porter's Three Generic Strategy Typology (1980) in the
developing manufacturing nation of Portugal. It was concluded that the
typology is an excellent representation of the strategic orientations of
manufacturing firms in Portugal. The existence of the strategic options
of cost leadership, differentiation and focus were identified, in their
pure form, through factor analysis. Regardless of the apparent lack of
formal strategic planning processes, Portuguese manufacturing firms
appear to be following internally consistent business level strategies.
With the coming of the Single Market it is now essential that
companies reassess their European manufacturing strategies. Many
multinationals currently have fragmented manufacturing operations
reflecting past failures to achieve a truly common market. This article
discusses how manufacturers in Europe can reorganise themselves to
Businesses across the European Community are waiting to capture the
advantages presented by a Single Market. Logistics is one of the more
fruitful leading-edge areas in which a company can capture significant
benefits. The article details how the impact of removing logistical
inefficiencies will be felt throughout the manufacturing chain.
Describes a field study conducted in Western Europe with top
executives and management consultants in the global public accounting
and consulting firms as well as top administrators in the Commission of
the European Community (EC). Respondents expressed optimism about the
1992 single market programme; they saw a “global village”
developing internally in the EC and the need to develop markets and tap
technologies in each member of the global “triad” –
North America, the EC and Japan. Marketing was considered to be the most
important business function to be affected by the single market
developments in the EC.
All-in-all there are great opportunities for any change which occurs. When changes of this magnitude occur over a reasonable time frame, one can plan and position oneself to take full advantage of the situation, then the possibility of success increases. However, those who fail to recognize the situation and fail to respond, will have only themselves to blame for the eventual success of their competitors and can only hope that these same competitors will allow them to survive in their own evershrinking market.
The moves to establish a Single European Market focus almost
entirely on breaking down structural barriers to trade. Despite all the
hype, many take solace that while cultural differences remain strong
there will never be a true Single Market. However, it is argued that
Europeans (including the British) have more in common than is initially
apparent and that the differences are diminishing. The marketer needs to
be poised to take the challenge represented by this new society and to
exploit the growth in trends such as networking, strategic opportunism
and open citizenship.
In the run-up to 1992, UK manufacturers should be scrutinising the
efficiency of their factory operations as well as their marketing
efforts. A great deal of advanced manufacturing technology is available
to assist UK manufacturers to improve their methods of production and to
enhance product quality. UK management should be examining ways in which
they can take advantage of this technology and can be assisted in this
technically complex task by taking advantage of independent consultants.
The Department of Trade and Industry can offer smaller companies
financial assistance wth the costs of consultancy through a range of
initiatives. Uptake of these initiatives has been generally encouraging
but UK manufacturers appear to be slow to take advantage of the
A review of the current situation for the financial services
industry throughout the EC but with particular reference to the effect
that changes in legislation will have upon British banks, building
societies and financial services. In Britain the Financial Services Act
and the Building Societies Act have already had the effect of increasing
competition and diversifying services. However, the Single Market will
present new opportunities requiring strategic planning to meet even more
intense competition. In this, the widening of the customer base and of
the services provided both in Britain and abroad are important. The
moves taken by banks such as Barclays, Midland and NatWest to prepare
for 1992 are also discussed.
Highlights a number of developments in Europe that have been important in the evolution of the relationship between the rules for computing profits for tax and accounting purposes. This will assist users in their understanding of European financial reports and will highlight areas where particular caution is required when analysing financial statements over an extended period. Recent changes in the UK are put forward as an alternative to breaking the tax link, and a possible avenue for promoting the harmonization of taxation as well as financial reporting.
1992 was the year of the Single European Market. By 31 December
1992, agreement should have been reached on some 286 directives, which
aimed to dismantle physical, technical and fiscal barriers to trade. In
so doing, it was expected that community businesses would become more
integrated, allowing them to compete on more equal terms as
Eurobusinesses with the global players of the US and Japan. It was
predicted that greater intra-Community competition would be a necessary
precursor of this outcome, and that this will lead to industries
restructuring through mergers and joint ventures to increase market
share and economies of scale by reaching a “minimum efficient
size”. Examines the trends in cross-border mergers/acquisitions
and joint ventures for the period 1986 to 1989 and concludes that, for
both small and large firms, such activity has increased. Further, an
analysis of EC material on the subject reveals that firms' reasons for
such developments appear to have become more market-oriented over time.
Projections are made concerning the nature and focus of merger,
acquisition, and alliance activity in the post-1992 environment by both
US and European hospitality firms. Recommendations are offered
concerning the most viable business strategies facing hospitality
organisations in the Internal Market of 1992.
Companies that solve the problem of communication in a multilingual
environment will be those most likely to succeed, other things being
equal, in the new European open market. Some of the ways in which
organisations can improve their capabilities in this area are described.
Vocational Training in Europe and the effectiveness of the European
Social Fund are examined and recommendations made for ensuring that
funds allocated to the UK by continental partners in the EC are wisely
prioritised in channelling them into the necessary training areas for
the unemployed, looking as always to 1992 and the dawn of the Single
– The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue.
– This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research.
– The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics.
– This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts.
– Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs.
– This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.