A prospective randomized study was designed to compare the effect of different irrigation solutions on mucociliary clearance and nasal patency and to compare the limitations of the used solutions, such as nasal burning by a visual analog scale. Forty-five patients who underwent septoplasty were divided into three groups postoperatively. Each group was administered with 2.3% buffered hypertonic seawater, buffered isotonic saline solution and non-buffered isotonic saline, respectively, as irrigation fluid. Saccharine test and acoustic rhinometer were used to determine mucociliary activity and nasal patency. Patients were asked about the burning sensation using a 10-cm visual analog scale. There was no significant difference in saccharine clearance time (SCT) on the 5th postoperative day between the three groups (P = 0.07). On the 20th day, there was a significant difference in SCT between the hypertonic buffered seawater group and non-buffered isotonic saline (P = 0.003). Buffered hypertonic seawater improved nasal airway patency more than the buffered isotonic saline (P = 0.004). Buffered hypertonic solutions used after endonasal surgery have been advantageous for both mucociliary clearance and postoperative decongestion.
In the past the majority of patients with advanced stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were treated with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, often at the expense of functional and cosmetic morbidity, and thus reduced quality of life. Nowadays, in an attempt to decrease the morbidity, non-surgical treatments for advanced HNSCC are increasingly applied with considerable complete remission rates. It appeared that new radiation schemes (accelerated or hyperfractionated) and combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy all increase remission rates. When starting an organ sparing non-surgical therapy for functionally inoperable HNSCC (i.e. too high morbidity of surgical treatment expected), salvage surgery is held in reserve for residual or recurrent disease. However, salvage surgery with curative intent is only possible in about half of such patients. Moreover, the complication rate of salvage surgery after chemoradiation is high, with wound healing problems as a well-known complication. Since non-surgical treatment itself is also associated with acute and long-term side effects, leading to compromised quality of life, patients undergoing primary non-surgical treatment (radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy) followed by salvage surgery are exposed to cumulative morbidity of all treatment modalities. Another important disadvantage of surgery for residual or recurrent tumour after radiotherapy is the fact that although it may be indicated postoperative radiotherapy is mostly no longer possible, limiting the oncological outcome of this treatment. Because salvage treatment after (chemo)radiation carries a questionable prognosis but a high incidence of complications, (chemo)radiation may not be the choice of treatment in all patients with advanced HNSCC. A reliable predictor of outcome after chemoradiation is needed to select patients who are likely to benefit from non-surgical treatment. Valuable predictive factors provide information on the outcome of therapy in an individual patient allowing avoidance of over- as well as undertreatment. In the present context, better selection may refrain a substantial number of patients from futile extensive and toxic treatment (radiation with or without chemotherapy), decrease the complication rate of surgical treatment and reserve radiotherapy for a postoperative setting if indicated. Conventional prognostic factors for locoregional control include T-stage, N-stage and tumour site, grade and volume. The predictive value of molecular biological markers is currently under investigation. Tumour metabolism is another potential prognostic factor and can be studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Up-regulation of glucose uptake through overexpression of glucose transporters is an early event in malignant transformation. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) is the most widely used PET tracer in oncologic PET studies and can be used to measure the glucose metabolism in malignant tissues. Quantification of tracer uptake can be done in several ways, from pure visual analysis to simple calculations of uptake level using a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV; ie. the ratio of measured activity in a static scan obtained e.g. 60 min after FDG injection over the injected dose and
In a randomized controlled trial in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA SCCHN), treatment with RT plus cetuximab resulted in improved survival compared to treatment with RT alone. Uncertainty exists about the generalizability of the trial results for the Dutch healthcare setting due to possible discrepancies in treatment allocation. Retrospective patient chart review was performed for 141 patients treated with first line RT plus cetuximab or RT alone, diagnosed in 2007-2010 in two head and neck treatment centers. Combined with aggregated population-based data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and patient level clinical trial data, use of cetuximab in Dutch daily practice was assessed through comparison of patient characteristics, treatment characteristics and treatment outcomes between trial and daily practice. 61 daily practice patients fulfilled the selection criteria. In line with Dutch guidelines, RT plus cetuximab is prescribed in patients requiring combined therapy unfit to receive traditional platinum-based chemotherapeutics. These patients have unfavorable baseline characteristics, due to selection on-amongst others-high age of the patients. Beyond 1 year after treatment start, patients treated with RT plus cetuximab in daily practice died earlier than patients treated with RT plus cetuximab in the trial. Selective treatment allocation in daily practice limits generalizability of EMR 062202-006 trial results. Evidence is needed about the effectiveness of RT plus cetuximab compared to other treatments for patients with unfavorable clinical baseline characteristics.
"Sniffin' Sticks" is a test of nasal chemosensory performance that is based on penlike odor-dispensing devices. It is comprised of three tests of olfactory function: tests for odor threshold, discrimination and identification. Previous work has already established its test-retest reliability and validity in comparison to established measures of olfactory sensitivity. The results of this test are presented as a composite TDI score--i.e., the sum of results obtained for threshold, discrimination and identification measures. The present multicenter investigation aimed at providing normative values in relation to different age groups. To this end, 966 patients were investigated in 11 centers. An additional study tried to establish values for the identification of anosmic patients, with 70 anosmics investigated in five specialized centers where the presence of anosmia was confirmed by means of olfactory evoked potentials. For healthy subjects, the TDI score at the 10th percentile was 24.5 in subjects younger than 15 years, 30.3 for ages from 16 to 35 years, 28.8 for ages from 36 to 55 years and 27.5 for subjects older than 55 years. While these data can be used to estimate individual olfactory abilities in relation to a subject's age, hyposmia was defined as the 10th percentile score of 16- to 35-year-old subjects. Our latter study revealed that none of 70 anosmics reached a TDI score higher than 15. This score of 15 is regarded as the cut-off value for functional anosmia. These results provide the basis for the routine clinical evaluation of patients with olfactory disorders using "Sniffin' Sticks."
Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are frequently used in the clinical diagnosis and research of vertigo syndromes. Altered latencies or amplitudes are typically interpreted as an indication of disturbance in the processing of vestibular stimuli along the otolithic pathways. Correct interpretation, however, can be difficult as VEMP amplitudes can vary greatly across subjects and across laboratories, likely because they are very sensitive to measurement conditions. Here, we attempted to quantify the impact of examiner differences on VEMP data. We collected data from 1,038 people using eight different experimental examiners, and investigated the effect of examiner on VEMP latencies and amplitudes. We found that the examiner collecting the data had a strong effect on outcome measures with significant differences (p < 0.001) in cVEMP and oVEMP latencies and in oVEMP amplitudes. No significant differences between examiners were found for the cVEMP amplitudes. When we compared the healthy and pathological sides of patients with a clinically diagnosed unilateral disease, no significant differences between sides were found. Given our results and the results reported in the literature, we conclude that the signal features of VEMPs are very sensitive to variables that may be influenced by the examiner. The field should therefore work on a better standard for VEMP recordings.
In all cancer specialities, there has been much debate about the best follow-up regime. The provision of a service that meets high standards whilst being cost-effective is increasingly pertinent. The objectives of the study were to examine: whether routine follow-up facilitates early diagnosis and recurrence; whether there is a cohort of patients who require a more intensive follow-up regime; whether follow-up should be customised to individual patients. A total of 1,039 consecutive outpatient consultations were prospectively analysed in a multicentre study. All adult patients who had undergone multidisciplinary, multimodality management for head and neck cancer were included. The case mix was representative of all head and neck tumour sites and stages. Suspicion of recurrence was noted in 10% (n = 96/951) of patients seen routinely. This rose to 68% (n = 60/88) for the subset of patients who had requested an appointment. Most recurrences were found within the first follow-up year (n = 64/156, 54%). Only 0.3% (n = 3/1,039) of asymptomatic patients attending routine appointments were suspected of having a recurrence, and two (0.2%) were found to have an actual recurrence following investigation. Of the total number of patients reporting a new suspicious symptom, recurrence was suspected in 56% (n = 152/270). Patients thus had a 98.1% sensitivity to raising suspicion for a recurrence based on the reporting of new symptoms with a 99.6% negative predictive value. Our data show that the efficiency of the current follow-up regime at detecting suspected recurrence of head and neck cancer is low, suggesting the need for a customised, more focused follow-up regime, tailored to individual cases. Patient education and close relationships with clinicians and allied health-care professionals are essential for early diagnosis and management of cancer recurrence. Follow-up regimes within the first year should be most intensive as recurrence is most likely within this time, and it serves to alleviate patient anxiety in the early post-treatment period. More research needs to be carried out to investigate the role of patient self-reporting and surveillance of cancer recurrence.
In addition to a role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis other vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediated effects have been discovered during the past few years for the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3. An antiproliferative, differentiation-inducing effect on non-malignant and neoplastic cells of different origin has now been described. We examined the influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). A differentiated (JP-PA) and undifferentiated (LF-FR) SCCHN line was studied with respect to proliferative capacity (using [3H]-thymidine uptake and cell number) and cell cycle distribution as determined by flow cytometry (FACS). Both cell lines were positive for VDR, which was found to be increased after the addition of 10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3, as shown by FACS analyses. The administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 at a concentration between 10(-7) M and 10(-10) M caused a dose-dependent moderate growth inhibition, as reflected by down-regulation of DNA synthesis (reduced [3H]-thymidine uptake) and a decrease in cell numbers. The JP-PA cell line showed a significant growth reduction for both concentrations tested, whereas for LF-FR a significant inhibition was detected only for 10(-7) M. The addition of 10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a blockade in the transition of cells from G1 to S phase in both cell lines, with a significant accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Our results demonstrate a receptor-mediated, dose-dependent inhibition of neoplastic growth by 1,25(OH)2D3 in human SCCHN lines.
Treatment of symptomatic pharyngeal and esophageal strictures requires endoscopic dilatation. The Savary-Gilliard bougienage was developed by our department and has been used since 1980 for this purpose. We report our experience using this technique. The records of patients seen from January 1, 1963 to December 31, 2005, who had pharyngeal and esophageal strictures needing dilatation, were reviewed. The prevalence of different etiologies, and the incidence of complications using the Savary-Gilliard dilators were assessed. Efficiency of dilatation was assessed over a 17-year segment of this period, using number of dilatations and time intervals between dilatations until resolution of symptoms as outcome measures. Of the 2,652 pharyngeal and esophageal strictures reviewed, 90% were of organic origin (45% benign and 55% malignant stenoses), and 10% were of functional etiology. The most common etiologies were peptic strictures before the era of proton pump inhibitors, and postoperative anastomotic strictures thereafter. A total of 1,862 dilatations using the Savary-Gilliard technique were analyzed. Complication and mortality rates were 0.18 and 0.09% for benign and 4.58 and 0.81% for malignant etiologies, respectively. The number of dilatations per stricture and the time interval between different sessions were dependent on the type of strictures, varying from 1 to 23 dilatations and 7 days to 16 years, respectively. Pharyngeal and esophageal dilatations using the Savary-Gilliard technique were safe when used together with fluoroscopy. Overall, the efficiency of the dilatation procedure was good, but some types of strictures (e.g., caustic, post-surgical and/or post radiotherapy) were refractory to treatment and required repeated dilatations.
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of sealing of the round window membrane in patients with severe to profound unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). 101 Patients with unilateral SSNHL were treated with tympanotomy and sealing of the round window membrane if hearing did not improve after conservative treatment. Preoperative and postoperative pure tone audiograms after removal of the ear packing were evaluated. A 4-PTA (pure tone audiometry) was used as reference value. The improvement of 4-PTA was analysed; in addition, recovery was evaluated using Siegel's criteria. Mean initial hearing threshold was 101.1 dB. Eighty-one patients had a hearing threshold of 80 dB or more. The average improvement at the time of ear packing was 21.7 dB and a further average recovery of 13.4 dB was recorded in the follow-up. Patients who underwent rapid tympanotomy within 5 days showed a significantly better hearing improvement than patients with delayed tympanotomy (26.9 vs. 14.0 dB, p < 0.02). Age was significantly correlated with the degree of hearing improvement. There was no significant difference of recovery between patients with detected lesions of the round window membrane and those without. Concomitant vertigo and tinnitus showed no significant effect on recovery. Tympanotomy and sealing of the round window membrane is effective in the treatment of severe to profound SSNHL. There is evidence that early surgery performed within 5 days is more effective than later surgery. The existence of a detectable lesion of the round window membrane has no significant influence on recovery.
The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of the tonsil and to report the oncological and functional outcomes, using retrospective chart review in the setting of single-institute, academic tertiary referral center. Between October 1987 and December 2006, 102 patients were eligible for this study, mostly suffering from advanced disease: 13 % presented with stage I and II (UICC/AJCC 2002) tumors and 87 % with stages III and IVa. The median follow-up was 63 months. All patients were treated by TLM with (or without) neck dissection (95 %) and with (66 %) postoperative radiotherapy. Overall survival, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, local control and loco-regional control were analyzed as end points. Rate of tracheotomies, postoperative complications and swallowing function were also analyzed. 5-year Kaplan-Meier local and loco-regional control was 78 % for pT1 and pT2 and 75 % for pT3 and pT4a tumors. 5-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival and was 74, 64 and 59 % for stage I and II, 68, 60 and 56 % for stage III and IVa, respectively. Our data supports the conclusion, that TLM should be considered as a therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer of the tonsil. The oncological and functional results are comparable to any other treatment regimen, while the morbidity and complications tend to be lower.
In order to evaluate the potential of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) as a prognostic factor for glottic laryngeal cancer. One hundred and two surgical specimens from patients with glottic laryngeal cancer who underwent laryngectomy for their disease in the University Hospital of Patras, Greece from 1998 to 2005 were reviewed retrospectively regarding MMP-2 expression via immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was performed using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex technique (LSAB). Results revealed that 54 of 102 patients (52.9%) had positive cytoplasmic staining for MMP-2. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated statistically significant difference (p = 0.037) for the 5-year overall survival rate between the groups with positive and negative MMP-2 expression, and marginal statistical significance for the disease free survival rate (p = 0.048). The capsule rupture of metastatic lymph nodes and MMP-2 expression in primary tumor site also seems to be related (p = 0.047). Statistical significance could not be established between MMP-2 expression and the clinicopathological features of the disease (T stage, N stage, clinical stage, differentiation). In conclusion, MMP-2 expression was related with worse overall and disease-free survival and could be considered as a potential marker of poor prognosis.
The aim of the present work was to analyse the alterations of rhino-sinusal physiology in 106 professional athletes (swimmers, skiers, boxers and runners) using objective rhinological methods. Every athlete underwent an accurate anamnesis, a complete objective ORL evaluation, an active anterior rhinomanometry, an acoustic rhinometry and an evaluation of mucociliary transport time (MCTt). Skiers were also submitted to a nasal decongestion test (NDT). In swimmers, the mean MCTt was 27.4+/-4.97 min (normal value: 13+/-3 min; P<0.0001). The average MCTt for the skier group was 19.58+/-1.92 min ( P<0.0001); the mean value of total basal nasal resistance was 0.37+/-0.05 Pa/ml per s (normal value =0.25 Pa/ml per s; P<0.001). After NDT, total nasal resistance was 0.18+/-0.02 Pa/ml per s. In the group of boxers, the total mean nasal resistance was 0.64+/-0.05 Pa/ml per s ( P<0.001); the mean cross-sectional area at the nasal valve level was 0.57+/-0.04 cm(2) (normal value =0.55+/-0.05 cm(2)) and at the inferior turbinate level 0.83+/-0.05 cm(2) (normal value =0.4+/-0.04 cm(2); P<0.001); the TMC average time was 27.35+/-2.21 min ( P<0.0001). Finally, for the runners, the mean MCT time was 20.56+/-2.35 min ( P<0.001). Knowing the alterations of the physiological nasal respiration is of extreme importance to develop a correct and timely therapeutic approach to be able to restore rhino-sinusal homeostasis. Athletes, in fact, need the earliest therapeutic aid in order to avoid the interference of prolonged rhino-sinusal alterations with their performance and also to avoid a more serious clinical situation concerning the inferior airways.
Test of dose-response relationship for Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) in outpatients with acute idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) of at least 15 dB at one frequency within the speech range occurring less than 10 days before study inclusion.
Multicentre, randomized, double-blind phase III study comparing dosages of 120 mg twice daily and 12 mg twice daily over 8 weeks. MAIN ENDPOINT: Recovery (in dB) of the auditory threshold from the initial measurement to the value on the last day of treatment, averaged over those frequencies from 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz for which the initial hearing loss amounted to 15 dB or more compared to the level on the opposite side.
106 patients with an average age of 44+/-16 years and with hearing loss at affected frequencies 26 dB +/- 9 dB included between December 1995 and July 1997.
Large majorities of both treatment groups recovered completely. In exploratory analyses of the 96 patients included according to the protocol, patients given the higher dose had less risk of not recovering well (< or =10 dB residual hearing loss) (one-sided Fisher test: P = 0.0061), especially if they had no tinnitus (n = 44, P = 0.00702).
A higher dosage of EGb 761 (oral) appears to speed up and secure the recovery of ISSHL patients, with a good chance that they will recover completely, even with little treatment. This was already observed after one week of treatment. We find it justified to treat patients who have unilateral ISSHL of less than 75 dB and neither tinnitus nor vertigo with 120 mg oral EGb 761 twice daily.
Despite advances in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) treatment, patient survival has not improved in the last two decades. Novel, more effective strategies should be based on receptor-mediated LSCC-targeted therapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the most widely studied molecular target. MASPIN multifaceted anti-tumor effects have been rarely evaluated in LSCC. The aims of this study were to investigate EGFR and MASPIN expression and the role of sub-cellular MASPIN localization in LSSC. MASPIN and EGFR expression and the sub-cellular localization of MASPIN were assessed using a computerized image analysis system in 108 consecutive cases of operable LSCC. The rates of occurrence of lymph node metastases and recurrent disease were lower in patients with a nuclear pattern of MASPIN expression (p = 0.004, p = 0.0028). As expected, the loco-regional recurrence rate was lower in N0 patients (p = 0.009), but the disease recurrence rate was even lower in N0 patients with a nuclear localization of MASPIN (p = 0.020). Disease-free survival was longer in cases of LSCC with a nuclear MASPIN pattern (p = 0.003). The intensity of EGFR reactivity and the EGFR area fraction were unrelated to the clinico-pathological and prognostic parameters in LSCC. A nuclear MASPIN pattern is a promising prognostic indicator in LSCC, but further evidence is needed before elective neck dissection can be considered for cN0 LSCCs with a non-nuclear MASPIN pattern. Although a better understanding of the mechanisms behind sub-cellular MASPIN localization is mandatory, re-activating nuclear MASPIN in association with specific chemotherapeutic agents may be an important goal in the treatment of LSCC.
It has been reported that IL-10-1082 A/G polymorphism might influence the transcription and secretion of IL10 and tumor development. While many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between IL-10-1082 A/G polymorphism and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in various populations, the results of these studies are still controversial. We aimed to explore this relationship through a cumulative meta-analysis. A search of the literature was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE databases. The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess this possible association. Six studies were included in the study. The meta-analysis reveals a significant effect in the allelic model (G vs. A: OR 1.516, 95 % CI 1.077–2.133, P
heterogeneity = 0.003), dominant model (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.770, 95 % CI 1.415–2.212, P
heterogeneity = 0.169), and co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 1.747, 95 % CI 1.377–2.216, P
heterogeneity = 0.491). Similarly, in the stratified analyses, significant effects were reported in studies of Asian populations. Our meta-analysis results suggest that the IL-10-1082 A/G variant is associated with increased risk of NPC in Asian populations.
The aim of the study was to assess the clinical efficiency of quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). This was a prospective study of patients with RRP treated from January 2009 to July 2012 at the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Emergency County Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Demographic characteristics, onset of RRP, HPV typing, use and number of cidofovir injections, number of surgeries for RRP per year, and use of human papillomavirus vaccine (types 6, 11, 16, 18) (recombinant, adsorbed)/Silgard(®) were considered from all the patients included in the study. Charts were reviewed for follow-up after diagnosis, after cidofovir, and after Silgard; all the statistical tests were applied at a significance level of 5 %. The recurrences were observed within 27.53 ± 11.24 days after intralesional cidofovir injection. Thirteen patients with recurrence after cidofovir agreed and received Silgard(®) vaccine. 85 % [54.44-99.41] of patients had no recurrences during 1-year follow-up. The recurrence of papillomas was observed in two patients (15 %, 95 % CI [0.59-45.56]), one with adult-onset RRP and one with juvenile-onset RRP. Both recurrences appeared after the first Silgard dose; one month after the third vaccine dose each patient underwent a new surgery for remaining papillomas with no recurrences at 1-year follow-up visit. Silgard(®) vaccination had a good effect and proved to be efficient in the treatment of our patients with RRR without appearance of recurrence in 85 % of the patients during 1-year follow-up.
Laryngeal synkinesis is a vocal fold movement disorder produced by a misdirected reinnervation after a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Its symptoms differ greatly between patients, requiring diverse therapeutical approaches. We aim to describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of different laryngeal synkinesis presentations. 11 patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary referral center with laryngeal synkinesis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography were included in our study. All medical records and laryngoscopic and electromyographic data were reviewed retrospectively. Four patients had previous unilateral vocal fold palsy and seven had a bilateral palsy with different degrees of clinical involvement. All of them showed paradoxical movements during inhalation in videofibrolaryngoscopic examination. Laryngeal electromyography confirmed the diagnosis of laryngeal synkinesis. Dyspnea was the main presentation symptom. Three patients with mild symptoms were not treated. Patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility were successfully treated with periodic botulinum toxin injections. Patients with bilateral immobility had a good initial response to botulinum toxin, although in some of them, a posterior cordectomy had to be finally performed. In conclusion, laryngeal synkinesis is a heterogeneous clinic entity that appears in patients with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Videofibrolaryngoscopy and laryngeal electromyography are essential to a correct diagnosis. Botulinum toxin injections are the main treatment for symptomatic cases, even if in bilateral palsy cases more aggressive treatments are often required.
Synovial sarcoma in an extra-articular location is a very rare tumor, particularly in relation to childhood tumors. We report our experiences with an 11-year-old boy who suffered from swallowing difficulties caused by a polypoid tumor of the hypopharynx. Biopsy demonstrated a fusocellular carcinoma, while the epithelial components showed cytokeratin and neuron-specific enolase positivity. A correct final diagnosis could only be established by the histology of the surgical preparation following partial laryngopharyngectomy. The presence of spindle cells associated with glandular-like ones proved the synovial character of the tumor. The spindle cells were negative for epithelial marker but were positive for vimentin. S-100 protein positivity could only be demonstrated in the nerve elements encapsulated in the tumor. Ultrastructural examinations confirmed the presence of the different cell types. The spindle cells were rich in intermediate fibers, as demonstrated by electron microscopy.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a viral induced disease, associated with exophytic epithelial lesions affecting the upper airways. Problem of treatment is the high recurrence of papilloma growth after surgical removal; therefore adjuvant therapy schemes have been established. Cidofovir was one of the agents used off-label in adjuvant therapy in the last years. However, there is ongoing discussion about the effectiveness and possible side effects. Aim of our study was to share our experience in treatment of RRP with cidofovir during the last 11 years. We analyzed all the data of patients treated for RRP at the Department for Phoniatrics of the Medical University of Graz between 1999 and 2011. 25 out of the 34 treated patients are at the moment under complete remission, in six patients partial remission could be achieved and two patients showed poor response to therapy, therefore the treatment with cidofovir was stopped. 21 patients received one cycle of monthly cidofovir, 11 patients received two and one patient three cycles of therapy. Number of procedures reached from one to six during each cycle. Average cumulative dose of one cycle was 79.7 mg (15-277.5 mg), in one patient 435 mg were used. One patient developed temporary, borderline neutropenia without symptoms. Despite the retrospective approach of this study with the limitation of several incomplete records, our results show promising long-term effects of adjuvant use of cidofovir. During this period, we did not observe any relevant side effects.
Since in vitro derived tumor cell lines usually correspond to their tumors of origin, a potential biological difference between a primary tumor and its derivative metastases and recurrent tumors should be reflected in established tumor cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine useful cellular markers in permanent tumor cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and to evaluate a possible relationship between these markers and the origin of selected cell lines. The cell lines, established in the laboratory of T. Carey at the University of Michigan (UM) (Ann Arbor, Mich., USA), were derived from primary tumor and its metastases (UM-SCC 10A, 10B), primary tumor and its recurrent tumors (UM-SCC 14A, 14B, 14C) and single tumors (UM-SCC 11B, 17A, 22B). An additional tumor cell line (HLac 79) was isolated by H.-P. Zenner (Tubingen, Germany) and a clone (8029 NA) with its cisplatin-resistant subline (8029 DDP4) was established in our laboratory. As markers we chose three groups known to be related to growth behavior and/or tumor differentiation: cytoskeletal proteins, oncogene products and membrane-associated antigens. These markers were detected by immunohistochemical methods using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. The "metastatic" and "recurrent" cell lines showed changes in comparison to the corresponding "parental" lines, which could be associated with a higher degree of de-differentiation, such as the occurrence of vimentin and neuroectodermal proteins, loss of HLA-ABC or HLA-DR and increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. The expression of cytokeratins was more stable and dissociation of the classical cytokeratin pairs was observed only in a few cases. Oncogene products were practically identical in cell lines from parental and recurrent or metastatic tumors. These data serve not only as a basis for further experiments with these cell lines but also provide information about the biological significance of various markers in newly established cell lines from primary tumors.
Formation of granulation tissue and stricture at the stent's ends are well-known long-term complications of esophageal subtotally covered externally self-expandable metal stents (SEMS). Removal is associated with an increased risk of mucosal injury, severe bleeding, mediastinis, and consecutive stenosis. We report on a case of successful endoscopic removal of an esophageal SEMS 11 months after original placement to cover an iatrogenic esophageal perforation created during rigid esophagoscopy in a patient with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) syndrome. This case shows that safe SEMS late removal is achievable and at the same time illustrates the disadvantages of using SEMS for benign esophageal pathology. Particularly in cases of accidental esophageal injury during endoscopy, esophageal SEMS placement should be considered as a therapeutic option only if conventional surgery is contraindicated.
The purpose of this study was to compare functional and oncological results of extended and standard supraglottic laryngectomies. One hundred ten patients with supraglottic carcinoma were treated. A standard supraglottic laryngectomy (SSL), a laterally extended supraglottic laryngectomy (LESL) and an anteriorly extended supraglottic laryngectomy (AESL) were performed on 32, 47 and 31 patients, respectively. Indications for postoperative radiotherapy included positive surgical margins (23% of patients) and/or node metastasis (63% of patients). Local recurrence occurred in 13% of SSL, 15% of LESL and 17% of AESL patients. Pulmonary complications due to aspiration were observed in 6% of SSL, 15% of LESL and 19% of AESL. The overall 5-year cure rates were 63% for SSL, 45% for LESL and 47% for the AESL procedures. Extended supraglottic laryngectomies provided as good a local tumor control as SSL. Extension to the hypopharynx (LESL) and to the vallecula (AESL) showed more frequent pulmonary complications and reduced cure rates.
The aim of
the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the endoscopic approach for the management of inverted papilloma (IP) of the nose and paranasal sinuses and the possible factors associated with its recurrence. One hundred and forty-one patients affected by an IP originating at the level of the sinonasal tract were treated surgically using an endoscopic technique alone or a combined external–endoscopic approach at the ENT Department of the University of Bologna between January 1994 and December 2012. Of these patients, 110 were selected for the recurrence analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to detect risk factors for IP recurrence. The patients had a mean follow-up of 56.7 months (24–167 months). Seven cases (6.3 %) of recurrence were observed in patients treated with the endoscopic approach for the primary or recurrent tumor. Previous surgery (p = 0.005) and number of previous surgical procedures (p = 0.003) were associated with higher recurrence rate. The number of previous operations was associated to recurrence-free survival at Cox regression analysis. In our study, the endoscopic approach showed itself to be a useful tool for the radical resection of an IP. The endoscopic approach should be tailored for the different extensions of IP. Recurrent cases showed an increased risk of further recurrence. Therefore, these should be treated paying particular attention to the boundaries of the primary tumor.
Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) in scuba divers is increasingly observed, but epidemiological data are limited to small case series and the pathogenesis remains elusive. We report our experience over a 13-year period. We also thought to demonstrate that the development of this injury is mainly attributed to a mechanism of vascular origin. Diving information, clinical data, presence of circulatory right-to-left shunt (RLS), and laboratory investigations of 115 recreational divers were retrospectively analyzed. A follow-up study at 3 months was possible with the last 50 consecutive cases. IEDCS (99 males, 44 ± 11 years) represented 24 % of all the patients treated. The median delay of onset of symptoms after surfacing was 20 min. Violation of decompression procedure was recorded in 3 % while repetitive dives were observed in 33 %. The median time to hyperbaric treatment was 180 min. Pure vestibular disorders were observed in 76.5 %, cochlear deficit in 6 % and combination of symptoms in 17.5 %. Additional skin and neurological disorders were reported in 15 % of cases. In 77 %, a large RLS was detected with a preponderant right-sided lateralization of IEDCS (80 %, P < 0.001). Incomplete recovery was found in 68 % of the followed patients. Time to recompression did not seem to influence the clinical outcome. IEDCS is a common presentation of decompression sickness following an uneventful scuba dive, but the therapeutic response remains poor. The high prevalence of RLS combined with a right-sided predominance of inner ear dysfunction suggests a preferential mechanism of paradoxical arterial gas emboli through a vascular anatomical selectivity.