Estudios Irlandeses

Publications
The Fenian movement was born in 1858 as an alliance between the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary secret society, and the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish-American organisation intended to supply this society with funds and trained officers. This was not the first time that Irish nationalists on both sides of the Atlantic had tried to cooperate, but it was the first time that there was a steady arrangement in place. The Fenian partnership was extremely successful on the surface, but it was undermined by fundamental differences in customs, political attitudes and ultimate goals between Irish and American Fenians. The clearest evidence of these differences was afforded by the Fenian Brotherhood’s successive attempts to invade Canada between 1866 and 1871. As military episodes the Canadian raids were negligible; as Irish revolutionary attempts they seem absurd. However, they were a perfectly coherent manifestation of the Irish-American “hyphenated identity”. The present article traces the parallel evolution of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Fenian Brotherhood up to 1866, and reconstructs the cultural and political reasons for the revival of the Canadian scheme, the ensuing split in the Fenian Brotherhood, and the final collapse of the Fenian alliance.
 
This paper will primarily seek to examine the official response of the Spanish Restoration and Primo de Rivera governments to the events in Ireland during the time of the Irish Civil War and Partition, as well as giving some insights on the reaction within Spanish society. The quotation, attributed to US Ambassador Juan Riaño, was in response to the Provisional Government of Ireland’s request for official Spanish recognition of Ireland in post war international institutions. The paper will analyse the extremely cautious response of the Spanish authorities to the emergence of the Irish state, as exemplified by Riaño’s quote, which, within the echelons of the Spanish diplomatic service, was viewed as the apparent victory of separatism in Ireland. The paper will also touch on the influential role of the Spanish Ambassador in London, Alfonso Merry del Val, and how his pro-British establishment view coloured the efforts of Dublin to establish diplomatic ties with a country it believed to be a natural historical ally. It will chart the difficulties which prevailed in the setting up of limited diplomatic ties in 1924 and the formal establishment of a Spanish consulate in Dublin in 1927 and examine how the links between Republican Ireland and Monarchical Spain developed until 1931.
 
Desde su adhesión a las Naciones Unidas en 1955, Irlanda ha alcanzado una reputación considerable dentro de la organización debido a su compromiso con la diplomacia multilateral y su posición con respecto a los derechos humanos, la autodeterminación y el desarme. Sin embargo, a la hora de votar las resoluciones de la Asamblea General, la delegación irlandesa debe tener en cuenta la efectividad de las mismas y su impacto en Naciones Unidas, así como el posicionamiento de otros países. Las presiones estadounidenses han sido de importancia desde el principio y desde 1973 Irlanda se las ha tenido que ver con su compromiso con la solidaridad europea. Aún así, varios estudios sobre las votaciones en la Asamblea General demuestran que en general Irlanda ha mantenido un perfil característico, fiel a sus valores tradicionales. A pesar de algunos cambios en el transcurso de los años, la continuidad parece ser el sello distintivo de la política de Irlanda en Naciones Unidas; la cual se caracteriza por un enfoque moderado y constructivo dentro del marco del grupo de estados progresistas.
 
This paper will examine the recurring theme of death in Jim Sheridan�s work, with particular focus on his 2003 film In America. This theme also links Sheridan�s work to one of his favourite directors, John Ford, whose work In America alludes to. While exploring the theme of death in Sheridan�s films, and how it connects with the work of Ford, this paper will consider responses to In America, the first film to be (partly) shot in New York after the attack on the twin towers, in light of the tragedy of 9/11. It raises questions about the problematic positioning of this film by Sheridan and others not just with respect to the events of that day but also in relation to the 1981 hunger strikes in Northern Ireland. Furthermore, it questions the regressive politics involved in the depiction of the central black character in In America, Mateo, particularly as it relates to this theme of death. El artículo examina el tema recurrente de la muerte en la obra de Jim Sheridan, hacienda hincapié en su película En América (2003). Dicho tema enlaza la obra de Sheridan con la de uno de sus directores favoritos, John Ford, a la que se hace allusion en En América. A la vez que se explora el tema de la muerte en los films de Sheridan y las conexiones con la obra de Ford, se analizará la recepción de En América, la primera película rodada (parcialmente) en Nueva York tras el ataque a las torres gemelas, a la luz de la tragedia del 9/11. Se plantean cuestiones respecto a los acontecimientos del día, así como en relación a la descripción de Mateo, el personaje central negro de En América, en particular en lo concerniente a su muerte.
 
This paper offers a critical analysis of Leanne O'Sullivan's debut collection Waiting for My Clothes, in particular focusing on its recurrent themes of anorexia and bulimia. Leanne O'Sullivan is part of a new generation of Irish poets, located at the crossroads of tradition and modernity. In its critique of the so-called beauty myth, Waiting for My Clothes takes the reader to a New Ireland where the anxiety for national definitions has lost part of its force in favour of the progressive internalisation of Irish life. However, this paper will concentrate on O'Sullivan's examination of the religious dimension of anorexic patterns, an aspect that presents her as heiress of the influence exerted by Catholicism in the conceptualisations of femininity in Ireland.
 
Some great stuff. There was a great character called Nancy who would relieve Josie when he needed to go on a bank run or something. She was like the angel of death. She was a very negative, slightly scary presence in his life. She would just talk about people being sick all the time. There were two great scenes with her in it but they just weren’t necessary in the end. If you’re going to go with such a bare style, first of all everything that’s there has to be very carefully placed. Particularly if you don’t have music, as you will see everything that’s wrong. I’m very proud of that with Garage. I don’t know very many films which would play just watching the action. We were extremely aware of that. That would be my fear. I think I could have made an even colder film out of Garage because Josie is kind of lovely. But it’s true to the character and it’s also true to Pat. And there’s something so moving about those characters, and they really are around, extremely kind people who are very marginal. The amount of kindness going a begging, wandering around the streets with nowhere to be given, I find really moving, and Josie is very much that kind of character. The only person he can give anything to is David, and the horse, primarily, is the object of his simplest act of kindness. I don’t think I’m going to be able to answer the question as to whether Garage is a completely realised film for a while, until I watch it again in a couple of years time. I watch Adam and Pauland I feel that, although I don’t think it’s as good a film as Garage, and there are bits of it where I know we didn’t have the resources or I made mistakes, but I do feel that it is a completely realised film. Maybe a better way of saying it is that there is a purple patch in the middle of Adam and Paul that I can watch from top to tail and say that’s really nice, that if I was a musician I’d say the passage is perfectly played. For me in Adam and Paul, it’s from when they arrive in the park to the Bulgarian scene. Everything became golden. In Garage, for me it’s the last 20 minutes of the film where I feel like it’s note perfect.
 
In Clare Boylan's fantasy novel Black Baby (1988) and Eilis Ni Dhuibhne's realistic novel The Dancers Dancing (1999), female protagonists fear those who symbolize the grotesqueness of their own overweight bodies; hence, these heroines reject marginalized women, either black or retarded, and Irish peasants. Through their heroines' struggles to accept both themselves and marginalized others, Ni Dhuibhne and Boylan deconstruct the psychology of self-hatred, whether it occurs in teenage or elderly women. Bakhtin's ideas about the grotesque body, along with Stallybrass and White's connection of the grotesque to prejudice, and Kristeva's theory of abjection illuminate the conflicts over self-acceptance that Boylan's and Ni Dhuibhne's heroines face.
 
Uno de los subgéneros más populares de la narrativa surgida en torno a los Disturbios de Irlanda del Norte es el llamado 'Romance más allá de la divisoria', una historia en la que dos personajes de ambientes sociales, culturales y religiosos diferentes intentan superar la divisoria sectaria de la región. Como centro del conflicto norirlandés, Belfast deviene un epítome de los obstáculos que la situación política impone sobre esos amantes que tratan de desafiar las barreras socioculturales y sectarias. Joe Cleary ha afirmado que en el contexto norirlandés este tipo de narrativa se emplea para ilustrar la posibilidad de una reconciliación entre campos políticos opuestos. Este artículo intenta refutar dicha opinión. Centrándose en Troubles (1976) de Naomi May, A Goat's Song (1994) de Dermot Healy y Involved (1995) de Kate O'Riordan, se propone demostrar hasta que punto el fracaso en la unión de esos amantes a un lado y otro de las barrera religiosa sirve de hecho para exponer la división aún existente dentro de la sociedad norirlandesa, así como la brecha entre el Norte y el Sur de Irlanda.
 
El presente estudio se adentra en el uso de la música en el relato de uno de los escritores irlandeses más internacionales, James Joyce -"The Dead" (1914)- y en su adaptación cinematográfica de John Huston con el mismo título (1987). El argumento central de este artículo es demostrar que el discurso musical aparece ligado a la esfera femenina en ambas obras. Esta asociación se consigue por medio de un proceso de feminización que sugiere significados ocultos y deseos silenciados, que adquieren una materialización indirecta. Igualmente, se argumenta que, en su adaptación cinematográfica, Huston enriquece de forma magistral el relato de Joyce para insistir en el papel crucial que el escritor irlandés proporciona a la esfera femenina a través del discurso musical, añadiendo, a su vez, referencias a la literatura romántica como otra esfera alternativa para la expresión femenina.
 
This article concentrates on the different analyses made by critics regarding the beginning of the so-called airy phase in Seamus Heaney's oeuvre. In contrast with the generalized critical acceptance of a new airy, visionary, escapist phase, which follows a first earthy, sensorial, more politically committed phase, the main objective of this article is to show the outstanding critical disagreement over the collection/s which introduce/s this poetic shift and, consequently, the fragility of such critical hypothesis. After providing evidence on this discrepancy among critics and claiming our own disagreement with this airy phase, we offer a re-examination of Heaney's poetic evolution which detaches itself from the binary opposition earth vs. air in favour of emphasizing tension and balance between both of them -as in many other Heaneyian dualities- all throughout his literary career. El presente estudio recoge los diferentes análisis de la crítica heaneyiana respecto al inicio de la llamada airy phase en la obra de Seamus Heaney. Su principal objetivo es mostrar -dentro del marco de aceptación crítica generalizada de una nueva fase de carácter aéreo, visionario y escapista que sucede a una primera fase de carácter terreno, sensorial y comprometido- el llamativo desacuerdo respecto a la/s obra/s que introduce/n tal giro poético, y, en consecuencia, los frágiles cimientos sobre los que se asienta tal hipótesis crítica. Una vez evidenciada esta discrepancia entre críticos y expuesto nuestro desacuerdo respecto a esta fase aérea, se ofrece una reexaminación de la evolución poética del poeta irlandés que se separa de la oposición binaria tierra vs. aire para enfatizar el valor de tensión y equilibrio entre ambos -como entre otras tantas dualidades- a lo largo y ancho de la producción de Heaney.
 
In the course of more than thirty years of prolific writing, Paul Muldoon has earned a reputation for surprising his readers again and again. To a significant extent, this continued ability to 'make it new' is closely linked to Muldoon's characteristically relational writing. Often described (in tones of eulogy or of deprecation) as the epitome of a postmodernist practice, his work has tested the limits of intertextuality and his penchant for quotation, pastiche and parody has rather often sought referents in other media, notably in the visual arts. Taking a specific instance of ekphrasis in Muldoon's poetry for its point of departure and its focus, this article proceeds to address broader themes in his work, as well as to consider his practice against the framework defined by a major alternative for reading the relationship between word and image: as rivalry and struggle, or as peaceful and mutual enablement.
 
It is a truism that Anglo-Irish relations did not progress in the eighty odd years between Joyce’s Trieste lectures and articles and Elvis Costello’s King of America album. If anything they regressed. As Declan Kiberd and others have noted, Joyce foresaw the partitioning of Ireland and, as Greil Marcus has shown, the dark melodies of Costello’s 1986 album are an acrid response to Thatcherism. Tracks like “Sleep of the Just” and “Little Palaces” are threnodies of diaspora. Of course Joyce was prophetic and my reading of Ulysses enables me to fill in the backstory of Marcus’s visceral lines about “Little Palaces” in his 1986 Artforum review: for instance, Bloom’s speech from the dock when he is accused of assaulting the serving girl Mary Driscoll actually reveals the unhappiness of this immigrant’s son. My paper traces continuities of Irish dispossession from Joyce’s “Ireland, Island of Saints and Sages” lecture to Costello’s “Little Palaces” on the one hand and from the Trieste lecture on Mangan to “Sleep of the Just” on the other. I conclude with reflections on Irish absurdism and the seachange in Joyce studies occasioned by the work of critics like Seamus Deane who foreshadowed the Northern Ireland peace process with essays like “Joyce and Nationalism” (1982).
 
This article attempts to reveal a transitory point in the course of which the protagonist of Eilis Ni Dhuibhne’s “The Pale Gold of Alaska” endeavours to question polar truths that position her in the ‘Irish female’ scheme, thus causing her transformation into the enigma –a symbol that escapes the necessity of verbalising one’s Self. In order to carry out my goal, I dwelled heavily on musical parallels which proved helpful in the analysis of the mentioned negation of verbal identity. The use of musical symbolism, though, does not evolve solely from an analytical interest, since, as I see it, musical patterns and symbols are deeply rooted in literary works and help us understand literature in ways not yet explored. Though musicology bears a strong resemblance to philosophical and literary movements, the ideas of philosophers like Kristeva, who is very fond of musical metaphors while describing her semiotics, never formed a separate area of literary criticism. Still, her idea of using a non-verbal signifying system to explain linguistic and even psychological patterns is inspiring enough to carry out similar practice in relation to literature.
 
Este artículo analiza la película de Jim Sheridan In America (2002), argumentando que la ubicación de América refleja imágenes imaginarias de Irlanda a su público irlandés, de manera similar al mecanismo descrito en la discusión que Lacan hace de su experimento con el ramo invertida, que utiliza para ilustrar los tres registros de la psique humana. Se exploran dimensiones imaginarias, simbólicas y reales de la identidad tal como se articulan en la película, demostrando que, como en el experimento de Lacan, la dimensión simbólica, que equivale a la posición del sujeto humano como ser social, es la fuerza estructurante más poderosa. En la película de Sheridan, esta dimensión se encarna en la película de Steven Spielberg ET, una narrativa de ficción que permite a Johnny, el padre de familia, articular su dolor y empezar una nueva vida. Además, la película de Sheridan sugiere que América es el lugar imaginario de la identidad irlandesa contemporánea, y que puede ser entendido como análogo al espejo esférico del experimento lacaniano.
 
Maria Edgeworth was an Anglo-Irish writer who was born in 1768 and died in 1849 and thus was able to witness the economic and ideological changes that shaped British society in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Though Edgeworth upheld utilitarian and enlightened ideas very similar to the ones inspiring the American Founding Fathers, studies on her oeuvre have never been interested in the vision of America reflected in her tales and novels. This paper analyses some of Edgeworth’s little-explored narratives and corresponds to three different moments in her career. Edgeworth considered America to be a place where the individual could begin a new life away from home (“Tomorrow” [1804]), a tolerant country open to all religious creeds (Harrington[1817]) and an alternative motherland for the Irish during the Famine (Orlandino [1847]). The author was conditioned by the historical circumstances in Ireland, and she remained faithful to her pedagogic aim. However, instead of resorting to an idealisation of America, Edgeworth associated the new land with freedom and hope. In these narratives, and from a more or less serious point of view, she depicted America as a prize reserved for courageous hardworking people and even as an escape from the grim reality at home.
 
Antoine Ó Flatharta bilingually charts media-saturated global impacts upon Galway's Gaelic-speakers. His play in Irish, Grásta i Meiriceá (1990) features two young Irishmen who journey by bus on a pilgrimage to Elvis' Graceland. In its 1993 English adaptation, Grace in America, the pair meets relatives who emigrated to 1940s Buffalo. Reading these plays by applying Seamus Deane's "primordial nomination," Edward Said's "cartographical impulse," Declan Kiberd's "spiritual tourism," and sociolinguistics, their relevance sharpens. In transforming Grásta into Grace, Ó Flatharta foreshadows his own shift into publishing in English. The fate of the play's mutating Irish vernacular, as shown in Ó Flatharta's drama, becomes less lamented than might be supposed. America, and English, represent liberation for his characters, in his work not only in English but- unexpectedly-in his other native language of Irish.
 
To commemorate the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of the Spanish masterpiece of all times Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, this article approaches in an introductory manner some of the literary productions which sprang from Cervantes's original within the Irish context. In the case of Ireland the Cervantine inspiration, albeit minor and neglected, has also been present; and, it is most probably the nineteenth century which provides the most ample and varied response to Cervantes's masterpiece in many a different way. Our aim is to see briefly how the legacy of Don Quixote found distinct expression on the Emerald Isle. Indeed, all these Cervantine contributions from Ireland during the nineteenth century were also deeply imbued with the politics of literature and society in a country which experienced historical, social and cultural turmoil. The reference to Cervantes as a key writer in Spanish letters will not only be reduced to his masterpiece of all times; but, will also be tackled in critical pieces of importance in Ireland.
 
The recent scholarly focus on Elizabeth Bowen�s modernism tends to reinforce a false dichotomy between Bowen as an Ascendancy Big House novelist and Bowen as a literary modernist. In keeping with Jameson�s argument that the colonial experience is at the root of Western modernism, I propose that her representations of Anglo-Irish Big House culture, in The Last September in particular, are in fact focal points for understanding Bowen as a modernist, and I argue that the Gothic, with its unavoidable political and colonial resonances, is fundamental to Bowen�s Irish modernism. La crítica académica reciente en torno al Modernismo de Elizabeth Bowen tiende a reforzar la falsa dicotomía entre Bowen como novelista de la élite dirigente de la �Big House� y Bowen como modernista literaria. Subscribiendo el argumento de Jameson de que la experiencia colonial está en la base del Modernismo occidental, propongo que la representación de la cultura anglo-irlandesa de la Big House que nos ofrece la autora, particularmente en The Last September, es en realidad un aspecto clave para comprender a Bowen como modernista, a la vez que sostengo que el elemento gótico es fundamental en el Modernismo irlandés de Bowen.
 
Nowadays the joint themes of living at the borderland of cultures and responding to the pressures which emerge during the necessary re-formation of identity are treated in an increasing number of literary works. The subject of the present paper is Anne Devlin�s After Easter, a drama which uses the trope of the journey to fuse the constraints of exilic existence with narratives of gender, race and generational tension. My analysis explores how Greta, questor of a new diasporic identity, manages to reinterpret conflicting images and discourses as she confronts them on revisiting her original home country, Troubles-ridden Northern Ireland. By the end of the journey she is able to invent her own story, intertwining concerns of origin and continuity, love of the mother(land) as well as of the Other, and through that she re-constructs her identity as a self-assured migrant. En la actualidad, las cuestiones conjuntas de vivir en la frontera de culturas y responder a las presiones que emergen al realizar la necesaria reformulación de identidades son tratadas en un creciente número de obras literarias. El objeto de este trabajo es After Easter de Anne Devlin, un drama que utiliza el tropo del viaje para fusionar las presiones de la vida en el exilio con las narrativas de género, raza y tensión generacional. Mi análisis explora cómo Greta, en busca de una nueva identidad de diáspora, logra reinterpretar imágenes y discursos conflictivos al tiempo que los confronta al revisitar su país de origen, una Irlanda del Norte atormentada por el conflicto armado. Al final de su viaje ella es capaz de inventar su propia historia, entremezclando cuestiones de origen y continuidad, amor por la madre(patria) así como por el Otro, y mediante este proceso reconstruir su identidad como una emigrante segura de sí misma.
 
The following translated poems belong to Eavan Boland’s 2001 collection Code(Carcanet) and they illustrate some of her main aesthetic concerns as well as certain thematic innovations in her mature work. By the time this volume was published, Eavan Boland had already acquired both critical respect and a large readership not only in Ireland but also abroad. In 1990, Mary Robinson quoted Boland’s “The Singers” in her first presidential address. Seven years later, in 1997, her work became part of the Irish Leaving Certificate exam. Because of this, the new generation in Ireland is getting used to the fact that there are Irish women poets as well as Irish male poets. Boland’s established position within the Irish literary establishment is well-deserved by virtue of both the scope and achievements of her work. She has given a new dimension to poetry itself, by turning women from passive and emblematic objects into creative and active parts of the artistic process. Furthermore, Boland has influenced a whole generation of women writers, through her subversion of inherited literary standards, her revision of nationalist and mythological iconographies, her interest in domesticity and her deconstruction of history as a ‘master’ and ‘masculine’ narrative. One of her main concerns has been to address the importance of women’s ordinary lives and offer a more accurate version of Ireland’s past. This concern is observed in some of the poems from Code selected for translation. “How the Earth and All the Planets Were Created”, “Quarantine” and “Emigrant Letters” focus on those unrecorded stories which need to be brought out of a shadowy past into the pages of her poems: the life of her grandmother, the suffering of the famine victims and the dislocation of exiled Irish men and women. “Quarantine” is particularly moving in its uncovering of love in one of the most tragic events in Irish history. But Code also shows some other important thematic innovations in Boland’s recent work. One constituent feature of her opus has been her revision and subversion of conventional images of womanhood in Irish poetry (i.e. the mythical, bodiless, and idealised figure of Mother Ireland, for instance). A striking change in this volume is that now Boland, as a more mature writer, seems to come to terms with the Irish literary tradition. “How We Made a New Art on Old Ground” exemplifies this new move in her work. In this poem, the speaker offers a retrospective and reconciliatory view of national cultural conventions, the Irish pastoral genre in particular. She realizes that, by allowing rust to grow on the gates, this literary convention has not intended to arouse national resistance, to record “the action nor [the] end” of Irish rebellion, but to cover and “overlay” both hatred and defeat with an utopian vision of a pure and untouched Irish landscape. As an art of peace, nature poetry is able to separate “the place” from “the torment of place”, to forget injustices, Irish oppression and dispossession, and move forwards. Instead of criticising the cultural and political implications of the Revivalist idealisation of nature, Boland now strongly shares their wish to erase all historical traces and to forget, at least momentarily, her desire to recuperate a subaltern past through memory and language. This is Boland’s own way, as she says in the title, of making “a new” and liberating “art on old ground”.
 
Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1914) concludes at the point when Stephen Dedalus - a character substantially modelled on Joyce himself - is about to leave the Ireland of his childhood and young-adult years. Presented as a means of maintaining independence and distance as a writer, this move marks the culmination of a process of self-discovery. However, beyond this basic narrative dimension, A Portrait is hardly a simplistic novel. In this respect, the novel's oft-discussed patterns of imagery, and its complex, sometimes ambiguous, use of irony, for instance, continue to invite new interpretations. The present article, in fact, aims to provide insight into the function of Christopher Marlowe as a role-model and precursor - to-date unrecognized in Joyce criticism - of the idealized subversive artist, a writer whose work and cultural image contributed to the Stephen Dedalus-James Joyce persona as constructed in A Portrait.
 
The ‘confessional’ autobiography has become a popular variant of professional football autobiography in Britain. Co-written ‘autobiographies’ by prominent former emigrant Irish or Irish descended international footballers have featured prominently in this sub-genre. Their ‘confessions’ of alcoholism, gambling, infidelity, irresponsibility towards partners or dependents, or underlying ontological insecurity might be seen as an insightful engagement with their lives as male footballers in Britain. However, focusing on two autobiographies of Paul McGrath, and reading these ‘troubled’ accounts using psychoanalytic perspectives on sport, migration and masculinity, it is argued that they are contradictory texts which embody a peculiar variation on the emigrant “fugitive state of mind” (Davar, 1996), both approximating and deferring mature, reflexive engagement with the social and cultural construction of identity, allowing them to occupy a liminal but discontent imaginary space in which adolescent masculinity can be indefinitely extended. The homosocial world of men’s professional football is a key factor in this.
 
This article aims to explore developments in the way political agents in Northern Ireland have been re(presented) in the British media, particularly in the light of the recent and historic agreement between the leaders of the DUP and Sinn Féin to enter into government together on May 8th 2007. According to media specialists like David Butler (1995), protagonists in the Troubles have traditionally been attributed the roles of “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly”, (the British Army, the IRA and Loyalists), in accordance with the British state’s bipartisan approach to the Troubles and its policy of incriminating endogenous agents. However, Butler remarks on a shifting discourse during the peace talks of the 1990s, with Northern Irish protagonists being separated into “Hawks” and “Doves” (anti and pro Belfast agreement respectively). May 8th 2007 saw the “Bad” and the “Ugly” firmly installed at Stormont as deputy First Minister and First Minister of Northern Ireland, following a long peace process in which the British State played a significant part. Consequently, this paper will aim to determine whether a new pattern of representation has been adopted by the media or whether the “old roles” still remain. It will also explore whether any interpretation has been offered for two such “extremes” coming together.
 
John Banville’s The Sea (2005) is not only a highly stylistic novel but also a novel about style. In The Sea Banville poses his obsessive question of identity and authenticity in relation to style as writing as well as writing as style and complicates the notion of style as traditionally understood in literary criticism. Contrary to most commentators’ reading of the novel’s style as merely manner of writing, in this essay I argue that Banville explores style as both manner of writing and manner of expression distinctive of its writer. The novel’s rich language is one aspect among others of a distinctive style that the writer, John Banville, has forged during almost four decades of writing and in which he appears, inThe Sea, uncannily at home. However, the identity obtained through style, like all other forms of identity previously investigated by Banville, is necessarily inauthentic. Any identity obtained through style, Banville believes, is obtained in what Sartre called “bad faith”; style betrays the writer’s attempt to make himself what he is by playing at being someone he is not.
 
Despite the experimental and subversive work of Irish feminist filmmakers such as Pat Murphy and Margo Harkin in the 1980s, as Gerardine Meaney has contended, “the image of woman as Ireland, Ireland as woman, remains powerful and pervasive in the new Irish cinema” (1998: 250). The cinematic convention of representing Ireland through female characters becomes particularly relevant in two recent Irish historical films: Michael Collins (1996), directed and written by Irish Neil Jordan, and The Wind that Shakes the Barley (2006), written by Scottish Paul Laverty and directed by English Ken Loach. In their dealing with themes such as military occupation, colonisation and the heated debate about the Treaty, both films maintain the nationalist rhetoric that represents Ireland as a woman/mother in a direct manner. Over the course of this essay, I shall try to chart the implications of both films’ representations of women, with a view to demonstrating how, even at present, the trope of Mother Ireland continues to be deep in the national unconscious.
 
Since the beginning of the Northern Ireland "Troubles", interest in exploring the social and political concerns of a region affected by sectarian violence and religious bigotry has produced a significant body of literary works within which the thriller has become one of the most suitable forms of expression. The traditional action thriller has acquired in this context a rich political dimension, producing what is now widely known as the "Troubles" thriller. The development of this mode has diverged into two categories: the "Troubles-trash"; and a more "literary" form, which draws on serious political matters to reflect upon social and religious disputes. Both kinds, however, have been criticised for offering a stagnant and reductive version of the dynamics of the conflict; a judgement that should be qualified. Bearing this in mind, the purpose of the present article is to analyse the ways in which these issues are echoed in the literary productions of three well-known writers: Benedict Kiely, Brian Moore and Colin Bateman.
 
Economics is an international discipline, but economists tend to be local thinkers. We describe how research on the Irish economy eventually led to a series of engagements with Europe, and eventually became transformed by a European dimension. We suggest that a strong sense of local identity is a pre-requisite for the emergence of a European identity, and that there is much to be gained from learning to look at Ireland through European eyes.
 
Tóibín is not the archetypal "revisionist" intellectual that some have made him into, but rather a sort of in-between, making a virtue of his own ambivalences towards notions of tradition, community and nationhood. In this essay some of these ambivalences are scrutinised with special reference to two essays from Tóibín's Walking along the Border (or Bad Blood). The assumption is that, intellectually, Tóibín's ambivalences are rooted in a humanism which may partly be ascribed to his personal attachments, affections and loyalties: to family, place and community. It is argued that his personal need to reconcile himself with the loss of his father, when he was a young boy, is connected with a theme of more general significance: how to come to terms with the loss of the "certainties" of the past -nation, family, church- while defining and asserting personal autonomy in a new order of things, bereft of paternal authorities.
 
Heaney’s controversial translation of Beowulf shows characteristics that make it look like an original work: in particular, the presence of Hiberno-English words and some unexpected structural features such as the use of italics, notes and running titles. Some of Heaney’s artistic choices have been brought into question by the Germanic philologists, who reproached him with his lack of fidelity to the original text. Moreover, the insertion of Hiberno-English words, which cause an effect of estrangement on Standard English speakers, was considered by some critics not only an aesthetic choice but a provocative act, a linguistic and political claim recalling the ancient antagonism between the Irish and the English. Yet, from the point of view of Heaney’s theoretical and cultural background, his innovations in his translation of Beowulf appear consistent with his personal notions of poetry and translation. Therefore, his Beowulf can be considered the result of a necessary interaction between translator and original text and be acclaimed in spite of all the criticism.
 
El cambio de lengua y la mezcla de lengua son procesos comunes y bien documentados en el habla de las personas multilingües. Cuando las personas multilingües son alfabetizadas en múltiples lenguas, es posible que en la escritura encontremos una mezcla de las lenguas. A pesar de las presiones conservativas que tienden a considerar como variedad de prestigio a sólo una de las lenguas en un mismo repertorio lingüístico, y por lo tanto como primera opción de la expresión escrita, los autores alfabetizados en varias lenguas que son capaces de captar la atención de lectores también alfabetizados en varias lenguas pueden utilizar dos o más lenguas en sus textos. Aquí resumidas, encontraréis varias teorías de cambio de lengua, junto con una revisión de la mezcla de lenguas en irlandés oral. Una revisión de la mezcla de lenguas en los textos irlandeses modernos y contemporáneos muestra que, estructuralmente, la mezcla de lengua escrita es, mayoritariamente, similar a lo que se ha observado en la lengua oral. No obstante, funcionalmente, la mezcla escrita a menudo tiene objetivos más amplios. Como la escritura es una forma planeada y consciente del lenguaje, los escritores multilingües utilizan sus mejores repertorios lingüísticos estratégicamente imbuyendo distintas lenguas con distintos significados simbólicos. Para una apreciación cabal de tales textos se precisa no sólo la comprensión de las lenguas involucradas sino también de sus funciones en el contexto cultural, y de sus asociaciones históricas, políticas y culturales con otras lenguas.
 
The student interested in cultural assimilation, hybridity, and naturalization, in masculinity, authorship, and identity, in what happened to the Irish in Britain in the twentieth century, will turn at some point to the Mayo-born, Lancashire writer Bill Naughton (1910-1992), author of a classic children's story collection The Goalkeeper's Revenge and Other Stories (1961), of Alfie (1965), the film which helped define 1960s London, and of a series of autobiographies largely centering on his Irish childhood and upbringing in Bolton. It has been the historic role of Irish writers from Richard Brinsley Sheridan to Oscar Wilde, from Elizabeth Bowen to William Trevor, to give the English back to themselves in a gallery of portraits. Naughton is part of this tradition, but, unlike these other writers, his subject is the English working class, which he writes about from within, with both sympathy and knowledge. It can be readily conceded that his work is not at the forefront of modern English or Irish writing, but it does deserve to be better known and appreciated. Here in this discursive essay, with an eye on his Irish background, I move back and forth across his writing to reflect on his contribution not so to much the cultural greening of Britain as to the mass observation of the English and of the Irish in Britain.
 
Paul Muldoon's poems "Meeting the British" and "My Father and I and Billy Two Rivers" represent history as a space of reversed allegiances. In these poems, doubling is a constant activity that deceives the viewer or interlocutor. This deception occurs both in the history of British imperialism and in a technological present in which an Irish father and son must make sense of the shifting and uncertain ground of their own cultural identity. Behind the veil of the allegiance lurk obscured differences of both identity and power; Muldoon's poems highlight the importance of being skeptical of all assertions of identity that purport to equate different, opposed and unequal cultural groups. In the end, a knowledge of history is the most important tool for piercing the veil of deception and seeing clearly the working of difference and resisting the deception that is the weapon of those in power. Los poemas "Meeting the British" y "My Father and I and Billy Two Rivers," de Paul Muldoon, presentan la historia como un espacio de alianzas cambiantes. En estos poemas, el duplicar es una actividad constante que engaña al espectador o interlocutor. Este engaño ocurre tanto en la historia del imperialismo británico como en un presente tecnológico en el cual un padre irlandés y su hijo tienen que comprender su propia identidad cultural, que es siempre cambiante e incierta. Detrás del velo de la alianza se esconden diferencias de identidad y poder; los poemas de Muldoon subrayan la importancia de ser escéptico en cuanto a todas las afirmaciones de identidad que pretenden equiparar grupos culturales que son desiguales y que están en oposición. A fin de cuentas, un conocimiento de la historia es la herramienta más útil para penetrar el velo de la decepción, ver claramente cómo funciona el fenómeno de la diferencia, y resistir el engaño que sirve de arma para los que poseen el poder.
 
The theosophical systems formulated by great poets, such as William Blake and William Butler Yeats, represent a personal idiosyncratic actualization of an ancient repertoire of magical symbols and occult visions. This study wants to focus the attention on the philosophical, mythical, and esoteric syncretism that W. B. Yeats drew from William Blake’s symbolical system. A fundamental step of Yeats’s deep investigation into the Blakean ‘vision’ was given by his monumental work, written together with Edwin John Ellis, on Blake’s poetic and pictorial production, completed in 1893 with a three-volume edition entitled The Works of William Blake, Poetic, Symbolic, and Critical. This work, published in London by Bernard Quaritch, deeply influenced Yeats’s symbolical and imaginary system, determining its subsequent development up to its codification in the volume of A Vision. With WWB, Yeats was able to systematize for the first time his own thought, giving unity to his Weltanschauung and his poetry. Following this hypothesis, I concentrated on Yeats’s and Ellis’s numerous analyses dedicated to Blake’s mythological and symbolical corpus and, in particular, I examined the last chapter of the first volume of the Quaritch edition. This chapter, entitled “The Symbolic System”, constitutes an unquestionable link between Yeats the reader and scholar of Blake, and Yeats the poet and follower of Blake.
 
Las versiones de obras de teatro griego antiguo de Brendan Kennelly como Antígona, Medea, y Las Troyanas han recibido una cantidad considerable de atención por parte de los críticos, sin embargo su versión de Bodas de sangre de Federico García Lorca ha sido en gran medida ignorada. Este artículo examina la forma en que Bodas de sangre de Kennelly desafía las pautas establecidas de género y los códigos sociales tradicionales. Así, aunque la obra de Lorca se desarrolla en la España rural de 1930 sus temas se hacen eco de cuestiones que han sido durante mucho tiempo el centro de la identidad irlandesa. Vinculando ambos autores a través de temas relevantes a la naturaleza del arte y asentando la obra dentro de áreas de gran importancia para el feminismo irlandés, que examina las construcciones tradicionales de la feminidad, el artículo sostiene que la obra de Kennelly propone una actitud de resistencia al comportamiento dominante, representado como sumamente restrictivo, así como a la conformidad incondicional a normas opresivas que impiden a las mujeres y a los hombres la realización de vidas plenas. En otras palabras, el artículo sugiere que la obra en última instancia expresa la posibilidad de cambio, un cambio cuya fuerza motriz emana de una especie de hermandad. La obra, por lo tanto, contribuye a un cuestionamiento y a una renegociación de la identidad irlandesa.
 
Studies of representations of the body in literature have become so well established as to no longer require extensive explanation or justification as a mode of criticism but, nevertheless, the choice to apply this particular mode of reading to contemporary Northern Irish fiction cannot be glossed over without comment. The body still remains a vastly under theorised aspect of Irish writing in general. The body, however, is an area of particular relevance to Irish fiction and particularly relevant to contemporary Northern Irish fiction in its depictions of national conflict, negotiations with slippery concepts of national identity and ambivalence towards the prevailing conservative cultural and religious climate. In many respects Northern Ireland remains a predominantly conservative, theocratic society in which women are still traditionally associated with the home, marriage and motherhood. However, many contemporary Northern Irish women writers navigate occasions in which the domestic and public spheres come into contact and collision, or the liminal space between them. This article focuses on three novels in particular, which span different genres, two decades and both the intra- and post-conflict periods:Give Them Stones (1987) by Mary Beckett, Hidden Symptoms (1987) by Deirdre Madden and Sharon Owens’ The Tavern on Maple Street (2005).
 
Boland's poetry seeks to reconcile political and personal, the moment and duration, selfknowledge -seen as an exteriorisation of the self- and narration. It is therefore fundamentally concerned with aesthetics, especially in visual art, which however it views as a form of division and hypostatization of the moment, while it also seeks to place the intense moment of vision in the processes of time by recurrent images of transformation, anticipation, memory and loss; it is essentially elegiac, celebrating and lamenting the past and reflecting the constant presence of death within the everyday consciousness; hence the model of Vergil, and especially of the sixth book of the Aeneid, and of Irish song. La poesía de Boland compagina lo político y lo personal, el momento y lo permanente, el auto-conocimiento -en tanto que exteriorización del ser- y la narración. Se ocupa pues fundamentalmente de la estética, en especial en las artes visuales, a las que sin embargo considera una forma de división y reificación del momento, al tiempo que intenta insertar el momento intenso de la visión dentro de procesos temporales mediante imágenes recurrentes de transformación, anticipación, memoria y pérdida; es esencialmente elegíaca, en tanto que celebra y lamenta el pasado y refleja la constante presencia de la muerte en la conciencia cotidiana; de ahí el modelo virgiliano, en particular del sexto libro de la Envida, así como las canción irlandesa.
 
Eavan Boland’s poetry often includes images denoting transition. The women that appear in her poems frequently undergo experiences of change and evolution. The transitional element which so often pervades Boland’s poetry is rooted in her personal experience as an Irish woman poet. In her childhood, Boland underwent the journey from Ireland to England. As a mature and married woman, she moved from the urban Dublin to the suburban Dundrum. Having imbibed the poetry of canonical Irish male poets, such as W.B.Yeats, she had to struggle to find her voice as an Irish female poet. Moreover, once she was a mother, she also became aware of the intergenerational transition and the exchange of roles ageing implies. These transitional instances can be appreciated in her thematic series of poems “Suburban Woman” (1975), “Suburban Woman: A Detail” (1983) and “Suburban Woman: Another Detail” (2001). Throughout this series of poems, thematically united, but published in different collections, Boland depicts transition as embodied by the same woman portrayed on three occasions at different points in her life. A close analysis of this series sheds light on the transition Eavan Boland underwent as a poet and as a woman.
 
The national system of education was introduced in Ireland in 1831, which meant the beginning of the end for hedge schools. Nevertheless, they lasted longer than it is popularly believed and up to the 1870s there were still many parents willing to pay for the education of their children at the native schools. This was due to several reasons: the changing attitude of the Catholic Church towards the new system, the curriculum of the national school, its rules and material conditions, etc. After this date there is hardly any information about them. However, we have found a unique photograph which shows a hedge school still in use in 1892! In spite of being the last native school documented, it does not seem to be so different from the ones that many writers travelling in Ireland reported on earlier in the nineteenth century. In fact, it could vividly depict a scene belonging to pre- Famine rural Ireland, an essential document in any history of Irish education.
 
Relative to other developed countries, very little has been published on the history of Irish accounting education. The objective of this paper is to partly remedy this deficiency by investigating, using a combination of primary and secondary sources, the teaching of book-keeping in the hedge schools of Ireland, mainly during the eighteenth century. Hedge schools have achieved a prominent and colourful place in Irish history, and prior studies have tended to examine the general phenomenon of hedge schools; whereas this paper specifically focuses on the teaching of book-keeping in these establishments. This paper argues that knowledge of practical book-keeping methods was an important skill, along with the related usage of the English language, in gaining employment for Irish Catholics during the period of oppression that was the eighteenth century. These skills were also valuable to Irish emigrants. Furthermore, Irish hedge schoolmasters applied their teaching and book-keeping skills in other countries such as Australia and the United States.
 
The subject of this essay is the Irish writings of the novelist Elizabeth Bowen. This essay discusses the disjunction between Elizabeth Bowen's critical writings on her family history and her fictive representations of the landscape of North Cork. Looking at her 1942 family chronicle, Bowen¿s Court and her childhood memoir Seven Winters, also published in 1942, the author suggests a gap between her critical perspectives on her position as an Anglo-Irish writer and her fictions on the same theme. The essay concentrates on her imaginings of the hostile landscape around her home in North Cork and the murderous intent of these Irish fields and hills, in particular in her novel, The Last September and her short story, "The Happy Autumn Fields".
 
As the title of the book indicates, Jamie O'Neill's At Swim, Two Boys, published in 2001, refers back to Flann O'Brien's At Swim-Two-Birds (1939). Through the use of such a parodic title, O'Neill places himself within a postmodern literary tradition, involving the influence of famous Irish parodists such as O'Brien or Joyce, who overshadow his novel. This title alludes to a famous text, gives it a new meaning, a new story and re-locates it in a different context, namely a gay universe which calls to mind another famous literary predecessor, Oscar Wilde, a writer also referred to repeatedly, whether explicitly or implicitly, throughout the novel. This paper focuses on the intertextual articulations of the novel in connection with the theories advanced by Neil Corcoran, Augustine Martin and Harold Bloom, whose essays take a real interest in the literary phenomenon of intertextuality.
 
The aim of this paper is to show how in At Swim, Two Boys, Jamie O'Neill demystifies one of the crucial moments in the history of Ireland by means of the subversive and liberating power of laughter. He points out the contradictions and absurdities of the Rising and unmasks the fanaticism and dogmatism of the revolutionaries. In order to undermine the heroic vision of the insurrection and the months that preceded it, O'Neill has created a series of characters, Anthony MacMurrough, his aunt Eveline and Mr Mack, through whom he offers us a different perspective of the political milieu of the time and testifies to the many-sidedness of human beings and the chaotic, random and absurd essence of life. El objetivo de este artículo es demostrar cómo en At Swim, Two Boys, Jamie O'Neill desmitifica uno de los momentos cruciales en la historia de Irlanda a través del poder subversivo y liberador de la risa. O'Neill explora las contradicciones y ambigüedades del levantamiento de 1916 y desenmascara el fanatismo y el dogmatismo de los revolucionarios. El autor subvierte toda lectura heroica de la insurrección y de los meses que la precedieron a través de una serie de personajes, Anthony MacMurrough, su tía Eveline y Mr Mack, cuyas reacciones ante los acontecimientos históricos en los que se ven involucrados no sólo permiten ofrecer una visión distinta del ambiente político de la época, sino también poner de manifiesto la pluralidad del ser humano y el carácter esencialmente caótico, absurdo y aleatorio de la vida.
 
Ciaran Carson, in the forty poems that constitute Breaking News � published in 2003 �, has used extraneous documents, i.e. the narration by an Anglo-Irish journalist of some of the best-known 19-th century military campaigns, but also the paintings by Francisco Goya, Théodore Géricault, Edward Hopper, or still the poetry of William Carlos Williams. This paper aims at showing how Carson�s poetry is given wider scope and deeper resonance through this uncommonly diverse historical, literary and cultural context. The uncanny coexists with reality or gets substituted for it and poetry becomes the ultimate recourse against the unnameable. En este trabajo se intenta mostrar cómo Ciaran Carson, en los cuarenta poemas que constituyen Breaking News � publicado en 2003� utiliza documentos tan heterogéneos como, por ejemplo, la narración por parte de un periodista anglo-irlandés de algunas de las más conocidas campañas militares del siglo XIX, los cuadros de Francisco Goya, Théodore Géricault, y Edward Hopper, o incluso la poesía de William Carlos Williams. Lo irreal coexiste con lo real o lo sustituye y la poesía se convierte en el último recurso frente a lo innombrable.
 
In the 1980s, Brian Friel, one of Ireland�s most successful twentieth century dramatists, authored two plays � Translations and Making History � which were concerned with major events in colonial history. Given the context in which the plays were written � Northern Ireland was in a state of war at the time � the playwright�s choice of topics (the introduction of the National Schools and the Ordnance Survey in the nineteenth century and the failed Gaelic revolt against English rule and the Flight of the Earls in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) was both pointed and politically contentious. Yet, the argument of this essay is that rather than presenting versions of the past which conform to the ideological imperatives of a particular political stance, Friel�s plays are much more interesting and significant in that they provoke a whole series of questions around the issue of historical representation. One of the most important of those questions is the applicability of the criteria truth and falsity in historical and other modes of interpretation. The essay concludes with a consideration of the politics of memory and forgetting in contemporary Northern Ireland.
 
This paper aims at showing in what way The Irish for No is both a testimony, a record of events as witnessed by the poet and a means of transcending a fundamentally monstrous reality through the power of words. Carson�s writing is first and foremost a writing of violence, which uncovers an uncommon reality dominated by suffering, madness or death. The normative representation gives way to a form of representation of excess, which is bound to be confronted by limitations, but which the poet-chronicler�s voice allows to reconcile by means of the metaphor. Este artículo se propone mostrar como The Irish for No es tanto un testimonio, una crónica de los acontecimientos observados por el poeta, como una forma de trascender una realidad profundamente monstruosa a través del poder de la palabra. La obra de Carson es ante todo una obra de violencia que revela una insólita realidad dominada por el sufrimiento, la locura o la muerte. La representación normativa deja paso a una forma de representación del exceso destinada a afrontar limitaciones, pero que la voz del poeta-cronista permite reconciliar gracias a la metáfora.
 
From the 1960s to the 1980s, a time of “tension management” between “the old hegemony of Catholicism and nationalism and the emergence of liberalism and materialism” (Fogarty 1984: 102), Ireland’s self-image as a moral community came under the influence of secularisation. The country’s secularisation process speeded up when it decided to embrace new technologies – and consequently met with huge economic success – in the early 1990s, the results of which for Catholicism in Ireland were the visible and apparently irreversible undermining of the institution. However, I believe that Ireland’s secularisation through economic and psychological transformation affected the Irish Catholic Church as a whole, that is to say, its people as well as the institution. My argument in this article is that, whereas in an Ireland which many viewed as a traditional, well-integrated religious nation, it was possible for Irish Catholics to live their faith in an institutionalised manner through the idealised moral community desirable both to Church and State, economic success and increased internationalisation made this idea of community less sustainable. Indeed, in what has now become a “network society” (Castells 1996: 469), there has emerged a new breed of Catholics who no longer live their religion as a transcendent inheritance but as an immanent choice, and who, therefore, seem to “connect” to their religion more than they “commune” with it.
 
The aim of the article is to analyse the effects of the introduction of Censorship legislation on Irish culture. The analysis focuses on the reasons behind the introduction of the Censorship of Publications Act of 1929 and previous cases of literary ostracism. Then, it deals with anti-censorship journalism published in The Bell and the most controversial bannings, which increased the general awareness of the inadequacies of the Act and caused it to be lifted. Finally, the article examines the Act's impact on Irish letters, especially the rise of fabulist fiction and the techniques used by writers such as Eimar O'Duffy, Flann O'Brien, and Mervyn Wall to circumvent and ridicule the censorship laws. The emergence of satirical fantasy writing can be seen as a reaction to oppressive legislation. As publishing realistic novels became nearly impossible, Irish writers expanded their range of expression to include non-mimetic fiction.
 
El presente ensayo analiza la manera en la que la novela de Colum McCann Songdogs (1995) constituye una tentativa de reconstruir y reconciliarse con el pasado, un tema considerado por un gran número de críticos contemporáneos como característico de la experiencia literaria irlandesa. Se propondrá que la estructura no-lineal de la narrativa por un lado y su uso frecuente de imágenes estáticas reminiscentes de la fotografía por el otro le permiten a McCann adentrarse en el concepto de la memoria y traducir sus principios funcionales en una técnica literaria personal. La tarea de recuperar significados de distintos medios - sean imágenes fijas o la textura de la novela - se observará en dos niveles distintos. Los varios argumentos, construidos a partir de grupos de imágenes aparentemente independientes, y los esfuerzos por parte del lector para organizarlos en unidades significativas más grandes serán paralelos a los intentos del protagonista de aunar todas las historias incluidas en Songdogs en una narración completa de su historia familiar.
 
Based on an analysis of gestation metaphors and representations of childbirth in contemporary Irish women’s poetry, this article examines the connections and tensions between the realms of creative expression and maternity. While the longstanding literary convention of analogizing the creative process to female gestation has fostered and perpetuated simplified notions of gender, often implicitly assuming that writing is a male privilege and irreconcilable with motherhood, the literary representation of the actual event of parturition poses challenges for the writer regardless of such stereotypes. Drawing on Julia Kristeva’s concept of “abjection” and Elisabeth Bronfen’s “knotted subject”, symbolized by the mark at the centre of the human body that records the incision at birth, this essay analyzes the ways in which poems by contemporary Irish women writers record the primal trauma of human existence: the injury or scar inevitably produced by the separation of mother and child in parturition, which acts as a permanent reminder of our incompleteness and vulnerability as human beings.
 
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