Published by Taylor & Francis

Online ISSN: 1366-5847


Print ISSN: 0014-0139

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Figure 1: Relationship between traffic sign characteristics and road safety (Elvik, 1999).  
Table 1 : Traffic signs included in the study
Figure 2: Choice of traffic signs corresponding to multiple ergonomic principles of symbol design Respondents were residents of the UK, Poland and Germany. The use of the selected signs in each of the three countries is shown in Figure 3. Thirteen signs are not used in any of the three countries. One sign is unique to Germany, two signs unique to each Poland and United Kingdom. One traffic sign is common in Poland and UK, three in Poland and Germany. Nine signs are used in all three countries.  
Figure 3: Use of the selected traffic signs in each of the surveyed countries  
Table 3 : Response accuracy by country


Is three the magic number? The role of ergonomic principles in cross country comprehension of road traffic signs

October 2016


217,966 Reads



Aims and scope

Ergonomics publishes research that applies techniques to optimize system performance, including physical, cognitive, organisational and environmental ergonomics.

  • Ergonomics, also known as human factors, is the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems.

  • Drawing upon human biology, psychology, engineering and design, Ergonomics aims to develop and apply knowledge and techniques to optimise system performance, whilst protecting the health, safety and well-being of individuals involved.

  • The attention of ergonomics extends across work, leisure and other aspects of our daily lives.

  • The journal Ergonomics is an international refereed publication, with a 60 year tradition of disseminating high quality research.

  • Original submissions, both theoretical and applied, are invited from across the subject, including physical, cognitive, organisational and environmental ergonomics.

  • Papers reporting the findings of research from cognate disciplines are also welcome, where these contribute to understanding equipment, tasks, jobs, systems and …

For a full list of the subject areas this journal covers, please visit the journal website.

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What can we learn from Severity Index on Flight Data Monitoring? Analysis of safety resilience in flight operations during COVID-19 disruptions

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The unexpected spread of the pandemic raised concerns regarding pilots' skill decay resulting from the significant drops in the frequency of flights by about 70%. This research retrieved 4,761 Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) occurrences based on the FDM programme containing 123,140 flights operated by an international airline between June 2019 and May 2021. The FDM severity index was analysed by event category, aircraft type, and flight phase. The results demonstrate an increase in severity score from the pre-pandemic level to the pandemic onset on events that occurred on different flight phases. This trend is not present in the third stage, which indicates that pilots and the safety management system of the airline demonstrated resilience to cope with the flight disruptions during the pandemic. Through the analysis of event severity, FDM enables safety managers to recommend measures to increase safety resilience and self-monitoring capabilities of both operators and regulators.

Computer-Aided Ergonomic Analysis of Primary School Furniture Dimensions

November 2023


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The objective of this study was to determine the match level of school furniture with student dimensions and conduct a pilot study to examine practicality of a computer-aided ergonomic analysis software with a Motion Capture System (MoCap) for the purpose of improving school furniture design process in terms of determining optimum dimensions. The research involved measuring the anthropometric data of 218 voluntary primary school students in Mugla, Turkiye and the dimensions of the existing school desks they use. The compatibility between the students' anthropometry and the existing school desks were analyzed by using reference equations. Computer-aided ergonomic analysis performed only for seat and desk height. Four virtual human model and ten different school desks in various dimensions were created and evaluated according to joint reaction forces and muscle activations in three different postures by using Anybody Modeling System (AMS). The results of compatibility level showed that there were significant incompatibilities between the students' anthropometry and the existing school desks, with 80% of seat heights and 96% of desk heights being too high. Overall, in order to assess the optimal school desk dimensions, ergonomic analyses provided data indicating reduced joint reaction forces and muscle activations within the musculoskeletal system for the seat and desk height dimensions determined using reference equations. Also, the findings from the ergonomic analysis revealed valuable information on how even minor dimensional modifications to school desks can affect the musculoskeletal system.

Will visual cues help alleviating motion sickness in automated cars? A review article

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46 Reads

This paper examines the feasibility of incorporating visual cueing systems within vehicles to mitigate the risk of experiencing motion sickness. The objective is to enhance passenger awareness and the ability to anticipate the forces associated with car travel motion. Through a comprehensive literature review, the findings demonstrate that visual cues can mitigate motion sickness for particular in-vehicle configurations, whereas their influence on situational awareness is not clear yet. Each type of visual cue proved more effective when presented in the peripheral field of view rather than solely in the central vision. Promising applications can be found within interactive screens and ambient lighting, while the use of extended reality shows potential for future investigations. In addition, integrating such systems into highly automated vehicles shows potential to improve their overall user acceptance.

Clothing Impact on Post-Exercise Comfort: Skin-Clothing Physiology in Transient Environment

November 2023


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Sportswear manufactured from hygroscopic fibers can absorb moisture during activity or intermittent exercise and may change the thermal management of clothing. This change in the thermal behavior of the fabric can lead to buffer the post-exercise chill. During activity in a moderately cold environment clothing made of 100% wool fiber helps wearers to slow down evaporative and conductive cooling, which can provide more thermal and comfort sensation compared to 100% cotton, 100% viscose, and 100% polyester. Twelve males performed cycling in a controlled climate chamber of temperature:15 ± 0.5 °C, and relative humidity (RH):50 ± 5% followed by a drying phase in a windy environment by wearing full-sleeve t-shirts. Wool shirt was observed to hold a greater torso skin temperature (p < 0.05) than the other fiber types. Participants were asked a range of comfort-related questions at varying intervals. The temperature sensation was found (p < 0.05) significant for wool clothing. Moreover, participants rated wool shirt significantly (p < 0.05) as more comfortable during the post-exercise phase.