Impact and benefit agreements (IBAs) have become a common part of a standard package of agreements negotiated between an industrial proponent and a representative Aboriginal organization. Among other things, IBAs recognize Aboriginal peoples' interests with the land and parallel more broadly with the corporate social responsibility phenomena. IBAs seek to establish a bond based on consultation and support of both parties in a mineral development scenario. Challenges facing IBAs include their confidential nature and their relationship to conventional environmental assessment (EA). IBAs go beyond the regulatory and advisory EA processes and often find themselves in conflict due to overlapping objectives and blurred boundaries. IBAs can perpetuate injustices if benefits are not equally distributed to the community or if monitoring and follow-up on behalf of both parties are not continuous. To consider both challenges and opportunities, brief descriptions and comparison of IBAs and EAs are discussed and questions regarding the advantages of IBAs are considered.
Communicative planning theory is increasingly being advocated as procedural theory to underpin collaborative approaches to Integrated Resource and Environmental Management. Yet this is occurring without critical analysis of the theoretical foundations that underlie this theory. By critically analysing communicative planning theory, and its application to Integrated Resource and Environmental Management, this article describes the foundations of this approach to decision-making. In particular, the hypothesized benefits of communicative planning theory and the ways in which they are to be achieved are described and critiqued. This paper identifies four limitations of communicative planning theory when applied in natural resource management contexts. First, communicative planning theory fails to acknowledge and account for the influence that external forces have in shaping decisions and outcomes; second, it fails to adequately account for the role that power inequities play in shaping outcomes; third, it encourages socially constructed (rather than scientifically developed) decisions and outcomes; and finally, it provides no evidence to suggest that the decision-making process advanced in communicative planning theory results in better management of natural resources. In response to criticism, early proponents of communicative planning theory are beginning to revise previous assertions to temper the expectations arising around this theory. These recent developments have yet to be clearly discussed within the natural resource management literature. Findings of this paper indicate that caution should be exercised in the encouragement of communicative planning theory until the limitations of this concept are more fully understood and addressed. Yes Yes
This paper provides a list for ESA studies conducted within the jurisdiction of regional municipalities, counties, townships, cities and conservation authorities in Ontario during 1975 to 1982. Set criteria including methodology, funding and research team are utilized to evaluate and analyze the content of twenty-five of these studies. -from Authors
Considers that developments in the workplace threaten to oppress and dehumanize people in ways that Orwell portrayed in 'Nineteen Eighty-Four'. Chronicles some of these developments, indicates their consequences, and suggests ways of countering them. Much of the discussion relates to industrial relations, psychology, sociology, and philosophy and is aimed at urban planners.-after Author
The concept of advocacy was introduced to the environmental field by Environment Canada's Environmental Protection Service in 1980. It met with a poor reception at that time, partly because it seemed difficult to translate into policy and programs, and partly because the public and government no longer considered the environment to be a major issue. This paper revisits the concept of advocacy and finds in it a sophisticated approach for harmonizing our relationship with the environment in the era of sustainable development. Advocacy aims to empower all those whose actions affect the environment to act in concert towards it. The key is the learning of a value of environmental responsibility, learning to be achieved through fully informed participation by all stakeholders in the consideration of options and their consequences for the environment in any given decision-making situation. -from Authors
Surface mining across the world has left a legacy of highly disturbed landscapes. In a bid to reverse the trend of degrada-tion, various jurisdictions promulgated legislation and guidelines requiring mine operators to rehabilitate disturbed lands for productive uses. This paper examines the impact of regulations and guidelines on rehabilitation practices at the Bienfait, Boundary Dam and Utility Mines around Estevan, Saskatchewan between 1996 and 1999. This is a unique case of mine rehabilitation with only one mining com-pany and guidelines designed for the site-specific conditions of the area. The paper assesses reclamation success using both regulatory and social indica-tors. The findings revealed that out of the 734.81 ha of land disturbed during the years under review, 60% has been successfully graded and 17% seeded. Both residents and regulators agreed that there has been improvement in the quality, aesthetic, and safety outcomes of restoration. However, the historical period studied revealed that rehabilita-tion practices lagged behind the rate of mining due to climate, personnel and equipment problems. Generally, Sas-katchewan Environment, the regulator, and local residents rated reclamation work as average because they consid-ered that it was not progressing fast enough. RESEARCH NOTES include preliminary or summary descriptions of research methods and/or results that do not yet address their full theoretical, policy or practical implications. The intention is to provide researchers and practitioners with a forum for presenting interesting but preliminary ideas, methodologies, or results in the spirit of fostering reflection and dialogue.
The 1997 City of Winnipeg flood was among the largest on record for the Red River Valley in Manitoba, Canada. This paper is a description of this flood, the engineering, human resources, communication, co-ordination and technical responses to it and its costs and lessons for the future.
The Ontario Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) has been effective in encouraging farmers to implement good stewardship practices. While uptake of the program has been good-with approximately 20% participation from the farming population-there is a long way to go to reach the target of 100% participation. To explore the role of leaders of agricultural organizations in promoting the EFP, a survey was developed. It was distributed to 370 leaders of 18 agricultural organizations, and addressed their participation in and perception of various aspects of the program. The response rate was 30.3%. The results of the study provide some useful insights into promotional achievements and opportunities of the EFP. The survey indicates that leaders of local agricultural organizations are supportive of the EFP. Approximately three-quarters of the respondents had actively promoted or taken the program, and found that it influenced their farm management. To measure the success of the EFP, it is important also to gain a better understanding of the extent of follow-through on action items generated through the program. A number of areas that may be important in developing strategies to increase the uptake of the EFP were highlighted in this study. Specifically, these include: issues of confidentiality; the suitability of existing promotion materials; promoting different aspects of the program; financing; changes in management; fear of the government; variation in support and participation by organization type; barriers to participation; the role of the program coordinators; technical assistance; the role of personal communication in promotion; and education of the non-farm public.
A key to sustainable resource planning is effective implementation of management plans. Despite its obvious significance, planning implementation remains a relatively neglected area of planning research. This paper helps address this gap by reporting results of a case study evaluation of implementation in an innovative collaborative land use planning process in British Columbia, Canada. The paper begins with a brief review of planning process and implementation theory. This is followed by a case study evaluation of plan implementation and identification of factors conditioning implementation success. The paper concludes by assessing implications of the case study evaluation for designing successful plan implementation strategies.
This paper looks at the acoustical aspects of the assembly chamber. The main chamber, spectacular as it is, constitutes a volume many times more than the maximum allowable limit for such a space from an acoustical viewpoint. The result is that the estimated Reverberation Time (RT) of the chamber is about three times higher than the maximum allowable RT. The paper discusses the implications of this in relation to the intended use of the space as a parliamentary debating chamber. It also discusses the problems and the prospects of controlling the RT from the technical as well as the aesthetic viewpoints. -from Author
The objective of the study was to analyze the variability of various climate indicators across the agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of the Jema watershed. The variability was analyzed considering mean annual rainfall (MARF, mm), mean daily minimum temperature (MDMinT, °C), and mean daily maximum temperature (MDMaxT, °C). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test whether group mean differences exist in the values of the indicated climatic indicators among the ACZs of the watershed. The coefficient of variation was computed to analyze the degree of climate variability among the ACZs. Rainfall and temperature data sets from 1983 to 2017 were obtained from nearby meteorological stations. The effect of climate variability in the farming system was assessed with reference to local farmers’ experience. Ultimately, the values of the stated indicators of exposure to climate variability were indexed (standardized) in order to run arithmetic functions. The MARF decreases towards sub-alpine ACZs. Based on the result of the ANOVA, the two-tailed p-value (≤ 0.04) was less than 0.05; that is, there was a significant variation in MARF, MDMaxT (°C), and MDMinT (°C) among the ACZs. The coefficient of variation showed the presence of variations of 0.18–0.88 for MARF, 0.18 to 0.85 for MDMaxT, and 0.02–0.95 for MDMinT across the ACZs. In all of the indicators of exposure to climate variability, the lowest and highest indexed values of coefficient of variation were observed in the moist–cool and sub-alpine ACZs, respectively. Overall, the aggregate indexed values of exposure to various climate indicators ranged from 0.13–0.89 across the ACZs. The level of exposure to climate variability increased when moving from moist–cool to sub-alpine ACZs. The overall crop diversity declined across the ACZs of the watershed. Nevertheless, mainly because of the rise in temperature, the climate became suitable for cultivating maize and tef even at higher elevations. In order to adapt to the inter-annual variability of the rainy season, the process of adapting early-maturing crops and the use of improved seeds needs to be enhanced in the watershed, especially in the higher-elevation zones. It is also essential to revise traditional crop calendars and crop zones across the ACSz.
This study examined how the regional manifestations of climate change effects and students’ involvement in various climate-related clubs and activities influenced their knowledge and awareness of climate change. Key knowledge gaps and their implications for climate action were also examined. A cross-sectional survey was adopted for the study whilst a snowball sampling technique was used to select the respondents. A total of 300 students from 26 African countries participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics, relative importance index (RII) method and the chi-square test of independence were used to analyze the data. Results showed that regional manifestations of climate change effects and students’ involvement in climate change-related workshops and campaigns significantly influenced their knowledge levels whilst their membership of climate-related student clubs had no significant influence. Key knowledge gaps with regards to how factors such as meat consumption and waste generation could lead to climate change were also identified. Students were also less knowledgeable about how climate change affects key issues such as conflicts, gender inequalities and job insecurity. Intensification of climate change education beyond the most common causes and effects is highly recommended among the youth. Various environment-related student clubs are also encouraged to tailor their activities in this direction.
This paper deals with how environmental issues were raised and discussed during a first-ever municipal election on a Gulf Island in British Columbia. Seven hundred and seventy-seven postings from 165 people participating in an electronic forum on Bowen Island were analyzed to identify the participants, topics, and content of the messages to determine what issues were of concern during the election campaign. While environmental issues are claimed to be widely supported among Canadians, the paper concludes that such support varies considerably. During the time period analyzed here, environmental issues were found not to be a primary concern for voters; rather traditional issues such as taxes, dog control and bylaws were the most often discussed subjects. In addition, it was found that although most societal actors claim to be supporters of the environment, such support wavered greatly when faced with issues challenging business interests or other perceived community needs.
The momentum of the post-war economy had a profound effect on North American cities. Sprawling suburbs were born in the 1950s, and the demand for cars and expressways skyrocketed. These expressways were often constructed along shorelines and river banks, resulting in the destruction of very old buildings of cultural significance but little economic value. This memoir examines the case of the proposed riverside expressway in Montreal as an illustration of planning action being achieved by indirect means - the project was eventually abandoned - in an era when the cultural heritage represented by areas such as Montreal's Old City was considered a "non-issue'. -Author
The interaction of stakeholders is regarded key in modern environmental and spatial planning. Marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging marine policy domain, which is of great interest worldwide. MSP practices are characterized by diverse approaches and a lack of transnational cooperation. Actors with various backgrounds have to identify mismatches and synergies to jointly aim towards coherent and coordinated practices. The ‘Living Q’ is a communication method to make actors aware systematically about their viewpoints in an interactive, communicative and playful environment, while it draws on results of a proceeding ‘Q Methodology’ study. Results from ‘Living Q’ exercises with international expert’s groups from European Sea basins show that the method is capable to foster communication and interaction among actors participating in ‘Living Q’ exercises, while having the potential to generate added value to planning processes by actor interaction in a collaborative setting.
British Columbia mountain communities are increasingly the subject of attention from developers and political leaders who want to build downhill ski, snowmobile, and second home resorts. Academic research, other literature, and common experience all suggest that resort developments pose serious challenges for small communities. Do small communities have the capacity to meet these challenges through planning? This article reports the results of a rapid reconnaissance of the knowledge, powers, and resources of planners and administrators employed on behalf of interior mountain municipalities in British Columbia, Canada, as they plan for the advent of large resorts. It also reviews the state of municipal preparedness to act and the context of conflicting public interests constraining what municipalities can do.
Ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 254 nm is known to be germicidal, and thus has been increasingly employed as a method of disinfection for indoor environments. Solar UV wavelengths (300 to 400 nm) are known to initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles from the photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere, but germicidal wavelengths have not been extensively studied for indoor environments. In this work, toluene was exposed to 254 nm UV light in a laboratory photoreactor while varying the conditions of the air, the duration of UV exposure, and the duration of post-UV time. The number of particles formed in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) size range was measured, and significant levels of particle formation were observed for UV exposure periods of as short as 5 min. The particle formation ranged from 2.4 × 106 particles/m3 for 5 min of UV exposure, to 163.2 × 106 particles/m3 for 15 min of UV exposure, for toluene concentrations in the range of 55 to 85 mg/m3. Particle formation was found to increase at a relative humidity of approximately 20% and higher. Variations in the initial number of particles present did not appear to have a significant effect on the particle formation, suggesting that nucleation was not a controlling factor under these conditions. However, tests in a commercial environment at much lower VOC concentrations and lower UV fluence rates showed no detectable PM2.5 formation, indicating that SOA formation during the intermittent use of germicidal UV may not significantly affect indoor air quality under normal conditions.
Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems
contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as
REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) can provide an opportunity
for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However,
for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study
for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature
Reserve) in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted
to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above
ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used.
Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices.
The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 +/- 4.98 Mg C ha -1.
Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of
9.38 +/- 6.90 Mg C ha -1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on
carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives
such as REDD+ within these areas.
The use of indigenous land use information (ILUI) by 19 government agencies in the Yukon Territory charged with the responsibility of land and resource management is examined. Perceptions of, and attitudes towards, the utility of ILUI are explored through the administration of a questionnaire to 25 government employees in Whitehorse during August 1992. From the survey responses, issues and concerns surrounding ILUI, and obstacles to its use by the government in the Yukon, are identified. Although 15 of the 19 government agencies reported using ILUI, a number of constraints and barriers were found which deter its more rapid diffusion and use. -Authors
Ontario's Resource Stewardship Agree-ment (RSA) process introduced shared decision making into the management toolbox for land use planning in Ontario's Crown forests. Within the RSA process, resource-based tourism and forestry oper-ators negotiate mutually agreeable solu-tions to forest harvesting and tourism-use conflicts. Policy documents were reviewed and tourism operators surveyed to eval-uate this small-scale, shared-decision-making process. The evaluation, which was conducted during the implementation of the RSA process, found that the process benefited forest management by including tourism operators in forest management planning, promoting dialogue between the two industries, and balancing power rela-tionships. RSAs could be improved by including more stakeholders, making the process more transparent, and improving the negotiation process.
Southern Manitoba's landscape, vastly altered through a century of agricultural settlement, has become further transformed with the industrialization of agriculture in recent years. One of the impacts of these changes has been the further loss of wildlife habitat. The Habitat Conservation Partnership Agreement (HCPA), financed by Ducks Unlimited Canada and coordinated through six of Manitoba's Conservation Districts in southwestern Manitoba, was a three year program (1998-2000) that offered assistance to land owners on a range of habitat initiatives. In evaluating the HCPA, this paper argues that each of the programs is innovative in attempting to maintain and improve habitat for wildlife in one of the most intensively farmed regions of Canada. Following a description of the partnership agreement, the benefits and constraints of the initiatives within the HCPA are examined by analysing the results of a survey administered to program participants (n=123) in February 2000. The paper concludes by suggesting that because the economic conditions facing prairie farmers ultimately hinder altruistic concerns about wildlife habitat, partnership programs such as the HCPA provide important contributions to reducing the impacts of farming on such habitat.
Urban agriculture has evolved into a complex set of concepts and goals stemming from the UN metanarrative on sustainable development and the ecological city. Urban agriculture is a concern for practitioners who aim to make cites of the South more food secure, socially healthy and environmentally sound. These ideas have percolated to cities of the North as well. Recently, Montréal community groups took it up. Initially, they aimed to satisfy the local demand for more gardening opportunities in the city. Public health and local development agencies back these projects, withe community-based urban agriculture representing an alternative to food banks. Investment is justified on the grounds that it can increase food security and empower the community to take charge of its development. However, groups target life surroundings that are sustainable, natural and productive. We will assess the gap that still remains between the anticipated results and the achievements in the field and show how the emergence and operation of these projects lie within the scope of the UN metanarrative. In closing, institutional organisation frameworks that centre around the projects will be contrasted.
As worries over the environmental Impact of the industrial food system grow the idea of locally produced food is becoming increasingly popular. This Includes a growing interest In the "ultimate zero carbon food" produced through urban growing. However, there are several barriers to an expansion of urban agriculture in North America; these include poor urban soils, a lack of knowledge, zoning restrictions, and personal timé constraints that prohibit the investment needed to tend a small-plot intensive garden. This paper discusses two case studies (one in Portland, Oregon and the other in Vancouver, British Columbia) of assisted urban small-plot intensive farming. These Initiatives involve entrepreneurs installing and tending small plots on participants' land. The crops produced are either sold at local farmers' markets or shared directly with the land owners. These efforts provide benefit in their own right but could also help speed the diffusion of urban agriculture; as examples of early "niche adaptation" both projects have strong educational components and are engaging a diverse demographic. In addition this approach with one urban farmer tending multiple plots could help address concerns over small plot carbon footprints that have been raised in the literature.
This paper develops three models of the environment called Domination, Alienation, and Integration that become useful for interpreting the evolving relationship between humans and the rest of nature as presented in related literature, research, and policy. Implications of these three models are discussed for issues concerning ecological unsustainability and social inequity. Finally, an environmental research and community project, concerning land use in the Niagara Region of Ontario, provides a useful example that illustrates movement from a process of domination and alienation toward integration.
This article examines the effects of amenity migration and residential tourism development with a focus on planning strategies through a case study of the Resort Municipality of Whistler, BC and environs. The study was conducted in 2005/6 and involved interviews with sixteen informants including local politi-cians, developers, planners, academic experts and First Nations. Interviewees revealed varying degrees of familiarity with the concept of amenity migration and considerable knowledge of the associated economic, social and environmental consequences. Although noteworthy planning measures have been adopted, none directly incorporated the concept of amenity migration. Despite winning "liveabil-ity" awards, Whistler struggles with numer-ous negative effects of amenity migration such as affordable housing, "dark" neigh-bourhoods, retention of a labour force and environmental degradation associated with growth. The 2010 Winter Olympics may fur-ther challenge the viability of a "resort com-munity." Implications for planners in moun-tain resort communities are identified.
Focuses on the needs of women as a special user group in the built environment. A review of statistics about changing family form and changing work roles of women in North America since 1950s is presented and linked to a feminist critique of the built environment. -from Author
The large-scale attempt to restore Florida's Ever-glades is often presented as a model for future ecological restoration efforts. Aimed at repairing ecological degradation caused by past flood control and public water supply projects, Everglades restoration is characterized by government agencies as evidence of a paradigm shift in resource management practice. While past engineering and resource management efforts of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District (and its predecessor agencies) led to a partly drained and channelized Everglades that decimated wildlife populations, these agencies today promote "ecological restoration" to re-establish ecological processes that were degraded by their previous actions. We assess this Everglades restoration effort, codified in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, in relation to Eric Higgs' concept of "good restoration." Ecological restoration should, in this conception, be oriented toward a process that promotes a stronger sense of community among humans and non-humans and that prioritizes ecological renewal. Toward that goal, it should emphasize direct public involvement in both project design and implementation as means of promoting healing relations and atonement for past degrading practices. Our assessment of Everglades restoration plans and activities suggests that the effort does not meet the good restoration criteria of "focal practice" and "wild design," which emphasize participatory process aimed at a "re-wilding" of the landscape. We suggest that Everglades restoration is more in line with forms of technological restoration that warrant the label "rehabilitation," connoting technical repair rather than the natural-cultural intimacy promoted through the ecological restoration concept.
Community-based approaches are advocated widely internationally and domestically, based on the idea that information, understanding and capacity for action and change, as well as for monitoring and enforcement, do not reside only within government agencies or the private sector. Certainly, these competencies and others often do exist within communities, outside of identified scientific, planning and management organizafions. Recent commentators have noted, however, that much of what has been written takes it as self-evident that locally-based participatory approaches result in fairer and more equitable decisions, more potential for generation of context-appropriate innovations, more effective implementation of plans and implementation strategies and a generally more sustainable world.
The perceived roles of protected areas have evolved overtime, and now Include conservation of biodiversity, enhancing quality of human life and playing a key role in sustainability. In this context setting aside individual parks, the traditional approach, is limited for a number of reasons. In brief, protected areas are often too small, too isolated and too fragmented to protect the values for which they were originally designated. Regional and other newer approaches to planning are required if protected areas are to fulfill their potential. Developments in a number of bodies of knowledge offer insight into how and why we should consider planning for protected areas over more regional scales. Landscape ecology and conservation biology are providing new insights into protected areas planning for biodiversity conservation and ecological integrity. Regional and bioregional planning, common property theory, stewardship, and ecosystem management all have important contributions to make to new frameworks for conservation planning. Some of these bodies of knowledge are examined here in an attempt to provide direction for regional conservation planning. Important considerations include: using both ecological and human factors to define the planning region; determining the scale or hierarchical context of conservation initiatives; developing appropriate goals; understanding the social, economic and cultural as well as the ecological, context; and using a participative planning framework and alternative property regimes.
The continuing and pervasive alteration of the natural environment has clearly transformed American conservation into a rearguard action of saving, protecting, and restoring what remains of our natural heritage. This somewhat poignant realization has molded a new set of conservation values and created the need for innovative methods of natural area protection. Three cases that represent these adjustments are presented in this paper: establishment of the national preserves, designation of Pinelands National Reserve, and the work of The Nature Conservancy. -from Author
The paper provides a focus on agricultural communities and identifies economic and environmental issues which are likely to dominate their future. In recognition of current and anticipated future issues, the following municipal approach has been developed: municipalities need to identify a new set of goals, reflecting a new set of issues; municipalities need to develop policy in response to the most damaging issues. These include economic and environmental factors; and municipalities need to emphasize the process of planning and development as a means of dealing with problems. The elements of this approach include community development planning; strategic planning; public involvement; public education and legislation. -from Author
Development policies are one of the growth sectors of the post World War II era. National governments pursue them sectorally and spatially, regions sometimes follow them, and local authorities are frequently involved. These policies are often conceived fairly narrowly in relation to economic objectives and it is frequently difficult to pin down what kind of a society the policy-makers would like to achieve. The paper aims to stimulate discussion about the nature of good development: what should policy aim at, and what criteria are involved in evaluating whether or not it is successful.-from Author
To be established in a proper role in national development, the architect must recapture cultural identity and match it to knowledge of technique and aesthetics. Moreover, these skills must be matched to the economic and political realities that often determine development. Architectural education is primarily western in outlook and consequently gives insufficient attention to the needs of the developing world: the architect tends to assume, even it only tacitly the superiority of western solutions to architectural design problems. To counter this pervasive influence, the developing world needs to restructure architectural education in order to take into account the problems specific to that setting. -from Author
Research indicates that the valuation of privacy and independence has been instrumental in shaping older people's living arrangements. This paper discusses literature that pertains to this issue in an attempt to provide conceptual clarity to dimensions of privacy and independence in living style. These important attitudinal components of household decision-making are then discussed in terms of current housing policy in Canada. Emphasis is placed on analyzing their implications for innovative housing options and utilization of community services aimed at assisting elderly to remain in their own home for as long as possible. An argument is made for the building of individual subjective evaluation into the demand side of the housing formula. -Author
The Brundtland Report is the latest round of a two hundred year debate over the legitimacy of Thomas Malthus' famous proposition on overpopulation. "Sustainable development' is its current context. This situation is discussed ecologically, in terms of population dynamics, where the population in question is human artifacts with the people as their parasites. The philosophical controversy over mass balance simulation as a technique for assessing sustainability is examined. The context is a Kuhnian paradigm shift. "Non-predictive' mental models supported by computer based "design' models appear to be the best approach to assessing long-term sustainability. Long-term simulations of the type called for in the Brundtland Global Risks Assessment Programme are available in Canada but are mostly idle because of low funding priority. -from Author
Land Use-Cover Changes (LUCCs) are one of the main problems for the preservation of biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) do not escape this threat. Some processes, such as intensive recreational use, forest fires or the expansion of artificial areas taking place inside and around them in response to their appeal, question their environmental sustainability and their efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the LUCCs that took place between 1990 and 2006 in two National Parks (NPs) belonging to the Spanish network and in their surroundings: Ordesa and Monte Perdido (Ordesa NP) and Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama NP). We also simulate land use changes between 2006 and 2030 by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), taking into account two scenarios: trend and green. Finally, we perform a multi-temporal analysis of natural habitat fragmentation in each NP. The results show that the NPs analyzed are well-preserved and have seen hardly any significant LUCCs inside them. However, Socioeconomic Influence Zones (SIZs) and buffers are subject to different dynamics. In the SIZ and buffer of the Ordesa NP, there has been an expansion of built-up areas (annual rate of change = +1.19) around small urban hubs and ski resorts. There has also been a gradual recovery of natural areas, which had been interrupted by forest fires. The invasion of sub-alpine grasslands by shrubs is clear (+2735 ha). The SIZ and buffer of the Guadarrama NP are subject to urban sprawl in forest areas and to the construction of road infrastructures (+5549 ha and an annual rate of change = +1.20). Industrial area has multiplied by 3.3 in 20 years. The consequences are an increase in the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI), greater risk of forest fires and greater fragmentation of natural habitats (+0.04 in SIZ). In the change scenarios, if conditions change as expected, the specific threats facing each NP can be expected to increase. There are substantial differences between the scenarios depending on whether or not incentives are accepted and legal restrictions are respected.
Amongst hydrogeological hazards, floods represent a recurring and serious threat to both lives and property in many European Union countries. The EUROflood project - involving seven EU countries - developed new methods for assessing the severity of these threats, and new models to gauge their likely extent in the future. In addition research compared the policies used in the different countries to manage floods and floodplain areas, and to identify both weaknesses and good practices which can inform future scientific inquiry and national policy directions. A strong network of researchers has been established as well as research to provide enhanced scientific and policy contributions to sustainable development.
This research examines the longer-term psychosocial effects of the Red River Flood in Manitoba, Canada. The findings are based on a 2000 survey of 178 individuals living in two communities heavily flooded in 1997. The respondents showed a slightly higher rate of psychological distress than reported in the 1994/95 Canadian National Population Health Survey. However, the rate of distress was not significantly related to either flood damage or financial loss, although these factors did have a positive association. More indicative of psychological distress were the socio-demographic variables of household income, gender, age and education. Respondents who found the flood more stressful, and who perceived themselves to be worse off than others, also exhibited higher levels of distress. The need to examine natural hazards and disasters within a multi-layered context including environmental factors, socio-demographic and individual coping attributes, and the implications of this approach for disaster planning and programming, are discussed.