Since the Environmental Movement began, adolescents' views have been largely ignored in studies of public opinion. The article presents a descriptive analysis of trends in the environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of high school seniors from 1976 to 2005 using data from the Monitoring the Future study. Across a range of indicators, environmental concerns of adolescents show increases during the early 1990s and declines across the remainder of the three decades. Declining trends in reports of personal responsibility for the environment, conservation behaviors, and the belief that resources are scarce are particularly noteworthy. Across all years, findings reveal that youth tended to assign responsibility for the environment to the government and consumers rather than accepting personal responsibility. Recent declines in environmental concerns for this nationally representative sample of youth signal the need for a renewed focus on young people's views and call for better environmental education and governmental leadership.
Up until now, no significant emotional or cognitive modifications have been found in psychological studies performed during Italian Antarctic summer campaigns, which last from 2 to 5 months. A substantial emotional stability and a general satisfactory adjustment of the expedition participants emerged in the research. To investigate the coping strategies used to deal with the Antarctic environment, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Ways of Coping Inventory were administered to a group of 11 Italian expeditioners before leaving and before returning from the campaign. The results confirm the emotional stability found in the previous studies and show a decrease of several ways of coping. Particularly, there was a decrease in seeking social support and in problem-focused coping. The discussion and interpretation of the findings are reported, and the hypothesis of a frozen reactivity mediated by a possible perceptual defense is suggested.
This study investigates the individual characteristics of Japanese polar team members. Four sets of measures from the Polar Psychology Project Battery have been used in Asuka Station. These measures are thought to reflect adjustment and well-being. Data have been collected during 3 consecutive years. The psychological profile of the subjects was relatively stable, and comparable to the standard means of Western sojourners. The results show the subjects were generally high in stress resistance. However, an increase in the Planning Orientation score and a decrease in the Hardiness score appear at the end of the wintering-over. These modifications correspond to psychological changes linked to the approaching end of wintering-over.
Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (student's or others' plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the student's plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescents' perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity.
This introduction to the special issue traces the history of psychosocial concerns related to Antarctic exploration, from the heroic age of early explorers through the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957 to 1958 to recent and current systematic research projects. The introduction discusses the organization and topics of international psychological investigations in polar stations and summarizes the articles that follow. Living in Antarctica imposes some unusual restrictions as well as opportunities, and it requires psychological adaptation to extreme environmental circumstances. The thrust of previous scientific and popular literature has been to focus on the negative effects of the situation and ignore the positive ones; however, ongoing studies are bringing about a more balanced view. Having an accurate understanding is important not only intrinsically and for appropriate application in the Antarctic itself but also in analogous extreme and unusual environments. These include extended space flight and space habitation, such as the projected voyage to Mars.
This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.
The authors studied the psychological variables of 25 men who participated in the winter-over team of an Indian expedition to Antarctica for possible associations with seasonality and isolation. It was found that increased cigarette smoking was associated with the stress of the beginning of isolation (March), sleep difficulty was associated with midwinter (June), rapport was at a minimum at the point of maximum isolation in temporal terms (September), and decreased satisfaction with work and life situations was associated with continued isolation (December, January). The study suggested that variables postulated to affect performance undergo changes during the course of wintering over in Antarctica.
This study examined the range of positive and negative themes reported by 104 Australian Antarctic winter personnel at four stations during two austral winters. Reports from the expeditioners were subjected to a content analysis using the TextSmart software from SPSS, Inc. Results indicated that, although the list of negative experiences is lengthy, most events are relatively rare. On the other hand, although the list of positive experiences is short, the frequencies with which they are reported are much greater than for most of the problems. Possible explanations for these themes and for future directions are discussed.
Psychological adaptation to extreme environments has been examined from several perspectives. In this study, two Australian teams, each consisting of six male crew members, completed computer-administered questionnaires twice weekly during 100-day traverses around the Lambert Glacier Basin, Antarctica. Only small trends were noted when data were aggregated at the group level, which is consistent with the findings of others. Data were then analyzed using pooled time-series regression. These analyses incorporated personality characteristics, environmental factors, and interpersonal factors as predictors of Group Tensions, Personal Morale, Emotional State, Cognitive Readiness, and the Team's Work Life. Most of the psychological discomfort and problems that occurred appeared to be within the individual or between individuals. They did not affect all members of the group equally.
Seasonal variation in mood and behavior was examined in 87 American men and women who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. The South Pole station (90 degrees S) crew reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue from March to August, followed by a significant increase in tension/anxiety and fatigue and a significant decline in vigor from August to October. The McMurdo station (78 degrees 51' S) crew also reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety from March to July and a significant increase in tension/anxiety from July to August. In contrast, the Palmer station (64 degrees 46' S) crew experienced no significant changes in any mood subscale from May to October. The nonlinear pattern of change in mood suggests that adaptation to prolonged isolation and confinement in an extreme environment occurs in two or three stages.
On the surface, the severity of the Antarctic environment is sufficient to account for the injury rates that might occur there. However, it is argued that injury occurrence is the outcome of multiple factors. A number of such factors, both in the nature of work in the Antarctic and in the characteristics of the human beings who work there are reviewed. An area that has received little attention is individual risk perceptions. It is contended that risk perceptions need to be taken into account when assessing the contributing factors to individual risk taking, as measured by accidents that occur. The literature on risk perceptions is reviewed as a precursor to an empirical study of risk perceptions and injuries at an Antarctic station. The referent for expeditioner practice and home comparisons is Australia.
Two space simulation studies for the European Space Agency found that interpersonal tension increased in the beginning, around the middle, and toward the end of the confinement. This article reports data from a third study where this issue was further examined. Three subjects were confined in the MIR space station simulator in Moscow for 135 days. Communication analysis, peer rating, questionnaires, and interviews were used to assess crew tension. The temporal pattern found in this study corresponds to the previous findings. The beginning of the period was characterized by competition over leadership. Decreased crew cohesion and aggression toward the mission control marked the middle of the confinement. In the final weeks, open conflicts emerged, and one member was socially excluded. Joking occurred frequently in the first half of the confinement, whereas negative emotional expressions increased in the second half. These results might assist planners in anticipating behavioral problems during space missions.
The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships between self-image and personality characteristics with cognitive impairment in an isolated group during wintering. Cognitive performance is measured with the Stres Battery (SB), self-image by Abraham's Matrix of Intra- and Inter-Processes in Groups (MIPG), and interpersonal characteristics by the usual personality inventories. Results show that good cognitive performances are related to discordances between the real self and the ideal self and that bad performances are related to harmony between these two images. Moreover, the best cognitive performers have low scores in extroversion and assertiveness. The results are discussed in terms of specific adaptive reactions to wintering.
The personality of the polar sojourner has been of interest to psychologists for a number of years. Using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, this study examined the general personality factors of the polar worker compared to a normative population, and how these factors differ according to the worker's occupational classification and the polar region in which he or she is working. It was found that polar workers scored higher than a normative group on all factors except Neuroticism. Comparisons across occupational groups showed that scientists were lower than military personnel on Extraversion and lower than technical/support staff on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The analysis by polar region indicated that Antarctic workers were higher than Arctic personnel on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. A group of Italian Antarctic personnel, completing a translated form of the NEO-FFI, scored lower than the rest of the polar groups on all factors. These findings are discussed in light of various features of the polar environment and Gunderson's 3-predictor model of polar adaptability.
We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62-0.65 and 0.62-0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40-0.50 and 0.50-0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78-0.88 (percent agreement 69%-82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75-0.84 (percent agreement 64%-73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability.
Researchers increasingly recognize the potential influence of the neighborhood environment on individual health and social behavior. To examine these influences, it is important to use varying measures and sources of neighborhood characteristics. Though neighborhood residents are often surveyed, the perceptions of neighborhood workers have been largely ignored. The current study documents procedures and findings from two longitudinal studies in which workers in 60 neighborhoods were surveyed about neighborhood social cohesion and social control (collective efficacy), and neighborhood problems. Results indicated that workers within neighborhoods were more homogeneous in their views of neighborhood collective efficacy and neighborhood problems than were workers across neighborhoods. In addition, workers' perceptions of their neighborhoods were similar to the perceptions of neighborhood residents, but also provided unique information. Overall, this study demonstrates the viability and usefulness of local workers as an additional source of neighborhood information.
We explore the impact of geographical proximity of environmental problems on environmental concern and willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental improvement, with emphasis on the relevance of Inglehart’s postmaterialism thesis on this inquiry. A questionnaire was administered to 1565 respondents in Istanbul. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to measure WTP. Sea pollution in Istanbul (local issue), soil erosion in Turkey (national issue) and ozone depletion (global issue) were issues chosen for valuation. The sample was separated into three sub-samples, each being presented with only one issue. Individuals distinguish between local and global environmental concern. People with materialist values rather than postmaterialist values exhibit more concern for local environmental problems. However, postmaterialist values determine WTP for improvement in both the local and the global environmental problems. Distinguishing among concern for environmental issues, which are differentiated on the basis of geographical proximity, has relevance for the ongoing postmaterialist values debate.
Describes the factor structure of ratings of buildings based on 7-point bipolar adjective scales (some from Osgood's studies of meaning). In Study 1, 30 3rd-yr architecture students rated slides of "plans and evaluations of houses" on 47 rating scales. In Study 2, 67 nonarchitecture students rated "monochromatic line drawings of the interior of rooms" on 50 scales, many representing major factors in Study 1. Results of each study were factor analyzed separately. At least 60% of total variance (97% of common variance) was accounted for in each study. In both studies the largest factor "seemed to consist of different aspects of a more general concept which might be called "pleasantness'." The 2nd largest factor, coherence, incorporated common scales across studies. The 3rd largest factor differed across studies. It is believed "that a concerted effort will reveal a meaningful structure in people's description of buildings." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
175 psychology and 35 landscape architecture students completed a questionnaire concerning the construction of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant to test the hypotheses that antinuclear attitudes are a function of broader environmental concern and that antinuclear attitudes and behaviors are irrational and result from phobic thinking. The questionnaire assessed attitudes toward nuclear war, anxiety levels, environmental concern, and energy issues and nuclear power (NP). Results show that acceptance of NP plants correlated negatively with environmentalism and positively with belief in experts' evaluations of the safety of NP plants. Although environmentalism correlated with NP attitudes, these appeared to be separate issues. Environmentalism also correlated with other energy issues, such as energy conservation and burning coal. There was no significant relationship between NP attitudes and self-reported measures of anxiety about aging, dependency, and death. However, NP protesters had lower anxiety scores with regard to dependency issues. Findings are counter to the notion that NP opponents engage in irrational thinking and suffer from higher levels of anxiety. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Used the questionnaires to study the effects of political party preferences and political ideologies on the environmental actions and attitudes of 300 undergraduates at a state university in Oregon. (237 usable responses were received.) It is noted that, in 1970 when the questionnaires were administered, environmental issues were very prominent on this campus. It was predicted that Ss with Democratic party preferences and liberal political ideologies would exhibit higher rates of pro-environmental attitudes and actions than Ss with Republican preferences and conservative ideologies. Among those indicating a traditional party preference, the Democratic party was heavily favored over the Republican party--101 (68.2%) vs 47 (31.8%). 66 Ss (28.8%) designated themselves as liberals, 112 (48.9%) as moderates, and 51 (22.3%) as conservatives. 56.2% indicated great interest in environmental issues, and 50% indicated that they had taken at least one positive environmental action. Correlational analyses supported the hypotheses, and indicated that Democratic and liberal Ss were more likely to locate the sources of environmental problems in the nature of contemporary social structure than Republican and conservative Ss who were more likely to view environmental degradation as a "people problem." Data on strategies for solving environmental problems and perceived seriousness of these problems are also presented. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the influence of the interaction between personal and situational variables in environmental behavior and the predictive power of values and beliefs. Three different kinds of questions (environmental beliefs, S. H. Schwartz's  measure of values, and physical-environmental inhibition level) and 1 item of general environmental concern were presented, along with a 16-item list of environmental actions, to 125 randomly selected undergraduate students. The authors drew 2 main conclusions from the results. First, environmental behavior depends on personal and situational variables in an interactive way. Second, when high conflict level is generated between personal dispositions and situational conditions, the predictive power of attitudes tends to be minimal, whereas in the case of consistency between them it tends to be maximal. The influence of situational variables was found to depend on the environmental action considered. In some cases, situational variables were the most important, whereas in others, commitment or moral obligation played an essential role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Performed intensive comparisons of the effect of radial, double-corridor, and single-corridor nursing units on the activities and feelings of nursing personnel, using multiple linear regression methods to remove as many extraneous factors as possible from comparisons. The radial design was found to be superior to the double corridor, and superior to the single corridor in most instances. Nursing personnel on radial units traveled significantly less than on other units; time saved in travel was converted into more time spent with patients; most of the nursing staff preferred working on radials; and there was less staff absenteeism with radial units. Results of a related study indicated that physicians and patients also preferred the radials and the physicians felt the radial design enhanced the quality of patient care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied children's activities and interactions in 3 playgrounds: a traditional equipment playground, a contemporary-design playground, and an adventure playground (which supplies play material, not play equipment). Observation, interviews, behavioral mapping, and behavior setting records were employed. The playgrounds had different predominant user groups, different patterns of use of areas and equipment, and different roles for and participation by play setting supervisors. Adults and preschoolers predominated at the traditional and contemporary playgrounds; 6-13 yr olds predominated at the adventure play area. At the 2 prebuilt playgrounds, use focused on the equipment, whereas at the adventure playground interactive play was common. The atmosphere of the playgrounds and the activities of users were shaped by a variety of factors, including opportunities and constraints of the physical environment, social influences, and freedom to make use of available opportunities. Information on users' choices and opinions relative to opportunities and freedom is presented, and implications for research and planning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated whether the affiliative model is able to account for the pattern of exit choice behavior in a room on fire. 500 statements from individuals present after a fire in which 50 people died were analyzed. The affiliative model predicts that in a situation of potential entrapment people move toward familiar persons and places. This model of behavior is contrasted with physical science and complementary panic concepts underlying escape route design. These assume a deterministic relationship between the physical availability and proximity of an emergency exit and its subsequent use. Findings from the present study show that although proximity to an exit was important, support was found for the affiliative model in the statistical interrelationships. In general, staff of the business that burned left by the fire exit, whereas individual members of the public who were separated from other group members tended to locate themselves toward the entrance end and left that way. Choice of location and exit used were mediated by person and place affiliations. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)