Environment Development and Sustainability

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  • Chariya Senpong
    Chariya Senpong
  • Dawan Wiwattanadate
    Dawan Wiwattanadate
The present study was conducted to investigate key drivers, barriers, and challenges towards Krabi's sustainable energy. The provincial electricity demand was found to be continuously increasing, while its supply has relied on national grid which is not a sustainable practice. Krabi Goes Green roadmap has set a target to be self-reliance and 100% electricity from renewable energy (RE). This is a key driver for Krabi's RE transition. Even though high RE resources potential was reported, installation of RE power plants can supply only about half of its annual demand. What would be key barriers and challenges to overcome the barriers were investigated via stakeholders’ interviews. Challenges or key success recommendation for each RE are briefly described. Krabi has high potential of both biomass and biogas from wastes of palm oil industry in the province. By the way, most of biomass and biogas power plants are VSPPs having non-firm-type power purchasing agreement (PPA) leading to unsecure electricity buying and selling. The PPA reconsidering was recommended by interviewees. In addition, new biomass power plants are public opposed due to emissions of solid biomass combustion pollutants. Waste-to-energy (WtE) is also high potential, but facing with public opposing as well. Some interviewees suggested installation of high efficiency end-of-pipe treatment facilities together with real-monitoring system must be compulsory for both biomass and WtE power plants. Solar PV is also high potential, but facing a big barrier of land limitation for solar farm installation. Therefore, solar rooftop has become the only option, but facing with a quota system. Reconsideration on the quota system policy as well as more simplify and transparent approval process are highly recommended for promoting solar energy both in the province and the whole country.
 
  • Xiaopeng Guo
    Xiaopeng Guo
  • Xinyue Zhang
    Xinyue Zhang
  • Jianqiang Dong
    Jianqiang Dong
  • Xiaoyu Yang
    Xiaoyu Yang
With a large number of new energy vehicles being put into use, it is the general trend for traditional fuel vehicles to withdraw from the market in an orderly manner. Determining the optimal ratio between them in this process is of great significance to the low-carbon sustainable development of cities. Therefore, considering the constraints of urban automobile development planning and air pollution prevention and control policies, a multi-objective model to minimize pollutants and costs is constructed in this paper. Through model calculation and sensitivity analysis of dynamic impact relationship of different types of vehicles, it is determined that when new energy vehicles account for around 36% in Beijing, 57% in Shanghai and 46% in Guangzhou, the pollutant emissions can be minimized without causing a significant increase in social costs. Additionally, compared with 2030, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou can achieve emission reductions of 320,000 tons, 200,000 tons and 250,000 tons, respectively, in 2050 if they implement the policy of banning the sale and delisting of fuel vehicles, which could provide suggestions for the guidance of the low-carbon development plan of the automobile industry.
 
Environmental degradation has become a major concern around the world. Fostering pro-environmental behaviour is considered among key solutions to reduce impacts towards conservation and rehabilitation of the environment. Various stakeholders have been developing strategies to promote pro-environmental behaviour, especially from an early age that is at student level but environmental issues still prevail on the local and global agenda. Therefore, this makes it questionable about the readiness of learners to change their behaviours towards implementing pro-environmental practices. Literature shows that limited work has been undertaken to assess readiness to change towards pro-environmental behaviour. Taking cognizance of this gap, this paper investigates and analyses the readiness of students towards pro-environmental behaviour by using the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change. A survey was conducted in secondary and higher education institutions in Mauritius. Results showed that demographic factors including gender, level of education and age group had an influence on pro-environmental behaviour. In addition, even though the larger group of participants showed positive attitudes towards protecting the environment, only a smaller percentage had actively changed their behaviours towards a pro-environmental one. As a solution, an integrated framework was proposed in this study to foster pro-environmental behaviour among students.
 
Over the last decade, many academics, practitioners, and policy-makers have focused on the notion of circular economy (CE) as a way to operationalize sustainable development. There is, however, a shortage of review studies that reflect the evolution and status of CE with respect to sustainability in the maritime industry. The purpose of this study is to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the development of CE in research on sustainable maritime processes/operations in the maritime industry. To accomplish this, the study uses citation analysis (publication distribution, productive journals, cross-country collaborations), co-occurrence analysis of the subject categories, co-citation analysis, and keyword frequency analysis. To collect data, the study utilizes the Web of Science database. Such software packages as CiteSpace, Histcite, and VOSviewer are used to analyze the data collected. The results clarify that, in the maritime industry, CE is a micro-level sub-set of sustainability. Furthermore, the literature has mainly focused on waste management and life-cycle assessment as measures of CE 1.0 and CE 2.0, respectively. Assessing circularity in terms of R-imperatives highlights that “recycle,” “remanufacture,” “recover,” and “reduce” are widespread practices of circularity in the maritime industry. Shipping companies should evaluate the possibility of implementing CE by realizing shorter loop R-imperatives such as “refuse,” “reduce,” “reuse,” and “repair.” Scholars must further explore underdeveloped R-imperatives such as “refuse,” “refurbish,” “repurpose,” and “remine” in the maritime industry.
 
a. Forest cover of selected South Asian countries for the time period 2012–2016. b. Forest cover of selected South Asian countries for the time period 2018–2020
REDD+ strategic framework in South Asian countries
Methodology flowchart for AHP
Forest sustainability indicators and sub-indicators for AHP analysis
Comparative assessment of overall scores for selected indicators
There are a tremendous need and increasing interests now in the design and development of integrated landscape approaches toward ‘reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).’ This is being more coherently addressed now under REDD+ framework by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), particularly focusing on sustainable forest management (SFM) and relevant intensification of carbon pools in developing countries. This study has distinctively assessed the relative effectiveness of implementation of REDD+ framework and forest sustainability in prominent South Asian (SA) countries (Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan). The multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model with three sustainability evaluation indicators, i.e., (i) socio-economic, (ii) policy and governance and (iii) environment, is used for the relative evaluation of prospects and barriers toward the adoption of SFM practices and application of REDD+ framework. In this regard an exclusive combination of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and additive weighted sum method are designed and deployed to calculate the weighting factors and assessment of relative importance and performance. The characteristic findings of study reflected that ‘socio-economic’ indicator has portrayed the highest importance among the indicators chosen, and Nepal has scored the highest comparative sustainability scores as 11.2%, 19.1% and 31.8%, respectively, for all three indicators, while Pakistan has depicted the lowest respective scores of 6.8%, 8.4% and 11.4%. This study will promote an insight for the development of policy-based indicators which can be futuristically aligned with targeted plans for SFM, enhancement of carbon stocks and subsequent reduction of carbon emissions in low–middle-income developing countries like Pakistan.
 
The Indo-Ganga–Brahmaputra plain is one of the world’s most vulnerable areas to catastrophic flood events. The severity and frequency of floods in this region have grown dramatically during the last few decades. As a result, an authentic map providing detailed spatial information on floods is required for reducing future flood disasters. This sort of map can be an invaluable tool for displaying flood-prone areas and determining the magnitude of flood risk. The Ramganga river (~ 200 km length) flowing in the western Gangetic plain was chosen for this investigation. This river is well known for its channel movement and flood hazards. The analytical hierarchy process model in GIS ambiance was used in this work to quantify and map flood risk in the lower Ramganga river basin. Six hazard-forming factors, namely relief, distance from active channel, slope, geomorphology, rainfall, and vegetation, and seven vulnerability factors, namely population density, household density, female density, road density, land use/land cover, female literacy, and total literacy, were chosen to determine flood risk zone (FRZ). According to the findings, about 35.29 per cent of the basin’s total area is in a high to very high flood risk zone, where flooding occurs at one- to three-year recurring intervals. The flood risk map has been validated using ground truth data, and the Kappa index has been computed, indicating a high degree of accuracy for the FRZ thematic classes.
 
Based on the Pressure-State-Response model and the experience materials of waste gas emission prevention and control in industrialized nations, we construct the PSR framework for stationary waste gas emissions(WGEs) in this study, identifying five pressure factors and six policy instruments. Using a moderated chain mediating established by structural equation modeling measurement, we examined the effects of pressures and responses to stationary WGEs. The key conclusions are that (1) pressures were brought on by the heavy industry proportion, the energy consumption intensity, the coal consumption proportion, and the industrial labor productivity, while the pressure was significantly reduced by green technology. (2) The heavy industry proportion was the most effective negative mediator, while energy consumption parameters including energy consumption intensity and coal consumption proportion failed to produce the desired results from policy instruments on stationary WGEs. (3) Command-and-control policy instruments led to the greatest direct impacts on the fall of stationary WGEs, whereas information-based policy instruments led to the greatest indirect impacts on the decline of stationary WGEs. These findings may provide important policy recommendations for nations that are rapidly industrializing. (1) We suggest that technology and industrial internal structure should be significant regulatory issues. (2) In addition to maintaining command-and-control policy instruments, we advise the government to give information-based instruments more consideration. (3) We also suggest that before the adoption of market-based instruments, thorough plans and experimental subsidies be prepared.
 
Expenditure for space research, 2019, $bln
Rocket launches from spaceports in different countries in August 2022, modified from Space statistics…, 2022
The article is relevant because of the need to formulate and consider the main tools of digital socioeconomic transformation, as well as because of the need to create a new model. The implementation of the transformation of already existing forms and concepts inherent in socioeconomic systems depends on these processes. It is shown that whereas in traditional industries, economic value is created within the enterprise, in the digital economy, value is created outside the enterprise at the time of interaction between partners, suppliers, and customers. The conceptualization of space activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the practical implementation of programs for the development of the space industry is considered. Based on a combination of process, sectoral, and technological approaches, the article considers the relationship between the development directions of the space industry in Kazakhstan and the processes of the national economy digitalization. The necessity of transnational strategic partnership in the field of innovative digital technologies in the space industry instead of the currently used “rent” approach is demonstrated. The results of the article can be used to develop White papers and more detailed documents in the field of interrelated policies for the development of the digital economy and the space industry in Kazakhstan.
 
Trends in real gross output (OP), labour (LA), real capital stock (KA), and energy consumption (EC) during 2000–2014
Trends in real gross output per labour (OL) and carbon emissions per labour (CL) during 2000–2014
Trends in energy efficiency across transportation modes (2000–2014)
Energy efficiency gains are advocated to be a plausible strategy to mitigate rising carbon emissions in the Indian transportation sector. This study, thus, estimates the energy efficiency across transportation modes in India for 2000–2014, employing the panel stochastic frontier approach. Further, the long-run effect of energy efficiency gains on carbon emissions is also examined by employing the panel fully modified least square (FMOLS) and panel dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) estimators. The empirical findings indicate an inverted U-shaped trend in energy efficiency for land transportation and a substantial rise for air transportation with higher volatility. However, the trend in energy efficiency for water transportation only shows a minor uptick with nearly stable movement. The long-run effect reveals that a 1% increase in energy efficiency will reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector by more than 1%, between 1.343 (FMOLS) and 1.665% (DOLS). Based on such findings, a few implications are discussed to achieve a low-carbon energy system.
 
Cost and environmental efficiency under nutrient minimization. Sources: Coelli et al. (2007), Trung et al. (2012). Note: The subscripted letters t,e,c indicate the input levels at technical, environmental, and economic efficiency
The Mekong Delta and the study sites
Nutrient surplus for white shrimp farming
Nutrient surplus for black tiger shrimp farming
Overall illustration of trade-offs between economic and environmental efficiencies
In recent years, the Vietnamese government has dedicated considerable planning and resources toward agricultural restructuring. These far-reaching efforts include promotion of intensive shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta to encourage the sustainable development of rural livelihoods. However, while intensive shrimp production may improve economic wellbeing, the current production practices raise concerns about the impacts on the local environment. The current study examines the economic and environmental efficiencies associated with the two primary species of farmed shrimp in four coastal provinces of the Mekong Delta. The study employs the material balance principle as a framework which considers the inputs to production and the outputs which may be undesirable. Using the efficiency estimates, we measure and investigate the trade-offs between the economic and environmental efficiencies for the shrimp farming in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. The results suggest that the shrimp farming produces a significant nutrient surplus for either species. The analysis also suggests that achieving cost efficiency and environmental efficiency would help the shrimp farmers to reduce the undesirable outputs and that the movement from the cost efficiency to the environmental efficiency could result in a reduction of both production costs and nutrients. Based on these results, we offer policy recommendations for economically feasible and environmentally friendly shrimp farming. The material balance approach provides a useful lens through which to investigate agricultural production.
 
Extensive mining operations coupled by a steady rise in local population have rendered the Jharia Coalfield water-stressed with limited access to potable water, risking the outbreak of waterborne diseases from prolonged inaccessibility. A quantitative assessment was done to utilize the pumped-out minewater by harvesting it in mine voids underlying the coalfield, preventing further loss as surface runoff. A total void volume of 13 billion gallons was identified and mapped using Digital Elevation Model—CARTOSAT. Analysis of minewater in the region revealed variations in hydrochemical parameters, indicating heterogeneity in the underlying hydrosystems of the region due to the synergistic influence of geological formations and anthropogenic processes on the region’s water chemistry. Qualitative evaluation of the hydrochemical parameters of minewater using Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) and a novel Integrated Water Quality Index (IWQI) revealed mostly poor minewater quality across the region, barring Shatabdi (IWQI—1.97; HPI—25.30). A comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of utilizing harvested minewater for potability in a water-stressed region while appraising its probabilistic risk to the local populace formed the theme of this study. Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk assessment revealed that children were more prone to non-carcinogenic risk from As and Mn, with hazard index (HI) values reaching up to 5.33 in some locations. The contribution of carcinogenic risk from the trace/heavy metals were in the order Ni > As > Cr > Pb > Cd and exceeded the maximum acceptable level (\({10}^{-6}\)) in majority of the locations, warranting continual monitoring and appropriate treatment to ameliorate health risks.Graphical Abstract
 
The relationship between pollution emissions and economic development. EPZ-ecological protection zone; MDZ-moderate development zone; EDZ-excessive development zone
The actual amount of pollutants in three regions
The location of the case study area
Transboundary water pollution is a persistent problem in China. The Chinese government has been tentatively experimenting with eco-compensation schemes for decades to protect and sustainably use ecosystem services. However, compensation standards and pollutant reduction are the key problems in these eco-compensation schemes. This study proposes a coordination decision-making model that incorporates a typical Stackelberg game between the administrator and individual region of a river basin to solve the problems. Based on prospect theory, the model considers the bidirectional eco-compensation mechanism, the different risk preference, and the loss aversion degree of the administrator and individual regions of a river basin to compute an optimal compensation standard. Given the compensation standard, the individual regions can decide their optimal pollution reductions. Taking the Taihu lake basin as a case, the conclusions were drawn as follows. The optimal compensation standard is 3394 yuan/ton, and the optimal regional pollutant reductions of Zhejiang, Shanghai for Jiangsu are 1854 tons and 270 tons separately. The results of the coefficient sensitivity analysis show that, according to the risk preference and loss aversion degree of individual regionals, the administrator can adjust compensation standard to promote regions to reduce pollutants and maximize the utility of eco-compensation scheme.
 
The global population continues to grow, which expands demand for raw materials. Meanwhile, governments are developing circular economy strategies within cities and their industries. A circular economy utilizes refurbishing, reusing, remanufacturing, and repairing of products and materials. For companies, this involves to set targets and to rethink their supply chain. This paper seeks to model an exhaustive multi-echelon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network. This network functions within uncertainty, and the model optimizes three different objectives. The first objective function maximizes the network's profit; the second objective function minimizes network emissions. The last objective function maximizes job positions created by the network. Optimizing three contradicting objectives is a problem, so an augmented epsilon constraint method is applied to improve the model. Given the rise of fast fashion in developed countries, this model is used in the clothing industry in Montreal, Canada. The model includes three scenarios over five years with two types of products. The result shows the attractiveness of such a network for companies looking for profit, sustainability, and entrepreneurship in the garment industry.
 
The model of strategies for enhancing food security against the phenomenon of food geopolitization
In recent years, the global food crisis and resulting food insecurity have made sustainable food supply a challenge for many countries, sparking global geopolitical competition. In regard to the geopolitization of food, this study proposes strategies to enhance food security. The model has been developed using grounded theory and data have been collected through interviews with 17 experts and review of 43 official reports and papers. Research findings reveal that food access has declined due to food shortages and unfair distribution in recent decades; as a result, food has become a source of competition and power struggles among countries. Therefore, food has been raised as a geopolitical issue. Changes such as the scarcity of water and soil resources, climate change, environmental degradation, insufficient investment in agriculture, and consumerism in societies have all contributed to the geopolitical importance of food worldwide. A number of strategies have been developed by countries in response to the geopolitization of food to improve their citizens' food security, including sustainable agriculture development, overseas cultivation, importing virtual water, reducing food waste, and diet modification. The success of these strategies, on the one hand, is influenced by the natural, human, technological, economic, political and military potentials of countries, and on the other hand, the conditions of the global environment. The most important achievements of the principled management of geopoliticization of food include enhancing food security, community health, reducing socio-cultural problems, improving political stability, reducing dependence on foreign countries, and preventing the destruction of natural resources.
 
The extensive oil and gas industrial sectors have caused several environmental problems in Iran. This motivated the governments to consider the potential capacity developing renewable energies such as biomass energy as an excellent strategic plan for sustainable sources. However, biomass energy is at the early stage because of multi-dimensional barriers (e.g., social, technical, and policy). Thus, there is a need to assess and evaluate the existing challenges and provide a strategic plan to assist decision-makers, for the country's sustainable biomass energy development. A novel approach is developed in the current study by extending the Interval-valued Spherical fuzzy best–worst method (IVSFS-BWM) and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (IVSFS-DEMATEL). n the seven steps methodology, IVSFS-BWM is utilized to derive the optimum importance weights of contributing factors in sustainable challenges of biomass energy. Then, IVSFS-DEMATEL is employed to find causality and interrelationships between the contributing factors. 39 numbers of challenges as influential parameters are taken into account to study the challenges of biomass energy. A comparison with familiar decision-making competitors’ tools has been conducted to show the advantages and robustness of the proposed methodology. The results indicated that the proposed method can adequately deal with subjective uncertainties from decision-making opinions, and the challenge of the contributing factors in biofuel energy as “fear of public health and safety hazards” needs necessary attention to the contributing factors in the system such as “lack of professional training institute,” “lack of infrastructural requirements,” and “lack of investors,” considering the resilience aspects. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is conducted and by checking all contributing factors, concluded that the system is not fully sensitive to the variation, as it is less partially dependent and reflects the conformity of obtained results as accurately as possible. The outcomes assist decision-makers in providing an effective strategic plan by eliminating the multi-dimensional barriers in sustainable biomass energy development.
 
Food availability is one of the dimensions of food security, and it is necessary to analyze the crop production scenario to estimate the availability of food in a region. Cropping sequence and cropping intensity indicate the seasonal crop production, thereby indicating the seasonal availability of food. Seasonal variation of per capita or per household availability of the cropped land determines the food security status of a given region. In Indian Sundarbans region, people’s livelihood is seriously threatened by the food insecurity. The present study aimed to determine the seasonality of cropped land as well as the cropping intensities of Gosaba CD block of Indian Sundarbans during 2017–2018, 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 cropping years using Multi-dated Sentinel-2 data. Rule-based classification was applied for cropping sequence and cropping intensity mapping. Winter season cropped land was the lowest (< 16% of the village area). The area under crop–fallow–crop sequence (200% cropping intensity) decreased, while the area under crop–fallow–fallow (100% cropping intensity) sequence increased. Area under 300% cropping intensity gradually decreased. The average cropping intensity changed from 150% in 2017–2018 to 124% and 136% in 2018–2019 and 2019–2020, respectively. Large variation of the seasonal cropped land per household was estimated, and it became the worst during winter when it became less than 0.5 bighas (0.07 ha). Crop cultivation during dry season depended on the rainfall pattern and surface water availability. The present study successfully addressed the cropping scenario and food insecurity of the study area, and hopefully, it will help the planners and policy makers to take necessary actions for cropping intensification and ensuring food security in the Indian Sundarbans region.
 
Location map of the study area
Land use and land cover map of Purulia
The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development was launched to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) across the globe. This paper is based on the primary database to assess the nutritional status of 5–10 years children and the incidence of deprivation in their households of a backward district (Purulia), India in the context of the first two SDGs, e.g., no poverty and zero hunger. We conclude that around 74% of children are undernourished. The proportion of households multidimensionally deprived is 90%, and the majority of them live on less than $1.25 a day. Results reveal that the BMI of mother and the education of father are the two most statistically significant predictors of child malnutrition. Purulia has long been witnessing the persistent nature of deprivation, which is well reflected in the child’s health. The district is quite far from the national targets in achieving the SDGs. Government, private sector, and civil society must come together to accelerate the progress of SDGs.
 
Energy–environmental analysis of paste production cycle at a glance
Different parts studied in the life cycle of a product
Fifteen midpoints in endpoints based on IMPACT 2002+ method (Khanali et al., 2021)
Energy contribution of each parts in pomegranate paste production cycle
Distribution of environmental damages in paste production
Today, the study and analysis of energy and environmental pollutants in agricultural lands, greenhouses and gardens alone cannot be effective in relation to the efficiency of agricultural products. Therefore, in the post-harvest stages, two issues of energy and environment are addressed. Based on this, the current research was conducted with the aim of investigating the energy–environmental indicators of pomegranate paste production in Iran. The results showed that the total energy input, energy ratio (ER) and energy productivity (EP) were calculated as 35,027 MJ/ton, 0.103 and 0.0002 tons of paste/total cycle energy, respectively. Energy required to produce paste bottles and pomegranate energy (chemical fertilizers and diesel fuel) for processing were the most consumed inputs in the study areas with 13,500 (38%) and 13,131 (37%) MJ.t⁻¹, respectively. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the IMPACT 2002+ method were used to calculate the environmental effects, and 1 ton of pomegranate paste produced was determined as a functional unit (FU). Based on the findings obtained from the environmental section, the polyethylene bottles production had the highest emissions on the ecosystem quality (EQ), human health (HT), climate change (CC) and resources reduction (RR) damage categories as 94%, 72%, 71% and 92%, respectively. Based on the normalization results, HH, CC, RR and EQ have the highest values with 126.63, 78.23, 54.94 and 3.71, respectively. Also, the final impact was calculated as 263.53 pPt t⁻¹, and HH had the highest contributions to it. Results taken from the post-harvest section (specially packaging) confirmed the requisiteness of agricultural crops whole cycle investigation (cradle-to-grave analysis). The findings show that by reducing fossil and non-renewable inputs (chemical fertilizers, electricity and diesel fuel) and replacing them with clean energy, it is possible to achieve sustainability in product production. By managing the consumption of inputs, organic products with high-energy efficiency can be produced and the world can use its economic and social benefits.
 
The environmental pollution problem stimulates the photovoltaic industry’s vigorous development and further promotes the prosperity of the module manufacturing industry. After the cancellation of government subsidies, how the phenomenon of overcapacity that has always existed in the module manufacturing industry will develop is one of the essential issues that we need to consider. This paper constructs a systematic framework to analyze the driving mechanism of government subsidies on overcapacity. Then, a system dynamics model is established to predict the development trend of overcapacity after the cancellation of government subsidies. The result shows that: (i) By 2030, the production capacity will exceed 600 GW in China’s photovoltaic module industry, which is about two times that of 2021. Moreover, its price and cost will drop to 0.46 yuan/W and 0.41 yuan/W, which are down 67% and 60%, respectively, compared to 2021; (ii) After the cancellation of government subsidies, the phenomenon of overcapacity will not disappear soon, and it will continue until 2030. In 2030, the production capacity utilization rate will reach 80%, and the phenomenon of overcapacity will disappear; (iii) From the perspective of production factors, the impact of the labor factor on the production capacity is minimal. In the initial stage, technology and capital factors are vital. As the industry matures, the influence of the capital factor will gradually weaken. Finally, we have put forward corresponding policy implications.
 
Brazilians’ meat consumption, total and by type (g/1000 kcal/day), in 2008 and 2017
Brazilians’ meat intake (g/1000 kcal/day) in 2008 and 2017 according to income groups
MW: minimum wage
The elasticity of meat: relationship between the meat price, income, and meat consumption between 2008 and 2017, Brazil. MW: minimum wage
Environmental impact from meat consumption in Brazil in 2017, according to income groups.MW: minimum wage
The responsibility and vulnerability of challenges in planetary health are unequally distributed across countries. In Brazil, meat carries an important cultural value even if from an environmental perspective its production is related to negative impacts. We explored Brazilian meat consumption over time, according to income groups from the perspective of the food inequalities and food justice and we analyzed its impacts on the environment. We used data from the 2008 and 2017 Household Budget Surveys to estimate meat intake and meat prices according to income level. The environmental impact indicators were based on the WWF Report. We analyzed the relationship between income, meat price, and its consumption by linear regression model. Brazilian meat intake was 86 g/1000 kcal in 2008, which is considered high intake and Brazilians increased meat intake by 12% from 2008 to 2017, with variations according to types of meat and income levels. Individuals of the lowest income stratum did not increase their meat consumption, and they spent around 17 times more of their income to buy one kilogram of beef compared to people from the highest income group. There was a significant positive relationship between purchasing power and intake of meat across income groups. In 2017, meat contributed to 86% of the Brazilian diet’s carbon footprint. In Brazil, relevant factors for meat intake may be associated with restricted purchasing power, food affordability, rising prices and income inequalities. Our findings indicate the relevance not only of food availability and intake but also the local variables such as socio-economic inequalities and cultural meanings food can assume.
 
Carbon sequestration in forests has increasingly captured the attention of scientists as a strategy for climate change mitigation and environmental sustainability. In this era of huge carbon emissions, being a low-carbon and cost-effective technology, the economic analysis of forest carbon sequestration holds higher importance for the successful implementation and intended outcomes. This study elucidates a scientometric view of the research structure and thematic evolution of economic studies on forest carbon sequestration based on 1439 articles over the time slice of 2001–2021. The bibliographic data have been retrieved from the Dimensions database, which accommodates a large coverage of research publications and also provides easy access to essential scholarly data and information. Vosviewer and Biblioshiny software tools have opted for visualisation and evaluation purposes of bibliometric data. This study employs various measures of bibliometric analysis like co-authorship, bibliographic coupling, citation and keyword analysis to find out the principal articles, authors, journals, most frequent keywords and highest publishing countries and institutions in this field, and the results show that the number of publications has escalated substantially in the last five years, the most cited article and most productive author are Popp A, 2017 (305 citations) and André P C Faaij (11 documents), respectively, Bradford’s law calculates 21 core journals out of total 503 journals, among which Forest Policy and Economics is at the top, and the most productive country and institution are the USA and University of Florida, respectively. The study also investigates key publishing subject categories, and the number of publications covered under each of the Sustainable Development Goals. The overall outcome of this bibliometric study confers an in-depth understanding of the various dimensions of economic analysis on forest carbon sequestration and its development pattern in the last 21 years and also provides emerging themes for future reference.
 
This study investigates the role of stakeholder pressure on water disclosure that is examined through the lens of managerial stakeholder theory. After reviewing the literature, we find that government, media, and international stakeholders have a higher potential to stimulate corporate water disclosure. The authors use a sample comprising 263 listed Asian mining companies from 23 countries over three years from 2017 to 2019. The authors show that these stakeholder pressures are significantly associated with water disclosure practices in Asian mining. This finding indicates that more stringent environmental regulations result in higher levels of water disclosure. Companies tend to disclose water information when corporate exposure is high, as it can attract public attention. Our findings reveal that international stakeholders are why firms create water disclosure to maintain a license to operate internationally. Although all hypotheses have been supported, further analysis shows that media exposure is insignificant in Central Asia. International stakeholders are not the drivers of water disclosure in East, West, and Central Asia.
 
It is currently unclear how river restoration based on hydro-geometrical modifications, dredging, and creating a barrier instead of its removal on a river would affect the water quality in urban rivers. This work attempts to fill this gap in our understanding by simulating the water quality of a highly critical 22-km-long Delhi stretch of river Yamuna in terms of DO, BOD, and total coliform after the implementation of these river restoration measures. Four scenarios were conceptualized based on these restoration measures and water quality simulated. These are: scenario I: simulate the impact of varying the width uniformly for all reaches of the study stretch on the water quality, scenario II: simulate the impact of increased depth by controlled dredging. Scenario III (a) closing the ITO barrage gate and then simulating river water quality from Wazirabad barrage to ITO barrage and (b) closing the ITO barrage and simulation of water quality from ITO barrage to Okhla barrage. Results reveal that the water quality improved significantly in scenario I and scenario II. Scenario III did not yield desirable results in terms of water quality improvement. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first attempt involving river morphometry changes using the QUAL2k model for the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna.
 
Slope instability problems due to widening of roads are very common in mountainous terrains particularly in Indian Himalayan region. Slope instability may occur due to action of different natural as well as anthropogenic activities or through combined action of both. The present paper deals with the slope stability assessment of natural and cut slopes along the Imphal–Moreh section of NH-39 in Manipur state, India. The factor of safety (FoS) for pre- and post-excavations is evaluated, and the FoS with the mitigation measures is examined using limit equilibrium and finite element method. Construction sequences are modeled, and the stability and deformation patterns are evaluated for each construction stage. It is found that about 78% of the slopes is having an angle more than 45° after cutting. The present study suggests that a FoS greater than 1.25 can be achieved by installing a 5.5 m anchor at 18° with the horizontal at a spacing of 1 m. Confirmatory field tests on the anchor are also conducted to ensure the accuracy of the adopted design parameters. This study provides useful informations to researchers and practitioner about the stability assessment of slopes and potential mitigative measures. Similar schemes of mitigative measures are effective for the same/similar geologic conditions in the Indian Himalayan terrain.
 
Analyzing the effects on Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries of recently proposed European Union (EU) and United States (US) carbon border adjustment mechanisms (CBAs) and bans on the import of non-deforestation-free products (DFPs), we ask: What share of LAC exports could be affected? What would be the consequences of the EU and US broadening these regulations to other commodities, or of other countries adopting similar regulations? How vulnerable are LAC countries, in terms of emissions intensity, deforestation risk, and export concentration risks? What policies could they adopt in response? Using data from the World Integrated Trade Solutions, we find that, as the region’s productive profile is agricultural rather than industrial, CBAs have a milder effect than DFPs. Less than 0.5% of LAC exports are exposed under the EU-CBA, compared to 17% under the EU-DFP and around 6% under the US-DFP. A broader EU-CBA would impact up to 14% of LAC country exports, while expanding the consequences of the EU-DFP would be marginal. The impact of other countries adopting CBA plans would also be small, because the EU and US are the main LAC export destinations. LAC products are vulnerable for several reasons, from having higher embedded emissions—and therefore costs—than European producers’, to having regional competitors with lower emissions intensity or deforestation risk, and lacking alternative export markets. The LAC private sector could adapt its strategies to accommodate these risks, and there is also room for public action.
 
Facilitating agro-food green planting and consumption is an effective way to reduce carbon emissions and achieve sustainability in global agriculture. Although many researchers have explored and analyzed this issue, there remains a gap between stakeholders of green agricultural development combined with low-carbon policies and green preferences that have been overlooked. To bridge this gap, a three-party evolutionary game model consisting of farmers, governments, and consumers is developed based on the government’s low-carbon policies and stakeholders’ green preferences. The six key parameters based on low-carbon policies and green preferences influencing strategic behavior are thoroughly discussed using numerical simulations. The findings reveal the following: (1) Appropriate subsidies policy and relatively high carbon prices are conducive to promoting agro-food green planting. (2) The three parties’ green preferences improve people’s low-carbon awareness in the market. (3) When the governments’ green preference coefficient is less than 1, they will choose positive regulation and enhance farmers’ and consumers’ green preferences through publicity and education. As farmers’ and consumers’ green preferences increase to a certain high level, governments choosing negative regulation can also reach an advanced evolutionary stable strategy. The results provide theoretical and practical guidance for the green development of agriculture, help governments formulate scientific low-carbon policies, and provide referential significance for improving the green preference of farmers and consumers.
 
Distribution of innovative cities in China
The mechanisms of innovative city construction on carbon emissions
Average CO2 emissions over the years
Parallel trend tests
Using panel data for Chinese prefecture-level and above cities from 2003 to 2017, we employed the difference-in-differences (DID) method to explore whether innovative city constructions reduced carbon emissions. The results show that innovative city constructions significantly curb carbon emissions in Chinese cities, which is supported by a series of robustness tests. Specifically, we found that innovative city constructions could reduce carbon emissions by 5.21%, which is equivalent to a total of about 5.46 million tons. In addition, we provided evidence that innovative city constructions curb carbon emissions by promoting technological innovation, industrial upgrading and industrial green development, ecological improvement, and government intervention. Furthermore, heterogeneous results indicate that the carbon reduction effect of innovative city constructions is mainly found in eastern cities and cities with better industrial development and human capital base. Our findings further enrich the study on the environmental benefits of national innovation incentives and public policies and provide important insights in carbon neutrality and achieving sustainable development, especially for developing and emerging market countries.
 
Based on China’s multiregional input–output (MRIO) tables from 2002 to 2015, this study estimates virtual water trade (VWT) between Zhejiang and 29 other municipalities, provinces, and autonomous regions in China with a quantitative analysis of the spatial–temporal patterns and the driving forces of VWT in Zhejiang from the short-distance and the long-distance perspectives. The result shows that Zhejiang turns from supplier to consumer in short-distance VWT during 2002–2015. VW import mainly comes from Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi, while Shanghai is the most important region for short-distance VW export. Secondary industry is the dominant industry in short-distance VW export. Moreover, short-distance VW import is gradually transferred from primary industry to secondary industry. Meanwhile, Zhejiang always acts as a VW consumer in long-distance VWT transportation. Xinjiang and Heilongjiang are the main import regions, while Guangdong and Henan are the main export regions. Primary industry accounts for the largest share of VW long-distance import. VW long-distance export is dominated by secondary industry. In addition, the influence of GDP per capita (PGDP), urbanization level (UL), and urban population (UP) on VWT is positive. The influence of external dependence of water resources (EDW), water use efficiency (WUE), and industrial structure (IS) is negative. Both short-distance and long-distance VW imports are dominated by EDW. UL and PGDP are the main drivers of short-distance and long-distance VW exports. In order to increase the capacity of water resources allocation and to improve the benefits of water resources utilization, virtual water strategy (VWS) should be implemented with differentiated measures based on the comparative advantages of short-distance and long-distance VWTs in Zhejiang.
 
Nations which are part of the United Nations are required to institute appropriate measures to fulfil the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, for this to be possible, all stakeholders including the general public need to be fully aware of the SDGs. This research examined the level of public awareness about the SDGs among Ghanaians based on the views of 431 respondents. Means, standard deviation, Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations were used for data analysis. The study found that awareness level on SDG 1 (ending poverty), SDG 2 (zero hunger, food security, nutrition and sustainable agriculture), SDG 3 (health and well-being), SDG 5 (gender equality), and SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation) was high among Ghanaians. However, awareness level on SDG 9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure), SDG 14 (conservation of life below water), and SDG 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions) was very low among Ghanaians. No significant difference manifested in the level of awareness among male and female Ghanaians. There were statistically significant differences in educational levels of respondents and their overall level of awareness of the SDGs. Also, there was a low, negative correlation between overall level of awareness and the effectiveness of the communication strategies used in creating awareness about the SDGs. Government should re-examine its communication strategies on the SDGs and put in place a more effective communication policy framework which involves grassroots populations and local communities.
 
Design items corresponding to the five senses.
Source: Translated by Chen. United we brand, Organized by this study
Research framework
Ranking of consumers’ emphasis on the five senses incorporated in the recycled merchandise. ※Ranking: from high to low
In an era advocating cradle-to-cradle designs, resource recycling should involve not only waste sorting but also remanufacturing practices to produce products made of recycled wastes. However, consumers nowadays no longer demand products that are only visually appealing. Therefore, adding different sensory elements to product designs has emerged as a new design approach. With a focus on applying designs for all five senses to recycled merchandise, this study investigated the level of importance consumers attach to the types and five sensory applications of recycled merchandise and subsequently analyzed the factors involved to identify the possibility of developing recycled merchandise. Regarding research methods, literature analysis was performed to collate information relevant to recycled merchandise and designs for all five senses. Expert interview method was employed to gather expert opinions across different disciplines. Questionnaire survey was used to further understand how consumers perceive products that are remanufactured using design elements for all five senses. The study results revealed that (1) most consumers held a positive attitude toward design of recycled products using five senses; (2) more communication channels can be created between recycled merchandise and consumers; (3) consumers preferred recycled merchandise of pragmatic value and paid closer attention to the sensory element of touch; and (4) recycled merchandise can be made more sophisticated and less vulgar to draw the attention of consumers. After consumer preference for recycled merchandise is determined, this information can serve as a reference for selling these products in a way that propels consumers to spread positive word-of-mouth and be more willing to purchase recycled merchandise.
 
Worldwide area under major root and tuber crops, expressed in percentage (FAO stat, 2020)
Region-wise distribution of major root and tuber crops, expressed in percentage (FAO stat, 2020)
Spatial variation of water footprint of major root and tuber crops (potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava and taro) versus cereals (maize, barley, rye, rice, oats, wheat, sorghum, buckwheat and millet)
Sustainable food and agriculture is emphasized in recent times to provide for present and future generations with a lesser impact on the environment. Equal importance is given to environmental impact assessment of crop production and related processes to understand their effect on the environment and natural resources and formulate measures and policies to mitigate the same. Water footprint assesses the impact of products and processes on freshwater resources. This paper is an attempt to review available research on water footprint assessment of root and tuber crops and their products majorly potatoes, cassava and sweet potatoes. Root and tuber crops are gaining importance as major food security crops and are a more sustainable alternative to cereal crops in terms of water footprint. Apart from this, root and tuber crops (majorly, cassava and potato) are also gaining importance as feedstocks for biofuel production; however, they have a higher water footprint than sugar crops (sugar beet, sugar cane) used. Further research is required on the water footprint assessment of root and tuber crops especially crops other than potato, cassava and sweet potato and their products to help to achieve their full potential as sustainable food and energy crops. Efforts to develop ecocrop models to assess the suitability of tuber crops in different agroecological locations and effective utilization of green water to achieve more crop per drop and to reduce the water footprint are to be strengthened.
 
Consideration of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors can contribute to the environmental and economic performance of organizations in terms of investment and sustainability. This article thoroughly reviews the following factors influencing decisions regarding ESG policy by businesses: economic performance, environmental sustainability, pollution and waste, corporate social responsibility, gender, and governance structure. Moreover, we review the impact of these factors considering ESG disclosure, the global pandemic, religion, governing board and size, national interest, and technological advancements. The literature reports that ESG disclosures of environmental, economic, and social sustainability performance can strengthen business sustainability and performance. Religion-based businesses demonstrated better socio-environmental performance but not governance. An independent governing board has a positive impact; however, dual-gender boards negatively impact ESG disclosure. Significant diversification potential in ESG investments was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting an ESG policy enhances the innovation capacity, innovative activities, value creation, and financial performance of businesses. Overall, the social and environmental performance demonstrated a significantly positive relationship with business sustainability, indicating that business economy and creating value for society are mutually dependent. The literature summary presented in this review will help future research on ESG factors that influence business investments and sustainability.
 
In the past decades, resource shortage and environmental degradation due to rapid economic development have become a severe challenge while limiting China’s regional sustainable and coordinated development. This paper provides a case study of Jiangsu Province in China employing the coupling coordination model and geo-detector model to seek solutions for realizing the region coordinated development from the interaction of technological innovation (\({\text{TI}}\)), industrial upgrading (\({\text{IU}}\)) and eco-environment (\({\text{EE}}\)). This study reaches the following conclusions. (1) The coupling coordination degree (\(D\)) of \({\text{TI}}\)-\({\text{IU}}\)-\({\text{EE}}\) system (TIIUEES) in Jiangsu Province was general in the stage of mild unbalance. (2) The \(D\) value exhibited a positive evolutionary trend in time series. However, the backwardness of \({\text{EE}}\) constrained the regional coordination development, which led to the slow and small growth with fluctuation. (3) Spatially, the \(D\) value generally conformed to a gradient distribution from south to north, which was caused by regional internal extremely unbalanced development. (4) Economic benefits had a decisive effect on the coordinated development in TIIUEES, and the interaction of two factors could gain an “enhanced, bilinear” or even “enhanced, nonlinear” result. This study contributes to exploring the driving determinants of \(D\) value in TIIUEES based on the description of the temporal and spatial features and providing a credible reference for future research and decision-makers.
 
Sources of data analyzed
(continued)
Main search results
Research protocol Source: adapted from Troiano (2020, p.82-83) (Antikainen et al., 2020) Phases Description Objective of the study Validate theoretical propositions about teaching good practices in sustainability and circular economy
The textile sector is considered one of the most polluting sectors of society. In order to generate a transformation in value-added products from the textile production chain, the educational sector plays a strategic role. This paper validates theoretical propositions about teaching good practices in sustainability and circular economy. The theoretical assumptions that supported this study are circular economy and sustainable fashion. The study was carried out in Brazil, and it includes Fashion Design courses at the undergraduate level. Primary data was obtained by the application of a questionnaire with teachers, coordinators and students of 54 courses. The main results show the absence of the term teaching of good sustainability practices within the political pedagogical projects of the analyzed courses. We conclude that, although there is an internalization of sustainability and circular economy practices, it is still necessary to evolve a higher maturity stage in the type of practices disseminated and in the emphasis on practices associated with the core of the circular economy. Practices are capable of generating a new meaning in the fashion sector, circulating materials and retaining value in resources in a strategic way and generating innovative solutions for the sustainable fashion segment.
 
Flow chart of article selection process
Countries and affiliations of lead authors of reviewed articles
Unlabelled: The COVID-19 pandemic adds pressure on Africa; the most vulnerable continent to climate change impacts, threatening the realization of most Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The continent is witnessing an increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, and environmental change. The COVID-19 was managed relatively well across in the continent, providing lessons and impetus for environmental management and addressing climate change. This work examines the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment and climate change, analyses its management and draws lessons from it for climate change response in Africa. The data, findings and lessons are drawn from peer reviewed articles and credible grey literature on COVID-19 in Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic spread quickly, causing loss of lives and stagnation of the global economy, overshadowing the current climate crisis. The pandemic was managed through swift response by the top political leadership, research and innovations across Africa providing possible solutions to COVID-19 challenges, and redirection of funds to manage the pandemic. The well-coordinated COVID-19 containment strategy under the African Centers for Disease Control and Prevention increased sharing of resources including data was a success in limiting the spread of the virus. These strategies, among others, proved effective in limiting the spread and impact of COVID-19. The findings provide lessons that stakeholders and policy-makers can leverage in the management of the environment and address climate change. These approaches require solid commitment and practical-oriented leadership. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10668-023-02956-0.
 
The degradation of soil and water resources is the consequence of a mismatch between land suitability and land use. In this study, sustainable agricultural land suitability assessment (SALSA) for wheat and perennial horticultural crops was carried out, considering a conservation-use balance using the factors affecting the crop yield as well as indicating the degradation of lands. The study area was located in the Besni district in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and covered 1330 km² of land. A total of 132 surface (0–30 cm) soil samples were collected and analyzed. Annual soil loss (RUSLE), gully erosion factor, soil properties and length of the growing period are included in the SALSA model. Fuzzy continuous classification was carried out using the Mamdani fuzzy inference system method. Fuzzy continuous classification-SALSA results for wheat using only the fuzzy soil layer showed that the ratios of moderately (S2), marginally (S3) and currently not suitable (N1) lands were 0.87, 72.2 and 26.9%, respectively. However, when the fuzzy erosion layer and fuzzy climate layer were integrated into the land suitability model, the ratios of sustainability classes for S1, S2, S3, N1 and N2 lands were 1.36, 3.8, 47.6, 18.6 and 28.6%, respectively. The results of perennial horticultural crops fuzzy soil layer indicated that 38.1% of the study area is S1, 57.8% is S2, and 4.02% is S3. However, when all three fuzzy layers were used in suitability assessment, the distributions of S1, S2, S3 and N1 classes changed to 2.72, 5.94, 48.86 and 42.48%, respectively.
 
In recent times, there is a mammoth challenge for the world and mankind to deal with the frequent use and misuse of antibiotics and its casual discard to the water bodies. The scavenging degradation of antibiotics which are no longer in use from the environment is a growing concern and compulsively needs to be addressed. Herein, we have devised a novel and green protocol for the synthesis of Cu2O decorated on reduced graphene oxide (Cu2O/RGO) nanocomposite (NCs) using agro-waste, i.e., orange pomace extract (OPE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the degradation of antibiotic. The biogenically synthesized Cu2O/RGO NCs proved to emerge as an excellent degradation catalyst exhibiting efficiency of 98.68% within 15 min and 86.38% within 30 min for 10 mg/L DC concentration assisted by ultrasound waves and solar light respectively in separate reactions. The complete degradation process followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.29 min− 1 and 0.0542 min− 1 for sonocatalytic and photocatalytic degradation process, respectively. Surface area analysis showed that with the increase in the GO amount, the doxycycline degradation increases. An in-depth mechanistic account of sonocatalytic and photocatalytic process has been discussed followed by a radical scavenging test which validated the major role of the synthesized NCs in the degradation of DC. The extraordinary catalytic indulgence of biogenically synthesized graphene-based nanocatalyst opens newer avenues for future research in green chemistry and catalytic field. Graphical abstract
 
Hybrid renewable energy sources are sustainable and eco-friendly and challenge the alternative sources of conventional energy production facilities. Pakistan’s present energy dilemma is a serious impediment to its economic progress. This paper proposes a techno-economic analysis of commercial-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems for commercial agricultural farms in Punjab, Pakistan. A survey was conducted to gather the load data of the farms from major cities of north, center, and south Punjab. For the PV system design, the K-means approach was used to cluster data from 93 farmers into nine clusters with similar electrical consumption. A complete technical, economic, and environmental study is undertaken of the PV systems deployed in five selected cities. The most practical locations are Attock and Multan, which have the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy at 5.52 and 5.37 cents/kWh, respectively. PV installations are nevertheless technically, economically, and environmentally feasible for all cities. Throughout its lifespan, the planned PV system has the potential for Faisalabad and Chiniot to minimize 154 metric tons of emissions, resulting in a greener environment.
 
Flowchart for econometric methodology
Causality results
This paper investigated the dynamic and causal relationship among energy intensity, economic growth, urbanization, energy consumption, FDI, and PM2.5 in 1995–2019 period for China, India, Germany, Canada, USA and United Kingdom countries through Panel Fourier Bootstrapping ARDL (PFBARDL) model and Panel Fourier causality test. According to PFBARDL results, the evidence of cointegration between the variables was detected. In the PFBARDL model, the error correction coefficient is determined as -0.169. Results showed that there is a bidirectional causality between economic growth and PM2.5 release, between fdi and PM2.5 release, between energy intensity and PM2.5 release. Rising economic growth, energy consumption structure, and urbanization will have an adverse effect on PM2.5 concentrations. Policy makers must carefully balance the connection between mitigation of PM2.5 and diminishing energy consumption, and increasing economic growth, urbanization, and energy intensity for determining policies to control PM2.5 concentrations. Thus, in order to reduce PM2.5, the governments must explore a new economic pattern to decouple the linkage between PM2.5 and economic growth.
 
Prediction of renewable energy consumption structure (RECS) can provide important guidance for energy development planning and energy structure transformation. The RECS refer to the proportion of various renewable energy consumptions and belong to compositional data, which could reflect the structural shapes of a complete system better. The multivariate compositional data’s vector autoregressive model (CDVAR) on the basis of the Simplex space and its algebraic system is proposed in this study aiming at the multi-dimensional small sample size. Firstly, the algebraic system of the Simplex space is introduced and the statistics of the compositional data are defined. Secondly, the novel model with the form of the compositional data is obtained and the least square parameter estimation of the model is derived according to Aitchison geometry. Third, the validation of the novel model is verified by the data on RECS in countries (China, USA, and Canada). The validation presents that the proposed model performs better in fitting, prediction, stability, and applicability compared with other five models under transformation. Last, the proposed model is applied to analyze and forecast the RECS of the above countries in 2021–2025 to provide an important basis for the optimization of the RECS.
 
Research framework
Generalized linear model summary
Shannon entropy and consensus value
Green technology is a sign of sustainability, productivity, and minimizing the negative impacts on the manufacturing process. This study investigates the impacts of green technology implementations (GTI) on employee size, age, and job experience in the manufacturing process. The investigation of three parameters designed the questionnaire approach to get study aims. The questionnaires were distributed to those manufacturing firms that utilize green technologies. To achieve study objectives, linear regression, generalized linear model, and Shannon entropy algorithms were proposed to analyze the empirical data. Based on the examination technique, the GTI influence on labor size indicated that an R-value (0.585), labor age (0.546), and (0.346) was a significant impact. Simultaneously, the data were examined through the Shannon entropy algorithm and the found satisfactory examination of three parameters. The present work was robust evidence via empirical analysis of GTI impacts leading to multiple configurations of employee satisfaction and increment production performance.
 
Map of province Punjab, Pakistan.
Source: Generated using Arc GIS version 10.3.1
Mean of wheat yield with wheat varieties and sowing time.
Source: Generated by StataCorp. (2009)
Mean of wheat yield with wheat varieties and cutting time.
Source: Generated by StataCorp. (2009)
Spatial mapping of climate-induced district vulnerability ranking.
Source: Generated using Arc GIS version 10.3.1
Spatial mapping of climate-induced wheat loss in districts of Punjab.
Source: Generated using Arc GIS version 10.3.1
This study fascinated to engulf the resident anomalies of the wheat yield in the districts of the province Punjab where climate variation, inputs utilization and district impact (unrestricted from geographical boundaries) are the indispensable factors. Impact assessment of influencing inputs which lead to differences in district wheat yield irrespective of inherited homogenous factors has been analyzed. Optimal cropping season and potential districts for the wheat crop are suggested. Sample data consisting of 22,957 sample units of more than 80 factors encompassing valuable dimensions collected through comprehensive surveys based on all (36) districts footprints of the province Punjab driven by Agriculture Department of Punjab are formulated to incorporate. The estimated outcomes establish, negative repercussions of improper cropping season while the district impact varies for wheat yield. For wheat crop, this analysis estimates, yield optimum sowing and harvesting dates and proposes district climate vulnerability ranking which indicates that Narowal, M.B. Din, Muzaffergarh, Jhang and Sialkot are the most vulnerable whereas Chakwal, Jhelum, Pakpattan, Rajanpur and Hafizabad are the least vulnerable, districts of the province Punjab. Climate induced yield and monetary losses are enlisted and spatial mapping explains the pattern of these losses incurred in the districts. The province Punjab bears the more than 792 metric ton of wheat in single season which is equal of 39.6 million rupees.
 
In current era of globalization, environmental sustainability has become a major concern in developing countries. This issue of sustainability also gained importance in Pakistan. Previous literature ignored the link of knowledge spillover along with energy efficiency and globalization on environmental sustainability in Pakistan. So, the motivation of current study is to explore the impact of energy efficiency, knowledge spillover, and globalization on environmental sustainability in Pakistan from 1980 to 2021. This study applied Phillip Perron (PP)unit test to determine the stationarity properties of study variables, and it was found that all variables are I(1). The study then applied the Johansen cointegration estimation technique, confirming a cointegration and long-run relationship between environmental sustainability, energy efficiency, knowledge spill over, and globalization. So, the vector error correction model is applied to determine the variables' long-run relationship. Results confirmed that knowledge spill over and energy efficiency negatively impact environmental sustainability by increasing the ecological footprint, while globalization positively affects environmental sustainability. Thus, for environmental sustainability policy formation, fostering circular economy practices that improve resource efficiency is essential, advocating a shift in the conventional production and utilization paradigm by recycling the natural environment and producing as little waste as possible. Further, governments should develop and stimulate the expansion of financial institutions and markets along with promoting a planned urbanization process are essential for ensuring that resources are handled sustainably. Graphical Abstract
 
Toys preference across India as of June 2019. Source (Statista, 2021)
Research model
Sample size prediction through G*Power
Considering the rising plastic toy pollution and its damaging effects on the ecosystem, especially on children’s growth and development, the present study aims to assess buyers' attitude and intent to purchase green toys for children. The existing green literature has probed consumers’ behaviour towards several eco-friendly product categories like clothing, home durable, personal care, food, cosmetics, and automobile. However, no work has explored buyers’ perspectives on eco-friendly toys for children. A conceptual model is therefore proposed based on the existing green literature. Buyers’ attitude towards green toys is first assessed through environmental concern, perceived value, and health consciousness, whereas purchase intention is explored through awareness, social status, and willingness to pay the premium. Lastly, the impact of attitude is examined on green toys’ purchase intention. Indian parents, relatives, and guardians who have experience of buying toys for children are included in the study sample using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. The analysis of 174 responses gathered through an online survey using the partial least squares-structural equation modelling method unveiled a significant favourable influence of attitude on green toy purchase intention. Besides, environmental concern and perceived value significantly influence buyers' attitude, while other variables, such as awareness and willingness to pay a premium, influence buyers' intention to purchase green toys. Findings uncovered that buyers value the eco-friendly attributes of green toys and are ready to pay a premium. This study has valuable implications and recommendations for the government and retailers to uplift the green toy market in India.
 
Distribution of sampled villages in the maize agroecological zones
Estimated dose–response function (Average BC impact) plot. Note: Solid line shows the estimated dose–response function; dashed lines are 90% confidence upper and lower bound intervals, KSH: Kenya shillings (Local currency).
Marginal Treatment Effect of productivity, household expenditure, poverty headcount and poverty Note: Solid line shows the marginal treatment effect; dashed lines are 90% confidence upper and lower bound intervals.
Dose− Response Functions of productivity, household expenditure, poverty headcount, and poverty gap. Note: Solid line shows the marginal treatment effect; dashed lines are 90% confidence upper and lower bound intervals
Marginal Treatment Effect of productivity, household expenditure, poverty headcount and poverty gap Note: Solid line shows the marginal treatment effect; dashed lines are 90% confidence upper and lower bound intervals
This study examines the farm-level effects of stemborers' biological control (BC) using biological and household survey data collected in rural Kenya. The authors use a continuous treatment impact-evaluation method to estimate BC's average and marginal treatment effects. Findings indicate that, on average, a one percent increase in the intensity of BC increases maize yield by 9.3 kg per hectare and reduces the poverty level of maize-growing farm households by 0.5%. Developing and promoting biological control can be seen as an additional tool in the fight against food insecurity and poverty in Africa through controlling important pests.
 
The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental loads resulting from the two conventional operations for drying of medicinal plant extracts and to select effective variables to reduce impacts on a commercial scale. The boundaries of the system are limited on the production processes, including the production of maltodextrin carrier, extraction and drying of the extract. The functional unit of this study was 65.1 kg of product powder. SimaPro 9.0 was used to model the system with EcoInvent database. IMPACT 2002 + method was applied to estimate the environmental impacts. The data required to complete the inventory list, for the freeze-drying, were obtained from the manufacturer, and for spray drying, from published researches and the mass and energy balances. The results showed that the highest environmental loads in both drying processes are related to the extract production, and specifically, electricity consumption. By eliminating the common items of mass and energy, with the aim of comparing the two processes, it was shown that the freeze-drying method creates more environmental loads than spray drying. Sensitivity analysis was performed, and efforts were made to improve the impacts in both processes. With the proposed opportunities for process improvement, the impacts were reduced by about 20% in the spray drying and by up to 31% in the freeze-drying.
 
Excessive concentration of greenhouse gases in atmosphere emitted from human activities has been considerably changing the world’s climate, especially in the last 50 years. Agriculture, as humans’ food production system, has undoubtedly interrelated with climate change (CC). During current decades, the impacts of CC on agriculture have been properly investigated; however, the impacts of agriculture on CC have received lower attention. This may be due to the scarcity of long-term spatiotemporal climatic and agricultural data to analyze coupling trends and interactions. Benefiting from a comprehensive database and using structural equation modeling, this study seeks to investigate the contribution of agriculture to CC in Iran for more than half a century. For this, two indicators were developed to evaluate structural characteristics of agricultural expansion (AEI) and CC at the province level. Then, the effect of AEI on CC was investigated using the structural equation modeling technique. The results showed that AEI has not had a positive contribution to raising the long-term average surface temperature. Precisely, the provinces with a higher level of surface temperature have had a lower AEI, indicating that other sectors outweigh agriculture in exacerbating long-term CC in the country. Nevertheless, Iran still needs to improve and sustain its agricultural practices and technologies. The main conclusion of this study is that if the government and policymakers aspire to manage CC, they should have a more holistic and systematic view. In other words, not only do they need to consider all drivers of CC, but they also have to pay close attention to the network of relationships among the drivers.
 
Top-cited authors
Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam
  • Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur
Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie
Phebe Asantewaa Owusu
  • Nord University
Hussein A Kazem
  • Sohar University
Arthur P.j. Mol
  • Wageningen University & Research