Entomologica Fennica

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Rhachistoneura n. gen. (type species R. varicicosla n. sp.) Rhodochlanis suaedae n. sp. and Strophingia hispanica n. sp. are described and figured. Rhachisloneura (host plant probably Erica/Calluna) is close to Agonoscena End., Acaerus Log. and Lisronia Log. Rhodochlanis suaedae (host plant Suaeda vera) is close to R. parvipllnctatlls Log. while Strophingia hispanica (host plant Erica multiflora) is closest to S. arborea Log. The separation and synonymy of the mediterranean Agonoscefla is discussed and the species are figured. Agonoscena cisti (Put.), Euphyllura fasciata Horv., Arytainilla eytisi (Put.), Psylla alaterni Först, Trioza chenopodii Reut., Trioza galii Först and Trioza trisignata Löw are recorded from Mallorca for the first time. KEYWORDS: Psylloidea, Homoptera, Rhachistoneura, Rhodochlanis, Strophingia, Agonoscena, species descriptions, Spain, Mallorca.
 
We studied the effects of a road on the walking directions of the carabid species Poecilus versicolor and Agonum sexpunctatum. Using mark and recapture experiments and window traps we determined the number of road crossings and the deviation in walking directions caused by the road. We found two effects of the road on the walking behaviour: (1) the road is a barrier to both species, but whereas P. versicolor was reluctant to cross the road and had a significant movement away from the road, we recorded no road crossings by A. sexpunctatum; and (2) A. sexpunctatum showed a marked tendency to walk along the roadside verge, particularly in the ditch. Of these two species, only one individual of A. sexpunctatum was caught flying close to the road, indicating that it might cross the road by flying. Counts of dead carabid specimens on two 100 m long transects along the road carried out for nine weeks recorded several individuals of P. versicolor. We conclude with suggestions on how to implement the results of this study in nature conservation practices.
 
Heavy metal contents of water striders collected near a steel factory and from control sites were analyzed by AAS. The average concentrations μg/g of dry weight found near the factory vs. the control areas were: Al 76, 65; Fe 840, 330; Mn 49, 37; Zn 310, 280; Cu 44, 42; Cd 1.6, 6.5, respectively. In most cases Ni and Pb concentrations were below the determination limit in both sites. There were significant differences between sites in the concentrations of iron and cadmium. Fifth instar larvae had higher iron content than adults, but sexes did not differ in heavy metal content. There were also significant differences between different water strider species as accumulators of zinc, aluminium and cadmium. It is concluded that water striders seem suitable as bioindicators of heavy metals.
 
Entomol. Fennica, vol. 3, 15-19 Small corixid larvae were introduced into a rock-pool containing large numbers of later developmental stages. High mortality of small larvae was observed. A considerable proportion of larval carcases recovered each had triangular holes on its upper surface. Similar holes are characteristic of carcases recovered in laboratory cannibalism experiments. The dimensions of the punctures in field and laboratory samples match closely. Predatory interactions between large and small rock-pool corixid larvae are thus common in field conditions.
 
Heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd) in the cocoons of three gregarious pine diprionids, Gilpinia socia, Diprion pini and Neodiprion sertifer, were compared between the species and sexes. The sawflies were reared in the laboratory in colonies from the first instar larvae, being fed on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestis) needles collected from a heavily polluted or a relatively unpolluted site. The levels of copper, iron and nickel were two to three times as high in N. sertifer as in the two other species. Cadmium showed bioaccumulation in all three species. In N. sertifur and G. socia reared on polluted needles, the metal concentrations were higher in males than in females.
 
Contents, Volume 11 (2000) • ENTOMOL. FENNICA Vol. 11
 
Index to genera and species • ENTOMOL. FENNICA Vol. 11
 
Faunistic and ecological notes are given on 66 Latvian species of Lepidoptera, 31 of which are new to the fauna. Of these, 13 are also new to Estonia and Lithuania: Ectoedemia albibimaculella (Larsen), E. longicaudella Klimesch, Tinea pallescentella Stainton, Bucculatrix noltei Petry , Agonopterix bipunctosa (Cuttis), Coleophora conyzae Zeller, C. gardesanella Toll, Metzneria aestivella (Zeller), Scrobipalpa nitentella (Fuchs), Epinotia indecorana (Zetterstedt), Pammene clanculana (Tengström), Dichrorampha uralensis (Danilevsky), Eupithecia ochridata Pinker. 2341 species of Lepidoptera are now known from Latvia.
 
Entomologica Fennica. 9 December 2002
 
Entomologica Fennica. 9 December 2002
 
Podenas, S., Geiger,W., Haenni, J.-P.&Gonseth, Y. 2006: Fauna Helvetica 14. Limoniidae & Pediciidae de Suisse. Centre Suisse de cartographie de la faune. Schwiezerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, 375 s. ISBN 2-88414-026- 3. Price 68,13 EUR.
 
Entomologica Fennica. 29 December 2003
 
Entomologica Fennica. 29 December 2003
 
Entomologica Fennica. 16 December 2005
 
Entomologica Fennica. 16 December 2005
 
Groups and numbers of specimens studied.
Morphological characters measured for bio- metric analyses. Abbr. = abbreviation (used in the text). Accuracy = rate of sensitivity used in micro- scopic observation.
Standardized coefficients for the variables in the discriminate function and cumulative proportion of variance explained. Cum. Prob. = Cumulative prob- ability. For the variables, see Table 2.
Altica oleracea and Altica deserticola are different flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) feeding on different host plants. Morphological variation was studied within both males and females often populations of A. oleracea and A. deserticola. 12 out of 15 variables were found to be significant in the model to discriminate between two species. Morphological differences were detected between the sexes, species and populations collected from different localities.
 
Kurzatkowska, A. 2012: Morphology of the fifth larval stage of Notonecta reuteri. Hungerford, 1928, Notonecta lutea Muller, 1776 and Notonecta glauca Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera aquatica). - Entomol. Fennica 23: 13-17. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the previously undescribed fifth larval stage of Notonecta reuteri Hungerford, 1928 and N. lutea Muller, 1776. This paper highlights the differences between the two species, and the difference with N. glauca Linnaeus, 1758, the most widespread back-swimmer species in Poland. A. Kurzatkowska, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Biology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Mac Lodzki 3, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland; E-mail: akurz@umw.edu.pl
 
Hycleus solonicus (Pallas, 1782), referred to H. polymorphus species group, is revised. Adults are redescribed and illustrated, eggs and first-instar larvae are described and illustrated for the first time, COI sequence for DNA barcoding is reported for the first time, the geographical distribution is revised and all available faunistic records from the literature and collections are summarized. In addition, two incorrect determinations are pointed out and Zonabris solonica var. dianae Sahlberg, 1913 is proposed to be a synonym of Hycleus scabiosae (Olivier, 1811).
 
Workers and queens from 224 nest samples of Formica pratensis Retzius originating from all over Europe, but mainly from Germany were investigated for several morphological characters, particularly pilosity. Statistic differences between the hairy N morph (= F. nigricans Emery 1909) and the less hairy P morph in body size, pilosity, geographic frequency, habitat selection and mound construction could be shown but other aspects of external biology coincide. There are no suggestions of reproductive isolation of the morphs which are interpreted as different genotypes of the same population and represent different ecological adaptions. The strong decrease of N morph frequency in pratensis populations from S to N Europe, its higher frequency in more xerothermous habitats in Germany, and its well-documented peculiarity of constructing higher mounds than the P morph for conditions of equal sunexposure characterize the N morph as a genotype adapted to higher temperatures. In Germany, as much as 16% of pratensis nests investigated contained both morphs. Polycalic colonies are found in both morphs but isolated nests predominate. Formica minor pratensoides Gößwald 1951 is a synonym of pratensis and refers to polycalic colonies of the P morph which occasionally occur inside more mesophilic, less sun-exposed forests.
 
Objectives are to elucidate whether populations of Carabus arvensis Herbst, 1784 from contrasting habitats differ in (i) colour, (ii) brightness of metal lustre, or (iii) body size (length of elytra, of elytra + pronotum, and width of pronotum). Two large populations were studied, originating from (a) open heathland, being a remnant from more widespread heaths during former centuries, and (b) mature pine forest established 100-150 years ago on sandy agricultural land. Heath individuals had significantly more brilliant metal lustre and mostly lighter, vivid copper colour than pine forest individuals, which were typically black with a violet shade and slightly larger in size. The two populations are nowadays isolated, which was probably not the case 1-2 centuries ago, when both sites studied were treeless. The usually blackish colour of the forest population could be a recent adaptation to the changed environment, though some influence of processes such as genetic drift cannot be excluded.
 
The collection specimens of the genus Dorcatoma Herbst, 1792 were revised for Estonia. A substantial part of the material was reared from fruiting bodies of bracket fungi. Seven species of the genus are found in the country. Five of them, D. flavicornis F., D. substriata Hummel, D. punctulata Mulsnat & Rey, D. robusta Strand and D. lomnickii Rtt. are new for Estonia, the last also being new for the Northem Europe and Eastern Baltic regions. Data on the ecology and distribution of the species in Estonia are presented. Comments are given on the systematics and geographical distribution of D. lomnickii and D. obtrita Logv.
 
The ecology and occurrence of Acanthocinus griseus in Finland is described to explain why this rarity was excluded from the latest national Red List. Careful examination of several trees inhabited by the species showed that the habitat requirements of A. griseus are in fact rather broad, contrary to previous assumptions. Acanthocinus griseus can breed in almost any part of the trunk of freshly dead, standing spruce and pine trees. All finds were made in normal managed forests or in burned areas. High mortality was observed during the larval stage due to parasitoids and predators. Adults of A. griseus live a cryptic life and larvae are difficult to find without experience, which may explain the low number of observations in Finland. Acanthocinus griseus is clearly an overlooked species and detailed examination of suitable trees would without doubt reveal many new occurrences in this country.
 
Cryptophagus angelesae sp. n. – a. General view. – b.Antenna . – c. Pronotum. – d. Aedeagus. – e. Sclerotized rods. – f. Paramere.  
General view of seven Cryptophagus species. – a. C. axillaris. – b. C. baldensis. – c. C. circassicus. – d. C. ellipticus. – e. C. gracilis. – f. C. opacosericeus. – g. C. straussi.  
Aedeagus of seven Cryptophagus species. – a. C. axillaris. – b. C. baldensis. – c. C. circassicus. – d. C. ellipticus. – e. C. gracilis. – f. C. opacosericeus. – g. C. straussi.  
Parameres of seven Cryptophagus species. – a. C. axillaris. – b. C. baldensis. – c. C. circassicus. – d. C. ellipticus. – e. C. gracilis. – f. C. opacosericeus. – g. C. straussi.  
Cryptophagus angelesae sp. n. from Caucasus is described and illustrated. The differential diagnosis is established in relation to a group of other species of the genus.
 
Eight species of the genus Cryptophagus Herbst, 1792, belonging to the “dentatus group” from the Palearctic Region are revised. The opinions of different authors about the value of the characteristics of the external anatomy are contrasted, and an identification key and figures of the studied species are presented.
 
Corticaria johnsonii sp. n. – a. General view (A= 580 µm). – b. Antenna (A= 304 µm). – c. Protibia. – d. Aedeagus (A= 308 µm).  
A new species, Corticaria johnsonii sp. n. is described from the Iberian Peninsula. The species belongs to the sylvicola group within the genus Corticaria Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Latridiidae). The species is added to a published key.
 
Eristalis tecta sp. n. is described, based on material from the Macedonian Museum of Natural History (Skopje, Macedonia, former Republic of Yugoslavia). This species is closely related to E. interrupta (Poda, 1761). Diagnostic characters of the species, together with figures of the male terminalia, are given. A checklist of the Eristalis species known from the Balkan Peninsula is presented.
 
Two new species of the genus Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 from Sichuan, China are described and illustrated, i.e. Helina fulvibasicosta Ming-Fu Wang sp. n. and Helina flavipes Ming-Fu Wang & Chen Sun sp. n. After re-examining the holotype, Helina occidentalisinica Feng, Shi & Li, 2005 is transferred to the genus Hebecnema Schnabl.
 
The larva of Siobla ruficornis (Gimmerthal, 1834) is redescribed on the basis of specimens collected in East Finland (PS:Heinävesi) on 14 August 1999. Four larvae were found on Prunus cerasus and one on Rubus idaeus. Malaise (1932) briefly described ornaments of a larva found on Epilobium angustifolium in NE Asia. The habitus of Finnish larvae conforms closely to Malaise's description. Further characteristics are added here and drawings of mouthparts and colour picture of larva are given.
 
Two terrestrial prostigmatid mites were found from the Audunfjellet nunatak, Vestfjella mountain range, in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica during the FINNARP expedition in Austral summer 1997/1998. The mites are close to, if not identical to, Nanorchestes bifurcatus Strandtmann, 1967 and Eupodes tottanfjella Strandtmann, 1967, also earlier reported from the area, but identification cannot be verified by using the published descriptions. Samples were also collected from an unnamed nunatak and the Basen nunatak, but these were miteless by chance.
 
Sericoda quadripunctata response to fire severity at a micro-site level.-a. Data from the prescribed-burn study. UNB = unburned; LIB = lightlyburned; SEB = severely-burned micro-sites.-b. House River data. Fire severity was estimated as the average scorch class of trees within a 8 m × 8 m area surrounding each micro-site (that are represented by solid symbols for 2003 and hollow ones for 2004). The catch (Y axis) in (a) and (b) refers to data adjusted to specimens / trap * day.
The responses of two Sericoda species to post-fire (salvage) logging. GRN = un-logged and unburned (green) control; BRN = burned un-logged forest; HAR = unburned clear-cut forest; SAL = burnedthen-salvage-logged forest; BAH = burned-after-harvest forest; RES = residual patch retention of a few trees, or close to salvage-logged/standing-forest edge. Tukey's post hoc test results are shown with letters A-C (for S. quadripunctata) or a-c (for S. bembidioides); marginally significant differences (p <0.1) are shown in parentheses.-a. Chisholm fire data.-b. House River data. The catch (Y axis) in (a) and in (b) refers to data adjusted to specimens / trap * day.
Two Sericoda species caught from burned forests during the three first post-fire years. The catch (Y axis) refers to data adjusted to specimens / trap * day.  
Forest fires are among the most important natural disturbances in the boreal region, but fire-initiated succession is increasingly often interrupted by salvage logging, i.e., post-fire removal of burned trees. Unfortunately, very little is known about the ecological effects of this practice. To address this knowledge gap and to examine other factors affecting the abundance of two fire-associated carabid species (Sericoda quadripuntata and S. bembidioides) we conducted three field studies based on pitfall trapping in recent burns in Alberta, Canada. The results suggest that the abundance of both species drastically decreased from the first to the third post-fire year and that fire severity was positively associated with abundance of both species. The combined effects of wildfire and forest harvesting were associated with higher catches of S. quadripunctata, but lower catches of S. bembidioides. We discuss these findings in the contexts of salvage logging and species ecology.
 
The biology of stoneflies from Apennine mountain system is little known. In the present study, we provide information on the life cycle, secondary production, nymphal feeding and flight period of Capnia bifrons (Newman, 1838) in the Albedosa creek (NW Italy). At this study site, the species has a univoltine life cycle, with a relatively short and fast nymphal development period and high annual secondary production. Nymphs feed mainly on detritus but incorporate also other food items in their diet, such as coarse particulate organic matter and fungi. Ontogenetic shift from collector-gatherer to shredder habits is detected. Emergence is in February-April, slightly late compared to northern populations.
 
Three new species of the Jeafhopper genus Oncopsis: O. graciaedeagus sp. n., O. hailuogouensis sp. n. and O. ludingensis sp. n., from Sichuan Province, Southwestern China are described and illustrated in the current paper along with a map showing the type locality (Hailuogou) of these new species in Sichuan Province, China.
 
Egg, second, and last instar larvae, as well as pupa of Scythris siccella (Zeller, 1839) are described and illustrated in detail. Life history of this scythridid species is also presented. The eggs are laid singly or in small groups. The larva mines leaves of Hieracium pilosella and Rumex acetosella; it lives in sand-covered silken tubes attached to food plant. The full-grown larva is 8-10 mm long, and pupation takes place in a dense cocoon encrusted with grains of sand. The adults fly in one generation, from the end of May to the end of July. In Poland, Scythris siccella (Zeller) inhabits open, lowland dunes with xerothermic vegetation.
 
Hypogastrura tepli sp. n. – a. Chaetotaxy of th. II–III. – b. Chaetotaxy of abd. III–VI. – c. Chaetotaxy of ant. III– IV. – d. Claw II. – e. VT chaetotaxy. – f. Anal spine of holotype. – g. Mucro. – h. Dens and mucro of holotype. Abbreviations in the text.  
Hypogastrura aushensis sp. n.-a. Chaetotaxy of th. II-III of holotype.-b. Chaetotaxy of abd. IIIVI of holotype.-c. Chaetotaxy of ant. IIIIV.-d. Everted apical vesicle.-e. Claw II.-f. Mucro.-g. Dens and mucro.-h. Anal spine. Abbreviations in the text.
A revision of 'Hypogastrura crassaegranulata" material from the eastern Palaearctic was done as all records before 2006 referred to H. crassaegranulata have become unclear after recent redescription of the species. It shown that among four forms mentioned under this name by Babenko et al. (1994) none belongs to true H. crassaegranulata. Two of these forms are in fact species new to science described and illustrated below as H. tepli sp. n. and H. aushensis sp. n. (Russia, Northern Caucasus). Two others appear to be H. franconiana (Stach, 1949) and H. szeptyckii Skarżyński, 2006 firstly recorded from Kazakhstan (Tien Shan) and Ukraine (Carpathians), respectively.
 
The positions of the 53 specimens in the ordination space, defined by the first three factors extracted in the factor analysis.  
Variance explained by the first five factors extracted in the factor analysis of the morphometric data.
Most of the characters used in the literature to distinguish H. latridioides Motschulsky, 1839 from the closely related taxon H. quadricollis Reitter, 1877 are not diagnostic. The present morphometric study indicates that there is no evidence to support the status of the latter as a separate species. A new description of H. latridioides is presented.
 
In the present paper, we describe Xestophanopsis Pujade-Villar & Wang gen. n. to the tribe Diastrophini based on Ceroptres distinctus Wang, Liu & Chen, 2012 and transfer Ceroptres distinctus Wang, Liu & Chen, 2012 to Periclistus Foerster, 1869 as Periclistus setosus (Wang, Liu & Chen, 2012) comb. n. In addition, we report the first record of Periclistus capillatus Kovalev, 1968 from China, along with the first report and description of the male. Finally, we provide a taxonomic key to all Eastern Palaearctic species of the genus Periclistus.
 
The Finnish fauna of the conopid genus Thecophora Rondani, 1845 is reviewed on the basis of Finnish museum material from Finland and northwestern Russia. Four species are recorded from Finland, of which T.jakutica Zimina, 1974 is new to Europe. The presence of this recently described species has caused considerable confusion among dipterists before it was correctly identified. Records of T melanopa Rondani, 1857 and T atra (Fabricius, 178 1) from Finland are based on misidentifications. An illustrated key to north European species is provided.
 
Photographs of male Helina fratercula (Zetterstedt, 1845). – a. Body, lateral view, scale bar 2.0 mm. – b. Head, lateral view, scale bar 0.5 mm. – c. Head, anterior view, scale bar 0.5 mm. – d. Head, anterolateral view, scale bar 0.5 mm. – e. Abdomen, laterodorsal view, scale bar 1.0 mm.  
Photographs of male Helina fratercula (Zetterstedt, 1845). – a. Left wing, ventral view, scale bar 1.0 mm. – b. Left wing, dorsal view, node of Rs, scale bar 0.5 mm. – c. Left wing, ventral view, node of Rs, arrow showing the setae on the ventral surface of node Rs, scale bar 0.5 mm. – d. Mid thorax, lateral view, showing the katepisternal setae 1:2 and strong setae on lower margin (black arrow), as well as mid coxa with strong setae on lower and inner margins (white arrow); scale bar 0.5 mm.  
Helina fratercula (Zetterstedt, 1845), so far known only from Central Europe, is newly recorded from China. The species is redescribed in detail morphological characters. The characteristic photos and the illustrations of male terminalia based on the specimens from Xinjiang are provided, and also incorporated into the existing key of Helina males of China.
 
From Phyllonorycter salictella (Zeller,1846) a sister species P. heringiella (Gronlien, 1932) is here extracted on the basis of the number and colour of costal strigulae at the tip of the wing and the brightness of the golden coloration of the forewing. P! salictella is reported from the Finnish biogeographical provinces Ab Ab, N, Ka, Ta, Kl, Oa, Tb, Om, Oba, and Obb and P. heringiella from AL Ab, N, Ka, Ta, Sa, and Oba. It is assumed that the golden hue, which sometimes covers the normally white strigulae of the forewing, occurs in freshly emerged moths and disappears after first flying efforts.
 
i>Taxonus zhelochovtsevi sp. n. is described from the Far East of the Soviet Union. The male, the larva and the host plant are unknown. The new species resembles T. fulvicornis Matsumura, 1912, but is distinguished from it by several characters. Apethymus parallelus (Eversmann, 1 847) is reported from Ural Mts. and Upper Kolyma river.
 
Oviparous female and male of Sipha (Sipha) littoralis (Walker, 1848) (Aphididae, Chaitophorinae: Siphini) are described and illustrated in detail. Notes on the distribution as well as a list of host plants is given.
 
Two species of the genus Trachyusa Ruthe, 1854 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) are recorded for the first time from Finland: T. aurora (Haliday, 1838) and T. nigrothoracica van Achterberg & O'Connor, 1990. Records and distribution in Finland are presented.
 
The Palaearctic gelechiid genus Psoricoptera Stainton, 1854 is revised. Two previously described species, gibbosella (Zeller) and speciosella Teich are recognized based on differences in genitalia; both have a trans-Palaearctic distribution. Their distinction is supported by differences in the morphology and biology of the early stages. Chelaria triorthias (Meyrick) and Lita lepigreella Lucas are placed in synonymy with gibbosella (syn. n.). Two new species P. latignathosa sp. n. P. kawabei sp. n. are described from E. Asia. Infraspecific variation in the genitalia of Psoricoptera is discussed.
 
Investigations were made upon the biology and habitat demands of the larvae and adults of Polythrena coloraria in the Kivach nature reserve in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, close to the eastern border of Finland. In the laboratory females laid eggs only on Ribes nigrum, although other plants were also available. Eggs were found in the field under the leaves of this plant, too. Instead larvae were not found in the field. In the laboratory they did not eat any other plants offered. In addition, the male and female genitalia and larval morphology are described. Based on these characteristics, the systematic position of the species is discussed. A parasitoid wasp Telenomus acarnas (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae, Telenominae) is reported from the eggs of P. coloraria. It seems to be the first host record for this parasitoid wasp.
 
The Elachista cingillella complex is defined and diagnosed. The identity of E. cingillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) is clarified, and E. densicornella Hodgkinson, 1879 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of it. Redescriptions are given for the closely related, little known or misunderstood species E. fasciola Parenti, 1983 and E. nedaella Traugott-Olsen, 1985. Elachista metella Kaila sp. n. is described from Croatia and E. sutteri Kaila sp. n. from Samos, Greece. E. cingillella is a rarely found species distributed in central and northern Europe. All checked records of it from the Mediterranean region are based on misidentified specimens of E. metella sp. n., which is widely distributed in southern Europe and southern parts of central Europe. E. fasciola Parenti is distributed from Eastern Europe to Japan. E. nedaella Traugott-Olsen is only known from Crete, E. sutteri sp. n. from eastern Greece.
 
Two hundred and seventeen specimens of Hymenoptera in Baltic amber were studied. The distribution of taxa is discussed and Pantolyta antiqua sp. n. is described.
 
The chironomid Zavreliella marmorata (v.d.Wulp, 1859) is reported for the first time in Finland from Lake Pohjalampi, North Karelia (62°40′N, 29°33′E). Larvae of the species were first collected in September 1993 and found regularly thereafter. The identification of the species was verified by adult material reared in the laboratory in December 1999.
 
Top-cited authors
Lauri Kaila
  • University of Helsinki
Jevgeni Jakovlev
  • University of Helsinki
Matti Koivula
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
Johan Kotze
  • University of Helsinki
Ilpo Rutanen