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On peut prendre le parti – presque tous le font – de tenir pour incontestable ce que nos yeux voient. Mais voient-ils ? Ce qui est vu passe, au moment que la pensee s’en saisit, par une grille assimilatrice. Ce que la pensee recoit n’est qu’une interpretation, une traduction codee. On se trompe quand on identifie la realite a la vision que nous croyons avoir des choses. La grille au travers de laquelle elles sont percues par nous est d’usage si constant que nous sommes portes a l’oublier. A t...
 
On s’interrogera ici sur la dynamique d’un groupe de recherche et de promotion de la recherche, l’« Association de politique sociale » (Verein fur Sozialpolitik). On envisagera notamment comment elle selectionne et conditionne des chercheurs et comment le developpement de cette association conduit a lancer une serie d’enquetes. Max Weber est membre de cette association, co-directeur des enquetes sur les ouvriers d’industrie, enqueteur dans une fabrique textile. On se propose de montrer quel c...
 
The linguistic turn in England. Notes on a Debate and its Censures. The paper reviews a historiographical debate around the « linguistic turn », which divides the community of anglo-saxon historians. It analyses the arguments put forward by its partisans and detractors in the specific space of the British journal Social History, which since 1992 has welcomed regular, sometimes even violent exchanges. It specifies the different positions, showing how under the label of « linguistic turn » very often differentiated positions are unduly mixed ; it indicates who are the inspirers of historians beyond the Atlantic claiming kinship with this « linguistic turn », and the outcome of their analyses. The question in such a case is to interpret the reasons for some important « censures » in a debate which aspires to re-discuss methods, finalities and objectives of the work of the historian, particularly the absence of all reflection on sources and the contexts of analysis (which renders it less exotic in relationship to French historiographical discussions). Finally, the paper seeks to account for the unusual violence of the style of oppositions, which refers to the problems of E. P. Thompson’s cultural heritage.
 
Conventional metaphors and anthropological metaphysics. The problematic of cultural translation. Recent work on conventional metaphor together with reinterpretations of classic studies of « soul substance » and mana are examined to assess the dangers of ovcrinterpretation – the attribution of inexistent theologies and metaphysics – by ethnographers. In our project of cultural translation, are we prone to attribute deeper salience to other peoples’ way of talk than they in fact imply ?
 
Ethnography armed with statistics. On the basis of examples taken from monographic research on “work-with-side”and from research in progress on domestic economy and gardening, carried out on a national scale, the author questions the difficulties and benefits of reciprocal exchanges between statistical work and ethnographic work. Once the opposition between quantitative work (the monography does not prohibit counting) and qualitative work (too often a quantitative work “of poor quality”), more institutional than operational, is bypassed, once the distinction between clinical reasoning (which restitutes the production of singular cases) and probabilist reasoning (which leans on relations between statistical classes) is reaffirmed, the author underlines the benefits of ethnographic criticism of statistical categories (of their production and of their impact) and those of statistical verification of hypothesis drawn from ethnography. She finally suggests numerous combinations between ethnography and statistics, from their heuristical uses to crossed corroborations.
 
Le texte de Georges Canguilhem qui suit a été prononcé à l’École normale supérieure en 1989 lors d’un hommage à Raymond Aron. Nous remercions G. Canguilhem d’autoriser ici la publication séparée des autres textes prononcés au cours de cet hommage.G. Canguilhem avait choisi d’y situer les origines de l’itinéraire philosophique de Raymond Aron par référence au contexte philosophique français et à la situation historique du milieu des années 1920 à l’année 1930.Il apparaît que ce texte, qui analyse un tournant de la conjoncture philosophique en France, éclaire les préalables philosophiques et la chronologie de l’introduction de la sociologie de Max Weber dans le champ des sciences sociales. Au début des années 1930, Weber n’est pour Raymond Aron qu’un des penseurs, parmi d’autres, de la philosophie allemande de l’histoire. C’est dans l’après-guerre que R. Aron introduira vraiment dans les sciences sociales, par son enseignement et ses écrits, la réflexion méthodologique et la sociologie historique de Weber, contre les modes intellectuelles françaises des années 1950 et 1960.Jean-Claude Chamboredon
 
The Genome between the Nature of Things and the Artefact. The human genome, both a natural product and a technical produce, clearly illustrates the difficulties of the juridical definition of objects. The process, which dissociates the objects from their reality, only gets rid of this reality with difficulty when it is constituted by nature in the most common sense of the term. The « symbolic » definition of the genome recently given by UNESCO – the « common patrimony of humanity » – clearly reveals the intricate patterns of a juridical construction of natural entities which permits avoiding the traps of naturalism as well as those of artificialism.
 
Carrefour de champs thématiques distincts, inépuisable terrain pour l'observateur-participant, la ville s'est imposée comme laboratoire d'une intelligibilité sociologique travaillée par les angoisses du temps et les intérêts de connaissance. Alors qu'au début du siècle les sociologues allemands puis américains ont été les premiers à comprendre et décrire l'urbanisation comme un phénomène sociologique, leurs homologues français se sont durablement distingués par la critique de l'utilitarisme puis du fonctionnalisme propres à la planification urbaine. L'abord tardif par ceux-ci des formes urbaines de peuplement et de sociabilité trouve peut-être son origine dans l'affaiblissement passager du programme durkheimien de morphologie sociale durant l'entre-deux-guerres, à l'exception de l’œuvre de Halbwachs. Et le retard pris sur le thème de l'ethnicité ou des minorités urbaines est sans doute dû à l'hégémonie du projet républicain d'intégration nationale. Associée à l'anthropologie voire à l'histoire ou à la philosophie politique, la sociologie actuellement décrit les incertitudes locales du lien social.
 
La sociologie de la reproduction qui « traite le rapport pedagogique comme un simple rapport de communication » (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1970) montre que la maitrise differentielle des codes linguistiques propres au langage scolaire est au principe de la sur-selection des enfants d’origine ouvriere par rapport aux enfants de cadres. Mais la possession d’un capital linguistique plus ou moins important ne peut rendre compte de la reussite differentielle des eleves selon le sexe. En effet, quelle q...
 
Autobiographical memory and the historical memory of the more distant past. The article concerns the contrasting approaches to memory found in psychology and the social sciences. In particular it shows that the characteristics of autobiographical or episodic memory, its lack of explicitness, the fact that the remembered can be recalled in ever new ways, its emotional charge and its multiplicity of aspects can also apply to memories of a more distant past which individuals have not experienced directly. This is because evocations linked to places or objects transform narratives heard from others into personal experiences and because narratives are always fleshed out by those who hear them through various inferential processes, so that past events about which one has only heard about may gain the same vividness as memories of personal experiences. The argument is illustrated by a case from Madagascar.
 
The Law is Another World. Jurists redefine the objects given by the world in order to insert them in their own universe. This operation of legal definition requires a detachment between the original object and its juridical double which is intelligible within that system but has little to do with the nature of the object itself. Particularly as the same object is open to several definitions, depending on the branch of law in which it is included. Thus, an animal, although it may be a personal estate according to the civil law, could become converted into a real estate from the perspective of fiscal law, while penal law or environmental law would recognize its sensitivity. The doctrine is closely linked to the variety of disciplines. It underlines this trend to the extent that the same judicial decision can be approved according to the logic and the criteria of one discipline whereas it will be rejected by another. These differences, authorized by the flexibility of the juridical system, lead to a crisis of categories when they become too considerable.
 
Abuse of data. Concerning some forms of overinterpretation in anthropology. Let us consider all cases as those of overinterpretation where a significant contradiction appears between empirical references and interpretative propositions. Indeed, the social sciences, in an epistemological space that is entirely interpretative and empirically constrained at the same time, must legitimise their interpretative statements in the name of a certain mark of authenticity, guaranteed by a double empirical link : between the « real of reference » and the facts relating to it produced by research operations, between these facts and the statements proposed.Although a clear demarcation of the border line interpretation/overinterpretation is impossible, one can nevertheless identify some centres of overinterpretation, where the excessive projection of preconceptions and the lack of methodological cautiousness appears. Five forms which can be combined are examined here : the reduction to a single factor, the obsession with coherence, the significant inadequacy, the abusive generalisation, and the « trick of hidden meaning ».
 
Date Rape in the United States. Forms of a Polemic. To approach a culture, one point of departure can be not shared representations, but polemics which divide it. Such as for example, date rape in the United States, an invention of university feminism and the media in the 1980’s : in placing the question of violence at the heart of love relationships, feminism rather than imposing an orthodoxy proposes an interpretation which is doubly contested during the 1990’s by conservative intellectuals and post feminist essayists. The unfolding of the rhetorics and ideologies against the amalgams of the polemic, allows us to survey the spectre of representations of feminine sexuality, from conservative eroticism to cultural, liberal and even radical feminisms. Contrary to France, today in the United States it is a matter of politicizing of the erotic, in which the stake is not negation by juridical contract, but the reinvention of social rules of the love game.
 
Bastides and cabanons. In the iconographical history of the marseillais countryside, as in that of the traveller’s gaze on Marseilles and its outskirts, bastides and cabanons occupy a central place, till the middle of the nineteenth century when the planning of the port shifts attention towards the sea. Bastides, by their numbers seem to characterize Marseille’s relationship with its soil. A kind of city in the countryside, bastides are inseperable in Marseilles from a way of urban life, as much bourgeois as popular.
 
L’objet de recherche sur lequel je travaille comprend comme elements principaux 1) les conditions sociales de la mobilite entre les classes sociales, 2) les tendances aux changements de la division du travail social et 3) la divergence des projets de modes de vie des individus et des familles salariees. Mon projet concerne l’etude des histoires de vie, en ce sens que les conditions generales de la socialisation de la main-d’œuvre, donc des couches salariees, sont etudiees en relation avec cer...
 
My thesis today in this paper is that a narrated life story, i. e. an oral presentation of one’s own life is more than the fiction of a narcistic storyteller and also more than a life-record of events past in which is simply piled up or sedimented what happened chronologically. The latter conception seems to me as the rigid counterpiece to the former, the “desillusionistic” overreaction to the “illusion”-reproach, which is widespread in sociological circles and unifies arch-positivists and ne...
 
Introduction There is a way of viewing social change as resulting primarily from the diversity of organization, development and meaning of the individuals’ life courses over successive time periods. This was discussed by Mannheim in his famous essay on the generations, from the standpoint of cultural patterns, and has been recently taken up again by demographers and sociologists. The latter use the cohort concept to mean a set of individuals born within the same time span, and therefore facin...
 
Pour situer mon intervention, il faut accorder plus d’attention au sous-titre que je lui ai donne dans le programme, qu’a son titre : il s’agit bien de questions posees de l’exterieur, par un sociologue comme moi, qui n’ai jamais soumis directement a l’enquete des ensembles de donnees de type biographique (peut-etre meme l’ai-je evite) ni pratique assidument les methodologies qui leur sont liees. Je suis donc un intervenant exogene sur ce terrain, ou a pris place, intensement depuis deux dece...
 
Les modes de categorisation sociale constituent des objets d’analyse sociologiquement pertinents dans la mesure ou, d’une part, ils constituent des instruments de classement des individus et de leurs comportements, et, d’autre part, ils sont au fondement des modes de traitement politique de ces individus. Discours de sens commun et discours scientifique categorisent differemment l’objet jeunesse, quand ce dernier n’essaie pas, par effet de mode, d’emprunter les schemes classificatoires des re...
 
On sait la part qu’a prise, dans la culture francaise et en particulier dans le domaine des sciences humaines, la discussion autour des problemes de l’objectivisme et du subjectivisme. Les sociologues ont l’habitude de rencontrer la question a propos de la demarche biographique. Pourtant, n’etant pas sociologue moi-meme, je me garderai bien de la traiter comme un sociologue. C’est plus sous l’angle epistemologique que je me risquerai a faire quelques remarques sur une contribution marquante e...
 
Good Description. Description is not evaluated according to realist criteria although it is an operation which establishes objectivity. It institutes but does not reproduce the fact described. Descriptions are made in relationship to expectations of explanations in the frame of a theoretical hypothesis. But they are not arbitrary. The descriptive gaze is guided by the striking features of the object which are taken in consideration by categories of description such as type and example. These latter are neither copies nor interpretations. This study seeks to determine the status as well as the epistemological position of descriptions whose role consists in momentarily establishing the fact in order to lead to a theoretical questioning.
 
Strategy in Bourdieu’s works. Reading note. This note aims to elucidate the notion of « strategy » constructed in the works of Pierre Bourdieu. Analysed in its relationships with the allied notions of « habitus » and of capital, « strategy » is the expression of a neither-nor programme, between subjectivism and objectivism, between rationality of actors and structure. It is thus restrained as much on the side of the subject as on the side of custom, goal and historicity of action by tensions, which far from making it decrepit, render its use by historians all the more fruitful.
 
The Civic Centre of Bucharest. From idea to memory. The destruction and reconstruction of the city centre during the 1980’s is an example of the link between despotism, urbanisation and architecture. As signs of the twilight of Europe’s communist regimes gather, particularly in Warsaw and Moscow, the crazy attempt to ensure an increasingly uncertain perpetuity demonstrates how a town planning which breaks with the past in its forms is one of the ways of the application of a totalitarian project led by Ceaucescu’s regime. The latter then has to affront a fundamental contradiction between a totalitarian project aiming at the creation of a new society liberated from the past and a power forced to forge its legitimacy in a nationalism. This leads the regime to manifest its continuity with the past and its roots in an exclusively rural roumanian culture.
 
The city : cadre, object, subject. Twenty years of french research in urban history. In France, urban history since the last twenty years is not simply a new field which has known a brisk expansion. Considered for some time as a way of extricating social history of the sixties from a historiographical impasse, the city affirmed itself in the seventies as an object of independent research at a moment when urban history was attempting to organize itself as a problematic history. As against an approach limited to the description of social groups, urban history henceforth concerned itself more with networks, strategies, situations or processes, gradually bringing to light the creativity of the phenomenon of town life, and at the same time the city as a true subject of history.
 
Notebook. Sightings for a reflexive history of objectivation. Recent developments in the history, of science and the social sciences provide the context for the development of a reflexive approach to the history of science focused on the history of objectivation. The project provides a response to recent challenges to the search for scientificity in history and the social sciences and to die interest of an historical epistemology which this debate highlights. To negotiate this delicate intellectual conjuncture it is essential to identify the epistemological criteria which should guide further research. This type of reflexive analysis involves the development of means of epistemological control. This project calls for an analysis of three registers : the material traces left by intellectual work, the mental tools which rendered it possible and the conditions for the eventual autonomy of that work. A number of orientations are envisaged. These include a history of counting and statistics, of mathematics and of scientific commerce. The example of the calculation of the population at the end of the eighteenth century illustrates how in the course of such a study one could also redefine certain emblematic operations in economic and social history.
 
Transdiction at Work. A Case Study. The notion of transdiction – a neologism modelled on the word jurisdiction – indicates a particular kind of singular relationship – between laws and their application. For a long time, only judges, but henceforth also the administration (with the idea of regulation) find themselves in this relationship when their concern with the application of law leads them to contextualize its application. Transposing the problematic of the relationship between speech and writing and silence in the juridical field, this study, through the analysis of a specific jurisprudential case, aims to show the place taken by tansdiction (what the law says on the basis of the writings of the law) among other possible kinds of construction of juridical objects. In particular, it claims to determine the respective parts of necessity and liberty in the proceedings of the judge before a concrete case which he must resolve.
 
Interpretation, source of understanding in Max Weber’s writings. In general, understanding is not immediately given but presumes an intermediary act of interpretation, particularly when meaningful human behaviours are concerned. In the case of the historian, the question comes back to that of the conceptualisation of a fact or of an uncommon being. This should not lead to the conclusion that understanding is strictly subjective ; still less, that there are “subjectifying sciences” facing “objectifying sciences”. But the very constitution of a historical object assumes, in the indefinite multiplicity of developments and of view points, the choice of that which is significant. In the same way, the cause of an event must be chosen as significantly adequate to its result. This kind of appraisal demands a particular form of interpretation, “axiological exegesis”, that is not a value judgement but an evaluation of the relationship to values. The types of interpretation spread from affective revival onto rational interpretation which can be an ideal typical construction of the probable behaviour of the agent had he acted rationally. Nevertheless, interpretation is always caught between two forms of possible adequacy, the adequacy according to meaning, which can have different degrees of evidence for us, and "causal" (empirical) adequacy which refers to customary laws of behaviour.
 
The Discovery of Things which Speak. Legalising Judicial Torture in Muslim Law (13th-14th centuries). The article examines the central question of the possibility of an autonomous legal norm in Islam. It compares the prohibition of judicial torture by the fomalist doctrine of classical fiqh (10th-12th centuries) with its recognition in the new doctrines concerning the « political function of revealed normativity » in the 13th and 14th centuries. This comparison higlights the problems which arise from the fact that the muslim fiqh is based on the interpretation not only of revealed texts but also of the normative practices of charismatic persons (the prophet, his companions, the first caliphs), who shaped the first muslim community. The religious and political praxis of these charismatic models of behaviours has to be interpreted and classified according to legal categories in order to serve as a source for the construction of juridical norms. The reference to these classified and interpreted examples serves as the religious legitimation for the construction of legal systems in the fiqh. This systematization renders possible the (relative) autonomy of the legal as opposed to the politicial or religious-ethical norm. But this autonomy can be jeopardized by any doctrine which removes the legal norm in order to return to the charismatic religious and political model from which it is derived.
 
La sociologie de l’education des annees 1970 et 1980 en France, en partie aussi celle des pays anglo-saxons – mais celle-ci a un moindre degre du fait de l’existence d’un courant assez solidement institue de description des cultures adolescentes lie aux etudes de stratification d’une part, d’autre part a des champs plus specifiques, notamment ceux de la delinquance juvenile et de la description culturelle du monde des adolescents et des modes de vie originaux qui s’y developpent s’est interes...
 
The Making of a Colonial Property Law. From Collective Property to the Constitution of Reserves in New Caledonia. Melanesian reserves in New Caledonia constitute, even today, territories « apart », exclusively kanak, placed under the rule of a particular law called customary law. This Caledonian specificity, to which the Kanaks are attached, is a direct heritage of the colonial system established in the 19th century, founded on the systematic forcing back of the autochtone populations and their regrouping in restricted spaces in order to free the space for the benefit of colonisation. New Caledonia is the only territory of the French Empire where true indigenous reserves were created on the model of American Indian reserves, themselves denounced, it must be added, as the symbol of Anglo-Saxon colonial violence. This Caledonian singularity is analysed from the slow, sinuous and conflictual juridical construction which accompanied the processes of plunder and expulsion and reflects the contradictions of colonial France which law is supposed to justify.
 
La demarche biographique doit tenir compte a la fois des questions de sociologie de structure et de sociologie d’action ou de sujet, comme cela a ete bien exprime par les organisateurs de ce colloque. En outre, cette demarche n’est pas seulement une demarche methodique, mais aussi et surtout une demarche qui met en evidence certains « faits sociaux » : un certain type de regles qui organisent la vie sociale – on pourrait aussi dire un certain type de codes dont les sujets se servent pour cons...
 
Skills of gathering. An ethnography of public places. What are the properties of gathering and regulatory resources of accessibility ? The idea that a public space is an agency of contested or contestable domains is nowhere better verified than in a railway station. Accessibility cannot be reduced to the capacity of a place to interact with other places. This initial geographical and functional definition reveals the city as a space of circulation and movement. But accessibility is also the quality of shared intelligence of a place of communication. It then indicates qualities of a service more than a simple « message », of a future equipment and the resources offered by both to confirm or regulate the dialogical dimensions of the space of activity. The point in question is thus to understand, from the basis of the railway station, how the city can modify our conception of the social and of social history. It is to analyse the construction of urbanity in its own categories and rediscover the trace of the urban experience in the inquiries into the social skills of town dwellers.
 
Conceptions, material structures, practices. Reflections on the « urban project ». At the cross-roads of social sciences, urbanism and architecture, the notion of the « urban project » has appeared as in opposition to forms of planification implemented during the high period of growth and extension of cities around the sixties. Despite the irresoluteness which affects it, the « urban project » marks at least a dual rupture : it is the expression of a mistrust towards a systematic programation, it locates intervention near the field, at the level of the « piece of the city » ; these « pieces » are not isolated but attached to other acquired or projected forms. The difficulties, or failures of the « urban project » nevertheless demand a reappraisal of the analysis of the project’s conception as a social process. They result in a reformulation of urban temporalities, characterised paradoxically by phenomenon of an absence of synchrony, of difficult alignments to an organisatory rythm.
 
Logicist Questioning and Conflicts of Interpretation. The logicist analysis of scholarly constructions aims at revealing their symbolic components : a data base (observations and presuppositions) and a whole lot of operations of rewriting expressing the reasoning which links this base to the thesis of construction. Works inspired from this programme since some twenty years raise interesting questions in the perspectives of a practical epistemology often exposed. The study of conflicts of interpretation holds a large place here : it is closely connected to the analysis of scientific controversies but aims less at explaining these from a socio-historical point of view, than at better defining the paths chosen to resolve them, elude them or go beyond them, according to the case. Logicist questioning is concerned with the intellectual and institutional consequences of these choices. The affirmation of its perpetuity follows from a statement and a bet at the same time, both argued in this article.
 
La notion de “ description épaisse ” demande à être éclaircie. S'agit-il d'une authentique description ? Non, selon ceux qui l'entendent plutôt dans l'acception de Clifford Geertz. Elle serait plutôt une interprétation de matériaux eux-mêmes de nature interprétative, à la manière de l'explication de texte. Oui, pourtant selon le philosophe (Gilbert Ryle) auquel Geertz a emprunté le concept : la description épaisse est seulement une description mince compliquée par des précisions de type adverbial. L'usage contemporain de cette notion dissimule donc un conflit entre deux philosophies de l'enquête anthropologique.
 
Narrative resources and historical knowledge. The return of the narrative in history has been diagnosed from different quarters and with different intentions, for the last fifteen years. Writing history and narrating a story were for a long time linked together in western tradition. The rhetorical contract which bound these two operations broke two centuries ago. Narrative itself became an object of suspicion. A dual contemporary evolution is suggested here. On one hand narrative could reflect the withdrawal of scientific ambitions of the social sciences ; on the other hand, it is perhaps invested with new cognitive functions today.
 
The Construction of Death in French Law. In French Law, there are two ways of dying or of « being dead ». The first is an organic event. It is a fact outside the law which the rules of the Civil Code limit themselves to attesting, not defining or instituting. The second, that of an early diagnosis, is not an empirically observed event, but an institutional construction by which living human beings are deprived of the status of subjects of law. The article attempts to describe the making of this juridical death, to differentiate it from the death of the Civil Code, finally, to explore the relationship which early diagnosis establish between juridical and medical definitions.
 
Controversies and Styles of Reasoning. Debates over Population Statistics in 19th century France and England. The sociology of science tends to treat controversies as a privileged object to document the heterogeneity of considerations at play in the production of scientific knowledge. An examination of 19th century debates over the use of mortality tables in the analysis of population statistics in France and Britain extends this problematic by inquiring into national variations in the way in which different types of considerations are articulated. In England technical, epistemological, political and institutional considerations prove to be highly integrated whereas in France they follow separate logics. This comparison also suggests that controversies can be analysed as one of the many types of micro-events in the introduction (or rejection) of new forms of statistical reasoning (introduction of inferential forms of reasoning in England as early as 1844 and the resistance of French statisticians, in counter-distinction with mathematicians, to similar forms). The article speculates on the relation between modes of argumentation and styles of reasoning and suggests an institutional explanation for national differences based on traces found within the controversies themselves.
 
Scientific Controversies, Philosophical Controversies. Forms, Positions, Trajectories. The study of controversies has considerably renewed approaches in the sociology of sciences. By way of innovations can be evoked the progressive disappearance of frontiers between social and cognitive elements in the protocols of explanation, the privilege accorded to the ethnographic observation of a localised situation, the recognition of the social efficiency of the discursive system, the importance of negotiation in the authentication of knowledge or the place accorded to the implicit dimension of exchanges. Can one draw lessons from this programme of research for philosophy ? The question of a philosophical debate refers to an operation of the rehistoricisation of concepts and philosophical scenes. But the description of local scenes on which arguments are exchanged is no doubt not so favourable to the sociology of philosophy. If the possibilities of play seem smaller, the positions are not for all that frozen in an uniformly constrained structure of oppositions. There exist a multiplicity of philosophical scenes, and it is no doubt during shifts from one scene to another that innovations take place. What is the stake of a philosophical debate ? Not necessarily to conquer : the space of a debate is not uniformly an arena or Kampfplatz. It is also a space of ritual, where a community of mode of original sociability is tested or a philosophical body is manifested.
 
Heavy variants in electoral sociology. A State of the Controversies. In political science, three principal models of explaining electoral behaviours are in competition. The first, of a sociological nature, is based on the assumption of the effect of socio-economic variants (sex, age, social class, etc.). The second is based on a theory of a psycho-sociological nature : the elector chooses his candidate through a partisan identification which orients his choice. Finally the third, inspired by economic models, assumes a rational elector making his political choices while maximising his interests. To what extent do these three paradigms of explanation take account of realities of electoral behaviour of the French since some twenty years ?
 
Top-cited authors
Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan
  • École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), France; LASDEL, Niamey, Niger
Jean-Claude Passeron
  • École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
Florence Weber
  • Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
Maurice Bloch
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
Martin Kohli
  • European University Institute