Encounters in Theory and History of Education

Published by Queen's University Library
Print ISSN: 1494-4936
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In the wake of the first PISA-survey, experts in education encouraged educational policy to take the successful Finnish school-system as a model. But the temptation to copy successful attempts in education is even older and leads us back right to the beginning of the heated public discourses about the importance of education in the context of the emerging national states. In the midst of this transnational discourse around 1800 was the Swiss Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746–1827). In his private institutes he tried to apply his pedagogical “method,” promising to teach the children the elementary knowledge easily, quickly, and effectively and at the same time to develop these cognitive competencies in harmony with the physical and moral capacities of the young human, leading eventually to a fully developed intelligent moral person. These promises were very attractive for governments, teachers, and parents from all over Europe and even from the United States.
 
Visibility of bodies and actions in the classroom is a major feature of modern schooling as a disciplinary institution. The mere fact that children attended elementary schools in early modern times did not mean that effective work took place. Old techniques of schooling were challenged by new proposals at the beginning of the 19th century. Among them, monitorial schooling represented a crucial movement towards an increased standardisation of educational practices and institutions. This British model of schooling was based on a strict routine in the classroom, carried out by numerous children in the role of helpers, also called monitors. In this system of teaching, a hierarchical structure of monitors guaranteed continuous activity of a well-ordered mass of pupils. The worldwide spread of monitorial schooling was a first attempt to extend a disciplined daily life into the classrooms before group teaching techniques took the forefront. Evidently, the challenge of teaching 200-300 pupils in a room made demands on control and surveillance, in order to interrupt possible alliances between children. This contribution describes different versions of the control of big groups of children through visibility in German and Spanish schools. In both contexts, educationalists and schoolteachers reformed many aspects of the “British” system, which foresaw “pyramidal” structure of gazes. In the German states, a general concern about the position of the teacher arose. Germans criticised the teaching role of monitors and reinforced the role of the adult’s gaze in ordering the classroom. In the Spanish case, educationists started copying the English original, but they reinforced later the stability of authority by giving a more substantive role to the "intermediate" gazes of the general monitors. Both developments are traced back to prevailing notions of teaching in each context. The different paths of reception and interpretation of this highly codified system of teaching display the existence of different “cultures of discipline”.
 
Girls’ education and women’s enlightenment have been key elements of the Kemalist Republic (1923), which claimed to face towards the highest level of civilization and treated women as the symbols of a modernized secular Turkish nation-state and society. However, the official ideological and cultural principles of the education system in Turkey underwent dramatic transformations. Education policies under the AKP rule have been shaped by a combination of neoliberalism, conservatism and Islamism. Consequently, the education system has changed rapidly especially during the last six years. Since early 2012, Turkish education system suffered radical changes with tremendous implications for women’s education in particular and gender equality in general. In this article, after a general review and commentary about the development of women's education during the different stages of the Republic, we will concentrate on the process of Islamification of education in recent Turkey especially concerning consequences for girls and women. This brings along the need for a closer look on the clergic, so called Imam Hatip Schools in which apart from the conventional High School Curriculum Islamic teachings is provided to students.
 
La historia de la educación y la didáctica de la historia suelen sostener que la enseñanza de la historia y los ritos cívicos fueron forjadores de la identidad nacional y de los nacionalismos a partir de la formación de los estados nacionales en el siglo XIX. Este artículo intenta historizar este supuesto en base al estudio del caso de Chile entre 1850-1930 incorporando variables como clase social, genero, etnia, asentamiento territorial, demografía con sus distintos ritmos y periodificaciones. Concluye que la historia nacional fue marginal en relación a la historia europea y que fue minoritaria dentro del currículo; que” lo” nacional se incluye tardíamente y transversalmente en el currículo; que los alumnos que estudiaron historia fueron una franca minoría dentro de una ya baja cobertura escolar. Muestra los debates ideológicos sobre la historia nacional en los textos escolares y los ritos cívicos en la vida escolar concluyendo que fueron “desde arriba” y minoritarios en relación a los ritos y actividades propias de los establecimientos. Concluye a si mismo que la identidad de la comunidad escolar y de la comunidad local fueron predominantes y que sin ella, el estudio de la “identidad nacional” resulta abstracta y lineal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15572/ENCO2014.11
 
This essay explores the origins of, and elements of teaching and learning at Loretto Niagara, a girls’ boarding and day school operated by the Irish-based Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary (The Loretto Sisters). Three key individuals shaped the development of Loretto Niagara: Michael Power, the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Toronto, Archbishop John Joseph Lynch, his second successor and Mother Teresa Dease, one of Loretto’s Canadian pioneers. Power was the bishop who invited the community to Canada; Lynch imagined a Catholic educational presence on the shores of the Falls and Dease contributed to the actualization of that vision. Through an analysis of archival sources, the paper argues that in the course of its 100 plus year existence, Loretto Niagara’s physical location gave shape to its overt and hidden curriculum. Its history documents the complexities of the intersection of gender and religion in the education of young women.
 
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, different actors involved in education promoted the introduction of shooting (“Tiro Escolar” or “school shooting lessons”) as a discipline to be taught in Chile’s educational system, which was established in 1928 but was not yet a large or regular operation. In analysing arguments of those who promoted this activity, this article shows shooting lessons in schools as a realm where it is possible to notice some dimensions of intentions to train Chilean children and youth through educating the body and emotions in the period under study.
 
Ontario has the distinction of having the longest and the richest history of public kindergarten in Canada. Ontario’s kindergarten is an exception in the field of publicly funded early childhood care and education in Canada, where the care and education of preschool-aged children has not been recognized as the government’s responsibility. This article traces the development of Ontario’s public kindergarten from its inception in 1883 to the current Full-Day Early Learning–Kindergarten Program. It identifies the evolving characteristics of kindergarten, trends, and paradigmatic changes in the analyzed period by using a longue durée approach as per Fernand Braudel. It explores the context of each historical phase of Ontario’s kindergarten development, the intersection of political agendas, ideologies, and economic and pragmatic considerations that were impacting kindergarten policies.
 
This work is a scholarly interview conducted with Dr. Charles Ungerleider on the effects of COVID-19 in Canada. The discussion explores the various aspects of the pandemic’s impact on Canadian education, such as: the effects of school closures; Canada’s lack of a federal ministry of education; the burnout faced by educators resulting from the sudden shift to online education; the obstacles in educating international students; the reduction of experiential learning in post-secondary schools; the media’s portrayal and politicization of pandemic school closures; the forced integration of virtual learning technology; the disproportionately deleterious repercussions of the pandemic education on the marginalized; and the need for schools in creating social cohesion. Keywords: Canadian education policy, COVID-19 impact, Charles Ungerleider
 
Maria Montessori es una figura intelectual que emerge con voz propia en la historia de la educación transnacional del siglo XX. En el caso de España su influencia ha sido y sigue siendo profunda. Lo que se plantea en este trabajo es un estudio histórico de su temprana recepción en el contexto español en las tres décadas que transcurren de 1906 a 1936. El punto de partida es una re-contextualización de sus ideas educativas desde la óptica de campos de conocimientos diferenciados de la propia pedagogía. Un aspecto aún no abordado por los historiadores de la educación. El estudio se enmarca en la corriente de la historia intelectual, más específicamente en los estudios de circulación, transferencia y recepción de ideas. Se toman como referencia principal los trabajos de historiadores como David Armitage y David Boucher, que han desarrollado enfoques contextuales analíticos para el estudio de las ideas y su reconfiguración en espacios geográficos determinados y periodos temporales específicos. Se plantea una re-contextualización del proceso de recepción de las ideas de Montessori a partir de tres campos aparentemente distantes de la pedagogía en las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX en España como lo eran la política, la religión y la medicina. Se constata una recepción trasversal y compleja de las ideas de Montessori en España que abarca un ancho espectro ideológico. Se detecta también que campos como la política y la religión se adelantaron al campo de la pedagogía en la recepción de la obra de Montessori. Palabras clave: Montessori, historia de la educación, recepción, España
 
The article examines how and to what extent the ideas of John Dewey were adopted and adapted by the political and educational elite of post-revolutionary Mexico and the consequences of that adoption. It provides the political, cultural, and socio-economic context of reception as well as the various points of entry of Dewey`s ideas including the relation between the Secretary of Education, the Universidad Nacional de México and Columbia University (in particular Teachers College) and the influence of the Protestant missionaries. The article discusses the issues and ideas that characterized the political and educational debates of the time and mediated the traveling and reception of international pedagogical ideas. It pays particular attention to the building of Mexicanidad (nation building) through the incorporation or the integration (depending on the dominant current thought) of the rural and indigenous population in a contradictory and eclectic modernizing project. It does not neglect the negative consequences of the translation of some progressive ideas. The introduction of Dewey`s ideas are discussed within the context of the various political and educational tendencies inside the Secretary. The last part of the paper is devoted to Rafael Ramírez, a progressive educator, a central protagonist, who served in the Secretary for a long time in spite of political changes and who devoted his life to rural education and its civilizing mission. He wrote about education and we can trace his reading of Dewey.
 
An overview of the thinking that led us to write our most recent book, Piety and Privilege. Catholic Secondary Schooling in Ireland and the Theocratic State, 1922-67, constitutes the substance of this paper. Our central argument is that during the period 1922-1967, the Church, unhindered by the State, promoted within secondary schools, practices aimed at “the salvation of souls” and at the reproduction of a loyal middle class and clerics. The State supported that arrangement with the Church also acting on its behalf in aiming to produce a literate and numerate citizenry, in pursuing nation building, and in ensuring the preparation of an adequate number of secondary school graduates to address the needs of the public service and the professions. This situation proved attractive to successive governments, partly because the great majority of the nation’s politicians and public servants were themselves loyal middle-class Catholics. In addition, the teaching religious played a crucial role in the State’s project of harnessing schools as part of its Gaelic nation-building project. This paper considers what we deem to be three distinctive aspects of our work. First, we detail how it is a contribution not just to the history of education in Ireland but also to the broader field of the history of Catholic Church and State relations in education in the English-speaking world for the period examined. Secondly, we deliberate on the research approach we adopted in generating our exposition. Thirdly, we outline our consideration of three aspects of the process of education in Catholic schools that have been neglected in many accounts to date, namely, the manner in which privilege, piety, and sex education were approached. Keywords: Ireland, secondary schooling. piety, privilege, sex education
 
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how hygiene and education were drawn together in bibliographical production and in the professional work of Antonio Ferreira de Almeida Júnior (1892-1971), a teacher, physician, and education manager who wrote teaching manuals oriented towards hygiene, childcare, and educational biology. In them, Almeida Júnior nuanced representations about the nature of the child in relation to the primary school’s role in improving society’s health, and assigns key importance to teachers, who were taught medical practices and instructed to measure children’s height and weight, and to check teething, hair, vision, and hearing. Healthy habits were verified in order to consolidate them among children, identifying them as either healthy or ill and classifying children as "normal" and "abnormal." Keywords: hygiene, primary school, teaching manuals, Antonio Ferreira de Almeida Júnior (1892-1971)
 
This article explores the kinds of response John Dewey (1859–1952) received in Russia between 1900 and 1930, and the impact he had on the educational debate there. The study’s main findings are: Both before and after the Socialist October Revolution of 1917, Dewey had a significant impact on the development of the Russian school system. The ultimate rejection of Dewey’s pedagogy towards the end of the 20s was not due to educational but to political and ideological reasons.
 
To investigate the relationship between teachers’ practices and teacher models, this article takes as its main thread the work of Anísio Teixeira at the Teachers School of the Institute of Education, in Rio de Janeiro, between 1932 and 1935. In doing that, it resorts to oral and written sources and dares to outline a research methodology. The narrative is organized into four parts, and an introduction. The first part offers a general description of the place where Teixeira’s professional work is developed. Only those aspects of the history of the creation of the Institute of Education deemed as necessary to the study are described. In the second part, we explore the broad features of that teacher practice, interweaving written and oral documentation. In the third part, we focus on the issue of the sources. As our final comments, we consider the importance of historical investigations on teachers’ practice and models. Keywords: history of education, teacher training; oral history; teachers’ lives; teacher models
 
This text consists of a study on representations of rural primary schools in Brazil, especially of the state of São Paulo, in seeking to understand how the images contributed to strengthen the contempt towards rural school and society. The documentary corpus research consists of 199 photographs of rural schools attached to the reports of the Regional Offices of Education, technical inspection bodies of the Department of Education of the State of São Paulo, produced from 1933 to 1943. The photograph analysis focuses on three thematic groups: school building façades, students’ and teachers’ pictures, and school practices.
 
Our article contributes to trace the sociogenesis of "educational internationalism" as promoted by the International Bureau of Education when it became an intergovernmental organization in 1929, cooperating with Unesco since 1947, before being fully integrated in 1969. The IBE can be considered as one of the forerunners of Unesco, a kind of factory of its pedagogical guidelines: it develops a modus operandi for producing, through a comparative approach, in as objective and neutral a manner as possible, knowledge concerning the progress of education in the world and recommendations forming a charter of world aspirations in education. These matters are discussed in International Conferences on Public Education (ICPE). With the birth of Unesco, the IBE negotiates a status of autonomy and collaboration, continuing its technical work based on comparative education. The problems studied, defined by both institutions together, relate to three crucial fields: access to education, curriculum, teacher education. The IBE’s approach is far from being free of tensions: in the results themselves of its work and between the countries participating in IBE’s enquiries and the ICPEs.
 
This article forms part of more extensive research on the changes that took place in school culture during the Fascist dictatorship in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). That research is limited to the island of Majorca and draws from a variety of different sources, including photographs. The present paper focuses on analyzing the sources of such photographs, although other testimonies and sources are also taken into account when the conclusions are drawn. The elements featured here provide material for furthering the debate on the possibilities photography offers in detecting the changes and continuities in school culture at a time of radical political transformation.
 
Part IV: Catholic Nuns and Sisters in a Secular Age: Britain, 1945–1990
 
Interview with Dr Carmen M. Mangion on Catholic Nuns and Sisters in a Secular Age: Britain, 1945–1990
 
This article aims to reflect on the appropriations of pedagogies presented as alternatives to the so-called traditional pedagogy, in Portugal, from the 1950s to the 1970s, whilst under an authoritarian regime. Furthermore, it aims to assess the role played in this movement by a group of educators who were considered progressive. We also propose, within this framework, to think through the complexity of the relations between tradition and innovation, using the concept of “tradition of innovation” as a reference point.
 
La educación popular católica aparece asociada a la propaganda católica como neutralizadora de la escuela laica, como un modelo de socialización y de moralización de las clases populares en el marco del movimiento católico. El primer franquismo cedió a la Iglesia el control sobre la educación. La escuela católica de las décadas de 1950 y 1960 aparece asociada a las clases medias, y sostiene una presencia notable en la escuela primaria gratuita. A partir de 1945, diversos sectores dentro de la Iglesia Católica optaron por intensificar su inmersión social y la educación popular crecía al amparo de aquel compromiso. La educación será una pieza fundamental en un modelo pastoral cada vez más social y eficaz. Las prácticas educativas populares del catolicismo pasan de la caridad y el asistencialismo al terreno del compromiso social, con el objetivo de llegar a los más débiles y alejados. Estas prácticas tienen un rostro social que se refleja en nuevos compromisos en educación especializada, ocio, emancipación de la mujer y formación de adultos.
 
This paper examines the fundamental shift in Catholic secondary religious education in North America during the long sixties, 1955-1973. Special focus is given to the Canadian province of Ontario. This paper argues that this fundamental shift involved a major change in orientation as the strict Neo-Thomism was abandoned after Vatican II along with the traditional teacher-led pedagogy of rote-memorization. It was replaced with a more subjective approach, emphasizing the developmental nature of Church tradition and the inner transformation of the individual. Teaching methods also changed with more student-centred strategies adopted. This paper also examines the causes and consequences of this fundamental shift, concentrating on the impact of the cultural changes of the long sixties and Vatican II. This paper argues that this shift was a needed one, but that it was too extreme leading to a period of considerable confusion in Catholic secondary religious education.
 
This article focuses on the repression of the student movement in the University of Granada during the state of exception of 1970. It relates the experiences of two students, Socorro and Jesus, a couple who joined the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and suffered persecution and imprisonment. The Francoist university was governed by the University Regulatory Law (URL, University Regulatory Law) issued in 1943, which was replaced with the promulgation of the General Law of Education in 1970. As I explained in my previous work, the Catholic national rhetoric of the Franco regime forged an ideal "True Catholic Woman" based on the resurgence of the values of purity and subordination of the 16th century counter reform as proposed by Luis Vives in The Instruction of the Christian Woman (1523) and Fray Luis de León in The Perfect Wife (1583). This ideal of a woman came to contradict the ideal of an intellectual built on the letter of the Ley de Ordenación Universitaria (1943). The transition to the consumer economy in the 1950s with the military and economic aid of the United States, as well as the social Catholicism of the Second Vatican Council in the sixties along with the arrival of tourism and emigration to Europe changed the social fabric and opened the doors of the classrooms to an increasing number of women, especially in the humanities careers of Philosophy and Letters. Through the analysis of interviews conducted in the late 1980s with two people who participated in the clandestine student movement, this article explores how young people transgressed the official discourse on the Catholic ideal of women, claimed the university environment for the working class and created a neutral space in terms of gender in which they could achieve their commitment to study, democratic freedom and feminism.
 
Up until the 1970s, comparative research on education had been scarcely developed in Italy. The rise of a general attention on the promising chances offered by the comparative inquiries in educational sciences was mainly due to the growing influence of several international institutions and organizations in framing a number of studies and reports on the educational process within a comparative perspective. However, the development of comparative education also met resistances and constraints in the Italian framework. A lot of critical voices rising from radical, neo-Marxist, and “not aligned” cultures questioned the alleged impartiality of the comparative discipline, expounding serious concern about the legitimacy of its scientific pretensions. On the whole, the outstanding critical views on the rise of comparative education fostered a wide suspicion of the influence of global agents in assessing the goals of education and particularly of the role of the main international organizations leading the strategies for global development.
 
During the 19th century new forms of government emerged, understanding themselves explicitly as nation-states. The new definition of the state had to include its members by defining them as citizens, a definition which included both equalizing and differentiating aspects. The education system fulfilled a key role in educating these future citizens. While the principal setting was not a national, I intend to show how this national logic shaped constructions of various types of nation-state citizens made through the public school based on empirical evidence from the Luxembourgian curriculum. In an exemplifying way, the motivation behind the respective changes and continuities will be uncovered concerning social differentiation in secondary education and a strong regional differentiation in the homebound lower branches of education.http://dx.doi.org/10.15572/ENCO2015.11
 
This article discusses the research results of the didactic system of training engineers at the Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute (Ukraine). It establishes the historical context for the founding of the first technical institute on the Left-Bank of Ukraine, including accounting for the great need for civilian private enterprises in engineering personnel, as well as the influence of businessmen. In carrying out the institutional analysis of the basic organizational and normative documents that regulate the educational process, particular attention is paid to class schedules and curricula from the opening of the institute in 1885 to 1891. The article comprehensively outlines the components of ensuring the quality of engineering training and considers the modernization of the process of training engineers. It also identifies and substantiates information parameters of the students, including the social status of future engineers by estate and faith. This research produces a holistic understanding of student training and expulsion. The research results are based on archival materials and literature of the 19th century.
 
Taking school spaces as an interdisciplinary issue encompassing the fields of education, architecture, and urbanism/urban planning, this article gathers theoretical and technical references from among these disciplines throughout the first half of the 20th century in order to locate possible exchanges carried out by Anísio Teixeira while shaping his Park-school, Class-schools program. The argument rests on the reading of documents taken from a variety of circumstances in his career as an educational administrator, even though not necessarily produced by him. The aim is to encourage a debate regarding a Brazilian response to the international challenge of providing a spatial infrastructure consistent with a modern school program. Keywords: school space, modern architecture, urban planning, historiography, circulation of ideas, Anísio Teixeira
 
This paper provides a critical historical summary of globalization and examines various positions against and in favor of globalization. It concludes that capitalistic globalization has not achieved its central goal of global economic growth and even less of the betterment of the quality of life. The encompassing mind-set or world view that globalization fostered in peoples is problematic not only because of its cultural homogenization but because of its lack of sense of obligation to others, poor sense of the public, and private relativism. Education has a critical role to play in dealing with the problematic aspects of globalization. It is argued that a critical examination of critical pedagogy, cosmopolitism (the establishment of cosmopolitan democratic law and the establishment of a democratic community as expounded by D. Held and also relying on M. Nussbaum), and global education (mainly as proposed by P. McIntosh) should be undertaken to identify commonalities and differences and articulate a renewed pedagogical approach. Key words: globalization, critical pedagogy, cosmopolitism, global education, cultural homogenization
 
When cogitating developments in education, it is important from time-to-time to stand back from the main-stream of developments and try to re-capture ‘the big picture’. Such a time now exists in relation to teacher education. This paper is a response to this situation. It makes the case for three principles which, it is held, should guide the design and development of programmes on how classroom practitioners at the pre-service and on-going teacher-development levels, should be prepared for, and guided in, their work. These are as follows: teachers should have a very good command of the subject matter of their teaching areas; teachers should know how to teach; teachers, along with students of education studies and policy makers, should engage in reflection not only on work at the classroom level, but also on education more broadly.
 
Higher Education institutions have developed online information services and degrees as an echo of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) incidence in all society fields. Equal access to education is a fundamental right; but equal access to higher education for people with disabilities is far from being achieved yet. To this inequality has to be added the difficulty of some groups to participate in the information society, the so called infoexclusion. The short number of students with disabilities in higher education makes evident the presence of barriers for this people to get into this educational level. One of them is the low degree of accessibility to digital services and studies offered by the Universities, something that can be considered a new kind of segregation.
 
The article examines Latin American educational policies in the last decade and a half from the perspective of their contribution to social cohesion. After establishing the direct relation between education and social cohesion, the author evaluates the impact of the substantial expansion of schooling in the region as a contributor to social cohesion. The latter takes place because education ensures the sharing of common symbolic resources among a large percentage of the population. It also facilitates dynamics of intergenerational mobility that also contribute to social cohesion. The article also presents the results of a comparative analysis of citizen formation curricula as developed in seven countries in the region: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru. The central questions are based on the orientations taken by these countries with regard to the formation of bridging social capital (between groups), or of bonding social capital (within the groups) (Putnam, 2000), and to the relations the curricula establish with the past. The latter has as a point of reference the creation of a common identity (national) among groups exhibiting clear socio-economic differences. The analysis concludes that the curriculum orientation of the various countries examined in the study are related to the specific perspective of social cohesion that each national society holds.
 
The Canadian province of Ontario introduced philosophy as a secondary school subject in 1995 (Pinto, McDonough, & Boyd, 2009). Since publicly-funded Catholic schools teach approximately 32% of all students in Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2022), the question arises regarding how teachers in those schools coordinate philosophy and Catholic teachings. This study employs a secondary analysis of interviews with six teachers from Ontario’s Catholic schools, and employs two of Avery Dulles’ (2002) conceptions of church (institution and mystical communion) to determine how they consider the choices available within their own tradition that could answer this question. Rather than looking only at the shortcomings of treating magisterial teaching as philosophy, this paper argues that there are also conceptual problems that these courses must address in order to improve their ecclesiological adequacy, and illustrates how an apparent null curriculum privileges the institutional ecclesiology. Keywords: Catholic education, Catholic school, philosophy, ecclesiology, null curriculum, high school philosophy
 
El artículo estudia los presupuestos participativos (PPs) como una política que, diseñada e implementada originalmente como instrumento de democracia participativa y educación social, puede ser, transformada y en determinados contextos, funcional al proyecto neoliberal. Su análisis sirve para ponderar una nueva teoría de la Geografía humana que designaríamos metonímicamente como “políticas aceleradas”. Esta estudia el “neoliberalismo realmente existente” considerando los espacios y las formas en los que se manifiesta por todo el globo, con redes y nodos electrónicos que permiten procesos acelerados, horizontales y dependientes de los contextos, sin núcleos ni periferias. El artículo discute las características que deberían mantener los PPs para no convertirse en neoliberalizadores y las inconcreciones de la teoría en torno a sus agentes, uso de los medios digitales y la rapidez de las nuevas políticas, aspectos que incidirían en una nueva conformación del neoliberalismo y en la reformulación de los estudios del transfer.
 
This article describes the theoretical and methodological basis that is fundamental to the elaboration, application and evaluation of a training program for active citizenship specifically designed for women. The program, which is being developed under the auspices of the University of Barcelona, is based in the methodology of participatory action research, which allows for the research subjects’ participation in the entire process, including the evaluation. The research confirms the necessity of creating spaces for citizenship participation that foster the rights and responsibilities of participation, allow people to acquire the necessary citizenship competencies in order to have an active presence in the public sphere, and promote a type of civic identity based in dialogue and in the value of solidarity.
 
El trabajo de Nel Noddings ha representado un profundo desafío para el pensamiento androcéntrico en filosofía de la educación. El documento plantea la cuestión de si la ética del cuidado podría agregarse a las políticas universitarias. Para lograr este objetivo, se explora si la incorporación de la ética del cuidado en las políticas universitarias transformaría la orientación de la investigación, la administración universitaria y la experiencia de aprendizaje en tu totalidad. Más adelante, el documento analiza las implicaciones del significado de la ética del cuidado de Noddings como un vía para abordar la moralidad aplicada a los entornos universitarios. Finalmente, el artículo concluye ofreciendo la ética del cuidado como una alternativa a las teorías éticas tradicionales en base a sus puntos fuertes que convergen en la posibilidad real de formar mejores adultos.
 
À partir de l’analyse d’un certain nombre de traits propres à la situation italienne par rapport à la politique de l’excellence dans l’enseignement supérieur et aux éléments qui l’influencent, l’article vise à proposer des points de réflexion d’un intérêt plus général : d’une part, une réflexion sur l’ « excellence pour tous » préconisée notamment par le NEHE, et d’autre part et en un sens plus large, une réflexion sur la conception même de l’enseignement supérieur et sur le rôle de l’université dans le monde difficile d’aujourd’hui. Ceci est fait en se rapportant aussi à l’héritage d’idées et d’institutions que l’histoire nous transmet - en premier lieu la conception humboldtienne, à la fois mythe et force inspiratrice – héritage qui doit être examiné lucidement, sans idéalisation ni désapprobation a priori , dans une vision constructive.http://dx.doi.org/10.15572/ENCO2015.04
 
This article addresses the question of the appropriation of John Dewey’s pedagogical ideas in relation to the study of communication networks and the thesis of diffusion-reception of educational knowledge in the Luso-Afro-Brazilian space. It aims at the analysis of the interactions that took place between the Portuguese movement known as “Escola Nova,” the Brazilian “Escolanovismo,” and the construction of colonial educational systems, in the early decades of the twentieth century. It tries to assess the results of projects undertaken during the last decade by Portuguese, African, and Brazilian researchers in the field of educational history in a comparative perspective. It tries to set a development axis for comparative-history research in the Lusophone space by identifying the educational transfers between Portugal, Africa, and Brazil. It aims at clarifying John Dewey’s contribution towards the establishment of specialized educational knowledge.
 
Over the past two decades, there have been significant developments in the field of cultural learning. In museums, galleries, archives, and in myriad informal educational activities, children and adults have been encouraged to identify, explore, and celebrate their heritages in an attempt to combat social exclusion and promote individual and collective well-being. This paper argues that projects for cultural learning are important educational interventions, but their operation and outcomes are matters that require further research. In particular, cultural learning offers opportunities for historians of education to critically engage with important topics around history, memory, and identity. Yet, this critical engagement will also require reconsidering and refining the theoretical models currently popular in the history of education. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.15572/ENCO2014.01
 
The representation of women in research and as researcher has greatly evolved according to our analysis. We trace four generations of representations, from a long pre-stage to modernist times, followed by shifting paradigms, and finally the current stage of finding new ground focusing on integration, collectivity and centering. For each generation, relevant methodological issues are discussed, with respect to the study of immigration in a Canadian context woven of antecedents situated in studies of ethnicity and culture.
 
Aims, goals, and objectives can be thought of as hierarchically ordered educational purposes. In today's policy discussions, aims (the most generally stated purposes) are too often sacrificed for specific learning objectives. Although aims, unlike objectives, cannot be pursued and measured directly, their continued discussion is essential; careful consideration of aims should guide our choices of curriculum and pedagogy and the selection and evaluation of goals and objectives. Key words: aims, goals, objectives, democratic education
 
A package of reforms to education designed to restructure the education system was introduced in the first three-year business plan for education in Alberta in 1994. Similar to other sites, the intention of the reforms was to increase community involvement and to make the system more efficient and accountable. Borrowing from policy writers, this paper traces the process associated with funding changes and the introduction of school-based management as part of the simultaneous centralization of control and devolution that began in 1994. Findings confirm that the cuts in education funding was a key driver in the restructuring, that centralizing changes overshadowed devolutionary reforms, and that there was more attention given to early phases in the policy process than to implementation and evaluation of outcomes.
 
Les établissements scolaires photographient leurs activités, les conservent et, parfois, les publient dans des livres ou des revues et, de nos jours, sur le Web également. Outre le fait qu’elles constituent un bien patrimonial utile à la connaissance de l’histoire de ces institutions, ces photographies peuvent également avoir d’autres fonctions comme celle de construire une mémoire collective qui permette de renforcer l’identité commune de leurs anciens élèves et de construire un discours historique qui étaie leur projet éducatif actuel. Dans le cas qui nous occupe, et en tant qu’exemple de ce qui vient d’être dit, nous analyserons ci-dessous les photographies publiées par le Collège Sant Josep Obrer de Palma de Majorque dans l’objectif d’établir le lien entre ces images et le modèle éducatif que le centre souhaite transmettre tant du point de vue historique qu’actuel.
 
This paper explains the heuristic potential of the concept of disciplinary code, when applied to the study of the sociological origins of History teaching in Spain. The disciplinary code of History as a subject – seen as an invented social tradition – began in the middle of the nineteenth century. Its main features – archaism, nationalism, elitism and rote learning – survived during the period of traditional-elitist education model, which lasted in Spain until the 1960s. It went through a revision process, more apparent than real, under the education reforms of 1970 and 1990 a period in which the technocratic mass education model prevailed. Traditional teaching styles continued while reforms were being implemented. They prevail with even greater strength today, reaffirmed by conservative education policies, which aim at a tighter control over the curriculum, by returning to the old norms of the disciplinary code.
 
Gilles Bibeau est anthropologue, philosophe et linguiste ; professeur émérite à l’Université de Montréal. A mené des recherches dans plusieurs pays d’Afrique, d’Amérique latine (notamment au Brésil et au Pérou), ainsi qu’au Canada et en l’Inde. Au Québec, il a fait des études ethniques sur les transformations des structures familiales et de l'identité chez des migrants d'origine indienne, africaine et antillaise, sur le rôle des églises et groupes religieux dans l'accueil et l'adaptation des immigrants, sur l'ethnographie des bandes de jeunes en milieu immigrant, et sur l'adaptation des services sociaux et de santé à la problématique des groupes immigrants. Il a mis au point, avec Ellen Corin et d'autres chercheurs, un modèle d’analyse en santé mentale qui est maintenant connu sous le nom de « système de signes, de sens et d'actions » et qui a été utilisé dans des études internationales comparatives dans plusieurs pays d'Afrique, d'Europe, d'Asie et des Amériques. Récemment, son focus est sur l’approche ethnocritique des littératures nationales à travers la comparaison des littératures québécoise et anglo-canadienne, et à travers l'étude des rapports entre les littératures écrites d'Afrique et les littératures orales. Passionné d’histoire et de politique internationale, il est l’auteur de nombreux articles et essais. Il a publié une douzaine de livres : Beyond Textuality, Ascetism and Violence, An Anthropology Interpretation (avec E. Corin) (Berlin : Mouton, 1995); Dérives montréalaises. Itinéraires de toxicomanies dans le quartier Hochelaga-Maisonneuve (avec M. Perrault) (Montréal : Boréal, 1998); Généalogie de la violence. Le terrorisme : piège pour la pensée (2015); Andalucía, l’histoire à rebours (2017) et Les Autochtones, la part effacée du Québec (2020). Il a reçu deux fois le prix Jean-Charles-Falardeau, la dernière pour son œuvre Le Québec transgénique. Science, marché, humanité (2005); et le Prix Léon-Gérin (2009) du Gouvernement du Coranestbec pour sa carrière académique. A l’invitation de Rencontres en théorie et histoire de l’éducation, Gilles Bibeau se met en dialogue avec Naomar de Almeida-Filho, à propos du livre The Revolution of Georges Cabanis. A Forgotten Education Reform In Post-Enlightenment France récemment publié dans la Série de monographies Sur la théorie et l’histoire de l’éducation (2022).
 
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