Electronic Markets

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1422-8890
Print ISSN: 1019-6781
Publications
AALSDA: Application of the process for AAL service development 
Service Blueprint of process with NuTrack 
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) offers possibilities for promising new IT-based health care services that are resulting in new challenges for its design process. We introduce a novel approach for engineering AAL services (AALSDA) which combines methods from service engineering and participatory design. We demonstrate this approach by developing and implementing an electronic data capture system, NuTrack, for self-reporting of nutrition status. The approach uses different concepts for AAL service design and delivery: service engineering for standardizing and structuring service processes, reasonable IT-support for automation of parts of services that need no person–to-person interaction, participatory design to integrate end-users in the development process, and patient integration for personalizing and improving the depth of performance of service providers’ service delivery. For illustration, we present the case of chronic disease patients suffering from impaired fine motor skills. Our approach is applied in a pilot study with prototypes tested in focus groups and workshops with patients, caregivers and physicians. The results demonstrate good applicability and feasibility of the concept, and provide new insights for the future design, development and implementation of AAL services. KeywordsParticipatory design–Service engineering–Customer integration–Electronic data capture–AAL–eHealth
 
This research is an unbiased empirical evaluation of user reasons to accept or resist a mobile information and communication technology (ICT) application for health promotion. This innovative use of mobile ICT consists of developing services that educate people to stay healthy, with clear benefits for both individuals and society. Receiving customized health advice through mobile devices may be an attractive service. However, despite their ability to support users, mobile services may sometimes irritate by being too intrusive. A 1-month experiment exposed participants to a health promotion application, delivered through their cell phones. This was the framework for the evaluation of an adoption model that included both positive and negative user adoption factors. Findings revealed intrinsic motivation to be a sufficient reason for adoption and a multi-faceted perceived overall risk factor as the main obstacle. Accordingly, when usefulness is less apparent, enjoyment may be a key factor for the adoption of mobile ICT for health promotion. KeywordsUser adoption-Motivation-Perceived risk-Mobile ICT-Health promotion JEL ClassificationM150
 
This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent-policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection as well as empirical evidence on the effects of patent rights. Then, the second part considers the international aspects of IPR protection. In summary, this survey draws the following conclusions from the literature. Firstly, different patent-policy instruments have different effects on R&D and growth. Secondly, there is empirical evidence supporting a positive relationship between IPR protection and innovation, but the evidence is stronger for developed countries than for developing countries. Thirdly, the optimal level of IPR protection should tradeoff the social benefits of enhanced innovation against the social costs of multiple distortions and income inequality. Finally, in an open economy, achieving the globally optimal level of protection requires an international coordination (rather than the harmonization) of IPR protection.
 
This study seeks to the answer the question of how an individual would trade off between listing fee (i.e., cost of listing an auction item) and transaction probability (i.e., the chance that a product will be sold). Applying the trade-off decision-making paradigm into the auction context, we examine a seller’s choice of online auction outlet and subsequent starting price strategies when facing the trade-off between transaction probability and listing fee. Results from a set of laboratory experiments suggest that a seller would be willing to incur a high cost in exchange for a higher transaction prospect. Furthermore, if the expected transaction probability is high, a seller is more likely to set a high starting price despite incurring a high listing fee. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. KeywordsOnline auction-Decision-making-Seller behavior JELD44 – Auctions
 
Electronic markets as intermediaries in a supply chain  
Perspectives on electronic markets and drivers Electronic Markets as Economic Environment 
Over the past 20years the field of electronic markets has seen a considerable proliferation and differentiation. This position paper takes the opportunity of the 21st volume of “Electronic Markets” to look back at important developments and insights, suggesting a framework that captures the multiple facets and indeed empirical breadth and depths of this concept. It comprises three perspectives which include the market environment, governance choices by economic actors as well as the entrepreneurial dynamics of firms who initiate and operate market platforms as their business. In addition, we propose to study the interplay of technological, market, and institutional drivers in order to understand the phenomenon of electronic markets, which is also a precondition for designing electronic markets. Both activities involve more than an economically motivated choice between the discrete alternatives of markets and hierarchies. Rather, electronic markets are configurations across multiple, interdependent dimensions: Technology is an important force in shaping the field, but needs to be complemented by considerations of the competitive environment and the setting of rules in order to ensure efficient and effective plays of the game. Based on this framework, this position paper develops six propositions for the future of electronic markets. Overall, the advantages of intermediated structures, an ongoing technological sophistication, as well as further innovation in market mechanisms and services make electronic markets an enabler for many inter-organizational value chains. While we are confident that the ingenuity of inventors will yield a flow of innovations, recent economic crises have shed a dark shadow over the sustainability of electronic markets. They call for suitable rules and regulation amenable to economic prosperity and stability to be agreed upon on a broad level. KeywordsMarket theory
 
E-commerce related brand name curses
E-commerce and polar views on brand protection
The reach of the Internet and the low cost of selling products online have made it possible for anybody to participate in the online market. In this paper, we argue that e-commerce can be a brand name’s curse due to information asymmetries and the existence of indifferent consumers, which perpetuate counterfeiting of branded products and the infringement of brand names in e-markets. Counterfeiting and infringement devalue the information capital embodied in a brand name, and ultimately reduce sales and profits of the brand name holders. While legal measures have been enacted to deal with intellectual property problems, we argue that market mechanisms are more efficient and more effective in dealing with brand name problems in e-markets. This is because rules in themselves often provide neither the slightest hint of where to look for violations, nor the incentive to convict violators. Market mechanisms such as information syndication, pricing of e-markets services, and vendor malpractice could be effective in deterring counterfeiting and brand name infringement. We hope our positional contribution will stir interest to look into this serious problem and extend our suggestions by developing concrete innovative mechanisms to safeguard online transactions. KeywordsE-commerce-E-markets-Counterfeiting-Brand names JEL ClassificationL81
 
This paper presents a study of the characteristics of viable business models in the field of Mobile Commerce (m-commerce). Mobility has given new dimensions to the way commerce works. All over the world various stakeholder organisations are consistently probing into the areas where m-commerce can be exploited and can generate revenue or value for them, even though some of those implementations are making the business environment more complex and uncertain. This paper proposes a viable business model evaluation framework, based on the VISOR model, which helps in determining the sustainability capabilities of a business model. Four individual cases were conducted with diverse organisations in the Information Technology sector. The four cases discussed dealt with mobile business models and the primary data was collected via semi structured interviews, supplemented by an extensive range of secondary data. A cross-case comparative data analysis was used to review the patterns of different viable business components across the four cases and, finally, the findings and conclusions of the study are presented. KeywordsBusiness models-M-commerce-Evaluation framework JELL14-L22-L80
 
Integration of information systems is a prerequisite for efficient collaboration within and between organizations. Despite intensive research on integration issues in Information Systems research, companies nowadays still encounter considerable challenges in integration projects. The question for the reasons still engages researchers and practitioners. The paper at hand investigates current integration problems by deriving a framework for integration problems from literature research and applying it for the analysis of concrete cases from business practice. The examples are described in detail in explorative case studies examining three integration projects from different industries and with different objectives. From the comparison of theoretically derived and practically proven integration problems, the paper identifies integration problems that have been insufficiently addressed so far and discusses open challenges of integration in the Information Systems discipline.
 
The last 10years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter-organizational relationships. The interest of this paper is to investigate the shift in the role and evolution of services proposed by e-marketplaces in response to the demands of the market participants. We carried out a longitudinal qualitative field study of an e-marketplace providing the outsourcing of the procurement process. Through the study of services evolving over time we show that, as marketplaces support increasingly complex business processes, the market participants begin to privilege the well connected small number to the convenience of the openness to the entire market. The participants see the marketplace as an exclusive club, the belonging to which provides a strategic advantage. The technology brought forth by the marketplace participates in shaping the strategic demands of the participants which in turn request the marketplace to redesign its own strategy. Profiting from this unintended demand, the e-marketplace assumes the paradoxical role of a strategic mediator: an agent who upholds and heightens the fences of the transactions instead of leveling them. The results have implication in shaping how we see the role of technology as strategic or commoditized.
 
The potential of electronic markets in enabling innovative product bundles through flexible and sustainable partnerships is not yet fully exploited in the telecommunication industry. One reason is that bundling requires seamless de-assembling and re-assembling of business processes, whilst processes in telecommunication companies are often product-dependent and hard to virtualize. We propose a framework for the planning of the virtualization of processes, intended to assist the decision maker in prioritizing the processes to be virtualized: (a) we transfer the virtualization pre-requisites stated by the Process Virtualization Theory in the context of customer-oriented processes in the telecommunication industry and assess their importance in this context, (b) we derive IT-oriented requirements for the removal of virtualization barriers and highlight their demand on changes at different levels of the organization. We present a first evaluation of our approach in a case study and report on lessons learned and further steps to be performed. KeywordsTelecommunication-Services-Process virtualization-Product bundling-Transformation JELL96-Telecommunication
 
Mobile telemedicine service platform 
Service Quality as a higher order reflective model 
Advancing research on service quality requires clarifying the theoretical conceptualizations and validating an integrated service quality model. The purpose of this study is to facilitate and elucidate practical issues and decisions related to the development of a hierarchical service quality model in mobile health (mHealth) services research. Conceptually, it extends theory by reframing service quality as a reflective, hierarchical construct and modeling its impact on satisfaction, intention to continue using and quality of life. Empirically, it confirms that PLS path modeling can be used to estimate the parameters of a higher order construct and its association with subsequent consequential latent variables in a nomological network. The findings of the study show that service quality is the third-order, reflective construct model with strong positive effects on satisfaction, continuance intentions and quality of life in the context of mHealth services. Finally, the study discusses the implications of hierarchical service quality modeling in electronic markets and highlights future research directions. KeywordsService quality-Satisfaction-Intention to continue using-Quality of life-PLS path modeling JELI11-L80-M15-M31
 
The purpose of this paper is to articulate and speculate on the nature of the risks and opportunities that European companies will face after the deregulation of telecommunications in 1998.
 
The 2001 Trading Agent Competition was the second in a series of events aiming to shed light on research issues in automating trading strategies. Based on a challenging market scenario in the domain of travel shopping, the competition presents agents with difficult issues in bidding strategy, market prediction, and resource allocation. Entrants in 2001 demonstrated substantial progress over the prior year, with the overall level of competence exhibited suggesting that trading in online markets is a viable domain for highly autonomous agents.
 
Internet business models -2
Electronic commerce over the Internet may be either complementary to traditional business or represent a whole new line of the new features of the Internet, critical questions to be answered include: ♦ what are the emerging business models; and related to this ♦ which strategic marketing approaches are applied, or emerging. This article addresses the first question above by providing a framework for the classification of Internet electronic commerce business models. This framework has been developed on the basis of current commercial Internet business and experimental work in European R&D programmes.
 
Much of the rhetoric about Web-based electronic commerce focuses on its use in reaching global markets. Yet not all businesses can or should target global audiences. The literature on electronic commerce to date does not provide adequate guidance about the ways that local merchants can exploit synergies between their local physical presence and electronic commerce on the Web. In this paper, potential synergies, such as using a combined physical and virtual presence to improve trust, help consumers manage risk, meet diverse shopping preferences, and taking advantage of natural physical-virtual complementarities, are developed. We follow with a brief empirical analysis that illustrates the relative lack of use of these synergies among small and medium sized enterprises having a physical presence in a local market. We conclude that there is a mismatch between electronic commerce rhetoric and the capabilities of many local businesses, and policy makers may need to take a more local approach to electronic commerce in order to prevent it from becoming a threat to local economies. Key Words: Electronic commerce, local merchants, retailing, virtual versus physical presence, global versus local electronic commerce This is a draft of a paper that has been published in Electronic Markets, vol 9, no 2, 02/99. Please see the journal for the final version. Steinfield, Mahler, & Bauer Electronic Commerce and the Local Merchant 2 Electronic Commerce and the Local Merchant: Opportunities for Synergy Between Physical and Web Presence
 
Three Key Characteristics of EC-Communities
Bringing communities of buyers and sellers together in the arena of electronic commerce stimulates three major potentials: the building of trust, the collection and effective use of community knowledge and the economic impacts of accumulated buying power. In this context, we introduce the concept of Virtual Communities of Transaction and review important personalization approaches which we may utilize in their design: collaborative filtering, data mining, and techniques to optimize the user interface and the underlying product offerings. The key contributions of this paper are the elaboration of Virtual Communities, the presentation of a categorization scheme for different types of communities, the identification of classes of member profiles, and the innovative concept of community products. We conclude with the case of the Amazon.com Recommendation Center to illustrate key design ideas and discuss an evolutionary application, the Participatory Product Catalog. 1. Introduction Doing ...
 
This article motivates an ESM architecture and illustrates these design goals by taking pattern from the EU-funded Project OSM that Hamburg University participates in.
 
This article presents a study of Fortune 1000 webmasters' perceptions of thirtyfive variables that support quality in the design of consumer-oriented web sites used for electronic commerce. The study combines consumer marketing constructs: Learning Capability, Playfulness, Service Quality with information systems constructs of Information Quality, System Quality, and System Use. The subjects have expert level knowledge related to quality issues in the design of web sites. Eighteen percent of the Webmasters responded to two formats of an electronic survey. The overall importance ratings correlated positively and significantly with the marketing and information systems research constructs, thus these constructs were shown as significant to well designed web sites for consumeroriented electronic commerce. Designers of web sites might apply these results.
 
This work proposes a new branding process that is inspired by and builds on the fundamental ideas behind the term Web 2.0. The paper shows how information systems can be designed to create value throughout the branding process by collecting and distributing user/consumer‐generated content that supports physical‐virtual artefacts. The paper follows the design‐science research guidelines provided by Hevner et al. (200421. Hevner , A. R. , March , S. T. , Park , J. and Ram , S. 2004. ‘Design Science in Information Systems Research’. MIS Quarterly, 28(1): 75–105. [Web of Science ®]View all references). It introduces the model of Branding 2.0 and a real‐world instantiation. Related cases are analyzed and compared to the instantiation to refine the model and extract implications for designing future branding applications. Finally, a note on possible business models demonstrates options for an implementation scenario.
 
History of offers (a) Chris's, and (b) Tamara's  
No-graph display of the negotiation history  
Messages submitted for each model
Dyadic message size for each model
Electronic negotiations are supported by a number of technologies including e‐mail, web‐enabled decision support systems and e‐negotiation systems (ENSs). The features of the ENS used by a negotiator can affect the negotiation outcome because of the type and scope of support provided and its presentation. ENSs usually interface with users via a natural language system and/or graphical display. This paper reports the results of the effect of the provision of graphical representation on reaching agreement in bilateral negotiation using the Inspire ENS system compared to negotiations conducted using the same system without graphical representation. No difference was observed in the proportion of dyads that reached agreement with graphical representation compared to the system without graphical support. For dyads that reached agreement, participants using the system without graphical support submitted a lower number of offers. The average message size per dyad was 334 words greater, on average, for successful...
 
The adoption of standards to improve interoperability in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and other sectors could save billions. While interoperability standards have been created for a number of industries, problems persist, suggesting a lack of quality of the standards themselves. The issue of semantic standard quality is not often addressed. In this research we take a closer look at the quality of semantics standards, development processes, and survey the current state of the quality of semantic standards by means of a questionnaire that was sent to standards developers. This survey looked at 34 semantic standards, and it shows that the quality of semantic standards for inter-organizational interoperability can be improved. Improved standards may advance interoperability in networked business. Improvement of semantic standards requires transparency of their quality. Although many semantic standard development organisations already have quality assurance in place, this research shows that they could benefit from a quality measuring instrument.
 
Until recently, electronic markets were dominated by the combination of static offer schemes and fixed pricing. Static offer schemes such as online catalogues apparently bear the risk of not matching the requirements of all potential buyers. But fixing a price also imposes another risk to the seller - the price might not always reflect the current market balance of supply and demand and the specific valuation of a single buyer. Whereas static offer schemes today are still prevalent, electronic auctions address the risk related to fixed pricing with an easy way of price discovery and differentiation by soliciting a wide range of bids from multiple parties. In this paper reasons for the recent success of the auction paradigm in electronic markets are identified. But we will also illustrate one fundamental limitation: the price-based bidding of today's auctions supports only distributive negotiations and does not provide a model for integrative negotiations where differences in the valuations of consumers an...
 
NAICS Codes Of The Nine Retail Industry Groups Selected
Summary of Firms Included in the Web Site Content Analysis
Content Analysis Categories And Coding Scheme
Relative Frequency of Selected Web Site Features in Click and Mortar Firms
Variation in Click and Mortar Oriented Web Features Across Different Retail Sectors
E-commerce researchers have shown that retailers are increasingly following a click and mortar strategy, whereby online and offline channels are becoming more integrated. Despite case study evidence for the benefit of this approach, an analysis of the Web sites of nearly 1,000 U.S.-based retailers having both an online and offline presence reveals that a high degree of integration across channels is relatively uncommon. On the contrary, the study reported here demonstrates that retailers are more likely to pursue easy-to-accomplish, low intensity, informational integration when developing an online presence, exemplified by such features as a listing of store locations or hours. Few retail Web sites offer complex integration capabilities, such as the ability to search local store inventories, or to pick up and return online purchases in a local outlet. Regression analyses reveal that the retail sector and firm resources help to explain this discrepancy. With regard to sector, some product types require more physical presence (e.g. in-person inspection or interaction) than others, and a high degree of integration appears to require a level of investment and IT sophistication not always available to small retailers.
 
With rapid advances in information technology, information systems and software have become more versatile and multi‐functional. However, users may have varying degrees of preferences to different functions and tasks that can be accomplished using a single technology. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this study adopts a previous study by Gefen and Straub (200025. Gefen , D. and Straub , D. W. 2000. ‘The Relative Importance of Perceived Ease of Use in IS Adoption: A Study of E‐Commerce Adoption’,. Journal of Association for Information Systems, 1(8): 1–30. View all references) as a reference point and uses Internet technology to investigate two tasks: information search and online purchasing. The current study provides a more comprehensive picture of applying task behaviours by decomposing each variable in the technology acceptance model (TAM) according to the two online tasks. The proposed model was tested with survey data from 435 respondents. Results demonstrate that TAM holds its explanatory utility very well when applied to task behaviours. Convergent and discriminant validities indicate that each task possesses its own characteristics and variables. A structural equation modelling test was performed and the results show that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have significant relationships with intention only within its task but not outside. As a result, our results outperform those reported in the baseline study of Gefen and Straub. It is therefore advisable for organizations in deploying technology to delineate user behaviour by tasks and explore the impact of the technology on individual tasks.
 
Innovative auction design has to consider both the outcome of market processes in terms of market quality and the business models of market participants. Recent competition for, and cost pressure in acquiring retail order flow has changed the role of market access intermediaries, i.e. banks or brokers, in European equity markets. They are attempting to extract a higher value out of the retail order flow especially by providing internal matching against their own trading books commonly referred to as internalization. In this environment, Deutsche Börse designed an innovative equity trading market model fully integrated into its Xetra trading system. The paper presents this market model (Xetra BEST) based on an analysis of the changing role of market access intermediaries. It derives and validates design requirements for a model that aims at maintaining a high level of market efficiency while serving the needs of market access intermediaries in an internalization framework.
 
Studies on the Economic Impact of Interoperability
Interoperability Costs Breakdown (INSEAD 2006)
Software vendors claim in their marketing brochures that business processes and interoperability can be optimised through the use of business software. Business literature emphasizes the various benefits companies can gain from the targeted use of IT ...
 
This qualitative research examines propin- quity across two grocery shopping situations - real (in-store) and virtual (online). Examining how the same consumers shop for the same or similar commodities pro- vides quasi-experimental conditions to examine differences in shopping behaviour. Convergent interviews with 15 respondents identified that consumer reasons - expecta- tions of convenience, trust and satisfaction - for choosing online over in-store shopping fall into three categories of propinquity: physical, temporal and relational. The main reason consumers chose online shopping was convenience, to save time. To maximize trust and satisfaction, consumers seldom changed brand in online grocery shopping situations. The analysis also identified four distinct online shopper types - occasional, nasties, speciality and dependent - based on perceptions of convenience and trust and satisfaction associated with virtual situations.
 
Brazil presents an interesting case study of local factors influencing the adoption and impacts of e‐commerce. It is a large developing country in which some segments of the economy are technologically sophisticated while others are quite backward. Based on existing knowledge of Brazil's economic and policy environment and its experience with other information technologies, we develop three themes that encompass a priori expectations about the diffusion and impacts of e‐commerce. First is the expected leadership of the financial sector, driven by strong IT capabilities and a historical orientation toward automation. Next is the leadership of large firms in adopting e‐commerce, driven by economies of scale and scope that enhance the perceived benefits of adoption. Third is the relative importance of local versus global forces in driving e‐commerce diffusion. Unlike other countries in which globalization is a driver of e‐commerce diffusion, Brazil's relatively low international integration of the manufacturing industry, its large size, and its historical inward orientation are expected to reduce the role of global factors as e‐business drivers.We analyse results from a ten‐country survey of 2,100 firms, including 200 in Brazil, to examine these propositions in the light of empirical evidence. We find support for each of the themes. In addition we find that the lack of an adequate legal and regulatory environment to support e‐commerce has been an important barrier to adoption.
 
Although case-study-based success stories of EDI abound, there is little systematic analysis of the impact of EDI across a wide range of companies. This research provides such data by analyzing the workings of EDI in 255 small and medium sized manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors in the U.S.Findings are presented in five areas:present status of EDI, tactics used to Implement EDI, reasons why companies do EDI, relationships between integration and EDI's Impact, human resources for successful EDI, and future developments.
 
Given the transaction as a basic unit of analysis, a comprehensive model of value added roles can be distilled from the synthesis of network design and business process models. Any given implementation may be seen as a cluster of roles that add value for the buyer and produce revenue for the seller. The general representation of the model suggests that there are four common classes of roles from which the possibilities for adding value through e-commerce can be derived: Organic, Structural, Functional and Commercial. These roles are defined and discussed, beginning with the organic distinction of Markets vs. Hierarchies. This comprehensive model provides a solid foundation for the systematic analysis of e-commerce implementations.
 
When managing their growing service portfolio, many manufacturers in B2B markets face two significant problems: They fail to communicate the value of their service offerings and they lack the capability to generate profits with value-added services. To tackle these two issues, we have built and evaluated a collaborative filtering recommender system which (a) makes individualized recommendations of potentially interesting value-added services when customers express interest in a particular physical product and also (b) leverages estimations of a customer’s willingness to pay to allow for a dynamic pricing of those services and the incorporation of profitability considerations into the recommendation process. The recommender system is based on an adapted conjoint analysis method combined with a stepwise componential segmentation algorithm to collect individualized preference and willingness-to-pay data. Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our system requires significantly less customer input before making a recommendation, does not suffer from the usual sparseness of data and cold-start problems of collaborative filtering systems, and, as is shown in an empirical evaluation with a sample of 428 customers in the machine tool market, does not diminish the predictive accuracy of the recommendations offered.
 
The deployment of new value‐added mobile services has had mixed results in terms of adoption rates and revenue generation, despite the fact that mobile operators rely on such services for future growth, in view of saturated markets for the basic voice service. The paper suggests that innovation and growth in the mobile services industry largely depends on the extent to which structural conditions in the industry support widespread experimentation, collaboration and risk‐taking. Based on the results of earlier scenario analysis research on mobile business, the paper explores the potential for growth in value added mobile services under different assumptions regarding competition and collaboration in the mobile industry. The paper deliberates the strategic challenges and opportunities for mobile operators, service providers and service integrators under four scenarios for the future of the mobile industry. Given the state of competition and collaboration among those three main roles of industry players in different scenarios, the paper examines the potential for growth in value added mobile services.
 
Due to the new Web‐based forms of communication and customer interaction, the Internet directly impacts corporate branding strategies through the concept of e‐branding. Further, the Internet may alter the cost – benefit ratio of additional brands in the offline world, thus indirectly creating the need to adapt the offline brand structure. In those industries in which e‐commerce plays or will play a significant role in the design of business processes, the Internet is expected to have a strong impact on the offline brand structure and to lead to a stronger interdependence of brand structure, IT structure and organizational structure. This paper discusses direct and indirect interdependencies of these three elements by placing them in a polygon of influencing factors to arrive at the concept of e‐adequate branding. Instead of creating a pure e‐brand or merely transferring offline branding to the Internet, it is vital that the offline brand structure be designed in a manner compatible with the online environ...
 
In this paper we discuss the current status and existing potential of performing efficient and reliable e-commerce in one of the principal trade and transportation hubs of Southeast Asia, namely Hong Kong. We provide an overview of a number of components that are prerequisites for e-commerce. Telecommunications, broadcasting and new digital and interactive services (iTV) form an innovative alternative to Internet-based e-commerce. We provide an overview of the Internet situation in Hong Kong and the rest of China, and discuss the existing e-commerce providers. The major explanatory factor for the favourable state of Hong Kong's ecommerce infrastructure is the coexisting mix of private and public e-commerce initiatives.
 
Government policy worldwide is to assist small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) to become e‐enabled, yet it is unclear what impact this has. There is evidence that customers drive e‐adoption due to the need to integrate information in the supply chain. There is also evidence that SME owners drive adoption, primarily as a response to perceived benefits. However, there is little exploration of the role of government initiatives in influencing e‐adoption strategies in SMEs. This paper uses network agency theory to investigate Internet adoption in SMEs. The research identifies five influence networks: expert – primarily in IT firms; industry‐led – SMEs working in collaboration with sector organizations; and customer‐led – driven by customer requirements. The drivers of these three networks are primarily strategic. The other two networks, ICT support and novice, are driven by the SME owner. The key difference is the maturity of internal IT. This research demonstrates that government policies and st...
 
Grid Protocol Architecture and the different aggregation levels of services and resources  
summarizes the discussion above.
This paper argues that the technology of Grid computing has not yet been adopted by enterprises due to the lack of viable business models. While in academia, Grid technology has already been taken up, the sharing approach among non for-profit organizations is not suitable for enterprises. In this paper, the idea of a Grid market is taken up to overcome this Grid adoption gap. Although this idea is not new, all previous proposals have been made either by computer scientists being unaware of economic market mechanisms or by economists being unaware of the technical requirements and possibilities. This paper is unique as it derives an economically sound set of market mechanisms based on a solid understanding of the technical possibilities.
 
The online B2B environment makes a vast amount of data about prices and costs available on the Internet, which tends to make information more transparent in electronic marketplaces. In this study, we focus on the informational effects of Internetbased B2B exchanges, and explore the incentives for buyers and suppliers to join a B2B exchange. We found that information disclosure rules crucially affect the firms' incentives. Data transparency benefits some firms but hurts others. We also found that low-cost suppliers and high-value buyers would be early adopters of the B2B exchange. In addition, B2B exchange owners should keep an appropriate balance between information transparency and data confidentiality so as to minimize the competitive risks while safeguarding the collaborative benefits of information transparency.
 
Categories of organizations and number of interviews
Contextual influences on XBRL adoption  
XBRL is an emerging innovation that has the potential to play an important role in the electronic production and consumption of financial information. Since the organizational adoption of XBRL is not well understood, we use an exploratory approach grounded in qualitative data to provide an analysis of the reasons for its relatively limited uptake in Australia. Our analysis synthesises a technology-organization-environment adoption model that explains the XBRL innovation outcome in this context. The research confirms the usefulness of this approach for studying network innovations in electronic business and markets, and extends it to a novel innovation domain. It adds a new dimension to such studies by emphasizing the interactions that occur between innovation adoption factors in the diffusion of complex network innovations. The research also has implications for policy-makers and adoption decision-makers in Australia and other similar contexts.
 
This paper seeks to provide a clearer understanding of discrepancies observed in the level, pace and style of e-business development across countries and industries. It is based on an original survey performed on 1100 firms in five developed countries. Through in-depth analyses of the adoption, use and impact of e-business technologies and methods we highlight contrasted paths of adoption across countries and industries that cannot be explained by institutional and business factors alone. The dynamic of adoption or various types of technologies engages business networks on contrasted self-reinforcing paths that do not necessarily converge toward a common way of using ICTs to buy and sell or coordinate on- line. There are clearly two contrasted strategies. The first is to adopt e-business technologies and methods to enhance coordination with business partners. Such a strategy is aimed at saving costs. The second consists in adopting e-commerce technologies to buy and sell on- line. The latter strategy aims at increasing sales, but does not systematically do so. Success is linked to re-engineering and to the adoption of automated methods of coordination. Contrasted initial conditions result in businesses taking one of these two paths or blocking adoption at some point.
 
Top-cited authors
Ulrike Gretzel
  • University of Southern California
Zheng Xiang
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Chulmo Koo
  • Kyung Hee University
Marianna Sigala
  • University of Piraeus
Merrill Warkentin
  • Mississippi State University