Educational Technology & Society

Published by International Forum of Educational Technology and Society
Online ISSN: 1436-4522
Publications
Proposed personalization approach 
Term Vector Building process 
Architecture of the hybrid e-learning recommender system 
Pre-processed RPL logs per month
Conference Paper
The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming one of the most preferred and widespread mediums of learning. Unfortunately, most of the current Web-based learning systems are still delivering the same educational resources in the same way to learners with different profiles. A number of past efforts have dealt with e-learning personalization, generally, relying on explicit information. In this paper, we aim to compute on-line automatic recommendations to an active learner based on his/her recent navigation history, as well as exploiting similarities and dissimilarities among user preferences and among the contents of the learning resources. First we start by mining learner profiles using Web usage mining techniques and content-based profiles using information retrieval techniques. Then, we use these profiles to compute relevant links to recommend for an active learner by applying a number of different recommendation strategies.
 
Conference Paper
Context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, which embeds various ubiquitous computing technologies, allows applications to acquire diverse learning behaviors of each u-learner. Those behaviors that were collected and recorded by the u-learning system can be quite useful to enhance the analysis of learner characteristics which can be utilized to distinguish and group learners for further instruction strategy design, for instance, a ubiquitous collaborative learning strategy. This needs a systematical method to analyze learner behaviors and utilize learner characteristics for the group composition. This paper attempts to propose an effective learner grouping scheme which contains processes of the transformation from u-portfolio to our proposed Portfolio Grid, the creation of learner similarity matrix, and the group composition. The aim of this paper is to propose a systematical manner of dividing learners into groups based on the analysis of previously collected u-learning portfolios. The analysis outcome, which has implied the similarity of various behaviors of learners, will facilitate obtaining an expected grouping result for the use of further learning activities such as ubiquitous collaborative learning and team working.
 
Article
Science simulations are popular among educators as such simulations afford for multiple visual representation and interactivity. Despite the popularity and abundance on the internet, our literature review suggested little research has been conducted on the use of simulation in elementary school. Thus, an exploratory pilot case study was conducted to address this research gap. In this study, an open source energy simulation was remixed for use in elementary school targeted at the Grade 4 & 5 students as an after-school enrichment program. We proposed 3 stages: design, customization and implementation, to provide useful insights with the aim to allow other educators to conduct their own remixed simulation lessons. The simulation design principles (e.g., learning outcomes and colour coding) with the corresponding TPACK construct that emerged from the design and customization stages were reported. Such simulation design principles would be useful to interested educators and researchers who wish to adapt and use simulation or teach others how to remix simulation. Data from the multiple sources (e.g., field observations, surveys, design notes and existing simulations) indicated that students enjoyed learning with the remixed energy simulation.
 
Overview of CRYSTAL ISLAND. Fig 2. The user, Alex, with Jin, the camp nurse on CRYSTAL ISLAND.
Likelihoods for all transitions CURRENT → NEXT for the affective states:
Interesting likelihood for transitions differences by empathetic response type (parallel or reactive).
Transitions from frustration and flow to FRustration, FLow, COnfusion, DElight, BOredom, ANxiety, EXcitement, ANger, SAdness, and FEar.
Conference Paper
Affect has been the subject of increasing attention in cognitive accounts of learning. Many intelligent tutoring systems now seek to adapt pedagogy to student affective and motivational processes in an effort to increase the effectiveness of tutorial interaction and improve learning outcomes. To this end, recent work has begun to investigate the emotions experienced during learning in a variety of environments. In this paper we extend this line of research by investigating the affective transitions that occur throughout narrative-centered learning experiences. Further analysis differentiates the likelihood of affective transitions stemming from pedagogical agent empathetic responses to student affect.
 
Article
Introduction As an increasing number of higher education institutions (HEI's) look to computers to solve some of the problems associated with the burden of expanded student numbers, advances in technology are increasingly impacting the way in which the curriculum is delivered and assessed (Hartley et al, 1999). More contentious than using computers to deliver content and support student learning is computer-assisted assessment (CAA). CAA can include a range of activities such as, the collation, analysis and transmission of examination grades across networks and, most desirably, the use of computer-based assessment, where students complete assessments at workstations and their answers are automatically marked. CAA is, in comparison to computer-aided learning, a relatively new development and is often pioneered by enthusiastic individual academics (Stephens et al, 1998). The successful implementation of CAA is often hindered or abandoned due to time
 
Article
this paper is to draw maximum advantages from its early implementation and prevent paying the high price of fast growing unemployment and lowering the standard of living, for the delay in its acceptance.
 
Article
This paper describes first steps taken at an Italian business university to use computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) to enhance the quality of teaching and learning for students in large classes. We describe the educational environment, goals, design of CSCL activities, and impact of the new course design on teachers, students, and administrators. We confirm that CSCL can be used to enhance on-campus learning, but that many adjustments need to be made. Students appreciate a shared electronic repository for project materials, and a space where they can record reflections when they cannot meet face-to-face. Substantive tasks should not be very complex while students are learning to work in a CSCL environment. The initial impact on teaching staff is substantial, but some practical techniques can reduce postimplementation impact by managing communication among students and between students and teachers. Other success factors include strong co-operation among al...
 
A typical collaboration with the Virtual School involved chat (lower left), video-conferencing (upper right), and the collaborative notebook (lower right). Group members, communication features, collaborative notebooks, and notices are displayed and accessed using the main panel (upper left) 
The collaborative planning tool provides a hierarchical outline view and a Gantt chart view of the organization of the project tasks 
Article
In this paper, we examine the collaboration problems teachers encountered in the course of instructing students using collaborative computer software to connect distributed classrooms. We describe issues surrounding teacher collaborations arising from three types of sources: Organizational chaos of teaching, physical and temporal dispersion of events and causes, and individualism in teaching practices. We illustrate how our situation presents new challenges and opportunities to better facilitate and motivate teacher collaborations, ones that may become typical in the future of education and thus are important to analyze now. Finally we describe some technological solutions to problems arising from traditional and novel teacher collaborations. Keywords Teacher collaboration, Teaching practices, Collaborative technology, Distributed instruction Introduction Auburn Middle School, Friday 12:45 pm: An eighth grade science teacher hustles in and out of the Ethernetwired...
 
Article
This articles examines the role of computer-mediated communication as well as broader interpretations of communication in Web-based instruction. Overviews of cognitive processing and cognitive constructivist paradigms are presented to illustrate their relevance for guiding development of Web-based courses. Instructional goals and communication strategies associated with these paradigms are identified. We conclude that developers should use instructional theories to guide choices for facilitating communications goals in Web-based courses. Because of increasing demands on professionals in many disciplines to develop Web-based instruction, it is recommended that university training programs require appropriate candidates to demonstrate relevant theoretical knowledge and skill competencies. Keywords Web-based instruction, Internet communication, instructional theory, cognitive processing, cognitive constructivist Introduction Web-based instruction is a rapidly growing instructio...
 
Article
This paper presents a case study of evaluating intelligent tutoring modules for procedural knowledge acquisition in numeric disciplines. The modules adopt mixed-initiative approach to provide intelligent tutoring through a granular problem-solving interface. As Iqbal et al. (1999), while providing a categorisation of evaluation into twenty experimental and exploratory methods, have noted, the benefit of carrying out evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is to focus the attention away from short-term delivery and open up a dialogue about issues of appropriateness, usability and quality in system design. The paper very briefly covers the application of the exploratory methods such as expert inspection, level of agreement, criterion-based evaluation, pilot testing and outside assessment (Iqbal et al., 1999) for the purpose internal and external evaluation for validating and improving the system design. The main focus is, however, on the examination of the effectiveness of the ...
 
Map of the Web Site of the Tex-Mex Virtual Design Studio. Note the hyperlinks to the studios in Texas and Mexico 
In Electronic White-Boarding the expressiveness of body language and hand motion is replaced by a cursor in the image that is transmitted 
Video Feedback as experienced in the Virtual Design Studio 
Map of the Web Site of the Tex-Mex Virtual Design Studio. Note the hyperlinks to the studios in Texas and Mexico 
Article
This contribution presents an instructional model that aims to offer a convenient alternative to study abroad programs in college education. The instructional model, known as the International Reciprocal Distance Education Model (Vsquez de Velasco & Holland, 1998a), is implemented by means of tactical models that address all possible instructional scenarios of a design curriculum. All the tactical models presented make use of digital network technology as means of delivery. Beyond the development of a conceptual framework that describes the general strategic model and its tactics, the article concentrates on the description of a Virtual Design Studio as the most complex instructional scenario of the array. The article describes how the "Tex-Mex Virtual Design Studio", initially implemented in 1996 for interaction between students and faculty of Texas A&M University and La Salle University in Mexico, has evolved into the "Las Americas Virtual Design Studio" with the incorporati...
 
User Data
Command Trendline
Computing Tutorial Intervention
OWL Tip Viewer OWL Tips focus on what the user should learn next. That is just another way of saying that OWL Tips focus on the user's ignorance, and no one likes to have their ignorance brought to their attention. We have designed another tool intended to present users with a more-complete view of the state of their knowledge, the Skill-OMeter (Figure 6). Like the skillometers of Anderson (1992) and Lesgold (1992), the Skill-O-Meter will show users what they know, instead of what they don't know. In OWL the Skill-O-Meter will show users what they know compared to the pooled knowledge of a demographic group the users selects themselves, such as users with a particular job title, in a particular department, holding the same degree, etc.
Skill-O-Meter
Article
We describe the use of a recommender system to enable continuous knowledge acquisition and individualized tutoring of application software across an organization. Installing such systems will result in the capture of evolving expertise and in organization-wide learning (OWL). We present the results of a year-long naturalistic inquiry into an application's usage patterns, based on logging users' actions. We analyze the data to develop user models, individualized expert models, and instructional indicators. We show how this information is used to recommend learning tips to users. Keywords Recommender system, organization-wide learning, OWL, individualized instruction, agent, instrumentation, logging. Introduction New Workplace Technologies Enable New Learning Methods In the last decade, an enormous change has taken place in the workplace: there is a PC on every desk, and much office work is performed in the medium of software. Mastering one's software - at least the portion of...
 
Article
In 2005, the new quality standard for learning, education, and training, ISO/IEC 19796-1, was published. Its purpose is to help educational organizations to develop quality systems and to improve the quality of their processes, products, and services. In this article, the standard is presented and compared to existing approaches, showing the methodology and its advantages for educational organizations. However, since the standard is a reference model, it has to be adapted to the needs and requirements of an organization. Hence, the main aspect is the adoption and implementation process: How can ISO/IEC 19796-1 successfully be implemented in educational organizations and support the variety of involved actors? To answer this question, the quality adaptation model identifies steps and instruments to bring the abstract standard into practice. The article closes with a case study evaluating the use and adequacy of the model.
 
Article
The Knowledge Management Yearbook 1999-2000 is a compilation of articles deemed by the editors to be some of the most representative and best published works from 1997 and 1998.Criteria for selection included practicality of the usability in solving problems and exploiting knowledge management practices, and that they be authoritative. As stated in the preface, "the articles that made the cut are the ones that represent the best in their class, providing you with a standard for reading and judging other materials" (p. xi).
 
Descriptive statistics of the respondents (%)
Analysis of the technology acceptance of Web 2.0
Article
In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to participate in this study in the U. S. and the South of Korea, producing 183 usable responses. Targeting six Web 2.0 applications (blogs, instant messenger, online social communities/Facebook, online video sharing/YouTube, online video & audio conference/Skype, and social virtual communities/Second Life) the survey investigated five categories of technology acceptance based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Significant differences on utilization level and the anxiety level for using them were found in numerous Web 2.0 applications. Korean students responded that most Web 2.0 applications are apprehensive for them to use when compared to their counterparts in the U.S.. The study further discussed the observed differences based on cultural theories and their implications on Web 2.0 learning technology integration. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
A significant portion of the population is at risk of being excluded from online learning environments. People with learning and/or physically disabilities may be prevented from participation due to problems in the design of the learning technology itself or with the pedagogy directing its use. This paper presents an overview of the results of Inclusion in an Electronic Classroom, a study conducted by the Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto. The study examined six courseware environments as used by people with various disabilities. Results show that it is imperative for courseware manufacturers and instructors to take accessibility into consideration when designing online courses. Operating an accessible, inclusive electronic classroom ensures students with disabilities can participate with parity in global educational exchange.
 
Example screen from the multimedia application “Leonidas” 
Means 1 and standard deviations for the sex groups in each factor
Article
The purpose of this study was to adapt the questionnaire Multimedia Attitude Survey (MAS; Garcia, 2001) to the Greek population in order to evaluate the educational multimedia application "Leonidas" considering the attitudes of ATHENS 2004 team leaders. In addition, the differences among the sex were also investigated. Participants were 232 team leaders, between the ages from 33-44 years old. One hundred twenty two (52.6%) of the participants were men and one hundred ten were women (47.4%). Data was collected using an on-line survey at the end of this study. Results from the factor analysis yielded eight factors accounting for 89.98% of the variance. Reliability analysis indicated a satisfactory internal consistency estimate of reliability for the attitude questionnaire. Independent-samples t test analysis revealed significant differences between the two sex groups, in the case of one factor: "general experience". In the factor above the women reported better results. In conclusion the team leaders' feedback from the questionnaires indicated a general level of satisfaction and contentment with this particular multimedia application. The scale adapted in the present study can be a useful tool for the evaluation of other relative multimedia applications by multimedia developers. Nevertheless, further examination is warranted in order to obtain additional information concerning the difficulties of multimedia experience on employees' attitudes toward multimedia applications.
 
Article
The best way to learn is by having a good teacher and the best language learning takes place when the learner is immersed in an environment where the language is natively spoken. 3D multi-user virtual worlds have been claimed to be useful for learning, and the field of exploiting them for education is becoming more and more active thanks to the availability of open source 3D multi-user virtual world development tools. The research question we wanted to respond to was whether we could deploy an engaging learning experience to foster communication skills within a 3D multi-user virtual world with minimum teacher’s help. We base our instructional design on the combination of two constructivist learning strategies: situated learning and cooperative/collaborative learning. We extend the capabilities of the Open Wonderland development toolkit to provide natural text chatting with non-player characters, textual tagging of virtual objects, automatic reading of texts in learning sequences and the orchestration of learning activities to foster collaboration. Our preliminary evaluation of the experience deems it to be very promising.
 
The 3P Learning Model 
Article
Recognizing the failures of traditional Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) initiatives to achieve performance improvement, we need to rethink how we design new TEL models that can respond to the learning requirements of the 21st century and mirror the characteristics of knowledge and learning which are fundamentally personal, social, distributed, ubiquitous, flexible, dynamic, and complex in nature. In this paper, we discuss the 3P learning model; a vision of learning characterized by the convergence of lifelong, informal, and personalized learning within a social context. The 3P learning model encompasses three core elements: Personalization, Participation, and Knowledge-Pull. We then present the social software supported learning framework as a framework that illustrates the 3P learning model in action, based on Web 2.0 concepts and social software technologies.
 
Students' knowledge test scores regarding aquatic plants before and after learning activities (N=46)
The webpage introduces the Nuphar shimadai 
The glossary for the aquatic plants 
The repository of activity sheets 
Article
This study has three major purposes, including designing mobile natural-science learning activities that rest on the 5E Learning Cycle, examining the effects of these learning activities on students' performances of learning aquatic plants, and exploring students' perceptions toward these learning activities. A case-study method is utilized and the science club with 46 fourth-grade students is selected as the study case in the study. Besides, a set of quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the case to document the learning effects of and the students' perceptions of the learning activities, and to discuss factors underlying these effects and students' perceptions. The results indicate that the learning activities can enhance students' scientific performances, including both knowledge and understanding levels. Students' perceptions of these learning activities appear to be positive. The study identifies two factors that are prominent in the positive effects: students' engaging in "mobile-technology supported" observation during their scientific inquiry; and students' engaging in "mobile-technology supported" manipulation during their scientific inquiry. Finally, the conclusions that our study has drawn could constitute a useful guide for educational practitioners concerned with the potentials of mobile computing in school settings. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy behind the LCI is that if any non-cognitive factor influences a learner, the effect will eventually be reflected in his/her learning achievement. Therefore, it's our explicit attempt to build a prototype system aimed at assessing aspects of learning other than cognitive factors. This study proposes a personalized e-learning system based on Item Response Theory which considers both course difficulty and learner's ability to provide adaptive learning paths. The LCI, which originates from the person-fit statistics in psychometric theory, statistically judges whether the observed learning achievement is significantly different from the achievement predicted by the Item Response Theory (IRT) models. If such an aberrant learning pattern is detected, a computer tutoring agent appears to notify and encourage that learner. Furthermore, human tutors may get involved periodically to offer further guidance to support learners with aberrant patterns. Experimental results show that such diagnostics could enhance the learning efficiency and smooth the learning experience. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
This paper is an attempt to describe the emergence and growing popularity of online distance education over the past 30 years through changing sociological lenses. Examining the re-casting of the electronic classroom through the euphoria of techno-positivism, the power-embedded analysis of Critical Theory of Technology (CTT), and the critique of postmodernism, the paper addresses the implications suggested by each theoretical interpretation. Using the metaphor of a high-speed train, we encourage administrators, instructors and technicians to stop and reflect on the destination, rather than simply marvel at the speeds at which we are traveling and the engine that powers our ride.
 
Article
Academic staff development in the pedagogical applications of new technologies is fundamental to the transformation of teaching and learning in tertiary education settings. We present a case study of a staff development activity at Deakin University, a multi-campus university offering on and off-campus programs, which aimed to develop a collegial online experience for academics interested in using online technologies. It is contextualised within a broadly based centrally funded project initiated by the University to extend the use of technologies in significant curriculum areas. The initiative employed a text-based, asynchronous computer conferencing environment. We describe the structure of the online environment and explore the major issues raised by the participants based on their experience and evaluation of the conference. We conclude by raising key questions that draw on our experience of the successful outcome of this initiative to advance relevant and meaningful opportunities for academic staff development.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine academic department chair perceptions about the future influence of web-based distance education on departmental operations and their changing role as academic leader. Using a rating, modified-policy Delphi method, the researcher worked with 22 department chairs employed at public, urban universities in the United States to develop 76 factor statements about the opportunities, pressures, changing relationships, and role of the chair. In a three-step process, the chairs reduced the 76 factors into 29 predictive statements. Furthermore, the researcher merged the predictions into six themes covering topics such as the importance of external agencies to the successful implementation of web-based education and concerns about future funding. Based on the findings, the researcher argued that the most efficient strategies to promote web-based distance education are through the efforts of the department chair due to the closer proximity of the department to external markets.
 
The relational transition of cognitive processes 
Participants and their cognitive styles
Article
This paper reports an investigation of cognitive styles, achievement scores and attitudes toward computers among university students. Field dependence/field independence is a dimension of cognitive style that has been researched with various student groups as well as with attitudes. Nevertheless, there appears to be a dearth of published research in this area relevant to teacher trainees in an international setting. In this study, the standardised Group Embedded Figures Test was used to assess field dependency among 130 teacher trainees. Overall, it was found that there was no significant relationship between cognitive styles and academic achievement (r= .14, p= .15); cognitive styles and attitudes toward computers (r = .01, p= .84); and, cognitive styles and attitudes toward computers when their academic achievement scores were covariated (F(2,126) = .40, p > .05). The findings indicate that students' attitudes toward computers are not associated with field dependency, even when their achievement levels were controlled. Attitude toward computers is found to function independently from cognitive styles.
 
Article
The purpose of this qualitative research study is to gauge the current state of the academic developments in Educational Technology in order to identify pivotal issues and offer suggestions for future planning in Canada. This article explores the professional literature and the views of 25 senior faculty members from the twelve Canadian universities which offer or offered graduate degree programs in Educational Technology (and Distance Education). Findings from the study revealed one main category (challenges) connected to the academic field of Educational Technology in Canada with seven key sub-categories, namely, identity, standardization and professionalization, university politics, external influence, competition, funding, and teaching and learning. A synthesis of information sources is provided to delineate major patterns and generate new theory to help guide strategic program planning and evaluation. Recommendations suggest that greater attention should be invested in partnering and identity branding activities within the field to help leverage program success.
 
Final grades between DE and F2F; then disaggregated by class standing
Race and Gender on grade earned per format  
Article
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to explore whether differences in student academic,indicators exist between,taking a course face-to-face (F2F) and ,taking a course ,via distance education (DE). Three hundred ,and eighty five students were enrolled in a course offered, both, as F2F (n = 116) and as DE (n = 269). Course content, instructor, textbook adopted, and assessment methods were consistent between the two course delivery formats. Final grades, DFWrates, and end of term course and instructor evaluations were used as the outcome indicators. In addition, student demographic information was factored into data analyses. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in final grade, DFW rates, and end of term course evaluation response rates between,the course offerings. Further analysis suggested that ,freshman ,grade performance ,was ,significantly different between ,course offerings. Implications and policy suggestions regarding distance education will be discussed. Keywords Distance education, Freshmen performance, DFW rates, Academic indicators
 
Article
Student advising is an important and time-consuming effort in academic life. This paper attempts to solve a technology-based “last mile” problem by developing and evaluating a web-based decision support tool (the Online Advisor) that helps advisors and students make better use of an already present university student information system. Two questionnaires were administered to 20 undergraduate students and five faculty members: one to gain insight about their perception of the current advising process, and the other to assess the usability of the proposed Online Advisor. 79% of users stated that they were satisfied with the Online Advisor. 90% rated the Online Advisor as effective and efficient. More than 75% rated the Online Advisor as useful and helpful.
 
Article
In high-level education such as university studies, there is a flexible but complicated system of subject offerings and registration rules such as prerequisite subjects. Those offerings, connected with registration rules, should be matched to the students' learning needs and desires, which change dynamically. Students need assistance in such a maze of dynamically changing opportunities and limitations. To cope with this problem, a new storyboard concept for academic education, called "dynamic storyboarding"is proposed to assist university students. Dynamic storyboarding is based on the idea of semi-formally representing, processing, evaluating, and refining didactic knowledge. This storyboarding is more appropriate in managing high-level education than is general artificial intelligence knowledge representations such as frames. This is because the structure of dynamic storyboarding is driven by the semi-formal and multilayered nature of didactic knowledge in university education. A feasibility study showed that storyboarding can be used to supplement an academic educational system, such as the dynamic learning need reflection system (DLNRS) of Tokyo Denki University (TDU) in Japan. Concretely speaking, didactic knowledge in the university curricula was proven to be easily and clearly represented by dynamic storyboarding. This contributed to the students' dynamic learning activities by supporting features that help students review and adapt their own individual curricula. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Curvilinear regression analysis: Application test items predicting WebCT Hits  
Article
The current investigation sought to understand the relationships between college student alienation, academic achievement, and use of WebCT. Fifty-three students enrolled in an undergraduate educational psychology course provided three types of data: 1) self-rating of eight Likert scale alienation items, 2) academic achievement measured with four types of multiple choice questions evaluating mastery of course content, and 3) use of WebCT defined as total number of Hits, Articles Posted, and Articles Read. Findings suggest that peer alienation was associated with increased WebCT use; learning alienation and course alienation were associated with low WebCT use. Learning alienation demonstrated an inverse relation to academic achievement. In most cases, significant predictive relationships between academic achievement and student use of WebCT were curvilinear.
 
Article
The World Wide Web has made possible an entirely new form of communication in the classroom: asynchronous, public, non-sequential, and selective (Windschitl, 1998). However, it is unclear how discussion webs can contribute to educational processes. Our research investigates the role of instructional interactive webs in promoting among preservice teachers an "academic community of learners," defined as an academic community that grounds inquiries and dilemmas emerging in their practice in an academic discourse based on considering alternatives and providing argumentation and evidence for their claims (Wells, Chang, & Maher, 1990). Based on this definition of a community of learners and concerns raised by fellow instructors, we created categories and analyzed one class discussion web, coding a total of 1,124 web entries of undergraduate students and their instructor to examine references they used, topics, genres, and relationships with other messages. Our findings suggest that students' web postings were mostly very sophisticated in that students were able to integrate outside references with new and enriching discussion topics, thereby providing viewpoints alternative to and sometimes critical of those expressed by the instructor and other students. These findings suggest that instructional interactive webs can be a useful tool for promoting and building an academic community of learners.
 
Part of DFAQ User Interface 
DFAQ screen showing the number of times questions have been referenced 
Article
South African Universities are tasked with increasing student throughput by offering additional academic support. A second task is to teach students to challenge and question. One way of attempting to achieve these tasks is by using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The focus of this paper is to examine the effect of using an ICT tool to both increase academic support to students, and to teach critical thinking skills. A field study comparing a Project Management course at the University of Cape Town over two successive years was conducted. In the second year an ICT mediated constructivist approach (DFAQ web site) in which students acquired project management skills was used to increase support and teach critical thinking skills. Structuration theory, in particular the notion of practical and discursive consciousness, was used to inform our understanding of the role of questioning on teaching project management. The conclusion is that a constructive approach, mediated by an anonymous web-based consultative environment, the Dynamic Frequently Asked Questions (DFAQ) improved support to students and had an effect on student learning of project management and students acquired some questioning skills as evidenced in the examination performance. The efficacy of the approach was evaluated both through an interpretive study of DFAQ artefacts and the performance in the examination. The paper examines relevant literature, details the research objectives, describes a field survey, and the results.
 
Article
This study investigated the self-regulation, goal orientation, and academic achievement of 40 secondary students who completed online university courses in the sciences. Students were enrolled in one of three online university science courses. Each course was taught by a two-person team, made up of one university science professor and one secondary classroom science teacher, over a 6-week period. This study explored changes in self-regulation and goal orientation of students enrolled in the online course and the relationship between these factors and student achievement. Student data collected to investigate study questions included an abbreviated version (30-items) of the Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), collected before and after students completed the online course, and achievement measures (i.e., final grades). Data from application essays and focus interviews, conducted with all participating group members (secondary students, university science professors and the secondary high school teachers), are used to illustrate key findings and probe remaining questions. A description of this program and research resulting from the investigation of online secondary students' motivation, self-regulation, and achievement in online university courses is also presented and discussed. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
Students in two different courses at a major research university (one a Communication course, the other a Computer Science course) were given laptop computers with wireless network access during the course of a semester. Students' Web browsing on these laptops (including: URLs, dates, and times) was recorded 24 hours/day, 7 days/week in a log file by a proxy server during most of a semester (about 15 weeks). For each student, browsing behavior was quantified and then correlated with academic performance. The emergence of statistically significant results suggests that quantitative characteristics of browsing behavior—even prior to examining browsing content—can be useful predictors of meaningful behavioral outcomes. Variables such as Number of browsing sessions and Length of browsing sessions were found to correlate with students' final grades; the valence and magnitude of these correlations were found to interact with Course (i.e., whether student was enrolled in the Communication or Computer Science course), Browsing Context (i.e., setting in which browsing took place: during class, on the wireless network between classes, or at home) and Gender. The implications of these findings in relation to previous studies of laptop use in education settings are discussed.
 
Distribution of participants (internals and externals) in treatment groups
Means and standard deviation for students in each treatment on each criteria measure
Reading strategies on learning objective tests
LSD analysis on comprehension test
Reading strategies on learning objective tests Grand mean
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional effectiveness of different online reading strategies for students identified as possessing different learning styles, either internal or external locus of control styles, on tests measuring different learning objectives. Participants were 169 undergraduate students, randomly assigned to four online reading treatments: none, rereading strategy, keyword strategy, and question and answer strategy. Immediately after interacting with their respective instructions, students received four individual criterion measures. Analyses indicated an insignificant interaction between learning style and treatment type; however, comprehension tests reflect a significant main effect for students receiving the online rereading treatment (F = 3.09, df = 3/169, p = .03), with an effect size of .40. The rereading treatment also appears to be significantly more effective than the control for the comprehension test. Results indicate that not all types of reading strategies are equally effective in facilitating different types of learning objectives. The results indicate that, even though different reading strategies may be structurally different, they are functionally identical for raising questions relative to the cost and amount of time required for student interaction.
 
Article
ABSTRACT As computers becomes more ubiquitous in our everyday lives, educational settings are being transformed where educators and students are expected to teach and learn, using computers (Lee, 2003). This study, therefore, explored pre-service teachers’ self reported future intentions to use ,computers ,in Singapore and Malaysia. A survey methodology ,was ,employed ,such that validated items from past ,relevant research work were adopted. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), 495 completed surveys of pre-service teachers were collected from both countries. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was implemented,on the data captured. This study contributes to the ,growing ,multi-cultural studies on TAM ,by demonstrating, that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU) and computer attitudes (CA) to be significant determinants of both Singaporean and Malaysian pre-service teachers’ behavioralintention (BI). Differenceswere, however, detected between Singaporean and Malaysian pre-service teachers in terms of PU, PEU and CA but no differences were
 
Article
This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the elearning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552 business employees using the e-learning system in Taiwan. The results show that five perceptions of innovation characteristics significantly influenced employees' e-learning system behavioral intention. The effects of the compatibility, complexity, relative advantage, and trialability on the perceived usefulness are significant. In addition, the effective of the complexity, relative advantage, trialability, and complexity on the perceived ease of use have a significant influence. Empirical results also provide strong support for the integrative approach. The findings suggest an extended model of TAM for the acceptance of the e-learning system, which can help organization decision makers in planning, evaluating and executing the use of e-learning systems. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
Usefulness and ease of use proved to be key determinants of the acceptance and usage of e-learning. On the contrary, little is known about students' perceptions in a blended learning setting. In this paper, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was utilised, in order to investigate Greek university students' attitudes toward blended learning. The goal of the study was twofold. First, to investigate whether the students' perceptions in a blended learning setting were comparable with other studies reporting perceptions in the context of distant learning. Second, to investigate variation in students' perceptions before and after actual system use. A sample of 130 students before actual system use and 102 students after the end of the semester was used. As derived from the model analysis using partial least squares, the e-learning system was well accepted and the majority of our hypotheses were confirmed. The most notable difference between pre- and post- use scenario was that perceived usefulness did not prove to have a significant effect on behavioral intention before system use, whereas, in the end, it appeared to be significant. The results are compared with similar studies focused on elearning acceptance. The implications, both for the designer of a blended learning course as well as for the educational community, are also discussed. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
Thanks to advanced developments in wireless technology, learners can now utilize digital learning websites at anytime and anywhere. Mobile learning captures more and more attention in the wave of digital learning. Evolving use of knowledge management plays an important role to enhance problem solving skills. Recently, innovative approaches for integrating knowledge management into practical teaching activities have been ignored. This is the first study to focus the design of a mobile knowledge management learning system that encourages learners to acquire, store, share, apply and create knowledge. When learners use different mobile devices to learn, larger screens perform better than smaller ones in the task performance and system working quality. Analyzed by learning achievements, the experimental group has a rather significant effect in adopting mobile knowledge management learning system than the control group of traditional classroom lectures. After evaluating the system acceptance by questionnaire survey, the experiment results indicate that (1) perceived easy to use can positively predict perceived usefulness by learners, (2) perceived easy to use and perceived usefulness can positively predict behavioral intention of the system acceptance. Perceived usefulness is the key factor for learners' willingness to be guided through the system's learning process. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
This research develops and empirically tests a factor model for understanding college students' acceptance of Tablet PC (TPC) as a means to forecast, explain, and improve their usage pattern in education. The analysis involved more than 230 students from a regional Midwestern institution. Overall, our model exhibited a good fit with the data and provided satisfactory explanatory power for students' acceptance of TPC in an educational setting. Analysis of the results suggests a number of implications to educational institutions. Most notably are the need for programs aimed at influencing students' attitudes and perceptions towards TPC, creating an environment of a positive image surrounding the use of TPC on campus, and facilitating the use of TPC. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Original Technology Acceptance Model (Source: Legris et. al., 2003)
shows that there is a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers' perceived ease of use of educational technology and their attitudes toward use. Therefore, pre-service teachers who are competent with technology in a classroom environment have highly positive attitudes towards the use of educational technologies. In addition, fundamentalist and liberalist pre-service teachers have low values for attitudes towards the use of educational technologies. While educational fundamentalists and educational liberalists demonstrate negative linear relationships in relation to attitudes towards use, pre-service teachers who embrace conservative educational ideologies demonstrate high attitude values towards the use of educational technologies. Moreover, pre-service teachers who believe in educational anarchism suppose that educational technologies are not useful in the classroom environment. However, educational liberationists and intellectualists believe that educational technologies are very useful in the classroom environment.
LISREL Estimates, Standard Errors for Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Means with Response Modes
LISREL Estimates, t-values, and Standard Errors for LISREL Model
LISREL Estimates and t-values for LISREL Model
Article
After the evaluation of numerous technology integration programs in school districts and universities, it is recognized that the existence of technology does not guarantee its utilization in the classroom environment. Although many models and theories have tried to explain the contributing factors in technology acceptance, most of the models and theories have focused on technology-related factors. This study focused on educational ideology, a factor not related to technology that also affects decisions in terms of educational applications. Based on the literature review, we hypothesized a new model of technology acceptance which includes educational ideology as an external factor. We attempted to create a model that was compatible with our hypothesized model by collecting data from surveys completed by 320 pre-service teachers. Structural Equation Modeling was employed to create the path analytic model. The variables used in the path analytic model were the components of the original Technology Acceptance Model and six different educational ideologies. The results showed that the new model was consistent with the hypothesized model. Therefore, the results illustrate that different educational ideologies may have different effects on teachers' technology acceptance.
 
Article
Many universities implement e-learning for various reasons. It is obvious that the number of e-learning opportunities provided by higher educational institutes continues to grow in Korea. Yet little research has been done to verify the process of how university students adopt and use e-learning. A sample of 628 university students took part in the research. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was employed with the LISREL program to explain the adoption process. The general structural model, which included e-learning selfefficacy, subjective norm, system accessibility, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, and behavioral intention to use e-learning, was developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). The result proved TAM to be a good theoretical tool to understand users' acceptance of e-learning. E-learning selfefficacy was the most important construct, followed by subjective norm in explicating the causal process in the model. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
 
Article
This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional non-open access Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way ANOVA analyses show that there is no significant difference in the ranking of printed books sold by AUPress in comparison with traditional university presses. However, AUPress, can demonstrate a significantly larger readership for its books as evidenced by the number of downloads of the open electronic versions.
 
Typical Hybrid Audio-Data Connectivity 
Example Instructional Whiteboard 
Article
Internet enabled hybrid audio-data collaboration delivers high quality audio over telephone lines and data interaction over packet switched Internet connections, thus distributing the transmission load between two highly accessible but limited bandwidth media. This paper explores the need for hybrid audio-data collaboration and describes two complementary studies comparing the performance and satisfaction of groups of graduate students taking an introductory course in statistics via the following modes: (1) hybrid audio-data collaboration, (2) satellite delivered instructional television, (3) face-to-face in the television studio, and (4) face-to-face in a traditional classroom. The results of the studies suggest there is no difference in student learning performance between the hybrid audio-data collaboration and instructional television or face-to-face modes for the graduate level introductory statistics course. Students in the Internet enabled hybrid audio-data collaboration group were also more satisfied than those in the instructional television group with the technical aspects of the medium. Compared to instructional television, hybrid audio-data collaboration can be a viable method of dramatically increasing access to learners while maintaining educational effectiveness and student satisfaction.
 
Top-cited authors
Gwo-Jen Hwang
  • National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Chin-Chung Tsai
  • National Taiwan Normal University
Stephen J. H. Yang
  • National Central University
Ching Sing Chai
  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Dr Kinshuk
  • University of North Texas