Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice

Print ISSN: 1303-0485
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This article discusses the meeting of the Second National Educational Council in 1943, the decisions made about teaching history and the preparation and implementation of histomaps, which was one of the decisions made about the teaching of history. For this purpose, document analyses are used and first hand and second hand resources were reviewed. The endeavor in this study is to show how one of the council decisions of the first years of the Republic is applied. Hasan Ali Yucel, the Minister of National Education assigned Hamit Zubeyr Kosay for this histomap task. Benefiting from the study of John B. Sparks (1931) named "The Histomap: Four Thousand Years of World History" and working with a team, Hamit Zubeyr Kosay developed a histomap compatible to Turkish History in 3 years. This case study is significant as it described the obligation of bureaucrats of the Ministry of National Education in the early 20s of the Republic. The histomap of Sparks by Rand McNally Publishing in the USA has been continuously updated since it was first developed. Unfortunately, since then the mechanisms were not constructed to update histomap of Kosay regarding the changing history course books and programs in Turkey.
 
In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge references had been selected according to the targets of the schools and the instructors. As a result, the transpositions of the teachers affected the "Instructed Knowledge." The differences in the "Instructed Knowledge" affected the "Assimilated Knowledge" of students. Therefore, different misconceptions were observed in each sampling group. In other words, the differences in teachers' transpositions were reflected to the "Assimilated Knowledge" and the misconceptions of students. (Contains 1 figure.)
 
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed the sample. The study was carried out with two groups. One of these groups was determined as the experimental group and the other was as the control group. While a teaching based on the Van Hiele model was carried out in the experimental group, a teaching with the traditional method was carried out in the control group. The instruction was carried out by the researchers in both groups. In the study, the Shapes Section of the Torrance Creative Thinking Test was administered in order to determine the creative thinking levels of students before and after the teaching. In order to determine whether there is a significant difference between the creative thinking levels of the experimental and control groups before and after the instruction, t-test was used. At the end of the study, although there is a significant difference between the creative thinking test, fluency, originality, the titles being abstract, creative forces lists, and creativity pre test and post test scores of the students in the experimental group, a significant difference between the pre test and post scores of students in the control group related to the sub-dimensions of creativity thinking and total scores was not observed. When the creative thinking levels of the students after the instruction was examined, a significant difference was found in total post test scores related to fluency, originality, the titles being abstract, creative forces lists and creativity in advantage of the experimental group.
 
An individual's activities are closely related with his/her communication abilities. One's awareness of his feelings and needs and to what extend he can control such feelings are the key factors which effect communication abilities. Webster (1996) defines anger as, "a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance." Its synonyms are "rage, displeasure, wrath." Adolescence is a very important period in one's life because it is when individuals start to have a place in the adult world, and when they create their own relation manners. The focus of this study is to create a version of a tool, which is originally developed in English and designed for a different culture. The current study adapted the scale to another culture in order to measure one of our fundamental feelings. The Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS) is developed in 1994 by DeAnna McKinnie Burney in the United States of America. This article discusses and analyzes the AARS's reliability, validity and Turkish linguistic equivalence in detail. The AARS scores are reported for total anger score and three subscales measuring the aspects of the adolescent's typical anger response pattern as: Instrumental Anger, Reactive Anger, and Anger Control. A group of 569 adolescents from different backgrounds, aged between 13-23 years, participated in the study (Togan, 2006). The study provided significant statistical data for the Turkish version of the scale.
 
Studies on the effective teaching of biology have been continuously increasing since the 1800s. New teaching approaches have been purposed and tried out along the way. The multiple intelligences theory (MIT)-based approaches which give more importance to individual in educational settings can provide alternatives for meeting this requirement. An experimental design was used for the study. The study was conducted with 10th grade high school students (Experimental N = 25 and Control N = 25) who were enrolled in classes in Ankara Anatolian High School during the 2004-2005 spring semester. In conclusion, the MIT- based instruction had a statistically significant effect upon the academic success of students and the permanence of teaching process whereas there was no significant effect of the MIT-based instruction on the attitudes of students towards the course.
 
The aim of this study is to define whether using exercise-based games increase the performance of learning. For this reason, two basic questions were tried to be answered in the study. First, is there any difference in learning between the group that was given exercise-based games and the group that was not? Second, is there any difference in learning between the group that used exercise-based games at end of the process of learning and the group that was not applied this but taken the questions of exercises in game material? This research has been conducted within the subject of Testing and Evaluation in the program of Kocaeli University Primary Maths Teacher's College. Experimental design with a pre test-post test control group was used in this study. Experimental process based on game material was used in 120 minutes at the end of a 3-week-teaching period. The reliability values (KR-20) of the two tests were found to be 0.79 and 0.71 which were used to evaluate learning level. The study has reached a conclusion that game materials used at the end of learning process have increased the learning levels of teacher candidates. However, the similar learning levels have been observed among students who were taken printed exercises instead of using learning game method to reinforce the traditional learning in the research. This means that in method of applying teaching games in addition to the traditional teaching, there isn't any difference of learning efficiency of students who answered the questions based on competition and fun and the group who only answered the questions. This study is expected to contribute to defining in which situations games are effective.
 
In this research, the effects of emotional intelligence on the academic procrastination and locus of control tendencies of a group of university students are investigated. The sample of this study consists of 435 university students including 273 female students and 162 male students who were randomly selected from the population of Selcuk University students. The age range of the students varies in between 17-21 years old and the mean age is 20.19 years old. A personal information form, the Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Academic Procrastination Scale and the Locus of Control Scale were administered to the sample. Research findings show that the sub-scales of the Emotional Intelligence Scale, adaptability and coping with stress, are highly correlated with the students' academic procrastination tendency scores (p less than 0.05). Secondly, it was found that the two sub-scales of the Emotional Intelligence Scale, adaptability and general mood, could significantly predict the students' locus of control scores (p less than 0.05). Lastly, a negative correlation was found between emotional intelligence skills and both academic procrastination (p less than 0.05) and locus of control (p less than 0.01). The results were discussed in the light of the related literature.
 
This study investigated the relationships of healthy children with their handicapped siblings and analyzed their acceptance of the siblings. The study was conducted in 16 different special education and rehabilitation centers in Ankara. Two hundred twenty-eight healthy children between the ages of 10 to 17 years voluntarily participated in the investigation. All participating children had siblings diagnosed with one of the six disabilities: Learning disability (LD), mental retardation (MR), cerebral palsy (CP), mental-motor retardation (MMR), Down syndrome (DS), or autism (A). The attitudes of the healthy children towards their handicapped siblings (EKYTO) and towards other handicapped people (EBYTO) were studied. Results show that healthy children display positive attitudes towards their own handicapped siblings whereas less positive attitudes towards other handicapped people. The investigation takes into consideration diagnosis and degree of the handicap. In general, it is observed that the healthy children's attitudes towards their handicapped sibling are clearly changing according to diagnosis and level of handicap whereas the same factors do not make any difference in terms of attitudes towards other handicapped people.
 
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of hidden curriculum on respect for human dignity which is one of the basic democratic values in detail in two elementary schools with low and high quality school life in Adana-Turkey. In this case study, the data were gathered through observations and interviews from teachers and students. Content analysis was used to analyze the data which were gathered the schools for four months. As a result, although its intensity is different, the hidden curriculums in both schools have inappropriate features for democratic values. For most variables taken into consideration in the study, the hidden curriculum in the school with low quality life has more inappropriate features of respect for human dignity. And also, students in this school showed more frequent misbehaviors regarding respect for human dignity. Therefore it can be said that all sides of the hidden curriculum have mutual relations with each other, that students show parallel behaviors to the environment of the school and that the more students show misbehaviors, the more teachers show antidemocratic responses.
 
The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language experts, 50 mathematics subject matter experts, 21 school counselors, and 336 elementary school students. After each item was independently translated into Turkish by three experts, the accuracy of the translation was investigated. Next, the Turkish form was studied in terms of understandability. In order to study, the Turkish form's preliminary properties, the scale was administered to 336 elementary school students. Results showed evidence for language validity, structural validity, content validity, and concurrent validity. In addition, the Turkish form's items were found to have acceptable internal consistency reliabilities. Results were discussed in relation to previous mathematics anxiety literature. It is concluded that the Turkish MARS-E appears to be a valid and reliable instrument in measuring mathematics anxiety levels of Turkish elementary school children.
 
The purpose of the study was to examine direct and indirect effects of social support, social connectedness, and loneliness in predicting adjustment difficulties. The sample of the study was 404 university students (212 females and 192 males) studying in different departments of the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University. The ages of the students ranged from 16 to 27 years with a mean 18.65 years. Forty-seven percent of the participants were male and 53% were female. A set of demographic questions, the Adjustment Difficulties Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Social Provision Scale, and the Social Connectedness Scale were used to collect the data. Results show that social support, social connectedness, and loneliness correlate significantly in the expected direction with the measures of adjustment difficulties. In addition, findings indicate that social support, social connectedness, and loneliness are predictors of adjustment difficulties. Social connectedness and social support have indirect effects in relation between loneliness and adjustment difficulties. In other words, social connectedness and social support serve not only indirectly as a mediator to loneliness in predicting to adjustment difficulties, but also they predict directly to adjustment difficulties.
 
The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to 9th grade students of Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Hotel and Tourism Vocational High School in Adana. After the administration and assessment of the scale, 36 students who had the highest aggression levels were selected and were randomly divided into three groups. The experimental and control groups each included 12 students. Cognitive behavioral techniques were applied to the first experimental group in 10 sessions, psychodrama techniques were applied to the second experimental group in 14 sessions. No application has been done to the control group. After the groups ended, the Aggression Scale was re-administered to all groups as a post test. 16 weeks after ending the groups, the scale was administered one more time to the experimental groups as a follow up test. Findings were analyzed with ANCOVA and t test for dependent samples. Findings have showed that cognitive-behavioral approach was effective in decreasing aggression scores, except verbal aggression and psychodrama approach was effective in decreasing all aggression scores except verbal physical aggression. ANCOVA analyses showed that cognitive-behavioral approach was more effective in decreasing total aggression, physical aggression, and anger than psychodrama. Follow up test results showed that the effects of group practices on both experimental groups were lasting even 16 weeks later.
 
The present study investigated the family characteristics of bullies, victims, and positively behaving adolescents. The study was conducted in three elementary schools in Adana central province with students who were attending 6th-7th, and 8th grades. A who-is-who form prepared by the researchers was used for the determination of the family characteristics of the students in the sample. The form was completed by 1713 students. A total of 273 students (99 girls, 174 boys) are identified according to the results: 118 bully students, 81 victim students, and 74 positively behaving students. The Family Assessment Survey, developed by Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop (1983) and translated into Turkish by Bulut (1990), was used to measure family functions. One way ANOVA and Logistic Regression Analysis were used for statistical analysis. In conclusion, it is determined that bully and victim students perceived their families more negatively than the other students in terms of problem solving, communication, affective responsiveness, affective involvement, behavior control, and general functioning. All the subscale scores of Family Assessment Survey were successfully classified 70.3% for bullies and 68.4% for victims. It is determined that problem solving, communication, and roles subscales of the Family Assessment Survey have significant support in explaining bullying. Communication, roles and behavior control subscales have significant support in explaining victimization.
 
In this study, loneliness and global life satisfaction levels among high school students with divorced and non-divorced parents were examined. The study was conducted on a total of 836 high school students, 383 of whom comprised children with divorced parents and 453 comprised children with non-divorced parents in Denizli, Turkey. The data were obtained using the Satisfaction with Life Scale-SWLS, UCLA Loneliness Scale and a Personal Information Form. In the analysis of the data, hierarchical regression analyses, MANOVA, and one-way ANOVA were performed. The findings of the study showed that loneliness has higher negative effects on life satisfaction among adolescents with divorced parents. Adolescents with divorced parents are more susceptible to loneliness and global life satisfaction than are adolescents with non-divorced parents. A significant difference was found in loneliness and global life satisfaction levels among adolescents with divorced parents with respect to only number of siblings. Neither loneliness nor global life satisfaction levels significantly differed with respect to gender, grade, residential parent, contact frequency with the non-residential parent, and the age at the time of divorce.
 
The purpose of this research is to analyze the cognitive (learning level) and affective (volunteering to study together, attitude towards the teacher and the lesson) changes which are caused by the differential classroom environment designed for the poetry subject in a Turkish lesson of the 6th grade in elementary education. Theory testing technique of case study which takes place in qualitative research was applied in this research. This research was implemented on 22 students who attended sixth grade in a private school in Istanbul. Differentiated teaching design, which was prepared by using station and interest center strategies, was exercised in the subject of poetry in a Turkish lesson for two teaching periods. Data which were obtained via in a depth individual interview with the teacher, focus group interviews with five students, and direct observations were analyzed with structured reporting method. According to the findings, differentiated teaching has a positive impact on children's learning. In addition, it increases the interests of children towards the lesson, help them develop friendship relationships, and augments mutual aid behaviors.
 
Seven children aging between 3 and 6 years with developmental disabilities were participated in this study, which examined the effects of the Activity-Based Intervention Program (ABIP) on the transition skills. The study used time series design and the implementation process was composed of "before instruction phase", "instruction phase" and, "after instruction phase", each phase lasting 6 weeks "generalization phase" lasted 4 weeks. In the ABIP "following directions", "lining up", "working independently" and "collecting materials" skills were taught. In order to investigate the effect of ABIP, children were assessed two times before and after the instruction by using the Preschool Transition Skills Assessment Scale (PTSAS). Three time series for the four skills included in the program before and after the instruction by implementing task analytic recording and whole interval recording. A single measure was completed at the generalization phase by implementing task analytic recording. The results of the analysis show that significant differences are found at the after instruction phase comparing to the before instruction phase concerning children's PTSAS scores and at the percentages of correct responses and interval occurrence for the four skills.
 
Scoring rubrics are useful to serve performance assessment for learning and assessment because they can be created for a variety of subjects and situations. Rubrics look like more suitable and effective tools for summative and formative evaluation because they include qualitative description of the performance criteria. In recent years, rubrics have been accepted as the most popular performance-based assessment tools. It has been recommended that rubrics can be used in the new educational program in Turkey which was revised and re-organized in the scoop of constructualism. It has also been stated at the annual meeting of Ministry of Education that rubrics should be preferred for all lectures when implementing an effective performance-based assessment. But it is not an easy procedure to develop an effective rubric. Many educational scientists have studied rubrics and their properties. This article examines the guidelines and principles from the educational literature that are related to scoring rubrics. The purpose of this article can be summarized as follows: (1) Describe what is a scoring rubric and the different types of scoring rubrics. (2) To put forward the principles of consistent and successful scoring rubrics. (3) To discuss it's instructional design from the point of view of educational literature. (4) To contribute to rubric developers and educational literature aimed at improving the design of classroom assessment rubrics. At the same time, applications, considerations, and suggestion are given with clear examples and templates.
 
The aim of this research is to analyse the trait anxiety and locus of control of undergraduates in terms of their attachment styles. This research has been conducted in accordance with general screening model. The target population of the research is constituted of 480 undergraduates. Pearson moments multiplication correlation coefficient technique, analysis of variance and Tukey test have been employed for analysing the data. As a result of the research, it has been found out that trait anxiety and the locus of control of negative self model and negative others model are positively correlated. Another symptom of the research is the finding that the trait anxiety point averages of the individuals of preoccupied and fearful attachment is higher than those of secure attachment style. Also, the point averages of trait anxiety of fearful attachment individuals have been determined to be expressively higher than the individuals who are dismissing attachment. It has been found out that the locus of control point averages of secure attachment undergraduates is expressively lower than those of preoccupied and fearful attachment undergraduates. (Contains 1 figure and 3 tables.)
 
Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four independent judges. Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECER) was used to evaluate the process quality of the institutions. MFRM was applied to analyze the data. The results indicated that early childhood education institutions were below the desirable level of process quality. It has been found that judges exhibited similar behaviors and when item statistics were examined they served the purpose of the evaluation. Standardized measurement tools and measurement models were recommended to increase process quality of early childhood education.
 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anger and anger expression styles with respect to coping with stress and interpersonal problem-solving. The participants were 468 (258 female and 210 male, between 17-30 years old) university students. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple hierarchical regression analysis were used. As a result of the study, it was found that there was a negative relationship between trait anger and problem focused coping (p less than 0.05), a negative relationship between anger in with problem-focused coping, and seeking for social support (p less than 0.01), a negative relationship between anger-out with avoiding (p less than 0.01) and problem-focused coping (p less than 0.05) and a positive relationship between anger control with problem-focused coping and avoidance (p less than 0.01). However there was a positive relationship among approaching problems in a negative way, lack of self-confidence, unwillingness to take responsibility and trait anger, anger in, anger out (p less than 0.01) while a negative relationship between anger control (p less than 0.01). A negative relationship among constructive problem-solving and trait anger (p less than 0.05), anger-in (p less than 0.01), and a positive relationship between constructive problem-solving and anger control (p less than 0.01) were found. And, there was a negative relationship between insisting-preserving approach and anger-in (p less than 0.05), while there was a positive relationship between insistent preserving approach and anger-out, anger control (p less than 0.01). Besides, it was found that coping with stress and interpersonal problem-solving significantly explains the trait anger and the anger expressing styles. (Contains 6 tables.)
 
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged from 0.39 to 0.88. Findings from discriminant validity showed that the DASS discriminates the normal and clinical population. Concurrent validity coefficients were found to be high (0.87 and 0.84, respectively). Cronbach internal consistency of the entire scale was 0.89. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.75. Test- retest and split-half reliability coefficient scores were 0.99 and 0.96 respectively. These results demonstrate that the DASS is a valid and reliable instrument.
 
In this study, the levels of hopelessness and state-trait anxiety among teacher candidates before taking the State Employees Selection Exam (KPSS) were investigated. The research was carried out with 403 volunteer teacher candidates. Of them, 271 seniors who were attending classes at Cukurova University in 2005-2006 Spring and 132 were newly-graduated teacher candidates from various other universities. The data collection tools in the study were the Personal Information Form prepared by the researchers, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. In the data analysis, t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise regression analyses were used. After the analyses, significant differences were found as in the following order: a) the hopelessness levels among the teacher candidates on gender and major, b) the trait anxiety and the hopelessness levels regarding to previous KPSS experiences and attendance to a KPSS preparation course and, c) the hopelessness and the state-trait anxiety levels in terms of the contribution of the educational training courses offered at teacher candidates during their pre-service education. As for the results on among the new graduates, it was seen that state anxiety was the first factor in predicting their hopelessness levels followed by trait anxiety levels and gender. The rank of the predictors for the seniors were found to be trait anxiety, state anxiety and, the last KPSS experience.
 
The concept of approach to learning was first identified by Marton and Saljo in 1976. Numerous researchers have conducted studies on students' approaches to learning since 1976. There appears considerable confusion in the literature concerning the terms cognitive styles and learning styles. Therefore, there is a remarkable ambiguity about the position of the approaches to learning within this conceptual base. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the concept of approach to learning is tried. First, the conceptual confusion in the literature on learning styles and the position of the approaches to learning within this conceptual base is discussed. An in-depth analysis on the concept of approach to learning is presented through discussion of research results in the literature about relationship between the approaches to learning, learning/teaching variables, and learning environments. According to this analysis, approach to learning can be considered as a bridge between the learning environment and cognitive/learning styles. An approach to learning adopted by students is determined by lots of variables such as the characteristics of students, learning environment, and learning outcomes. When the relation of students' approaches to learning with these variables is considered it can be argued that the approaches to learning cannot only be seen as mere student-dependent characteristics. Therefore, if proper strategies are applied it might be possible to move students' approaches to learning from a surface to a deeper orientation. (Contains 3 figures.)
 
It is important to understand causes and consequences of procrastination that appear common among general and academic populations. Procrastination affects people in various domains of life such as academic, professional, social relationships, and finance management. A person with high procrastination may lose his/her work, drop out from school, or may endanger his/her marital life. Similarly, high procrastinators might increasingly experience psychological distress related to lack of sense of personal control, self-worth and lack of sense of self-perceived personal ability as deadlines approach. The purpose of this study is to present theoretical and conceptual frames of procrastination that are important variables of individual difference and are common in general and academic populations.
 
This study was undertaken to develop a "scale for causes of conflict in the classroom" that will assess and identify the causes of classroom conflicts in university students. Construct validity of the scale was tested by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and it was determined that the scale consisted of 8 factors. In the Scale for Causes of Conflict in the Classroom, the first factor consisted of 9 items, the second factor consisted of 8 items, third factor consisted of 7 items, fourth, fifth and sixth factors consisted of 4 items each, and seventh and eight factors consisted of 3 items each. After examining the item structures that the identified factors consisted, the following factors were selected: appreciation of the student by the teacher, teaching-learning environment skills of the teacher, student behavior, communicative skills of the teacher, personal characteristics of the student, fair treatment by the teacher, biased behavior by the teacher and teachers' obeying the classroom rules. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient values for each factor and the whole scale were found to be 0.91; 0.90; 0.84; 0.87; 0.82; 0.85; 0.77; 0.63 and 0.95, respectively. After the scale was developed, 350 students from the department of education were administered the scale and the causes of conflict were determined according to student views by taking means and standard deviations into consideration. In order to identify the effect of individual variables, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe tests were used. Analysis showed that the variables of "gender" and "department attended by students" resulted in significant differences in student perceptions whereas the variable of "classroom" did not affect the perceptions of students.
 
The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of instructor' assessment practices in the realization of the learning-teaching process in its various stages, in the identification of expected outcomes and various other practices in the same context by taking student views into account. The study was undertaken with 243 students attending Abant Izzet Baysal University Department of Education in the 2008-2009 academic year. The questionnaire used as data collection tool in the study was developed by the researcher. The results collected by means of student views showed that the majority of the instructors did not completely accomplish the tasks that they were supposed to do at the beginning of or during the teaching process in the framework of assessment. Also, in a similar manner, it was determined that the tasks that were expected from the instructors in the framework of performance-based assessment were not fulfilled by the majority of the instructors. The study presents important information to decision makers who create policies related to assessment in educational institutions.
 
The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive power of attachment styles and gender on negative social emotions such as shame, guilt, and loneliness. The sample consists of 360 (183 female, 177 male) students attending to different departments of Marmara University. The Relationships Questionnaire, Guilt-Shame Scale, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used as instruments. Results obtained from hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender has a predictive power on shame, solely. When the predictivity of attachment styles on negative social emotions was examined, the results revealed that shame was predicted by secure and dismissing attachment style, whereas guilt was predicted by only dismissing attachment. Furthermore, all attachment styles played a determining role on loneliness.
 
The purpose of this study is to examine if attachment styles predict emotional intelligence (intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood). Participants of the study consisted of 463 (272 females, 191 males) undergraduate students selected randomly from different faculties of Selcuk University. Regression and correlation analyses were used for data analysis. Results indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between the secure attachment style and all subscales of emotional intelligence abilities. Results also indicate that attachment styles significantly explain emotional intelligence and secure attachment style predict all sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence. (Contains 7 tables.)
 
In this study, with selecting the focusing point of the problem as the availability of cartoons, the teaching of global environmental problems according to the constructivist theory is investigated on the 7th graders in rural areas. This study is restricted with the global warming (G), ozone depletion (O) and the acid rain (A) problems. In the study, a pre-test post-test control group design was used. There are 40 students whose ages range from 13 to 14 years. While experimental group was taught by means of problem based learning (PBL), traditional teaching methods were applied to the control group. Data were collected with the pre-test, post-test, and the interviews after the study. The validity of the experimental method is analysed with a t-test. Data collected by the methods of interviews were evaluated by content analysis. According to the results of statistical analysis, it can be seen that the experimental method is much more effective than the traditional method for teaching global environment problems. As a result of the content analysis, the experimental group students (70 %) and the control group students (15 %) evaluated that global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain (GOA) were accepted as global problems. Students in the experimental group emphasized that GOA, global warming-ozone depletion (GO) and G affected their living areas; on the other hand, students in the control group determined that they were affected by only G. Students in the experimental group pointed out that a person should do something to solve the global environmental problems. Both experimental group (89.4%) and control group (10.6%) suggested that technology has a vital role to solve global environment problems. Finally, the students in the experimental (85%) group think that method is amusing. From these results, it is seen that students' knowledge and consciousness about global environmental problems increase with the using of this experimental method, and at the same time it is seen that with this study they can realize their share of improving environment easier than before.
 
The purpose of this study is to compare vocational school students' success at basic mathematics subjects with regard to their entrance to the university. The data were obtained by administering a "Personnel Information Form" and "the Mathematics Test" prepared by the researcher to 617 vocational school students and 26 two-year degree programs at the Open University in Turkey. After analyzing the data, a considerable statistical difference in basic mathematical knowledge and skills among students was found based on students' entrance ranks to the programs. The results of the research indicated that there is a significant difference in success on mathematics courses taken at high schools and universities. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between men and women on mathematics tests.
 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of primary school teachers on principal cultural leadership behaviors, and examine the opinions of the participating teachers according to their various occupational characteristics. The study is descriptive in nature and evaluates the teachers' perceptions by using the Cultural Leadership Scale (Yildirim, 2001). The population of the study is composed of teachers employed in the primary schools in Kahramanmaras, a province located in the southeastern part of Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of a total of randomly selected 308 teachers. The analysis revealed that the perceptions of teachers regarding the cultural leadership behaviors of their principals vary significantly according to their gender, years of experience, and the subjects taught by the participants. On the other hand, participant teachers indicated that they were undecided about their principals' cultural leadership behaviors. In addition, as the years of experience of the teachers increased, teachers became more critical of their principals' cultural leadership behaviors. The culture of the school was not strong if the principals were not good at putting cultural leadership behaviors into practice in their schools. In order for the principals to be cultural leaders, they must take into account appropriate values and norms of the organization. It is suggested that principals be good models for staff by integrating cultural leadership behaviors into practice in their schools. (Contains 4 tables.)
 
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of a constructivist instructional design on a group of students and their teacher. The sample consisted of 26 students and one teacher. The research was conducted at Istanbul Technical University, School of Foreign Languages, English Preparatory Program. The instructional design based on the constructivist learning principles that is developed by the teachers together with the class teacher was applied to the sample group. The data were gathered using quantitative data collection techniques, analyzed and interpreted. The findings emphasize that, in general, constructivist instructional design has a positive effect both on the students and the teacher. On the other hand, because most schools in Turkey have an exam-oriented system, constructivist instructional design does not appeal to some students.
 
Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined that the origins of black smock and white collar lie in the university and charity school uniforms in England. In France and England, school uniforms have mostly been affected by the religious tradition. Western educational system was a model for Turkey. Notre Dame de Sion and Saint Joseph which were founded in the middle of the nineteenth century in Istanbul were probably the first models of black smock and white collar in Turkey.
 
The main purpose of this study is to determine the rate of how teachers' subjective wellbeing is predicted by their perceptions about the quality of school life and burnout levels. The participants of the study consisted of 161 teachers (93 females, 68 males) who were working in elementary schools in Adana central districts. The Positive-Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Life Satisfaction Inventory (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griff in, 1985), Quality of School Life Scale (Sari, 2007), and Teacher Burnout Scale (Seidman, & Zager, 1986) were used as data collection tools. To analyze the gathered data, stepwise regression analysis was performed. Results of stepwise regression analysis showed that teachers' subjective well-being levels were predicted significantly by the Quality of School Life Scale sub-factors, namely "status" and "curriculum" and burnout scale sub-factor, namely "coping work-related stress." Teachers' life satisfaction levels were predicted significantly by the variables of "status", "coping work-related stress" and "school administrator" which is a sub factor of the Quality of School Life Scale. Also, teachers' positive affect was predicted by the variables of "status", "positive affects towards school" and "teachers," and teachers' negative affect was predicted by the variables of "coping work-related stress", "status," and "curriculum." Other subscales of the Quality of School Life and Teacher Burnout Scales have no significant contribution in the estimation. Results also indicated that the contribution of predictors could be accounted as 39% for subjective well-being; 23% for life satisfaction; 23% for positive affect, and 37% for negative affect. In the direction of these general findings, it was suggested that, in-service education programs about interpersonal relations and coping strategies with stress should be applied for teachers and administrators. Besides that, the quality of life in schools should be increased. On the basis of limited similar studies in the literature, it was suggested that the number of both descriptive and predictive studies should be increased on the topic.
 
The study aims to determine critical thinking tendencies among teacher candidates. 720 students from primary school teaching department (Primary School Teaching Programme, Science Teaching Programme and Pre-School Teaching Programme) form the sample of the study. When the gender and age distributions were investigated, 253 candidates are males and 467 are females. All the teacher candidates aged between 17-22 years old. The reliability coefficient of the California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale is 0.88. The scale consists of 6-point Likert-type 51 items and is adapted to Turkish by Kokdemir (2003). The scale consists of 6 scales: Analyticity, Curiosity, Open-Mindedness, Self-Reliance, Search for Truth, and Systematicity. The data collected through the scale were analyzed by using t-tests and analysis of variance and interpreted in tables. As a result, it was found that the critical thinking tendency of teacher candidates differs in sub-scales on open-mindedness and curiosity with regards to gender, on analyticity and search for truth with regards to learning styles, on analyticity with regards to grades, and on analyticity, curiosity, and search for truth according to majors.
 
Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain limitations in practice. This study focuses on the problems faced in the implementation of these guidelines and some possible solutions regarding these limitations, in light of a thorough literature review. These guidelines included steps to be taken in determining the developmental patterns of visually impaired young children, providing instruction in all areas of development, personnel preparation, assessment and evaluation as well as mainstreaming practices and several solutions to overcome barriers were proposed. This discussion is believed to shed light on planning and implementing effective support services for infants and children with visual impairments.
 
(Cont.) Forty topics that teachers thought as difficult for students NO TOPICS TDI Value 
In this study it was aimed to i) diagnose the topics that are perceived as difficult at the level of 6-8 science classes and ii) find out the reasons behind of these difficulties as well as propose suggestions to remedy these difficulties. Eighteen science teachers and three hundred students attending different types of secondary schools participated in the study. In the study in which qualitative and quantitative methods were used 114 science topics were listed to diagnose the topics that are perceived as difficult. Participants were noted their ideas regarding the topics as "easy", "moderate" and "difficult." Topic difficulty index (TDI) was used to determine the level of difficulty. To find out the reasons behind the difficulties, five teachers and ten pupils who indicated the topics of the highest difficulties were interviewed. The results of the study showed that i) the topics that have the TDI value over %25 are mostly related to physical processes and they are followed the topics about living organisms and life, matter and change, The World and the Universe, respectively, ii) there is not an exact overlap between the topics that are perceived as difficult both by teachers and the students, iii) there are several reasons (e.g., the level of abstractness of the concepts, overloading of the content, mathematical skill, language etc.) behind the difficulties. The possible effects of these results on science education and their importance regarding learning, teaching, assessment as well as curriculum development are critically analyzed and some suggestions are made to remedy the difficulties. (Contains 1 figure and 4 tables.)
 
It is necessary to provide students both with and without special needs and the classroom teachers with special education support services in order to achieve successful inclusion applications. The determination of teachers' opinions about the applications they carry out is important in the planning and achievement of the future applications. The purpose of this article which was designed as an action research was to analyze the opinions of special and general education teachers, working in inclusion classes based on co-teaching approach, about the preparation stage for the application, planning meetings and applications they carried out. Research participants were composed of a researcher who is a special education teacher, a classroom teacher and second grade students. In the scope of the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the classroom teacher; planning meetings were arranged with the aim of preparing for the applications; and reflective daily data sources compiled by the researcher were utilized. The data were analyzed from a phenomenological perspective via inductive analysis. The findings were compared with those recorded in the related literature and were discussed. Consequently, classroom teacher voluntarily participated in the research process and stated that there was no problem about classroom applications. The teacher declared the importance of planning meetings, however, did not allocate sufficient time for meetings and did not give details about the lessons. Therefore, ambiguities were recorded lesson applications about the role and responsibilities of teachers. The teacher stated that all co-teaching approaches can be applied in inclusion classes however stated that these applications were not so new for her and this process could not have any contributions to her.
 
The present research aimed to investigate non-ethical behaviors and mobbing to which academic staff in universities are subjected. Twelve academic staff who were subjected to mobbing in universities in Turkey were interviewed. The research was formed in a qualitative design. Results show that the metaphors that the instructors use to liken their administrators such as the components of organizational culture are negative organizational stories, lack of organizational heroes, reduced organizational faithfulness, organizational ceremonies consisting of formalities, weakness of organizational moral codes of conduct, lack of positive role-models as examples, availability of the administrators who are impossible to discuss about, organizational prestige loss, insufficiency of organizational language, emotion and understanding demonstrated that a very weak organizational culture is available, and at the same time negative organization culture triggers psycho-violence.
 
The purpose of this study is to investigate validity and reliability of Short Form of The Family Sense of Coherence Scale's which was developed originally 26 items by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) and 12 items short form by Sagy (1998). The scale measures individuals' perception of Family Sense of Coherence and it can be applied to adolescents and adults. The sample was consisted of 328 female (58%) and 234 male (42%), totally 562 undergraduate students who attend Education Faculty, Cukurova University. After translating the FSOC into Turkish, exploratory factor analysis was performed on samples of undergraduate students. In addition item analyses, convergent, divergent scales validity and test-re test, Cronbach alpha coefficient reliability were examined. The results have shown that Short form of Turkish Family Sense of Coherence Scale has satisfactory reliability and validity.
 
In this study, the effect of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on sociotropy levels of university students were investigated. The working group was consisted of thirty two voluntary university students. A pre-test and post-test model was used with control group and experimental group, each consisting of sixteen individuals. University students' sociotropy levels were measured by the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale which was adapted to Turkish by Sahin, Ulusoy and Sahin (1993). The data were analyzed with independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test and one-way ANOVA for repeated measures techniques. Data handled in this research had shown that university students who participated in the ten sessions of communication and conflict resolution skill training program had lower levels of sociotropy than the other individuals who had not participated in the training program. There was no significant change on the sociotropy levels of the control group. After three and six months, one-way ANOVA for repeated measures technique was used for the experimental group and it was found that there was no significant relationship between sociotropy levels of post-test scores and follow up scores. The findings had shown that the communication and conflict resolution skill training program had positive effects on the levels of sociotropy among university students.
 
The present study examined the effect of a 10-session couple communication program developed by the researcher on passive conflict tendencies among married couples. The research was carried out with 28 married couples, 14 participants in the control group, and 14 participants in the experimental group. The design of the research was an experimental, pre-test post-test and a follow-up model. Married couples' tendency of passive conflict was measured by the Tendency of Passive Conflict Subscale of the Conflict Tendency Scale (Dokmen, 1986). Mann Whitney U Test, Wilcoxon Matched--Pairs Signed Ranks Test and One-Way Anova for Repeated Measures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the tendency of passive conflict among married couples who attended the program were lower than those who did not attend the program (p less than 0.001). It was found that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the control group. Follow-up administrations were conducted three and six months after the program had finished. There was a significant difference between post-test passive conflict subscale scores and the first follow up test scores in favor of the first follow up. It was found out that there was not a significant difference between the second follow up test scores, conducted after six months, and the first follow up test scores. It can be argued that the couple communication program has positive and permanent effects in lowering the tendency of passive conflict among married couples.
 
This study examined the perceptions of teachers on the effectiveness of organizational communication in their schools and whether the perceptions differed between teachers in primary and junior high schools as a function of gender, age, marital status, seniority, and rank. Data were collected from a sample of 334 teachers in 63 schools, working in primary and junior high schools in the centre of Afyon and Usak in Turkey during the fall and spring semesters of 2002-2003. A questionnaire developed by Gurgen (1997) was used in data collection, after minor modifications for teachers working in compulsory schools. Data were analyzed by percentages, means, t-tests for equality of means, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests. Results showed that teachers scored high in the effectiveness of organizational communication, in general. Additionally, there was not a significant difference in teachers' perceptions between primary and junior high schools as a function of gender, marital status, or seniority. However, older teachers scored higher than the young in the effectiveness of organizational communication. Furthermore, teachers with less educational attainment (i.e., undergraduate or graduate education of two-year-college) scored lower than those with more educational attainment (i.e., graduate of a four-year college) in the effectiveness of organizational communication. Moreover, primary and junior high school teachers indicated that they were informed about what to do at work by their principals. They were informed orally (65%), meetings and workshops (27%), or in formal writing (8%). Finally, suggestions as to what should be done to reach effective organizational communication in schools, help younger teachers use effective organizational communication skills, and increase the communication channels by principals and teachers were suggested.
 
The purpose of this research is to study the effects of cooperative, individual concept mapping, and traditional teaching methods on learning strategy use. One of the experimental groups was taught by cooperative concept mapping, and the other by individual concept mapping. Traditional method was implemented in the control group. Fifth graders (52 females, 70 males) enrolled in an elementary school in Aegean district, Turkey participated, in this research. "Sound and Light" unit was covered during a 35-hour treatment. Experimental groups were provided with training about concept mapping strategy and cooperation skills. Data were collected by the Learning Strategy Inventory and in-depth interview protocols with the participants. The findings showed that cooperative and individual concept mapping conditions promoted the use of effective learning strategies more than traditional teaching.
 
It is argued that a traditional approach to religious education is not sufficient to meet the necessities of contemporary world. For this reason, pluralistic approaches to religious education receive a particular attention in the recent years. In line with the other school subjects, the curriculum of secondary religious education was changed in Turkey. It is stated that the new curriculum was prepared taking the constructivist learning theory into consideration. The new curriculum may be accepted as a response to the demand for change in religious education. In this article, the following three issues related to pluralism are examined in terms of the new religious education curriculum: (i) Religious education and constructivist approach, (ii) the teaching of Alawism and (iii) the teaching of non-Islamic religions. An analysis of the curriculum indicates that some improvements have been made in line with pluralism.
 
The aim of this study is to determine whether a social skill instruction program, prepared according to the cooperative learning method, is effective for children with hearing disability in learning the basic social skills, starting and continuing a relationship, conducting a work with a group, and the generalization of these skills. Nine learning groups, that is, three groups for each three different skills, are formed because the three target social skills should be applied on different students. To determine the teaching efficiency, multiple probe model with probe conditions across subject is used. Result showed that this program is effective for hearing impaired students who can learn some social skills.
 
The aim of this study is to test the spiritual leadership behaviors of school principles in a structural equation model. The study is designed to test causality with the assumption that causality exists between the two variables. In this study, spiritual leadership behavior of managers is treated as the independent variable whereas the organizational culture is the dependent variable in the model. Population of this research is 2447 primary school teachers who were working in 32 primary schools in Atasehir-Istanbul/Turkey. Sampling group consists of 359 voluntary teachers defined with (layer) cluster sampling method according to three income levels (high-mid-low). Data are collected in two scales which were originally developed by researcher. The Spiritual leadership scale consisted of two components and five subscales ("performance": commitment, vision, productive and "attendance": belonging, believe). The Organizational Culture Scale consisted of four subscales (managerial, social, value and aim). In order to test the structural equity model designed in the research, path coefficients and defined relations between implied and observed variables are used. Findings show that attendance highly affects performance and, in turn, performance affects school culture at the mid-level. It is suggested that the perception of spiritual leadership be improved in structural equation models in future studies.
 
The aim of this study is to determine and compare the views of primary school teachers on the implementation and effectiveness of the new primary school mathematics curriculum. For that aim, a 32-item Likert-type Mathematics Curriculum Scale was developed. The reliability of the scale was tested through Cronbach Alpha (0.98), Spearman-Brown (0.93) and Guttman split half (0.93) and the scale was found to be reliable. The scale includes four sub-scales. The population includes 792 classroom teachers working in 64 pilot schools where the new primary school mathematics curriculum was in trail in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Kocaeli, Van, Hatay, Samsun, and Bolu. The data were analyzed in terms of city, classroom, gender, teaching experience, education level, and student number variables. Independent samples t- test, Kruskal Wallis H test, variance analysis, Mann Whitney U, Scheffe, and LSD tests were used to analyze the data. Statistically significant differences were found between the views of the teachers in terms of city, classroom, gender and student number variables. It was determined that the learning attainments, content and teaching-learning activities in the new mathematics curriculum were found to be effective by the teachers. But the evaluation part of the new curriculum was not found to be effective in practice. Teachers are advised to have systematic and effective inservice seminars to learn and use the evaluation techniques aimed at the new primary school mathematics curriculum.
 
Globalization and transformations in nation-state structures require developing a new social-political language that would allow a peaceful coexistence for various identities and interests. This entails revising the link between local histories and the "universal." Education can play a crucial role for developing this language. This paper examines the new curriculum and textbooks in Turkey on the basis of this problematic. The Ministry of National Education states that the new curriculum aims at preparing Turkey to the information age and the European Union. However, new textbooks still take an apologetic, essentialist, and nationalist stance toward Europe due to the historical-psychological background of Turkish modernity. Textbook authors reconstruct local history in the mirror of the West and imagine a homogenous "Us" which is presented as the source of modern universal values. This stance is a manifestation of historical desire to break down the perceived hierarchy between Turkey and the West. It, however, reproduces such a hierarchy by placing the West ahead of Turkey along with a linear conception of history. The paper suggests a new frame for curriculum developers and textbook authors to recontextualize the link between Turkey, the West and modernity. This frame needs to be developed by taking a distance from both local experience and the West.
 
The derivative is not only an important subject for mathematics but also is an important subject for engineering, physics, economy, chemistry, and statistics. Especially, mathematics depends on strongly preceding learning and the subject of derivative will be used in university education by all students. Therefore, it is one of the most important subjects. This study's purpose is to explore student mistakes and errors in derivative and determine the areas in which students have probable misconceptions. For this purpose, 7 questions were chosen from "the Student Placement Test" (OSS). These questions were transferred into open-ended questions. The results of the study, which took place at sixth form college, are described and discussed. The test was administered to 53 students from Balikesir Fatma Emin Kutvar Anatolian High School in the fall-term of 2005-2006. Determining the possible misconceptions should help teachers when they teach this subject. The study findings showed that students could not understand derivative definition that depends on limit, make mistakes in composite functions and trigonometric functions, and establish wrong relations between tangent's slope, and normal's slope. Teachers need to be able to find errors and misconceptions in students' solutions. Teachers also need to be applying meaningful learning strategies such as concept maps, worksheets about derivative (e.g. Appendix B, Appendix C).
 
Top-cited authors
Ahmet AKIN
  • Sakarya University
Bülent Dilmaç
  • Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi
Bayram Çetin
  • Gaziantep University
mehmet barış Horzum
  • Sakarya University
Duru Erdinç
  • Pamukkale University