Education and Training

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0040-0912
Publications
Article
Purpose – This article proposes the development of a conceptual model to help understand the nature of management learning in the micro business context and to inform research and policy discourse. Design/methodology/approach – The model is developed on the basis of a literature search and review of academic and grey literature. Findings – The model highlights the unique nature of the micro business learning environment. Meeting the diverse interests of micro business managers is a major challenge for agencies seeking to promote and deliver management and leadership skills. An intervention approach founded upon the relationship between the micro business manager and the intervention agency is crucial to the successful design and delivery of relevant services. Research limitations/implications – The research identified a lack of literature associated with learning in the micro business context. The model should therefore be considered as partial, to be tested in practice and subject to revision as new understanding unfolds. Practical implications – The conceptual model suggests that the foundation of successful intervention should be the interests of the managers themselves. Closer relationships between a flexible supply-side and the micro business manager provide the foundation to improve the relevance of these interventions in the micro business context and to encourage access to learning opportunities amongst the employed workforce. Originality/value – The research subject and the development of a unique conceptual model may be of use to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.(Publication abstract)
 
Article
The Problem in Cleveland In May 1985 it came to the attention of the Cleveland Area Manpower Board, via the Careers Service, that 40 per cent or more of those youngsters who had previously had difficulty in coping in their school environment were failing to succeed in YTS. A review of the literature of "both sides" — government/MSC proponents versus their critics in education and industry — revealed that there was cause for concern regarding the sector of youth referred to as low achievers . Some aspects of the problem, if indeed one did exist, were self-evident. At some time during the school career the low achiever's ability to conceptualise within the school framework of cultural values and academic subjects either did not develop, or ceased to develop at some point, or was not yet sufficiently developed to keep up with class norms. This meant that, relatively speaking, while the rest of the class built layer after layer of verbal and numerate expertise it went on outside the scope of the low achiever's comprehension.
 
Article
The author has written this article, on bridging the gap between the new GCSE and GCE A-levels, for publication in Gabbitas Truman and Thring's annual guide for parents to choosing schools and colleges. It is based on a number of interviews with teachers in a range of subjects, and aims to identify the type of study skills problems that pupils will face in moving on from GCSE to A-levels, and the type of provision that schools and colleges are making to cope with the transition.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to assess the state of development of entrepreneurship education, determine the importance of entrepreneurship in the South African higher education institutions (HEIs), and offer recommendations for improving preparations for the developing field. Design/methodology/approach - An e-mail survey has been conducted on South African HEIs. The respondents were academic staff members who are involved in teaching and researching entrepreneurship. Findings - Results indicate that the entrepreneurship education in South Africa is in its developmental stage, although it is perceived as important in elevating the profile of any institution and there is increasing commitment from the institutions in academic, research and outreach offerings in entrepreneurship. The teaching and assessment methods follow traditional classroom delivery while research in entrepreneurship in South Africa is perceived as less rigorous than other management disciplines. Research limitations/implications - Although all HEIs were requested to become respondents in this survey, some have decided not to participate. Also, some academics involved in entrepreneurship may have been excluded if they are not on the e-mail list of the Academic Entrepreneurship Society (AcES) of South Africa. Practical implications - The findings suggest recommendations geared towards curriculum development, evaluation of teaching and assessment methodologies as well as the creation of partnerships with local communities for opportunities in internships and worksite visits. Originality/value - This is the first study conducted on entrepreneurship education in South Africa, based on a national study encompassing most HEIs in this country.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach - Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed ( n =100). Findings - Qualitative evidence was found for managerial style preferences in accordance with cognitive styles, leading to various ways of decision making, conflict handling, and giving feedback. Research limitations/implications - Future research should explore how these results can be linked to contextual elements and to managerial performance. Practical implications - This study contributes to increased managerial style awareness, which is important for intrapersonal development and interpersonal cooperation. Originality/value - This is one of a few studies that have sought to qualitatively grasp the implications of having a particular cognitive style. It provides relevant insights into task- and people-oriented managerial practices beyond previous, mainly quantitative studies.
 
Article
Teaching Skills is a series of booklets on various subjects in the school curriculum. I have chosen two of these for comment; though I should add that they all offer valuable tips to the non-specialist, as well as to the subject teacher. The aim is to examine basic teaching skills and to encourage teachers to develop new classroom practices. The danger that every teacher runs is to get stuck in a daily routine which works reasonably well, but which over the years becomes boring. The art of teaching consists in constant self-questioning and constant renewal of methods. There is no one way of teaching a subject. This series can therefore serve three distinct classes of users: the students in training, the qualified teachers, and those who are pressed into teaching subjects other than their own speciality. The last group appears to be growing in numbers.
 
Article
Education and training are vital to the economic growth of any nation, and the UK's failure fully to realise the potential of both its future and existing labour resources has been well documented. Investment in this area from both the public and private sectors is now being stepped up sharply.
 
Article
Before launching yourself into the cut and thrust of management consultancy, there are two important areas you need to explore.
 
Article
This article is an updated version of Chapter 6, "Teaching Communication Skills in the United Kingdom", which appeared in Communication Skills. Volume 1: An International Review , edited by Philip Hills and Margaret McLaren, Croom Helm, London, 1987. In 1979 a survey of courses, books and materials used in communication skills courses in universities, polytechnics and institutes of higher education listed 55 institutions providing such courses which "varied in purpose, length, style and content". The main areas dealt with by these courses were in:
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate New Entrepreneur Scholarships, a government‐funded programme that aims to help people from disadvantaged backgrounds to become self‐employed. Design/methodology/approach – A case study methodology is employed. Findings – The programme has been very effective in helping people who would not otherwise overcome the barriers in setting up a business to establish themselves in self‐employment. Originality/value – Tacking the issue of qualifications remains an issue as there is no clear demand for a qualification. Resources are also needed to further promote the success of New Entrepreneur scholars within their own areas to that they can be role models to others and so that enterprise can be seen as a viable option for other members of their communities.
 
Article
The Principal of EM Courses, and a former senior executive with Unilever, stresses that the former Girl Friday is now an integral part of the Robinson Crusoe Corporation.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to explore the ways in which entrepreneurship education may serve as an identity workspace. Design/methodology/approach - This is a conceptual/theoretical paper based on previously completed empirical work. Findings - The paper makes the connection between worldmaking, experience, action and identity. Practical implications - The paper furthers understanding of entrepreneurship education and its potential effect on the identity of participants. It stresses the importance of offering entrepreneurship education participants the opportunity to take entrepreneurial action. It has implications for the existing state of entrepreneurship education, e.g. the focus on business plans in the absence of an exploration of the identity of participants. Originality/value - The paper is an original exploration of the linkage between entrepreneurship education and identity and has implications for both pedagogy and practice.
 
Article
I would like to begin by briefly addressing the question: is there a problem? I believe, unequivocally, the answer is "Yes". What is more, I sense that there is a very rapidly-growing acceptance of this fact. Indeed I hardly dare mention Handy, Constable or McCormick for fear their findings have become such clichés that everybody will become bored.
 
Article
Conventional secretarial courses, including graduate and A-level entry programmes, typically apply skills-based approaches to curriculum design. They have freestanding components for various secretarial competencies — typing, shorthand, office practice, word-processing, business communication, etc — with additional subjects (business law, marketing or economics, for example) incorporated according to the availability of staff and other resources within the institution. Subject teachers seek to inculcate in students sets of abilities, perceptions and approaches strictly related to the subjects they teach. Programmes develop around particular skills, and there are few inter-relations between courses.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the approach to embedding entrepreneurship within third level education in Northern Ireland by assessing the perceptions of lecturers and learners and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching methods. Design/methodology/approach - Surveys and focus groups were conducted with lecturers and learners from different disciplines as part of a pilot investigation under the Northern Ireland Centre for Entrepreneurship (NICENT) with a view to establishing a longitudinal study. Findings - Evidence suggests that NICENT has increased interest and positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland. E-learning can meet high demand, intensive programmes are equally effective in improving the skills set. Entrepreneurship education needs sub-sequential support. Research limitations/implications - The study provided preliminary findings for entrepreneurship teachings in different disciplines. Further dissecting of lecturer/learner analyses by course/year etc. is possible. Effectiveness could be assessed through graduate behaviours in the future in order to build longitudinal data. Practical implications - The results prove that lecturers/learners are willing to embrace new subjects (entrepreneurship for scientists) and new teaching methods when blended with traditional approaches. Whilst WebCT environment can facilitate a comfortable action-learning zone, entrepreneurship education needs personalisation and industry engagement. Originality/value - The study reports from the developing face within Northern Ireland and provides insightful observations of new subject adoption, the learner's curve and changing cultural attitudes within tertiary education.
 
Article
The work of the University Association for Contemporary European Studies (UACES), which celebrates its 20th anniversary this year, is described. The Secretariat is based at King's College, London.
 
Article
Aims to identify the need for graduate skills in the UK retail sector, and to assess the role that higher education currently plays and can potentially play in meeting these. Uses semi-structured interviews with managers and graduates of six of the major companies, which demonstrate transferable skills dominate their skill needs. Finds that their need for demonstrated intellect and technical skills is small, and that vocational courses/course content play a definite role, but attributes required are not directly related to specific subject knowledge. Discovers that owing to competitive market place pressures, industry increasingly expects HE to play an active role in providing required skills. Claims that a lack of consensus on the extent to which HE can be held accountable for providing these skills is apparent, and that a clearer strategy for the use of graduate skills is needed, in view of the fact that HE serves a variety of different stakeholders in society with different value systems and objectives.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000 undergraduates at the British University in Egypt, drawn from the University's three faculties. Findings – The paper finds that, although three organizations, Ashoka Arab World, The Schwab Foundation and Yes Egypt, do much to support and promote social enterprise in Egypt, students are confused over what a social entrepreneur is or does and are largely unaware of existing Egyptian social entrepreneurs. The majority want a career in a multi-national enterprise but a sizeable number are interested in establishing a social enterprise. Research limitations/implications – The sample is small and limited to one institution but the findings corroborate theory and indicate a need for both greater awareness (information/knowledge), and support/encouragement. Practical implications – There is a need to change the Egyptian education system to encourage students to think and behave more entrepreneurially, at the same time equipping them with the skills to start their own ventures on graduation. Social implications – To promote a more socially aware, sustainable economy, Egyptian support organizations need to work with the country's universities to change the curriculum and the way students are taught. Originality/value – This research is one of the first academic studies on entrepreneurship in Egypt. It will interest academics, educational policy makers and those concerned with the promotion of entrepreneurship.
 
Article
Often we discuss recent educational books with educationalists we meet while going round — usually their reaction is non-committal. But occasionally one book causes an intense reaction of pleasure or dismay. Here, Harold Silver, himself no mean educational writer, gives vent to his stronger feelings — having read ‘British Further Education’ by A. J. Peters (published by Pergamon Press, Oxford, at 63s)
 
Article
The basic concept is a fairly simple one—the creation in Britain of an institution of higher education—ultimately a University—outside the system of State provision; that is to say financed by fees and endowments and not by the taxpayer through the University Grants Committee. In present circumstances the idea itself is a radical one since it runs counter to the accepted orthodoxy according to which the State should be the only provider of education and all provision outside the public domain should be regarded as a transient exception to the rule.
 
Article
Much has been written about the nature of change and its effects on human individuals and organisations. It is clear that simply maintaining the organisational status quo is tantamount to slipping backwards if there are dynamic changes occurring in the general business environment.
 
Article
The party conferences in October, they say, may be the last before the next general election. So this is just the time for offering them a policy each for education. Neither the Labour Party nor the Conservatives are likely to evolve anything very coherent if left to themselves, which is sad if understandable. Both will be preoccupied with other things. But it is no good educators sitting back glumly and complaining; we have to chip in and give a hand. Nor is it much good suggesting things which the individual parties can't possibly manage. You might think that Circular 10/65 on secondary reorganization should never have been issued, but telling the Labour Party to withdraw it is not the way to influence in the party. You may believe that streaming is the biggest handicap to educational advance, but there is not much sense in urging the Conservative somehow to abolish it. What we have to do is to see what elements of the traditional attitudes of the parties ought to be encouraged, from the point of view of education, and which diverted.
 
Article
AS LONG AGO as 1951, and almost certainly much earlier, voices were raised that humane or liberal studies should be included in technical education. In an article that year, the writer pleaded for a union between the social sciences and technological education. He argued that the teacher of economics or sociology should provide the social framework of engineering or building. A Unesco report claimed that “the right method was for cultural studies to grow naturally out of the subject matter of technical training.”
 
Article
Programme implementation Let us turn now to how the training was organised (see Figure 1). Travel to the training site was not a problem, so we established a well‐equipped training room at the Technical Training School. We have now moved to our own Management Development Centre and have a fully dedicated training room for Interaction Management, with permanently‐mounted attractive wall charts and all the necessary video and film equipment to present the course in its best light. The Technical Training School where we started was well regarded, and the IM programme was under its control. This was quite helpful in getting IM off the ground. Participants came to IM in a familiar location, where they had received other training they had found useful in performing their jobs. We did decide to limit to one the number of units conducted in any one week. This was due to language issues, learning new concepts for the first time, and because of the nature of the organisation management style.
 
Article
THE PROPOSED definitions in Mr Grease's article in the February issue have, in my opinion, only added to the number of unsatisfactory definitions. As they stand, the definitions A and B in the article seem to be ambiguous and confusing.
 
Article
In this report, which concludes the series, the author surreys the whole scene and attempts to integrate the separate arguments put forward in previous reports.
 
Article
Discusses schemes for new qualifications combining academic and vocational areas of the 16-to 19-years age group: the Technological Baccalaureate and the Diploma of Vocational Education. Emphasizes the role City and Guilds is playing in the development of both.
 
Article
Incl. abstract, bibl. One of the most prominent developments in vocational education and training in recent years has been the development of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) in England and Wales, based on the assessment of an individual's competence at work. However, the initial implementation of the NVQ policy generated a considerable amount of criticism. The standards of occupational competence on which the NVQs are based were attacked for being too narrow; employers appeared reluctant to take up the new qualifications; and the introduction of NVQs appeared to exacerbate, rather than mitigate, the "jungle" of vocational qualifications. Drawing on in-depth interviews with key informants and an analysis of relevant documentation this article ascribes the initial failure of the NVQ initiative to progress in the manner that its planners had originally anticipated to the existence of certain institutional constraints: the political imperative to manage high levels of youth unemployment; inadequate accountability and supervision in policy implementation; the presence of a renewed ethos of voluntarism in UK labour market policy; and the weakness of employers' representative structures.
 
Article
Endeavour, an educational charity, has two complementary sections: a commercial training service offering personal development training courses and programmes, and a voluntary and community service which organises activities, events and community work and provides “a curriculum of training”, especially for young people. Endeavour mounts expeditions and work projects combining adventure with service. In 1989 Endeavour ran a four-week work project in Jamaica, in and around the Mustard Seed Community, Kingston. About 20 volunteers paid their way and raised money for tools and materials to use in construction and maintenance work. They repaired houses and plumbing amenities and constructed play and adventure facilities for resident children, many of whom were handicapped. They also helped care for (feed, dress, entertain) these children, and joined with local people in excursions and social gatherings.
 
Article
Robinson P. Rigg, author of Audio Aids and Techniques in Management, offers advice he has yet to take himself.
 
Article
Medieval England knew of student disturbances bloodier and more violent than anything that has occurred in Grosvenor Square to date. Yet today's disturbances have a radically different quality. The days of moderate dominance have seemingly passed. Indeed, the position of the National Union of Students as the Woodcraft Folk of Transport House is itself in jeopardy. Their post-student leaders can no more control the radical minority than convince the vice-chancellors that today's student is any different from his 1930s predecessor. Tio Pepe diplomacy is still more impressive to them than militant action. Nevertheless, the actions of 27 October (in as far as they concerned students) have crystallised the dilemma of what might be termed the disenfranchised privileged. Votes at 18 can only placate the more vociferous. What is at stake in the present wave of student unrest is no less than the fabric of our presently intimately stratified society. The prime motivation even of today's Maoists can only be guilt. As the pieces that follow indicate, we would be well advised not to dismiss this present activity as a transitory phenomenon. For behind all the romantic political hogwash, today's students are displaying a level of responsibility that was previously never apparent. For too long the British student was the joke of Europe — epitomized by the King's, London, engineer; he didn't read and it was doubtful that he could even count. Only Oxbridge and sitting below the Chelsea boot really mattered. Perhaps at Oxbridge this is still true.
 
Article
Our regular educational contributor, a former Staff HMI in Business Studies, discusses four books which describe, sequentially, the wide-ranging implications of the Education Reform Act 1988 which has undoubtedly provided — as it was no doubt intended to — the biggest academic shake-up since the former Education Act 1944.
 
Article
Briefly reviews the BS 5750 quality standard as applied to an organization, emphasizing the importance of internal (departmental) as well as external customers. Emphasizes also that it is absolutely vital to engage the services of an outside consultant in drawing up a plan, in order to save time and ensure conformance with the laid down standards. Highlights finally the all-important truth that it behoves everyone in the organization to understand and be committed to quality.
 
Article
THE MAKING of London's underground railway system took many years. Putting railways under the ground in built-up areas was thought of as soon as there were several railway termini to connect. Parliamentary permission for the first, now called the Inner Circle, was obtained in 1854; work began in 1860 and in June 1862 Paddington and King's Cross had been connected and the line continued to Farringdon Street. Here the excavations met the Old Fleet Ditch, the bricked-in River Fleet which had for centuries served (and still does serve) as a sewer.
 
Article
Peter Vernon, editor of Visual Education, takes a personal look at the forthcoming INTERNAVEX 70
 
Article
Founded in 1960, with Dr Michael Young as its chairman, and Tyrrell Burgess as director, ACE does more than answer questions from worried mums: it publishes books, runs residential courses, and conducts more than a few educational experiments. Perpetual stirrers, they have recently held a conference on discipline in schools, and no one will be in any doubt why they held it or what side they're on. Largely owing to their constant badgering for the rights of parents, those old signs in primary school corridors reading ‘Parents must not proceed beyond this point’ are disappearing. Streaming — a subject present director Brian Jackson has always felt strongly about — may also owe its abolition in many areas to the force of ACE's arguments — which favour strongly grouping in the primary school, as much individual attention as possible from teachers for slower-learning children, discovery methods to replace rote learning, creative writing, a new approach to music — creative rather than passive, again — Nuffield Science for juniors and a new deal for nursery toddlers — all have come under ACE's hammer at some time or another. Not content merely to keep reiterating Lady Plowden's recommendations for the primary school, Where has often researched far beyond the immediately obvious educational priority areas and has outlined the needs for deprived groups like gypsy children. Pressurizing for comprehensives doesn't go off the boil when the idea takes root even in High Tory enclaves: with ACE it goes on simmering for more flexible methods of learning and grouping inside such schools.
 
Article
What is Management? A number of classic definitions of the purpose and functions of management exist which serve to give overall comprehension and insight into this very complex activity. To state broad principles is very important, as they give the essential perspective to the manager's role. All too often day-to-day working on a job, particularly in the rapidly-changing conditions in which management is practised today, tends to give an ant's eye, rather than a bird's eye, view of the manager's job. So much paper — so many crisis situations — too few resources — too many constraints — make many managers into 'doers” of mini-tasks, too few into broad vision organisers aiming for results.
 
Article
There are about as many definitions of absenteeism as there are suggested causes. What attracts interest is the sort of non-attendance which tends to be associated with malpractice or anti-social behaviour of some kind — that which derives from the absence of a work ethic. This includes malingering, laziness, and couldn't care less attitudes — what we might define as unjustified absence.
 
Article
Absenteeism can be a very expensive business. For example, in 1968 General Motors (GM) estimated the annual cost of a five per cent absenteeism level spread uniformly throughout the Corporation at $50m. Today the figure would be markedly higher. Further, such costs include only what is directly measurable. A variety of hidden costs are excluded; they include:
 
Article
In order to achieve the objectives of an organisation, it may be necessary to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviour by employees. For example some meetings may be prolonged unnecessarily, or the tempo of discussion broken, because one person persists in telling jokes. To reduce the frequency of the undesired behaviour various strategies are available, including—
 
Article
The standards were developed to promote best practice in intervention with men who abuse their relationship partners. Such intervention practice is guided by principles of responsibility, accountability and respectfulness to all persons affected by domestic violence.
 
Article
This standard was developed to promote best practice in the process of intervention with women subjected to domestic abuse and violence, the process of intervention is guided by the principles of safety, empowerment of the woman, responsibility and respect.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in Education and Training, published by and copyright Emerald. Purpose – To investigate the attitudes of academic staff towards providing practical support for full-time students working on a part-time basis during term-time. Design/methodology/approach – A case study of a rural faculty of a large metropolitan university in the UK. In-depth semi-structured interviews were held with 22 members of staff, drawn from every department in the case study faculty. Findings – Support for working students is arbitrary and accidental. The majority of staff are unaware of the extent of student employment and of the possibilities of providing support. Research limitations/implications – Only a small proportion of the total university staff were interviewed, coupled with the fact that the faculty is rural and therefore the sample may not be representative of the majority of universities which have city centre campuses. Practical implications – Improved awareness of students' total university experience on the part of academics may encourage practical measures to assist the undergraduates to cope more effectively with their dual roles of student and worker. However, some forms of support, such as greater flexibility in the timetable, may be very difficult, if not impossible, to accommodate. Originality/value – No other research appears to have been carried out in the UK on this topic.
 
Article
Increasing numbers of full‐time undergraduates are supplementing their income by seeking paid employment during term‐time. This article presents some preliminary findings from a research project which explores to what extent academic progress is affected by the part‐time, term‐time paid employment of full‐time undergraduates. It begins by considering changes made to the student funding mechanism over the past few decades and briefly contextualises the study in relation to other relevant studies. It then presents the initial findings of the study and discusses these in the light of the implications raised for: students; the institution; academic staff; employers.
 
Article
Mr Thomas, who is a member of the FBI Education Committee, chairman of the FBI Technical Colleges Committee, member of the BISF Training Committee, and of the West Riding and North Derbyshire Area Training Committee, BISF, discusses two important topics arising in Sir Eric's book: the government of colleges of technology, and the nature of liberal studies.
 
Article
Years of research into how the brain and, in particular, how memory works are about to revolutionise education and methods of teaching in this country. In a new paper-back Accelerated Learning, author Colin Rose explains the full background and development to this exciting technique. A graduate of London University and a member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, he spent four years consolidating research from around the world, the first time that all this work has been drawn together and assembled into a book for mass consumption.
 
Article
A sales manager complains that his salesmen fail to submit regularly weekly reports detailing the number of calls made, time spent, enquiries received, and so on. This information is important as, when analysed, it is used to determine the market strategy. The sales manager reacts to this by sending out a blistering memo, and for a week or two an improvement ensues. Then things drift back to their old norm.
 
Article
There is increased awareness of the importance of improving productivity, and a growing number of organisations are experimenting with behaviour modification programmes. IBM, General Motors, 3M, Eastmann-Kodak are among leading companies using this approach. Similarly, there is awakening interest in the use of behaviour modification in healthcare programmes, education, and the like.
 
Article
The Council for Industry and Higher Education, a remarkable body of over two dozen Company Chairmen, leavened by another dozen Vice-Chancellors and Directors of Polytechnics, came into being to help develop a common voice. It has enabled some of our intellectual and business leaders to begin to mark out their common interests. We want to find a common language in which to contribute to higher education's important thinking about its future place in our economic life.
 
Article
The number of people who, one way or another, continue to learn how to operate a typewriter is undoubtedly rising every year. For one person who will learn it as a livelihood-earning skill, there are four or five who acquire some measure of ability in order to use the typewriter for their own social or semi-professional purposes — club secretaries, business men, journalists, police, clerks, local government officers, civil servants, medical receptionists, authors, and so on, in addition to the ‘average man’ — or, more usually, the ‘average woman’ — who uses it solely for personal purposes.
 
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Colette Henry
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Peter Sewell
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