Education Sciences

Published by MDPI AG
Online ISSN: 2227-7102
Screen capture of a smartPhysics pre-lecture on Coulomb's Law. 
Schematic diagram showing the study design. 
Group average examination grades for two mid-term examinations: (1) electrostatics, and (2) electromagentism. The same exams where used in Fall 2011 and Summer 2011, and the same exams where used in Spring 2011 and Fall 2011. 
We have investigated the efficacy of online, multimedia learning modules (MLMs) as preparation for in-class, lecture-based tutorials in electromagnetism in a physics course for natural science majors (biology and marine science). Specifically, we report the results of a multiple-group pre/post-test research design comparing two groups receiving different treatments with respect to activities preceding participation in Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different pre-tutorial activities where as follows: (1) students were assigned reading from a traditional textbook, followed by a traditional lecture; and (2) students completed online multimedia learning modules developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), and commercially known as smartPhysics. The MLM treatment group earned significantly higher mid-term examination scores and larger gains in content knowledge as measured by the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM). Student attitudes towards "reformed" instruction in the form of active-engagement tutorials where also improved. Specifically, post-course surveys showed MLM-group students believed class time was more effective and the instructor was more clear than reported by non-MLM students, even though there was no significant difference between groups with respect to in-class activities and the same instructor taught both groups. MLM activities can be a highly effective tool for some student populations, especially when student preparation and buy-in are important for realizing significant gains.
Tractors are used to perform jobs that require different types of agricultural tools to be attached to their rear, to their front, or both. These tools may need to be dragged, towed, or suspended above ground, and sometimes require a power supply; this is usually obtained via a hydraulic system or from the tractor’s power take-off system. When tractors have to work with such tools on different types of soils and on different slopes, the need arises to calculate the power the tractor engine will have to produce. In the classroom, this is normally calculated manually with the help of a calculator. This work, however, describes a computer program (written in Delphi and operating under Windows) that rapidly solves the most common types of power balance problems associated with single-traction tractors. The value of this software as a learning aid for students of agricultural engineering is discussed.
Addressing social inequity and increasing intercultural competence is a critical challenge in the 21st century. This work should be informed by rigorous, scientifically grounded research, accurate interpretations of that research, and the implementation of policies and training that are based upon the integrity of such research efforts. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), because of its psychometric integrity, is one such assessment tool that is used to pursue these challenges in higher education. The psychometric integrity of the IDI is unequivocally situated within the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing 2014. American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], and the National Council on Measurement in Education [NCME]). Punti and Dingel assert that the IDI is not valid specifically for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) university students because it does not take into account the experience of being a minority/ethnic group member vis-à-vis racism and inequality. It is troubling that Punti and Dingel’s critique (1) is based on their use of an interview methodology that does not comport with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and (2) ignores the scientific evidence supporting the cross-cultural validity of the IDI with BIPOC.
Hammer claims that the IDI has been validated for BIPOC in the US, but after careful re-examination of the data we presented, we reiterate that there is no evidence of this validation. The studies provided by Hammer reveals how the development of the IDI instrument and its validation focused on international cultural experiences not on cultural diversity within the US. There was no validity testing done on a racially diverse sample of U.S. Americans, and our qualitative data questions the validity for BIPOC individuals from the US.
The aim of the current study was to examine the way in which preschool children deal with the concept of sound. For this purpose, a study was carried out in the context of detecting and categorizing the mental representations among young children of sounds which propagate through space from source to the receiver. Specifically, 91 preschool children aged 5–6 years voluntarily participated in individual semi-structured interviews which were carried out by three researchers in a special area of kindergartens. During these interviews, the children were asked to express their views on the three following axes: the concept of sound itself; the subjective characteristics of sound; and the phenomenon of the production and propagation of sound. The results of the research showed that while a small percentage of children recognized the propagation of sound in space, the vast majority of them associated sound with either the object that produced it or with the object that received it.
This study presents the construction of the Emotional Development Questionnaire (CDE_9–13) and examines its psychometric properties. This questionnaire measures the emotional competence and its five dimensions—emotional awareness, emotional regulation, emotional autonomy, social competence, and life and well-being competence—of boys and girls from 9 to 13 years of age. Its construction followed the guidelines of the International Test Commission. The final version consists of 41 items. The total sample is 1905 boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13, although partial samples have been used for specific analyses. Various studies have been carried out to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the instrument: the calculation of the reliability coefficient, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and the correlational comparison of the CDE_9–13 with recognized measures of emotional intelligence, personality, adjustment difficulties, and self-esteem. Likewise, a regression study has been carried out to confirm the incremental validity. The CDE_9–13 is a theoretically well-founded questionnaire with appropriate psychometric characteristics. Therefore, it is considered an optimal tool to assess emotional competence in interventions aimed at promoting mental health and well-being.
In the article detailed above figure 1 on page 174 in [1] is incorrect.
Conceptual model of predictors influencing community service engagement
Ordinary least square (OLS) estimates for educational attainment predicting community service engagement.
This study is concerned with the central issues of community service engagement (CSE) in 21st century democratic societies around the world. To examine the factors influencing postsecondary education attainment’s relationship to CSE, this study utilized data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries using ordinary least square (OLS) and two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods, including various factors for each country’s individual and country levels. The results show that attainment in postsecondary education at the individual level and investment and enrollments in tertiary education both have an influence on increasing CSE in 18 OECD countries. The present study is expected to contribute to an understanding of the relationship between postsecondary education and CSE across the world.
Paired t test on MeMa subscales between DL and PL of math.
Independent t test on MeMA subscales (both DL and PL) between those who prefer DL or PL of math.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented changes in the educational system, requiring students to continually switch between distance and in-person learning conditions. Recent studies have revealed that students experienced severe levels of anxiety in the COVID-19 period. Considering the close relationship that has always linked anxiety to mathematics, the present study explores the differences in the anxiety levels of students towards mathematics during distance or in-person school learning. During the second wave of COVID-19, 405 students, recruited from twelve middle schools of Catania province (Italy), completed an online version of the MeMa questionnaire, answering each item twice and imagining themselves to be, respectively, in distance and in-person learning conditions. The items explored generalized school anxiety, learning and evaluation mathematics anxiety, mental states, and the metacognitive awareness associated with mathematical tasks. The results showed a minor state of anxiety experienced during distance learning. However, the students who preferred to learn mathematics in person revealed less mathematics anxiety and better mental states and metacognitive awareness; the same results were found in those who reported higher math marks and who preferred scientific subjects. It seems that math anxiety is not one of the various flaws that are imputed to distance learning. Our findings encourage a reflection on possible interventions to reduce students’ anxiety by working on motivation and dysfunctional beliefs.
In the last two months, school closure has been one of the more used worldwide “not-pharmacological mitigation strategies” to prevent and limit infection from COVID-19, and to delay the outbreak’s peak [...]
The education system has become even more complex following the global pandemic, which saw face-to-face teaching transition to virtual teaching. To cope with this abrupt transition, it is essential that teachers have a sufficient level of digital teaching competence. This article aims to increase awareness of teachers’ self-perception of their digital teaching competences in the educational field. Specifically, this study explores Spanish secondary school teachers’ knowledge and use of different ICT tools by evaluating their competence based on different areas proposed by The National Institute of Technology and Professional Development (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado, INTEF), Madrid, Spain. From the results of the questionnaires, we have determined that teachers consider themselves to have an upper intermediate level of digital teaching competence, although there are still shortcomings that need to be addressed in order to improve this level of competence, and its true integration in the teaching–learning process.
Selection criteria.
Description of studies included.
(1) Background: A variety of social and economic changes are happening worldwide due to the pandemic caused by COVID-19, which has produced new problems and challenges for the population as a whole. These events demand new investigations and key studies for their management. This review addresses the repercussions of COVID-19 at the educational level in the primary education stage, delving into the effects produced in teaching and different aspects related to it, such as the situation and challenges of teachers, family involvement, and the perceptions and repercussions of the learning and socio-educational development of students (especially in the case of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder). (2) Methods: The methodological design is a systematic review study, following the PRISMA guidelines, from a search carried out during the month of July 2021 in the Scopus, Dialnet, and WoS databases on the object of study. (3) Results: The selected studies were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis based on a population of 103 articles, with a final sample of 13, using the inclusion criteria: empirical studies or research in English or Spanish; free access through the Internet; categories restricted to “education/educational research” related to the proposed objectives; specific documents of the primary education stage and/or students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (4) Conclusions: The research reveals the presence of an existing digital gap in certain sectors of the student population aggravated by the pandemic, as well as the scarcity of general teacher training in this type of situation, leading to different personal and professional problems that hinder teaching and emphasize the vulnerability of the right to education, which leads to further promoting the already existing social inequalities.
At the time of writing, more than 22 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide, and at least 770 thousand deaths. Under the pressure of the pandemic, promoting global mobility has become an emerging issue in higher education settings. Although various methods of enhancing student mobility have been implemented, little research has as yet confirmed the pandemic challenges for students. This study investigates the global mobility of Chinese college students and the factors influencing their travel decisions. A self-designed questionnaire, consisting of 15 critical indicators of mobile capabilities, intentions, and implementation decisions, was administered to collect data from 2226 participants. The Minitab and Amos software were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to detect latent relationships among the data with structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM and logistic regression model provide a clear picture of the relations among the variables, and show that international intention is the key indicator of global mobility implementation under pressure.
Possible answers to choose from in questions (1a), (2a), (3a), and (4a).
The pandemic has had a major effect on engineering education, transforming both current and future teaching practice. The physical meetings between student and teacher have during the pandemic been replaced by online contact and recordings of lectures and demonstrations. In this paper, the focus is on computer aided design (CAD) teaching for first-year engineering students. CAD is a topic usually characterized by a close contact by student and teacher, with hands-on instruction at the computer using the CAD software. In the paper, the experiences and learnings from the rapid shift to on-line teaching in CAD are summarized and discussed, and learnings and takeaways for a redesign of future CAD teaching are discussed. Both the students’ learning and their mental wellbeing are evaluated. It is found that on a general level, the students were satisfied with the online teaching and rated it as better or equal to traditional teaching. However, there is still room for improvement, since some students found the situation stressful and pointed out the difficulty to ask questions online. The findings are based on a student survey, existing literature, and the authors own teaching practices during the pandemic.
Basic network structure. (a) Network structure of F2F groups; (b) network structure of CSCL groups.
Content analysis coding table for knowledge construction.
Creative thinking in face-to-face (F2F) and computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL).
Effect on group scores of F2F and CSCL groups.
The coefficients of dispersion (CDs) in F2F and CSCL groups.
This paper aims to identify the changes in student behaviors that resulted from the switch from face-to-face (F2F) learning to computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. We constructed a triple-dimensional index with “thinking ability improvement”, “horizontal knowledge construction”, and “vertical social relationship evolution” to make comparisons. According to majors, we selected 23 students who registered for entrepreneurship courses from March to June 2019 in F2F and 23 students from March to June 2020 in CSCL formats. We utilized mixed methods, including experimental, content-based, and social network methods, to conduct evaluations. The results show the following: (1) Cooperative learning is beneficial in cultivating creative thinking for both F2F and CSCL groups. (2) The level of knowledge construction was slightly higher in F2F than that in CSCL in general. The effect of F2F learning in the early stage of the course was better, and in the later stage of the class CSCL attained a higher value. (3) For social abilities, the interactions in CSCL were closer than those in the F2F group. F2F cooperative learning was more prone to “fake cooperation” and free-riding behavior, whereas CSCL led to “pan-cooperation” and lacked the in-depth exploration of knowledge. Therefore, this pandemic provides opportunities for cooperative learning with in-depth exploration. CSCL offers sustainable and more hybrid learning activities that allow for the combination of online and offline learning to be experienced according to course contents.
This paper examines preservice teachers’ perspectives on assessment feedback developed in a teacher education course during the first lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As initially negotiated with students, feedback was learner-centred and involved a formative intervention approach applied iteratively by the teacher educator over the course of one semester. Although such feedback was initially face-to-face, it had to be given exclusively online following the unexpected closure of the university. Analysis of student teachers’ perspectives, which were collected through an online questionnaire completed after their final assessment, reveals both positive and critical aspects regarding the feedback provided by the teacher educator. While reaffirming the significance of feedback as a crucial element for learning in online teacher education contexts, the findings also show that the clarity, affective bonding and multimodal meaning-making involved in face-to-face interaction are particularly challenging when the communication of feedback is digitally mediated. The implications and limitations of such findings are discussed.
The Business Model Canvas, modified (original available from
Education systems and institutions, often historically considered to be resolute, slow-moving entities transformed virtually overnight during the earlier stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, demonstrating nimbleness in adversity. This paper describes the first-hand experiences of teaching staff and students from a UK university which pivoted to emergency remote teaching for a core second-year module in engineering, focused on entrepreneurship. A range of methods are used including self-reflection, summative, formative, and focus-group student feedback. The paper provides an insight for readers who may be interested in the practical challenges associated with moving from an academic module typically delivered in a face-to-face learning environment accommodating a large student cohort (n = 177), to one that exists entirely in the digital domain. Our results show learning outcomes were fully met despite stark differences in quality of learning environments amongst students. Students reported benefits to remote learning because it offers a blended approach of both asynchronous content and synchronous sessions, with the latter enhancing engagement and providing structure to working weeks. Issues of presence emerged amongst group work: whilst it might be easier to confront some individuals for lack of contribution, it is also easier for those individuals to disengage. There was widespread support for the Microsoft Teams platform amongst students and staff but the former group reported this lacked a social environment in which relationships amongst team members could be nurtured informally, such as was experienced via social media.
Model Fit Criteria by the Number of Latent Groups.
Multinomial Logistic Regression.
Teachers serving students with special needs, students from low-income backgrounds, students with disabilities, and students from underrepresented racial/ethnic backgrounds experienced a myriad of challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to assess whether and to what extent teachers received resources during the pandemic, and to evaluate the impact of this on their perceptions of student academic engagement. Using the American Teacher Panel (ATP) data collected in October 2020, this research found that 41% of teachers working with diverse and marginalized students did not receive any resources tailored specifically for students with special needs. Teacher experiences with resources were clustered into four groups: Most Supported (35%), Least Supported (41%), Moderately Supported A (16%; received support primarily with students with disabilities), and Moderately Supported B (8%; received support primarily with students with racial/ethnic backgrounds). Across the four groups of teachers, teacher groups classified as less supported were more likely to be teaching in more urbanized settings with larger size schools than the other teacher groups. Additionally, they perceived their students as attending less often and being less ready for grade-level coursework than their counterparts. Discussions for school leaders and counselors are outlined to emphasize the importance of teacher support for effective education during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Interviews codes, duration, and date of conducting interview.
The present study focuses on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) transmission prevention measures and, in particular, home confinement of families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Greece. It is assumed that the implemented new measures during the pandemic constitute a profound change for children on the spectrum, considering that the core ASD symptoms include the persistence and adherence to routine and stability, a condition that also directly affects the children’s parents. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Participants were 10 caregivers with a child diagnosed with ASD of medium or high functioning in Greece. The ages of the children range from 6.5 to 15 years old. The results of the thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) the educational framework, (2) the management of daily life, and (3) the construction of the new daily routine. These three themes represent the levels that have undergone a decisive transition, and the sub-themes recommend the areas, individual ways of dealing with this shift. So far, the impact of the pandemic mitigation measures cannot be described as generally positive or negative, as there have been advances and setbacks for children and families alike. Finally, governmental measures and technology-assisted teaching (distance learning) were considered necessary but not sufficient enough for full adaptation.
Overall results by group.
COVID-19 restrictions in schools worldwide constitute an important limitation for peer support among students. The masks, the distance between tables or the established sitting order are new challenges that both students and teachers must face in Spain. The conventional strategies that took place among students prior to the COVID-19 pandemic have been altered. In this study, the mathematics achievement of high-school students prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic is examined. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A total of 368 students from 9th grade (ages 14 to 15) participated in this research. Statistically significant differences were reported when comparing the mathematics achievement of pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 students (t = 22.21, p < 0.01). An overall negative effect size of −2.32 was reported for those students with COVID-19 restrictions. Mathematics achievement scores were 9.90% lower for the group with restrictions. No statistically significant differences were reported when analyzing results by gender or repeating condition. The qualitative information supported the quantitative findings. Alterations in peer support was identified as one of the main factors that could explain this decrease. The main conclusion of this study is that current restrictions due to COVID-19 could be producing an important decrease in students’ mathematics achievements.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 resulted in a rapid shift to online learning for physiotherapy education in Australia and around the world. This Sydney-based qualitative study explored the reflections of physiotherapy educators and leaders involved in delivering physiotherapy programs with the aim of gaining insight into what happened to physiotherapy education during the initial stages of the pandemic and what lessons were learnt that will inform future physiotherapy education. Many pedagogical challenges were identified including the need to rapidly shift content online whilst still meeting competency requirements, how to effectively engage students, and the challenges of teaching and assessing practical psychomotor skills. The benefits of the rapid shift were the upskilling of educators, innovations in teaching and resources, and recognising that some aspects of physiotherapy education were improved by the change. Overall educators and leaders felt time was needed to effectively design physiotherapy content to fit different delivery modes and it was important some aspects of physiotherapy education should continue to be taught in-person. Future physiotherapy education is likely to be a combination of in-person and online delivery and lessons learnt from this time need to be incorporated into physiotherapy programs to achieve the best educational outcomes.
The students who reduced, maintained, and improved their scholarly performance.
The students who reduced, maintained, and improved their learning performance.
The main percentages of equality, quality, and justice.
Due to the imperative need for change in habits caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that has plagued the world, this exploratory study plans to analyze the directions taken in teaching activities in public and private schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and their consequences for learning and scholarly performance concerning elementary and middle schools. In this way, this study verifies through an email questionnaire if there was equality, justice, and quality in teaching methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The descriptive analysis was carried out based on statistical calculations of quantitative and qualitative variables with various tests, whenever necessary, such as the chi-square, and when inconclusive, Fischer’s exact test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk, non-parametric Mann–Whitney (when the comparison between two independent groups was mandatory), ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Friedman test. The results show that teachers tried to interact with students to overcome the problems faced during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Additionally, the study showed that there were differences in scholarly and learning performance, equality, and quality in the types of schools analyzed. This paper will help to fill the literature gap on the subject and will boost ongoing discussion on the inclusion of sustainable concepts in education.
Themes and subthemes.
Participant characteristics, compared with the university student population.
The demographic details for interview participants.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced an abrupt transition to fully online learning in universities that typically provided campus-based teaching. We examined the learning experience of undergraduate and postgraduate students during this transition at a UK university. Qualitative surveys and interview responses revealed both direct effects of the transition to online learning and indirect effects caused by the COVID-19 induced lockdown. Direct effects related to interaction and communication altered study-related opportunities and digital tool use. In all cases, students expressed a range of views, for example, with some reporting greater opportunities and others fewer. However, there was a clear consensus that the online learning had brought greater flexibility for students. For indirect effects, students noted altered time available for study, challenges and benefits to studying at home, greater monotony and required autonomy as well as altered priorities, concerns about employment, finances and career prospects. These reflections on students’ experiences of online learning can inform academics and education providers to design appropriate strategies in order to better facilitate and support students’ education via fully online or blended learning approaches.
The sudden transition from face-to-face education to remote education under the international-level restrictions imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic—a transition made in the spirit of achieving and developing accessible education—involved the application of methodologically diverse resources and strategies. The objective of this article is to investigate the digital resources that have been applied in higher education institutions, paying special attention to the type and frequency of use of resources. A literature review was carried out on a total of 44 articles. The main results show that the primary resources applied in higher education institutions were videoconferencing tools, educational videos, and virtual platforms. Most higher education institutions made use of free and open access resources. Our primary conclusions posit our observation that the use of digital resources for teaching in an emergency context has not enabled reflection on their use. Such reflection would equip institutions for the optimization of these resources toward their efficient pedagogical application in teaching–learning processes.
Correlation between gender and self-concept (SC).
Correlation between the practice of physical activity (PA) and SC.
Correlation between the practice of martial arts (MA) and SC.
Pearson's r correlations between the research variables.
The COVID-19 lockdown has negatively affected individuals’ welfare. However, there has been no research published heretofore about the levels of self-concept (SC) in adolescents, nor how having practised martial arts (MA) or any physical activity (PA) before the lockdown may have influenced the SC in that time. Hence, this study aimed to analyze some demographic, physical, and psychosocial parameters in Spanish adolescents throughout the COVID-19 quarantine through a cross-sectional investigation, establishing correlations among these factors. Methods: The present study had a descriptive, comparative, and cross-sectional design. The sample comprised of 54 (39.7%) male and 82 (60.3%) female Spanish adolescents aged 12–18 (M = 14.49; SD = 1.80). An ad-hoc questionnaire collected sociodemographic data; the self-concept Form 5 (AF5) questionnaire obtained data on SC dimensions. Results: There were some differences among the SC dimensions, with family and academic dimensions having higher values than the physical and emotional ones. Females’ academic SC was higher than that of males (p = 0.019). The practice of PA before the lockdown was positively associated with physical (p < 0.001) and social (p = 0.012) SC, yet there was no significant association between the previous practice of MA and SC (p > 0.050). Conclusions: the findings suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected Spanish adolescents by decreasing their total SC and some dimensions of it, although PA may buffer psychological harmfulness in adolescents.
Digitalization of teaching, learning, and assessment in higher education has gained increasing attention in research in the recent years. While previous research investigated issues of effectiveness, course attendance, and course evaluation from a long-term perspective, the current COVID-19 pandemic forced higher education institutions to digitalize teaching, learning, and assessment in a very short time. In this context, we investigate the effects of the digitalization of three courses from operations research and management science in the summer term 2020, namely two large lectures and tutorials for undergraduate, and a seminar for graduate students. To that end, student performance, course and exam attendance rates, and course evaluations are compared to the setting of the same courses in the previous year 2019 with a traditional, non-digitalized setting. Next to the quantitative data, qualitative statements from the course evaluations and students’ expectations expressed during the term are investigated. Findings indicate that the lecturers’ understanding of learning behavior has to develop further as interaction is required in any format, on-site or digital. Absenteeism and procrastination are important risk areas especially in digital management education. Instruments would have to be adapted to digital settings, but with care and relating to course specifics (including digital evaluation). Digital education does not make learning per se easier or harder, but we observed that the students’ understanding and performance gap increased in digital teaching times. As an outlook, we propose the longitudinal investigation of the ongoing digitalization during the COVID-19 pandemic, and going beyond, investigate opportunities of the current crisis situation for implementing the long-term transition to digital education in higher institution institutions.
The present study aims to display how using a personal assessment environment based on the interactive Kahoot! platform actively supports the teaching–learning process. The goal is to improve the instructive–educational process by applying a learning platform based on play and digital technology that favors a qualitative educational endeavor. The use of the Kahoot! platform as form of assessment had a significant and direct positive effect on the educational process during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Synchronous online presentation of the results/answers for two questions from the activating pre-questionnaire introduced at the beginning of the lecture organized in the form of a problematic discussion within the flipped classroom formula. The survey carried out using the Mentimeter platform with results presented graphically: (a) word cloud form; (b) bar chart (details provided within the text).
The Padlet board with several columns for sub-groups to add their posts, materials, comments and teacher's suggestions (screenshot with the original, real view-posts are in Polish and they contain students' questions, contributions, remarks and lecturer's comments and suggestions).
The blended learning method with its supporting electronic tools is a very well-known approach in academic education. In most of its practical applications, direct face to face contacts between students and the teacher as well as students with each other in groups are important elements in the organization of lectures and classes. This is of particular importance in conducting laboratory classes in teaching process for engineers. However, the COVID-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020 closed schools, universities and completely eliminated the possibility of direct interpersonal contacts. These extraordinary circumstances forced changes in the organization of the teaching process, in particular the introduction of distance learning. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified blended learning method as well as describes a case study on its introduction in the education of building automation engineers at a technical university. A new organizational structure of this modified method is presented, with discussion of tools and methods of active distance learning, introduced during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Finally, some experiences, general reflections along with the identification of the preferred forms of distance learning by students are presented. The future works are briefly described as well.
The Research Methods and Techniques (RMT) subject in relation to other subjects in the MA Urban Design programme.
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a critical challenge for the higher education sector. Exploring the capacity of this sector to adapt in the state of uncertainty has become more significant than ever. In this paper, we critically reflect on our experience of teaching urban design research methods online during the early COVID-19 lockdown in the UK. This is an exploratory case study with a qualitative approach with an aim to inform resilient practices of teaching in the face of public health emergencies. Drawing on the experience of teaching the Research Methods and Techniques subject during lockdown, we discuss the rapid transition from face-to-face to online teaching and point to the challenges and opportunities in relation to the learning and teaching activities, assessment and feedback, and digital platforms. This paper concludes by outlining some key considerations to inform the development of more adaptive and resilient approaches to online teaching in the context of unprecedented global health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that it is critical to move beyond fixed pedagogical frameworks to harness the productive capacities of adaptive teaching.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world continue. These impacts influence many aspects of life, work, healthcare, and education in the U.S., which are drastically affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a considerable challenge to tertiary-level education has been how to adapt our teaching styles and modalities to keep all stakeholders (students, faculty, teaching assistants, and staff) safe in lectures and labs. This viewpoint presents 15 teaching lessons and tips for undergraduate and graduate STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine) education for face-to-face, hybrid, and distance learning. The goal was to describe teaching strategies that could be adaptable to most STEMM courses, independent of the classroom size, which is valuable for those educational settings capable of migrating from a classroom to either a hybrid or strictly online teaching environment. Although some of these teaching tips were straightforward, we believe collectively that they (1) provide safety and stability to the students and the instructors; (2) help to improve communications between faculty and students that the pandemic had strained; (3) strengthen student attention; (4) facilitate the transition from the classroom to online teaching; (5) enable the use of new technologies; and (6) offer teaching practices we imagined for educational scenarios post-SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we hope these teaching strategies offer valuable insight as we continue to navigate STEMM education during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
p-value of Mann-Whitney tests comparing all modes.
The COVID-19 pandemic has enforced higher education institutions to adopt emergency remote teaching (ERT) as the substitution for traditional face-to-face (F2F) classes. A lot of concerns have been raised among education institutions, faculty, and students regarding the effectiveness of this sudden shift to online learning. This study aims to statistically investigate the impacts of such a transition on the academic performance of undergraduate students enrolled in the Financial Engineering course. A novel rank percentage measure is proposed and employed to compare the academic performance of around 500 students who attended the course during the four semesters, including the transitional disrupted semester by the pandemic, two consecutive online semesters, and the traditional face-to-face classroom. Our analysis emphasizes the significance of the differences between specific subgroups of the students. In particular, academically average to good students with cumulative GPAs greater than 2.90 have been negatively impacted by the transition to online learning, whereas the results for students with cumulative GPAs less than 2.90 are not very conclusive. Realizing the effects of such closures on the academic performance of students is considered important, since the results might have some merits for other courses and instructors. The template model can be transferred to other courses, and employed by the university administrators, specifically for developing policies in emergency circumstances that are not limited to pandemics.
Student response on whether supplementary material helps them learn the concepts better. Student response on whether supplementary material helps them learn the concepts better.
The enrollment in the pandemic and non-pandemic cohorts for each course.
As they emerge from the pandemic, universities worldwide are evaluating the adaptations in the education sector during the pandemic and determining their course of action for the future. In this work, drawing on the lessons from four courses across two different universities, a survey of over 300 students, and the literature, we present strategies for successfully implementing a flexible blended education format. The survey revealed that the performance of the cohort taking the course during the pandemic performed nearly the same as the cohorts that took the courses before the pandemic. However, the students did not prefer an entirely virtual format, felt that their social wellbeing was impacted, and preferred a hybrid education model with a lot of supplementary learning material. As a key contribution of this work, we have identified and elaborate on four key pillars for a flexible blended education format, namely, course design, pedagogical strategies incorporating active learning and providing a sense of online community, infrastructure for delivery and training, and incorporating activities that support student wellbeing.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a drastic shift of face-to-face teaching and learning to remote/online teaching and learning at all levels of education worldwide. Active student engagement is always a challenging task for educators regardless of the teaching modalities. The degree of challenge for active student engagement increases significantly in remote/online teaching and learning. This paper presents a framework that implements activities/strategies to ensure active student engagement in remote/online teaching and learning during this COVID-19 pandemic. The structure of the developed framework combines the balanced use of adjusted teaching pedagogy, educational technologies, and an e-learning management system. Teaching pedagogy involves various active learning techniques, synchronous teaching, asynchronous teaching, and segmentation. The educational technologies, such as Google Meet, Jamboard, Google Chat, Breakout room, Mentimeter, Moodle, electronic writing devices, etc., enable the developed framework for active student engagement. An e-learning management system, Moodle, is used for course management purposes. Over the last three semesters (Fall 2020, Spring 2021, and Summer 2021), the framework is tested for three different engineering courses. A questionnaire draws out student perception on the developed framework in terms of active student engagement that ensures student–student interactions, student–instructor interactions, social presence, reinforces learning and deepens understanding of the materials in remote teaching. The feedback also indicates that combining the utilized technologies, synchronous teaching, and active learning activities in the developed framework is effective for interactive learning; hence a practical approach for active student engagement in remote/online teaching and learning. The article focuses on contributing to present research and infusing future research direction about technology-enhanced active student engagement in Engineering Education.
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is a global health crisis that has affected educational systems worldwide. North Eastern Mindanao State University (NEMSU), a typical countryside academic institution in the Southern Philippines, did not escape this dilemma. The advent of remote learning to continue the students’ learning process has caused difficulties for both the students and the educational institutions. Thus, we conducted this study to assess the students’ level of submission of assigned tasks from printed remote learning modular materials under the College of Teacher Education of NEMSU. We evaluated whether the distance of students’ residences to the campus or the nearest online learning facilities affects the level of modular task retrievals. We also determined the current situation, challenges, and struggles of the students with remote learning. Our results showed that out of 392 printed learning modules sent to Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) students, 299 or 76% were retrieved. There were also 292 Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) students who received the learning modules, and 237, or 81%, complied with their tasks. We found that 68% of the total number of students reside within a
The national or local lockdowns in response to COVID-19 forced education systems to rapidly shift from in-person to distance learning. The hasty transition undoubtedly imposed tremendous challenges on teachers, students and distance learning infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to investigate how high school science teachers who had previously been trained in flipped-learning and advanced educational technology through the Science Teaching Excites Medical Interest (STEMI) program perceived their transition to distance learning during this pandemic. In this study eleven teachers were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analyzed using the deductive-inductive content analytic approach. Our results indicated that teachers reported having more confidence in using technology for teaching online due in part to their participation in the STEMI program. They also reported internet access as one of the most significant barriers, both for students and teachers. While some teachers thought that students may feel more in control of learning due to absence of time and place limits with distance learning, others may struggle to stay engaged without the classroom support they would normally have received. Teachers generally experienced increased workloads and harder work–life balance with online teaching. In spite of the unforeseen challenges, the pandemic situation afforded teachers with opportunities to adopt different technology in teaching and foresee the need for technology integration in order to better prepare for the unexpected in the future.
Student learning has been affected by the recent shift in education globally which has been attributed to adaptation to the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This study will look at these characteristics to better understand gender differences in e-learners’ self-efficacy, satisfaction, motivation, attitude, and performance on a worldwide scale. Due to the rapid COVID-19 pandemic, many educational institutions had to close, forcing many students to stay at home and enrol in online courses. Due to the practical laboratory sessions and workshops demanded by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) modules and other related fields, education has faced difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding student involvement and its role in promoting a number of desirable outcomes, including academic outcomes like greater achievement, lower dropout rates, as well as various well-being and life outcomes, has therefore become increasingly important. This paper presents the scientometric review with an annotated bibliography on teaching styles through group learning in the higher education academies (HEAs) directed towards sustainable education. The current work also gives an annotated bibliography that seeks to compile and integrate the research on student participation, group learning, instructional strategies, equality, and diversity. Some evaluations and suggestions are also made in the study.
A model of mindless leadership arising from this study, drawn by the author.
A summary of the interviews detailing high-frequency words in response to questions.
A summary of high-frequency words within the interviews, grouped by theme.
Balance of high-frequency words across each themed group.
The impact of Covid-19 placed Higher Education leadership in a state of crisis management, where decision making had to be swift and impactful. This research draws on ethea of mindfulness, actor training techniques, referencing high-reliability organisations (HRO). Interviews conducted by the author with three leaders of actor training conservatoires in Higher Education institutions in Australia, the UK and the USA reflect on crisis management actions taken in response to the impact of Covid-19 on their sector, from which high-frequency words are identified and grouped thematically. Reflecting on these high-frequency words and the thematic grouping, a model of mindful leadership is proposed as a positive tool that may enable those in leadership to recognise and respond efficiently to wider structural frailties within Higher Education, with reference to the capacity of leaders to operate with increased mindfulness, enabling a more resilient organisation that unlocks the locus of control.
Timeline of the USD's response before and during the transition to ERT due to COVID-19.
List of participant pseudonyms, gender, and whether they utilized pass/fail grading.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 brought about the transition to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) at higher education institutions across the United States, prompting both students and the faculty to rapidly adjust to a different modality of teaching and learning. Other crises have induced disruptions to academic continuity (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes), but not to the same extent as COVID-19, which has affected universities on a global scale. In this paper, we describe a qualitative case study where we interviewed 11 second-year Integrated Engineering students during the Spring 2020 semester to explore how they adapted to the transition to remote learning. Our results revealed several student challenges, how they used self-discipline strategies to overcome them, and how the faculty supported students in the classroom through a compassionate and flexible pedagogy. Faculty members showed compassion and flexibility by adjusting the curriculum and assessment and effectively communicating with students. This was especially important for the women participants in this study, who more frequently expressed utilizing pass/fail grading and the personal and gendered challenges they faced due to the pandemic. During this unprecedented crisis, we found that a key element for supporting students’ well-being and success is the faculty members communicating care and incorporating flexibility into their courses.
The global school shutdown effect caused by COVID-19 with 1,210,295,995 affected learners; 69.1% of total enrolled learners; 156 country-wide closures as of 18 May 2020 (Source: UNESCO []).
The outcomes pyramid. The desired outcomes towards the bottom are developed and shaped by those listed above. Also, the attainment of the bottom outcomes are necessary for attaining the outcomes/objectives listed on top.
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001) for the cognitive domain [Credit: Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching].
Structure of the Cognitive Process Dimension of the Revised Taxonomy (2001) [24] (With Example Verbs Exemplifying Different Levels).
Common Learning Impediments and Their Remedies (Reproduced from [26]).
In this paper, we strive to provide a primer for students on how to thrive and learn effectively in engineering education in the volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) times following the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic, which has disrupted the educational enterprise massively with universities physically closing in many parts of the world and students and faculty transitioning to remote learning. Although the immediate audience assumed in this paper comprises engineering students (such as those enrolled in electrical, electronics, or computer engineering programs) studying in an outcome-based education (OBE) environment—the global educational paradigm mandated by the Washington Accord that aims to standardize engineering competencies in terms of the attained student learning outcomes—the presented ideas are more general and broadly useful for learners of all types. We will describe seven evidence-based steps that the students can adopt to thrive in OBE settings in these challenging times. The main contribution of this paper is practical: we present a synthesis of the vast research literature on effective student learning in normal, online, and disrupted settings to present practical insights that students can leverage to substantially improve their learning. At the end of the paper, we also present a discussion of important issues related to remote teaching and online education such as ensuring equity and the handling of lab work for engineers in such settings (e.g., through simulators and virtual labs).
This study examined the effect of the COVID- 19 pandemic and related events on the use of e-learning, as well as other key determinants of it. The data were collected from 1039 university students in Sri Lanka. To examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which was viewed through the lens of precipitating events, on the intention–behaviour relationship, we employed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with the inclusion of a moderating variable. While the findings indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic had clearly increased the usage of e-learning, we found no evidence to establish a moderating impact on the intention–behaviour relationship. The empirical model, however, was well fitted to the data, and the key components of the TAM were likewise adequately described by the relevant predictors. Furthermore, attitudes toward e-learning and perceived ease of use emerged as the most important factors in explaining behavioural intention, whereas relevance and experience were shown to be more significant in relation to perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Our work is significant because it adds to the existing empirical evidence on e-learning and supports the relevance of TAM in understanding the usage of e-learning even in extreme situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research has significant implications for educators and other higher education authorities.
Correct and incorrect answers in study modules. As evidenced by the module-to-module comparison (A,B) and overall frequency of correct answers (C), there is an increase of correct answers from the pre-test to the post-test. Frequencies of correct (black) and incorrect (white) answers shown in the pre-test (A) and the post-test (B) also demonstrate data were independent of the number of multiple-choice questions collected in modules. The percent of changed answers (D) from correct to correct (black) were 56.4% (n = 238), incorrect to correct (gray) were 23.5% (n = 99), and other combinations of multiple-choice questions (stripes) were 20.1% (encompassing both correct to incorrect and incorrect to incorrect; n = 25 and 60, respectively).
Profile of students' performance in pairs of multiple-choice questions according to GAD-7 and WSAS scores. Students with low anxiety scores (GAD-7 < 15; white) were more likely to answer correctly in tests, whereas students with moderate to severe functional impairment (WSAS scores > 20; black) were less likely to change from an incorrect to a correct answer in the multiple-choice test (A-D). Box plot distribution of pairs (pre-and post-test) of answers per student in all four modules (A,C) and proportion of pairs of answers of multiple-choice answers (B,D) were shown according to GAD-7 and WSAS severity cut-scores. Correct to correct (C to C), incorrect to correct (I to C), and other combinations (both correct to incorrect and incorrect to incorrect) were represented in the histogram chart. GAD-7 scores ≥ 15 and WSAS > 20 (black) cut-scores show moderate to severe anxiety and functional impairment indicators. Venn Diagrams (E,F) show the proportion of students categorized in the cut-score psychometric instruments and the overlap of GAD-7 ≥ 15 and WSAS > 20 scores and GAD-7 < 15 and WSAS < 20 scores.
Most students considered the ICT methodology a positive experience in structuring or advancing their learning. Students were asked to rate their perceptions through a 5-point agreement scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, in questions regarding the methodology, including the teaching method, the use of multiple-choice questions, and the synchronous online lectures.
Stressful events can cause a significant impact on education; however, it is not yet clear how the interplay between anxiety, work, and social dysfunction relates to learning impairments. In this study, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ learning and mental health. This study was conducted during four modules of a remote Psychopharmacology course between 5 October and 20 December 2020. We collected data from 28 Psychology undergraduate students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. We used pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions to obtain a quantitative measure of learning. Students completed an online survey to report demographic information, functional impairment (Work and Social Adjustment scale; WSAS), generalized anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD-7), coronavirus anxiety (Brazilian adapted version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale; CAS-BR), and self-perception with the remote lectures’ methodology. In our sample, 42.9% of respondents experienced symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD-7 ≥ 15), and 53.6% had moderate to severe functional impairment (WSAS > 20). We also observed an overlapping profile of highly anxious and dysfunctional students. A chi-square test of independence revealed a relation between pairs of multiple-choice questions answers and GAD-7 scores, indicating that less anxious students were more likely to perform better in pairs of pre- and post-tests. Intriguingly, the correlational analysis suggested that students with moderate to severe functional impairment (WSAS scores > 20) were less likely to change from an incorrect to a correct answer to pairs of pre- and post-tests. This data suggests that psychological distress and anxiety states might influence students’ ability to coordinate social and work activities and performance during remote learning. Although this study evaluated a small sample of students, our data highlights the importance of investigating anxiety and functional impairment measures as part of the remote-learning curriculum.
Staff employment information.
Regression coefficients for overall digital confidence and ability.
Regression coefficients for predicting pandemic induced workload-changes.
Regression coefficients for mental wellbeing.
COVID-19 has impacted Higher Education worldwide. While several studies have examined the effects of the pandemic on students, few have addressed its impact on academic staff. Here, we present both survey (n = 89) and interview (n = 12) data highlighting the pandemic-induced effects on academics from various disciplines and career stages. Data was collected between May and September 2020, aiming to capture and understand the immediate effects of the U.K. lockdown on the academics examining demographic and employment factors, digital abilities and confidence, and mental wellbeing. Analyses revealed that most academics were satisfied with the support they received from the university and colleagues, and they had adequate equipment and space at home to work. However, half incurred additional financial costs to maintain access to technology and many felt an altered relationship with the university. There were discrepancies in digital abilities and confidence according to employment status, age, faculty, and social identity as an academic. Teaching workload did not increase across the board, rather seniority predicted increases. Levels of wellbeing were low but were not significantly predicted by workload increase or abilities and confidence in working digitally as might have been expected. Stronger social identity as an academic may predict higher mental wellbeing with qualitative data suggesting teamwork and collegiate activities helped. Furthermore, interviewees identified several positive aspects to working remotely. These findings suggest universities should consider carefully how to support all staff to work digitally and consider flexible working post-pandemic.
Students’ learning experiences and perceptions are markedly influenced by the use of digital technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exploring students’ perception of blended online learning, amid the adaptations of the higher education sector in the wake of uncertainty, has become more critical than ever. This paper reflects on the experience of learning and teaching the Research Methods and Techniques subject in the postgraduate programme of MA Urban Design at Cardiff University during COVID-19 in the UK. To do so, we designed and carried out an online survey to explore students’ perception of online teaching and learning activities, feedback and assessment, and digital platforms based on their experience during the subject delivery period in the 2020–2021 academic year. One of the significant findings of this paper was that students agreed with the impact of eye contact on their virtual learning experience but as long as this was aligned with their rights to see others, including their peers and instructors, rather than reciprocal rights to be seen. In addition, students felt that facilitating synchronous communication through effective interaction among diverse peers has been quite challenging in small-group online reading seminars. The majority of respondents also reported that attending live online lectures was more helpful than watching pre-recorded lectures. Online formative feedback and synchronous interim reviews also allowed students to reflect on their progress and develop their projects further before their summative assessment. The outcomes of this paper can effectively assist educators who consider delivering programmes, adopting a blended online learning environment design model, in the post COVID-19 era. The findings of this study can also provide guidance for further developments and improvements in using digital technology and blended online learning in urban design education and pedagogy.
Fluctuation of story sort score over four years (2018-2022) by Graffar (GI) levels (mean ± 1 standard deviation); error bars represent standard error of the mean.
Fluctuation of ranking task score over four years (2018-2022); error bars represent standard error of the mean.
Fluctuation of figure-copying score over four years (2018-2022); error bars represent s ard error of the mean.
Frequencies of students by age.
The literature has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has indelibly affected student performance. However, this deterioration is not the same for all students, with students of a lower socio-economic status (SES) being the most affected. The present study aims to understand if the pandemic lockdown in the last year of pre-school impacted the learning skills considered crucial for the transition to primary school, and whether this impact was moderated by SES or a quiet place to study (QPS). A total of 11,158 students belonging to 318 Portuguese schools underwent an assessment protocol composed of writing skills, maths, and motor-control tasks. A pandemic effect was observed for writing skills, especially during the first lockdown. Said effects were found to be potentiated by SES. Regarding maths, the fall in skills was only observed to be significant for less economically advantaged children. Motor tasks suffered; however, this was without any significant effect for SES or QPS. Thus, a detrimental effect of the pandemic lockdown was found on pre-school skills, particularly pre-literary abilities, and especially during the first lockdown. SES appeared to potentiate some inequalities. In other words, skills differences between individuals with higher and lower SES increased during the pandemic, particularly in the first lockdown, due to novelty, unpredictability, and the need for quick adaptation.
Summary of the cloud infrastructure for Smile and Learning landing page (based on WordPress), which was designed after the website being unavailable due to high traffic in the early days of the COVID-19 lockdown.
Rise and Progress of School Subscriptions (chart adapted to base 100). New COVID-19 schools' users between March and May (2020).
Graphical representation of the times of use between the lockdown (2020) and the school (2021) in the months of March, April and May. The data are displayed in the following order: time of use (hours) from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., time of use (hours) from 5p.m. to 12 a.m., and total time of use (hours).
Descriptive statistics about Smile and Learn Platform.
Descriptive statistics about teachers training and skills on ICT.
The education sector has been confronted with different challenges due to the situation caused by the pandemic, when families were asked to be confined at home as well as return when schools were opened. This lockdown situation presented both a challenge for the EdTech sector and for teachers and families. Consequently, this study analyzes the importance of online methodologies, usage of an educational resource example, and the impact of the lockdown. Thus, these objectives are assessed from different perspectives such as users’ consumption, technical challenges of cloud architecture and experience from teachers who have used the platform during the lockdown. In this way, to understand the challenges of Cloud architecture, the structure of the Pre-COVID-19 platform and the changes implemented to adapt to the new needs are described. An increase in schools’ subscriptions was observed when home lockdown was decreed, the differences in usage with the return to the classroom are also discussed. The research methodology entailed an assessment instrument developed for teachers. Teachers highlight the contents of Smile and Learn platform and their motivational characteristics for the students’ learning. The assessment points out the limitations that many teachers face while using these resources.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced a transition to digital teaching in higher education institutions (HEIs) as itwas the only safe method for higher education (HE) teaching during the pandemic. However, this crisis emphasized the barriers students face worldwide. For digital HE teaching to survive in the future, these barriers should be overcome. The present paper aimed to systematically identify these barriers and present recommendations to overcome them. For this purpose, a quantitative survey (n = 369) was conducted with students in three countries, and qualitative student statements were analyzed. Possible countermeasures for corresponding barriers are described, and related stakeholders are identified. Thus, the study provided an overview of recommendations for stakeholders to overcome the barriers. The recommendations to resolve most barriers entail offering hybrid formats, adjusting lecture design, and ensuring proper communication.
Declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization in 2020 forced many schools to switch to emergency virtual instruction. This situation provided an opportunity to explore the effectiveness of online learning from students’ perspectives. To discover best practices for online learning, 584 STEM students at California State Polytechnic University Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona) were surveyed about their Spring and Fall 2020 experiences. Some of the obstacles students faced were adapting to a new lifestyle, feeling disconnected, managing schedule and workload, and overcoming distractions. Despite difficulties, 61% of students benefited from the flexibility, convenience, and increased productivity. The time students normally spent commuting to and parking on campus was instead spent getting more sleep, studying, working extra hours, spending time with family, and practicing self-care. Another major benefit was the increased accessibility to course materials posted online. Major themes from students’ responses were belonging, organization and transparency, and the need for real-world applications. Incorporating these strategies enhance the effectiveness of teaching methods. Responses along with some problem-solving suggestions that can improve the effectiveness of both online and in-person learning are discussed.
Description of coding categories with examples.
COVID-19 has caused increased stress among U.S. adults, with many reporting concerns assisting their children with distance learning due to school closures. This study surveyed U.S. parents–most of whom were middle-aged, White, affluent, and female–to learn what types of distance learning activities parents engaged in with their children during COVID-19; whether these types of activities varied by the child’s age; and whether there was an association between engaging in these activities and stress. Most parents engaged in Monitoring, Teaching or Technology support activities with their children. Although these activities varied by child’s age, parents who reported engaging in any distance learning activity reported increased stress.
Top-cited authors
Blanka Klimova
  • University of Hradec Králové
Kelum A.A. Gamage
  • University of Glasgow
Nanda Gunawardhana
  • Sri Lanka Technological Campus
Zohra Lassoued
  • El-Oued University
Mohammed Alhendawi
  • Al-Azhar University - Gaza