The great French surgeon Leriche once said, "To be in good health is to live in the silence of one's organs." For Nature it is exactly the contrary, but one must not forget that the environment may strike in silence, as demonstrated by the accidents at Jintsu and Minamata in Japan. Close to 10 years were necessary to understand the mechanisms of deadly cadmium and mercury intoxications in humans. Two kinds of stresses to humans may come from the environment: (i) infectious disease, and (ii) unexpected, more-or-less complex chemical reactions.
The present groundwater standard of 0.1 microg/L for plant protection products (PPPs) has been under much debate because an ecotoxicological base is missing. In the present study, groundwater threshold values were calculated for all PPPs currently included in Annex I to Directive 91/414/EEC using three different approaches: (1) first-tier (Daphnia magna and Vibrio fisheri); (2) species sensitivity distributions, constructed for surrogate freshwater organisms for the truncated groundwater biodiversity; (3) the case-based model PERPEST. For the majority of the PPPs, the trigger value of 0.1 microg/L appears to be sufficiently protective. However, it may not fully protect groundwater life from several insecticides. Implications for the environmental risk assessment of groundwater and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Five dairy cows were fed 0–50 ppm diuron herbicide [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] for 33 days and samples of milk, blood, urine, and feces were collected at regular intervals during the experiment. Approximately 50% of the diuron was recovered in urine, 10% in feces, and 5% in blood. No herbicide was detected in milk. In general, there was a positive correlation in the concentration of diuron products between urine and blood and a negative correlation between urine and feces. However, the percentage excretion of diuron residues in urine, feces, or blood was consistent in all treatments. The remaining > 35% of diuron, which was not detected, could have been absorbed in the body or degraded into undetectable metabolites. Two diuron metabolites, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea (DCMU) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCU), were identified and determined only in urine from animals treated with 25 and 50 ppm due to experimental difficulties. Moreover, DCMU and DCU accounted for 8 and 25%, respectively, of diuron intake.
The toxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and daphnids (Daphnia magna) and the effects of gaseous-phase exposure on the growth of higher plants (Sorghum bicolor and Brassica napus) were investigated. The test systems were designed to minimize loss of the volatile material during the exposure period. During an exposure period of 14 days, there were no mortalities or other symptoms of toxicity in carp exposed to a mean measured 1,1,1-trichloroethane concentration of 7.7 mg/liter. The survival and reproduction of daphnids over a test period of 17 days were not affected at a measured concentration of 1.3 mg/liter. Growth of emergent seedlings was not inhibited at measured gaseous-phase concentrations of 18 mg/liter for S. bicolor and 6.9 mg/liter for B. napus. The simple modifications made to standard techniques proved sufficient to maintain the exposure concentrations of this volatile chemical. Mean measured concentrations were generally greater than 60% of the nominal values.
The metabolism of the xenobiotics 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) or 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane and endogeneous substrates may be changed under physiological stress situations. We studied long-term effects on rats exposed to TCE, noise pollution, and their combination. The experiments were performed in a special set-up where four parallel groups of rats were simultaneously exposed to defined conditions the chemical vapor; the noise pollution of 90 dB; their combination; and a control group without any exposure. The vapor of TCE was applied at a concentration of 200 ppm/8 hr or of 2000 ppm/12 hr for 84 days each. The experiments were performed with TCE from two different commercial sources. One of those TCE preparations caused effects at the high dosage level in terms of enhanced levels of the relation of liver to body weight; liver microsomal protein content; liver microsomal monooxygenase activity; and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol excretion in urine. Eight other physiological and biochemical parameters were not changed.
An analytical procedure specific for chlorinated benzo-1,2-quinones has been developed to examine the stability of these compounds under conditions used for investigating their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Solutions of the compounds in a number of organic solvents were unstable in the light, and addition of acetone solutions to water brought about rapid decomposition of the chloroquinones which had half-lives less than 0.5 hr: the corresponding chlorocatechols were the principal products. The kinetics of decomposition of tetrachlorobenzo-1,2-quinone in aqueous solutions were studied in detail and showed the formation of tetrachlorocatechol, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxybenzo-1,4-quinone, 1,2,3-trihydroxy-4,5,6-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trihydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzene, dichloromaleic acid, and a trichlorocyclopentendione. In organic solvents in the light, 3,4,5-trichlorobenzo-1,2-quinone underwent a dismutation reaction with formation of 3,4,5-trichloro- and tetrachlorocatechol; in a comparable reaction, 4,5-dichlorobenzo-1,2-quinone formed 4,5-dichlorocatechol and 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol. The toxicity of aqueous solutions prepared by dilution of freshly prepared acetone solutions of tetrachlorobenzo-1,2-quinone was examined in the zebra fish embryo/larvae test, and it was found that the threshold toxic concentration could be accounted for entirely by the analytically established concentration of tetrachlorocatechol produced as a chemical transformation product. It is concluded that in toxicological examination of reactive compounds, exposure to the toxicant should be assessed from concentrations analytically determined during the experiments and that attention be directed to both the nature and the toxicity of the transformation products.
The effects of tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (TCQ), a component in bleached kraft mill effluents (BKME), on vertebral and physiological parameters were investigated in juvenile fourhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus quadricornis L. After about 4.5 months of exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 mg TCQ/liter in 7% salinity brackish water, the fish demonstrated vertebral deformities, aberrant mechanical properties of the vertebrae, effects on white and red blood cell counts, enhanced activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes, and increased levels of ascorbic acid in the liver. The effects are discussed in relation to those previously observed in fish exposed to complex BKME in the field and the laboratory.
Semivolatile organic compounds (SOC) occur in the troposphere either adsorbed at aerosol particles or in the free gas phase, depending on temperature, vapor pressure of the compound, and total particular surface. In order to estimate the abiotic degradation of such compounds, the OH reaction rate constant must be known, which cannot be measured directly in the gas phase at the relevant temperature due to experimental difficulties. In the method proposed here, the inert solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane is used as the reaction medium and hydrogen peroxide as photolytic OH source. Relative reaction rates can be measured, using a reference compound of known kOH air. The relative rates can be converted into absolute ones due to the 1:1 relationship observed by Dilling, Gonsior, Boggs, and Mendoza (1988) Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 1447-1453, between the relative rates in the inert solvent and those in the gas phase.
Most organic pollutants are supposed to act via the mechanism of nonpolar narcosis upon acute exposure. Because the chronic effects of these compounds are still relatively unknown, in this study a chronic toxicity experiment was performed with zebrafish, Danio rerio, exposed to 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (123TCB), a nonpolar narcotic. Fish were exposed in a flow-through system for 68 and 147 days. Parameters measured are survival, growth, reproduction, and glycogen and protein content. The only parameter which was influenced was the number of eggs produced per female, resulting in an EC(50) of 40 microg/L. Using this value and acute toxicity data for 123TCB, an acute to chronic ratio (ACR) of 80 was calculated, which is larger than ACRs for other species exposed to nonpolar narcotics. This finding might indicate that compounds acting by nonpolar narcosis in acute tests can have completely different effects upon chronic exposure.
Specimens of either sex of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus, were exposed to safe and sublethal concentrations of gamma-BHC (2 and 8 ppm) and cythion (1 and 4 ppm) for 4 weeks during different phases of annual reproductive cycle. Their effects on free fatty acids (FFA) and acyl glycerides, viz., monoglycerides (MG), diglycerides (DG), and triglycerides (TG), were studied in liver, plasma, gonads, and muscle. During the preparatory phase, both pesticides suppressed the levels of FFA and acylglycerides (MG, DG, and TG) in liver of either sex but had no effect on their levels in plasma, ovary, and muscle; however, FFA and TG were reduced in testis. Unlike the preparatory phase, in the prespawning phase different lipids responded variedly to the concentrations of both Cythion and gamma-BHC. In the female, FFA in liver and plasma was raised but in ovary and muscle it was decreased. Acylglycerides in studied tissues were also reduced except ovarian TG which was increased by both pesticides at safe concentrations. Contrary to this, in the male these lipids were raised in liver and testis. Moreover, during the spawning phase, these pesticides enhanced the hepatic FFA together with acylglycerides in the female but failed to elicit any change in their levels in the male. Plasma levels of FFA and TG were reduced in the female; however, in the male FFA was raised and TG remained unchanged. Ovarian FFA and TG were decreased and increased, respectively. During the postspawning phase, none of the lipid fractions could be affected in the male except hepatic FFA which was reduced; however, in the female TG along with FFA was decreased.
Dose-response studies were carried out on female F344 rats with two carcinogenic cyclic nitrosamines, nitroso-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (NTHP) and dinitrosohomopiperazine (DNHP). Groups of 20 rats were given the nitrosamines in drinking water solution, at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1 mg/liter of the former and 110 to 1.1 mg/liter of the latter, each lower dose being 40% of the dose above it. The lengths of treatment were 25 or 30 weeks at the higher concentrations, and were extended to most of the lifespan at the lower concentrations. The mortality rate of the animals with induced tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract (and liver in the case of the highest dose of NTHP), decreased with lower doses at the higher concentrations. At the lower concentrations there was little effect on mortality rate, compared with untreated controls, but there were a number of rats with induced tumors of the upper GI tract and the incidence of these tumors increased with increasing dose of nitrosamine. Of the doses given, only the lowest dose of DNHP given for the shortest time was without significant carcinogenic effect. The relationship between dose of nitrosamine and carcinogenic potency, as measured by mortality rate, was linear over part of the range, but not at lower doses. The slopes of these dose responses differed between NTHP- and DNHP-treated animals, suggesting that the mechanisms of carcinogenesis by these two compounds are not identical.
Macrobenthic animal communities that colonized sand-filled aquaria were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), a recent replacement for polycholorinated biphenyls in the electrical industry. In one test, communities established by planktonic larvae entrained in continuously supplied unfiltered seawater for 50 days were exposed to waterborne TCB for 6 days; in the second test, the toxicant was added to the sediment before 8 weeks of colonization. Concentrations that affected community structure were usually two orders of magnitude lower for waterborne TCB than for sediment-bound TCB, but the same types of organisms were affected by each route of exposure. The lowest TCB concentrations (measured) that affected average numbers of individuals exposed via the water were 0.04 mg/liter for mollusks, 0.4 mg/liter for arthropods, and 4 mg/liter for annelids. Average number of species was significantly lower than the control at 4 mg/liter. For TCB exposures via the sediment, the lowest concentrations (nominal) that affected average numbers of individuals were 100 micrograms/g for mollusks and echinoderms, and 1000 micrograms/g for arthropods and annelids. Average number of species in experimental aquaria was significantly lower than the control at greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/g. TCB persisted in sediments, but some leached into water throughout the 8-week exposure via sediment.
Adult Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils. The LC₅₀ of 1,2,4-TCB at 7 and 14 d were 945±175 and 890±169 mg kg⁻¹. A lower dose of 1,2,4-TCB (25 mg g⁻¹) had stimulatory effects on SOD and AChE activities, but AChE activities were significantly inhibited at higher treatment levels (100 and 400 mg g⁻¹). SOD activities increased after 2, 7, and 14 d of exposure, but AChE activities were significantly inhibited at 400 mg/kg 1,2,4-TCB after 2, 7, and 14 d of exposure, and the inhibition rates were 25.41%, 28.65%, and 25.05%. Ultrastructural observation of the intestinal epithelium at three concentrations (control, 50, and 400 mg g⁻¹) revealed that the epicuticle, cuticle layer, and microvilli were damaged with increasing 1,2,4-TCB concentration. At 400 mg kg⁻¹, mitochondria were seriously injured and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum was seriously dilated.
The performance of the free polyamines as plant stress indicators is studied in barley and rape plants grown in nutrient culture, by exposure to Cr(VI) or Cr(III) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ppm. Putrescine levels are elevated up to 10 times in the leaves of stressed plants compared to those of control plants, but neither spermidine nor spermine show any consistent reactions on the stress. Cr(VI) is more toxic than Cr(III) and induces putrescine accumulation quicker than Cr(III). Chromium concentrations in leaves reach 3000-5000 ppm (dry wt) after exposure to 100 ppm Cr(VI) and 300-400 ppm (dry wt) following exposure to 100 ppm Cr(III). Simultaneously with, or following shortly after the putrescine induction, reductions in root growth, chlorosis, induction of leaf chitinase activity, and, later, reduced shoot growth and lowered water content in leaves are observed. The pattern of the effects indicates that the basal toxicity mechanism of the two chromium species is connected to disturbance of the normal function of the root. Putrescine induction is an integrated part of the response mechanism of the stressed plants, appearing as an early sign of stress. However, the chromium concentration of the leaves as a warning of chromium-induced stress is judged to be an even more sensitive indicator.
With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials.
This study explored the suitability of using the trans/cis ratio of unsaturated fatty acids as an indicator of the acute toxicity of membrane active hazardous chemicals. The conversion of cis into trans fatty acids in Pseudomonas putida NCTC 10936 in response to 4-chlorophenol and temperature changes was compared with the results from another kind of toxicity test using the same organism, based on the sensitivity of its xylose oxidation-driven ATP synthesis to uncoupling. The response of both indicators is believed to be largely due to changes in the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the electron transport phosphorylation reacted faster and more sensitively to the fluidizing effect of 4-chlorophenol than the isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, measuring the trans/cis ratio does not provide as good early warning signals of acute toxicity as monitoring the response of the electron transport phosphorylation. If used as an indicator of chemostress, with Pseudomonas species as test organisms, the ratio should only be used in conjunction with other parameters reflecting the energetic state of the cells.
The metabolism in the rat of 109Cd biocomplexes present in the tissues of the edible mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, previously exposed to 109CdCl2, was studied. The tissue distribution and binding of 109Cd were compared to those caused by an equal dose of 109Cd as CdCl2 or rat liver Cd-metallothionein. Administration of mussel 109Cd to rats resulted in an initial accumulation of 109Cd in the kidneys due to the presence of 109Cd-metallothionein, which constituted 25% of the 109Cd in the tissues of the mussels. Other 109Cd biocomplexes present in the mussel tissues were metabolized in the rat in a way similar to that of inorganic cadmium, i.e., initial accumulation in the liver. These findings indicate that the ingestion of seafood rich in metallothionein may give rise to a faster increase of renal cadmium levels than the consumption of a similar amount of inorganic cadmium.
A standardized bioassay previously developed with ivermectin for the yellow dung fly (Scathophagidae) and the face fly (Muscidae) was applied to test the response of 11 dung fly species to the presumably less toxic parasiticide moxidectin. The results were compared to existing data for the same species tested with ivermectin, albeit two new species (Scathophaga suilla and Musca domestica) were tested here with both the substances. Estimated lethal effect concentrations LC50 at which 50% of the flies died ranged more than tenfold from 0.012mg moxidectin/kg fresh dung for Sepsis neocynipsea (Sepsidae) to 0.140mg moxidectin/kg fresh dung for the house fly Musca domestica (Muscidae). In most of the species, we additionally revealed sub-lethal effects at lower moxidectin concentrations in terms of retarded growth and development and reduced body size. Mortality thresholds were about ten times higher for moxidectin than for ivermectin, hence moxidectin is indeed less toxic than ivermectin in absolute terms. Crucially, we obtained strong correlations among the 11 tested fly species in both lethal and sub-lethal responses to the two substances, such that species relatively sensitive to ivermectin were also relatively sensitive to moxidectin. Such correlations are expected if the two substances are structurally related and function in the same manner by disturbing ion channel transport. Methodologically speaking, all species used proved suitable for toxicological testing of parasiticides.
Soybean fields provide habitats for many species of amphibians. However, the persistence and health of amphibian populations may be at risk from the increasing use of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. We examined the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterases (CbEs) in 11 syntopic species of larval anurans. In vitro effects of malaoxon causing 50% BChE inhibition (IC(50)) were also studied. In addition, we calculated a relative risk index (RI) based on the geographic distributions of the anurans, the phenology of soybean cultivation, and basal enzymatic values related to potential pesticide detoxification. Among the 11 species, AChE activity varied from 17.5 ± 1.6 to 68.2 ± 4.7 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein (PT). BChE activity also varied significantly, ranging from 3.3 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 0.4 nmol min(-1) mg(-1)PT. Both measures of CbE activities varied widely (CbE α-NA: 2.1 ± 0.5-12.4 ± 1.1 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) PT; CbE-4NPV: 21.8 ± 1.8-102.6 ± 7.9 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) PT). We also corroborate that lower BChE activity levels for the tadpoles were associated at minor IC(50) values. The results of this study demonstrate significant variation in enzymatic levels among several tadpole species and intermediate to high RI values for 7 species. Based on these results, it appears that a conversion of native ecosystems to soybean crops may lead to increased ecological risk for anuran amphibians.
The toxicity of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate, R-11 and the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid were evaluated on the crustacean, Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard. These compounds were evaluated separately and as a mixture because they are applied for pest control and may exist as a binary mixture in surface water. Acute mortality estimates (48h) were developed followed by population-level studies after chronic exposure. LC50s and 95% CL for R-11 and imidacloprid were 9241 (8521-9842)microg/l and 2.1 (1.1-3.4)microg/l, respectively. In the population study, C. dubia were exposed to concentrations equivalent to the acute LC25 for R-11 (8090microg/l) and imidacloprid (0.3microg/l) separately and as a mixture for 8d. The results of the chronic study indicated that R-11 had a greater impact on population parameters than imidacloprid and the mixture had a greater impact than either compound alone. For example, the total number of individuals at the end of the chronic study was 73%, 19%, and 6% of the control for imidacloprid, R-11, and the binary mixture, respectively. Additionally, exposure to R-11, imidacloprid, and the mixture resulted in 52%, 10%, and 91% reductions in population growth rate compared to the control, respectively. The results of this study indicate that when combined, R-11 and imidacloprid act in a more than additive manner. Therefore, it is important that their potential effects on aquatic organisms be evaluated together.
The main objective of this work was to use micronucleus induction in fish erythrocytes to study the risk to aquatic ecosystems due to the genotoxicity of Chlorotriazine Reactive Azo Red 120 textile dye. The frequencies of micronuclei were studied for three low doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/L and blood sampling was carried out on the same fish after 3, 6, and 9 days. It was found that micronuclei increased not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a time-dependent way, compared with negative (tap water) and positive (10 ppm benzene) control groups. There was also a slight, time-dependent increase in erythrocyte micronuclei of the control fish specimens. This study proved the genotoxicity of this dye, and suggests that further studies should be made on other dyes and some other toxic industrial pollutant discharges in water ecosystems, using fish as an indicator to monitor pollutant genotoxicity.
Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat destruction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCBs could induce oxidative stress in young tadpoles. Developing Xenopus laevis were exposed from 2- to 5-d postfertilization (pf) to 0.1 or 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GR activities and t-GSH level) were investigated in whole organisms. Exposure to both concentrations did not impact on the survival and development whereas the average body weight decreased. Exposure to 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254 induced a significant (p<0.05) increase of GST activity when compared to controls 0 and DMSO. The other antioxidant enzymes and LPO evaluation remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate that exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 interfere with normal growth. They also highlight that very young X. laevis tadpoles express antioxidant systems.
Earthworms, Eisenia fetida andrei and Lumbricus terrestris, exposed to Aroclor 1254, followed by infestation with Aeromonas hydrophila, elicited two types of responses. First, in E. fetida, there was no change in the LD50 nor in the in vitro antibacterial growth capacity of cell-free coelomic fluid. Thus, Aroclor exerts no influence on antibacterial proteins nor on the chloragogue cells responsible for their release. Second, in L. terrestris, both a high LD50 value and no antibacterial activity indicate that A. hydrophila was not pathogenic. The 10(4) times higher sensitivity of exposed L. terrestris suggests that Aroclor inhibits leukocyte activity since E. fetida eliminates nonpathogenic bacteria by a cellular mechanism.
The range of toxicity of 131,596 chemicals to five species of terrestrial plant seeds or seedlings was tabulated in order of magnitude differences in minimum lethalconcentratin. Among the fice species (corn, wild oats, cotton, soybean, and radish) soybean was generally the most sensitive; however, no one or two species was a good indicator of toxicity for the other species. On the average only 0.006% of the chemicals killed seeds at concentrations of 0.01–0.09 ppm, 0.17% at 0.1–0.99 ppm, and 0.91% at 1–9.9 ppm. Very few chemicals are likely to kill seeds and seedlings under normal use patterns since they are usually distributed in soil at concentrations under 1 ppm except as the result of spills or from direct local application. The data base of this large number of chemicals shows that plant seeds are not as sensitive species to use for hazard evaluation of new chemicals in preliminary estimations as certain animal organisms.
The present study reports the potential remediation of cesium (Cs) using napiergrass, which produces the largest biomass among the herbaceous plants in hydroponic culture containing stable Cs (Cs-133) at concentrations of 50, 150, 300, 1000, and 3,000 μM using cesium chloride (CsCl), with 0 μM Cs as a control concentration. Plant height was significantly decreased in higher Cs-treated conditions (300, 1000, and 3000 μM Cs) at 7 weeks after treatment (WAT), but tiller numbers tended to increase compared with the control plant. No significant difference was observed in the aboveground dry matter weight in all Cs treatments throughout the study period. Cs content in the roots, leaf blades, and leaf sheaths clearly increased with increasing Cs concentration in the solutions. Cs content in the aboveground parts (leaf blades and leaf sheaths) was consistently higher than in the roots at concentration of 3,000 μM. Total Cs contents in the aboveground parts were 6305 and 26,365 mg kg(-1) at 7WAT in 1000- and 3000-μM Cs treatments, respectively. Mean values of transfer factors (TFs) in the aboveground parts were 50 μM=0.78, 150 μM=1.02, 300 μM=0.86, 1,000 μM=0.68, and 3,000 μM=0.94, respectively at 7WAT. Due to its high Cs content and high TF in the aboveground parts, napiergrass may be a candidate plant with high potential for phytoremediation of Cs from Cs-137-contaminated soil.
Epiphytic Tillandsia plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors and traditionally used to monitor atmospheric heavy metal pollution, but rarely nuclides monitoring. Here we evaluated the potential of Tillandsia usneoides for monitoring (133)Cs and investigated if Cs was trapped by the plant external surface structures. The results showed that T. usneoides was able to survive relatively high Cs stress. With the increase of Cs solution concentration, the total of Cs in plants increased significantly, which suggests that the plants could accumulate Cs quickly and effectively. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Cs polluted environments. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that Cs was detected in each type of cells in foliar trichomes, and the ratio of Cs in the internal disc cell was higher than that in ring cell and wing cell, which indicates that the mechanism of adsorption Cs in Tillandsia has an active component.
The commonest species of red, brown, and green macroalgae were sampled from a range of biotopes in the Aegean Sea during 1998 for their 137Cs content. Significant differences in 137Cs concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but is influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. 137Cs content in collected seaweeds were in the descending order: Ulva lactuca>Enteromorpha linza>Gracilaria verrucosa>Ceramium rubrum>Cystoseira barbata. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the degree of accumulation is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. The west side of Thermaikos Gulf, where the rivers Axios, Aliakmon, and Pinios flow, was highly contaminated as was the Strymonicos Gulf where the river Strymon flows. High cesium concentrations were also observed in algae from Lemnos Island near the mouth of the Dardanelles Channel, most likely due to the horizontal circulation of water masses from the Marmaras Sea to the Aegean Sea resulting in the discharge of 137Cs during the purification process in the Black Sea through the Dardanelles Straits. It is concluded that the general dispersion of 137Cs results from the water circulation regime within the Aegean Sea. Higher levels are present in the northern part of the basin due to current circulation originating from the Black Sea and from outflow of rivers. Levels decrease to the south and east, but increase again to the west of Crete where the Black Sea water mass can be periodically traced.
(137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.
Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) L. Nash plantlets when tested for their potential to remove (90)Sr and (137)Cs (5 x 10(3) k Bq l(-1)) from solutions spiked with individual radionuclide showed that 94% of (90)Sr and 61% of (137)Cs could be removed from solutions after 168 h. When both (90)Sr and (137)Cs were supplemented together to the solution, 91% of (90)Sr and 59% of (137)Cs were removed at the end of 168 h. In case of (137)Cs, accumulation occurred more in roots than shoots, while (90)Sr accumulated more in shoots than roots. When experiments were performed to study the effect of analogous elements, K(+) ions reduced the uptake of (137)Cs, while (90)Sr accumulation was found to decrease in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. Plants of V. zizanoides could also effectively remove radioactive elements from low-level nuclear waste and the level of radioactivity was reduced below detection limit at the end of 15 days of exposure. The results of the present study indicate that V. zizanoides may be a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of (90)Sr and (137)Cs.
The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals.
Environmental safety of contaminants sometimes requires testing at the ecosystem level. Model ecosystems can serve as a surrogate to receiving waters for the assessor. Tools to verify that model ecosystems are good surrogates for natural receiving water systems have been based on structural attributes such as taxa lists. While examining taxa lists can be useful within a geography, they are less informative when comparing across different topographical and climatic regions. This paper illustrates an alternative approach that uses natural abundance ratios of nitrogen and carbon. Comparisons were made between the Procter and Gamble Co. (P and G) Experimental Stream Facility (ESF) and the East Fork Little Miami River (EFLMR). We also conducted stable isotopes releases of nitrogen ((15)NH(4)Cl) in the ESF and EFLMR. Results from the nitrogen releases for the ESF and EFLMR were compared to each other and to stable isotope releases conducted in 9 streams as part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX). Preliminary evaluations of nitrogen uptake show that the uptake rate of ammonium for the P and G experimental streams (0.019 m(-1)) is similar to uptake rates in natural streams of similar flow and fits the regression of uptake length and discharge for the LINX streams. Nutrient flow data obtained in this study in most cases verified model (SISTM) predictions.
This paper defines the culture conditions of the ciliate Spirostomum teres and assesses its sensitivity to some xenobiotics for the development of a new low-cost microbiotest. The model was selected for its ubiquitous distribution, large size for a unicellular species, easy culture in holoxenic medium, moderate generation time, and high sensitivity to pure toxicants. The influence of different culture waters, inocula of ciliates, food, temperature, light, and darkness on the growth of the ciliate population was tested. The shortest generation time (average 39 h) was obtained for cultures incubated at 25 degreesC in the dark with an inoculum of 4 ciliates per ml in 25 ml of Volvic mineral water containing 8 boiled wheat grains, when preincubated without ciliates for the previous week. Under these conditions, it was possible to obtain about 3000 ciliates/ml 3 weeks later. Acute toxicity tests (24-h LC50) were carried out for CuSO4, HgCl2, CdCl2, K2Cr2O7, ZnSO4, Pb(NO3)2, thiram, carbaryl, lindane, parathion, parathion methyl, paraoxon, 2, 4,6-trichlorophenol, and sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP). Very high sensitivity of the model to Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, thiram, and Na-PCP was established. Comparison of its sensitivity with that of Microtox (current results), Daphnia Magna, Tetrahymena pyriformis, Colpidium campylum, and murine fibroblasts (data from literature) confirms the high sensitivity of the model, especially to heavy metals. Easy-to-perform, cost-effective, and sensitive bioassays using S. teres are suitable for risk assessment and early detection of toxicity in fresh water.
Outdoor experiments with [14C]hexachlorobenzene, [14C]pentachlorobenzene, [14C]1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and [14C]benzene in soil-crop systems indicate that the formation rate of bound residues in soil and plants, expressed as bound residues in percentage of total residue in the sample, decreases with increasing number of chlorine in the molecule and, thus, with increasing chemical stability. The time course of formation and fate of bound residues in soil and plants is characterized by a very slow decrease of residue levels in soil, indicating that biodegradation of bound residues hardly exceeds their reformation from the parent compound during one vegetation period, and by a decrease of residue levels in plants. The portion of bound residues as compared to the total residue increases with time, indicating that bound residues are more persistent than the parent compounds and their soluble metabolites; benzene is an exception. Cress plants, in general, contain less bound residues than do barley plants. Again, benzene is an exception. In deeper soil layers, soil-bound residues occur also. The ratio between bound and extractable residues does not differ to a larger extent between the soil layers.
Growth-inhibition tests for 14 pesticide adjuvants which are widely used to manufacture various pesticidal formulations in China, were performed on the green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Chlorella vulgaris to compare differential sensitivity among populations of these algae to the adjuvants. The results showed that the acute toxicities of 700#, 1601#, By-140, and SOPA to S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris were the lowest among all the tested adjuvants. The acute toxicities of Tween 80, O-25, and AEO-13 phosphate to the selected two green algae were intermediate among the tested adjuvants. The acute toxicities of 602#, 500#, OT, NP-10, OP-10, and JFC were the highest. Meanwhile, the algal species vary widely in their response to those adjuvants. The results showed that there was a differential response to various adjuvants among the selected algal species and that the sensitivities of the various algal species exposed to 1601# and OT varied by nearly 1 order and to 700#, and By-140 varied by over 1 order of magnitude. In addition, the NOEC and LOEC values of the selected 14 adjuvants to S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris were tested; the result showed that NOEC < or = EC10<EC20 for 27 of the 28 data sets (96%) and EC10 < or = LOEC < or = EC20 for 20 of the 28 data sets (78%).
The relative toxic response of 27 selected phenols in the 96-hr acute flowthrough Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and the 48- to 60-hr chronic static Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate protozoan) test systems was evaluated. Log Kow-dependent linear regression analyses revealed that the data from each test system consisted of two linear equations. The less toxic chemicals form a relationship which models polar narcosis; these chemicals are slightly more active than the baseline toxicity of nonionic narcotic chemicals. The more toxic chemicals form a relationship which models uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Regression analysis of fathead minnow toxicity (log LC50 (mol/liter] vs Tetrahymena toxicity (log BR (mmol/liter] showed good correlation between the two systems. An exception appears to be 4-nitrophenol, which is more active in the Tetrahymena system than in the fathead minnow and lies outside the 95% confidence interval. Reanalysis following deletion of 4-nitrophenol results in the equation log LC50 = -0.9192 (log BR) -3.5035; n = 26, r2 = 0.887.
Using unperturbed-structure soil columns, placed under field conditions for a 1-year period, we have evaluated the possibilities of penetration into the soil of various 14C ring-labeled s-triazinic compounds: atrazine, chlorinated derivatives, and hydroxyatrazine. We have simultaneously examined the possibilities of formation of bound residues for each of the compounds. 2-Cl-4,6-Diaminoatrazine appears to be the product most apt to form bound residues but this reaction is paralleled by a rapid loss of total residues. On the other hand, hydroxyatrazine is a strongly adsorbed product which is lost from the soil into the atmosphere only slowly and forms practically no bound residues.
[14C]Benzene, [14C]1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, [14C]pentachlorobenzene, and [14C]hexachlorobenzene were applied to soils in outdoor lysimeters to a 10-cm depth (2 mg/kg dry soil); barley and cress plants were grown for one vegetation period and analyzed after varying time intervals. The bioaccumulation factors (concentration of radioactive substances in plants divided by that in soils) of barley were higher than those of cress, except for hexachlorobenzene. In barley, bioaccumulation factors increased with decreasing chlorine content of the molecules, except for benzene, whereas in cress hexachlorobenzene exhibited the highest bioaccumulation factor. The conversion ratios of chlorinated benzenes (percentage of conversion products based on total radioactivity in plants) were negatively correlated to the chlorine content of the molecules and, in barley, positively correlated with time; in general, they were higher in barley than in cress. The concentration of radioactive substances in the plants, as well as bioaccumulation factors, decreased with time, except for a slight increase in benzene-derived residues in barley after 125 days. This effect is due to growth dilution. The percentage of radioactivity in barley seeds, based on that in the whole plant, was negatively correlated to the chlorine content of the molecule.
Metabolism, excretion, and body distribution of [14C]photodieldrin were studied in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) after single intravenous and repeated oral administration. After iv administration about 45 and 34% of the dose were excreted by the male and the female, respectively, during 21 days following dosing. Approximately two-thirds of the excreted radioactivity was detected in the urine. The body distribution showed high concentrations of photodieldrin and/or metabolites in adipose tissue, liver, bile, bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, and adrenal cortex. Analysis of feces and urine showed the presence of several metabolites. The major metabolite was identified by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, and gas chromatographical comparison as trans-photoaldrindiol which appears in the urine as glucuronic acid conjugate and as free metabolite. A second metabolite, occurring in feces and urine, appears to be a monohydroxy substituted derivative of photodieldrin.
By the use of unperturbed-structure soil columns placed under field conditions, we have evaluated the migration of various 14C ring-labeled s-triazinic compounds (atrazine, its chlorinated derivatives, hydroxyatrazine) into leached water over a 1-year period. The results obtained by determination of the leached radioactivity allow us to establish a classification of the mobility for each product and its possibility of contaminating infiltration water in the soil. Qualitative analysis of the leached residues confirms the predominant presence of deethylated atrazine.
The uptake of 14C from various 14C-labeled organic chemicals from different chemical classes by barley and cress seedlings from soil was studied for 7 days in a closed aerated laboratory apparatus. Uptake by roots and by leaves via the air was determined separately. Although comparative long-term outdoor studies showed that an equilibrium is not reached within a short time period, plant concentration factors after 7 days could be correlated to some physicochemical and structural substance properties. Barley root concentration factors due to root uptake, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil, gave a fairly good negative correlation to adsorption coefficients based on soil organic carbon. Barley root concentration factors, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil liquid, gave a positive correlation to the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Uptake of chemicals by barley leaves via air was strongly positively correlated to volatilization of chemicals from soil. Both root and foliar uptake by barley could be correlated well to the molecular weight of 14 chemicals. Uptake of chemicals by cress differed from that by barley, and correlations to physicochemical substance properties mostly were poor.
A simple shake-flask surface water biodegradability die away test with (14)C-labeled chemicals added to microgram per liter concentrations (usually 1-100 microg/L) is described and evaluated. The aim was to provide information on biodegradation behavior and kinetic rates at environmental (low) concentrations in surface water systems. The basic principle of measurement was to determine evolved CO(2) indirectly from measurements of total organic activity in subsamples after stripping off their content of CO(2). Used with surface water alone the test simulates a pelagic environment and amended with sediments (0.1-1 dry weight/L) the test is intended to simulate a water environment with suspended solids (e.g., resuspended sediments). A protocol of the test used with the (14)C technique or with specific chemical analysis was recently developed by the International Organization for Standardization. Practical experience with the method is presented for a set of reference substances. These substances could be ranked in five groups of decreasing biodegradability: aniline>p-nitrophenol, 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid>4-chloroaniline>maleic hydrazide, pentachlorophenol>atrazine. It was found that degradation rates and lag periods varied considerably among sampling sites and sometimes also among samples from the same site. No significant correlation could be established between degradation rates and microbial biomass estimates. Even small portions of added sediments greatly enhanced biodegradation of the absorbable compound pentachlorophenol, probably by providing sites for microbial attachment. Repeated tests indicated consistent degradation behavior for the readily degradable substances, whereas degradation sometimes stopped or failed with the more recalcitrant substances. A preadaptation step involving regular reinoculation with freshly collected surface water could, however, overcome the problems of false-negative results.
[14C]Aldrin was applied to soils (about 3kg/ha) in outdoor boxes at various locations (Germany, England, and United States), and crops were cultivated (maize, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes). In the following year, crop rotation experiments were carried out in the same soils without retreatment; in addition, wheat was grown in soils retreated with [14C]aldrin (3.5 kg/ha). After the harvest of both years, the distribution of aldrin and major metabolites (dieldrin; photodieldrin; hydrophilic metabolites including dihydrochlordene dicarboxylic acid; an unidentified nonpolar compound X; and unextractable metabolites) was determined in plants, soils, and leaching water. Two further conversion products, photoaldrin and aldrin-trans-diol, occurred in trace amounts only in a few samples. Metabolic pathways for aldrin under outdoor conditions are presented. The distribution of radioactive residues in soils and plants as well as their quantitative chemical composition are discussed, and comparisons are made between the different experimental sites, the crops, the first and second year, and retreated and nonretreated samples. The quantitative results are compared to those of field trials.
The environmental fate of [14C]fenitrothion was evaluated in aquatic microcosms held at pH 8.3 or 6.7. No general effect attributable to pH was observed; however, several significant interactions were identified. Of these, the findings that statistically higher amounts of radioactivity were present in water held at pH 6.7 and that significantly less metabolism of the parent compound occurred in the organisms at pH 8.3 were preeminent. These differences seen in metabolism and environmental fate between pH values are relatively minor and do not compromise the safety of the compound.
The toxicity of the insecticide, lindane, was measured in the midge, Chironomus riparius, at pH 4, 6, and 8 with the finding that lindane is significantly more toxic at pH 6 than at pH 4 and 8. The higher toxicity of lindane at pH 6 is a product of two factors. First the penetration of the compound into the midge is lower at pH 4 than at pH 6 and 8. Second, a greater percentage of total radioactivity is contributed by parent compound at pH 6.
Rats were exposed by inhalation for 6 hr to 20 or 154 ppm of 2-[14C]nitropropane (2-[14C]NP) and the disposition of radioactivity in these animals was followed for 48 hr. These data indicate that at least 40% of the inhaled 2-[14C]NP was absorbed. 2-[14C]NP was rapidly metabolized and eliminated, and thus has a low potential to accumulate in the rat during prolonged or repeated exposures. Numerous differences were observed in the disposition of 2-[14C]NP at the two exposure concentrations that indicate the kinetics of 2-[14C]NP were nonlinear in rats at the 154 ppm exposure concentration. These changes in the fate of 2-[14C]NP are consistent with and may explain the marked increase in the toxicity observed by others when rats were exposed to high concentrations (≥200 ppm) of 2-nitropropane.
Young brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) were exposed to aminocarb (4-dimethylamino-3-methylphenyl N-methylcarbamate) at lethal and sublethal concentrations and the tissue distribution of total unspecified residues was examined. The concentration of residues in each tissue increased with the concentration of exposure. The liver and stomach/intestine accumulated the largest concentrations of residues of all the tissues studied except for the abdominal fat deposit, which could not be evaluated at all exposure concentrations. These two tissues also displayed a steady increase in the proportion of the total body burden of aminocarb residues during 4 days of exposure to 0.092 mg aminocarb/liter. The proportion of residues in the carcass at this level of exposure decreased steadily over this same period, but was more similar to that found during exposure at the two lethal concentrations (92.7 and 159.3 mg/liter) as opposed to that found at the intermediate, nonlethal exposure level of 41.1 mg/liter. For all tissues examined, the concentration of residues at the end of 4 days of exposure to 0.092 mg/liter was significantly lower than the peak concentration reached during the exposure period, and clearance of residues was found to be relatively rapid.