# Eating and weight disorders: EWD

Online ISSN: 1590-1262
Recent publications
Article
Purpose This research aims to analyze the relationship between emotional regulation and the symbolic process in autobiographical narratives of a group of individuals diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN), compared to a non-clinical group. The study is framed within multiple code theory (MCT) (Bucci, 1997; 2021), which considers mind–body integration. The purposes of this study are to investigate whether participants of the AN group will show greater alexithymia and emotional dysregulation than the non-clinical group; and whether the specific linguistic and symbolic features, such as somato-sensory words, affect words, and difficulty in the symbolizing process will predict the AN group. Methods Twenty-nine female participants hospitalized with AN during an acute phase (mean age 19.8 ± 4.1) and 36 non-clinical female participants (mean age 21 ± 2.4) were selected through snow-ball sampling. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Profile of Mood of State (POMS), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Relationship Anecdotes Paradigm Interview (RAP). The RAP interview was audio-recorded and transcribed to apply the Referential Process (RP) Linguistic Measures. A T test for paired samples and a logistic binary regression was performed. Results AN presented a significantly higher emotional dysregulation through the ERQ, TAS20 and POMS measures. Specifically, AN showed higher ER expression/suppression strategies, fewer functional cognitive strategies, higher alexithymia, and higher mood dysregulation. Specific linguistic features such as sensory-somatic, word affect, and difficulty in RP symbolizing predict the AN group (R2 = 0.349; χ 2 = 27,929; df = 3; p = .001). Conclusions Emotional dysregulation is connected to AN symptoms and autobiographical narratives. The results can help a clinical assessment phase showing specific linguistic features in AN patients. Level of evidence Level II, controlled trial without randomization.

Article
Purpose The aim of the present investigation was to study the associations among parameters characterizing eating behavior and actimetry-derived indices of circadian rhythm of motor activity. Methods The study involved 81 healthy participants (average age: 21.5 ± 9.6 y, women: 77.8%). Each study participant provided personal data, filled out the Yale Food Addiction Scale and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and wore a wrist actimeter for 7 consecutive days to record motor activity. Using time series treatments, we obtained: (a) three cosinor-derived parametric indices [Medline Estimating Statistics of Rhythm (MESOR), amplitude, and acrophase], and (b) four non-parametric indices [interdaily stability, intradaily variability (I.V.), most active 10-h period (M10), and least active 5-h period] characterizing the 24-h rhythm of motor activity. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and BMI was performed to assess the associations among the studied indicators. Results It was shown that I.V. is a predictor of symptoms of food addiction (β = 0.242, P = 0.037) and emotional eating (β = 0.390, P = 0.004), MESOR is a predictor of symptoms of food addiction (β = 0.342, P = 0.003), and M10 predicts restraint (β = 0.257, P = 0.015) and emotional eating (β = 0.464, P = 0.001). Conclusion It was shown for the first time that an increase in symptom counts of food addiction is associated with an increase in the average level and fragmentation of 24-h rhythm of motor activity. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Purpose: The purpose of this review was to estimate the prevalence of screen-based disordered eating (SBDE) and several potential risk factors in university undergraduate students around the world. Methods: An electronic search of nine data bases was conducted from the inception of the databases until 1st October 2021. Disordered eating was defined as the percentage of students scoring at or above established cut-offs on validated screening measures. Global data were also analyzed by country, research measure, and culture. Other confounders in this review were age, BMI, and sex. Results: Using random-effects meta-analysis, the mean estimate of the distribution of effects for the prevalence of SBDE among university students (K = 105, N = 145,629) was [95% CI] = 19.7% [17.9%; 21.6%], I2 = 98.2%, Cochran's Q p-Value = 0.001. Bayesian meta-analysis produced an odd estimate of 0.24 [0.20, 0.30], τ = 92%. Whether the country in which the students were studying was Western or non-Western did not moderate these effects, but as either the mean BMI of the sample or the percentage of the sample that was female increased, the prevalence of SBDE increased. Conclusions: These findings support previous studies indicating that many undergraduate students are struggling with disordered eating or a diagnosable eating disorder, but are neither receiver effective prevention nor accessing accurate diagnosis and available treatment. It is particularly important to develop ever more valid ways of identifying students with high levels of disordered eating and offering them original or culturally appropriate and effective prevention or early treatment.

Article
Purpose The obsession with healthy eating associated with restrictive behaviors is called Orthorexia Nervosa (OrNe). Nevertheless, some studies suggest that orthorexia can also be a non-pathological interest in healthy eating which is called Healthy Orthorexia (HeOr). First, one of the main objectives of this study is to compare HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors in different dietary patterns (vegan, vegetarian and omnivore). Second is to reveal the relationship between HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). Lastly, to determine the potential predictors of HeOr and OrNe. Methods Participants (N = 426 with an omnivorous diet; N = 415 with a vegan diet, N = 324 with a vegetarian diet) completed a web-based descriptive survey, the Teruel Orthorexia Scale and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R 21. Results HeOr and OrNe were more common in individuals following both vegan and vegetarian diets. Individuals following a vegan or a vegetarian diet had lower body mass index and higher body image satisfaction than individuals following an omnivorous diet. Cognitive restraint and following a vegan or a vegetarian diet were the two main predictors of both HeOr and OrNe. Cognitive restraint was positively associated with both HeOr and OrNe (more strongly correlated with OrNe), whereas uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were positively related to OrNe and negatively related to HeOr. Conclusion The present study contributes to a better understanding of the some similarities and differences between HeOr and OrNe. It also points to higher rates of orthorexia in individuals following a vegan or vegetarian diet and represents a further step towards developing prevention and intervention programs by identifying risk factors for OrNe. Level V Cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Purpose The aim of the present study was to test a partial sociocultural model of integrated tripartite influence and objectification theories in adolescent girls and to assess the moderating role of participation in sport. Methods This study is part of a larger research that involved a sample of adolescent girls and boys from the 11th grade. In the present study, data on 842 girls were analysed. The mean age of the sample was 16.9 ± 0.5 years. The adolescent girls completed online questionnaires assessing internalization of thin body ideals, disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, and self-objectification, as well as various aspects of participation in sports. To assess the primary hypotheses, moderated mediation models were tested. Results Self-objectification mediated associations between internalization of thin body ideals and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescent girls. Participation in an achievement sport moderated the association between internalization of thin body ideals and self-objectification, but not between the latter and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Internalization of thin body ideals was not significantly associated with self-objectification in girls participating in achievement sport. The association between internalization of thin body ideals and self-objectification was stronger in adolescent girls not involved in any sports activities than in leisure-time exercisers. Conclusion It is important to promote involvement in sport for all adolescent girls, since it might help them to decrease the negative effect of internalization of thin body ideals on self-objectification and to value body functions over appearance. Decreasing self-objectification and teaching about body functionality might be an effective strategy in programmes aimed at decreasing disordered eating in adolescent girls participating in achievement sport. Level of evidence Level of evidence V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

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Article
Purpose: For patients with eating disorders (EDs), early engagement in care is usually considered a positive prognostic factor. The aim of the study was to investigate how a single-day intervention devoted to early, brief, experiential exposure to a variety of psychotherapy approaches might support commitment to change and the decision to engage in care in patients with EDs. Methods: One hundred and sixty-nine adult outpatients newly diagnosed with an ED took part in a single-day workshop for groups of up to ten patients, where they experienced eight psychotherapeutic approaches. Motivation to change care and level of insight were assessed at baseline and 10 days after the intervention. Results: Motivation and commitment to take active steps toward change (expressed by the “Committed Action” composite score) signifcantly improved after the intervention (p<0.001), and a signifcant number of patients specifcally moved from “contemplation” to “action” stage (p<0.001). The improvement of motivation to change was signifcantly associated with an increase in insight capacity (p<0.001), and this increase was observed for almost all related dimensions such as recognition of illness or awareness of need for psychological treatment. Conclusion: A single-day session devoted to experiencing a range of group psychotherapies increased patients’ insight and motivation to actively engage in care. To confrm potential longer-term benefts of this intervention, further studies are needed to explore the contribution of each approach and process specifcally involved in patients' increased motivation for care, as well as the clinical characteristics of patients associated with better outcomes.

Article
Purpose Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness. It is frequently accompanied by a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) that may constitute a specific ecophenotype in patients with eating disorders necessitating special assessment and management. This retrospective study tested whether in patients with AN, CM-related chronic stress may manifest through low-grade inflammation reflected by an increase in white blood cell ratios (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio). Methods Participants (N = 206) were enrolled at an eating disorder daycare unit in Montpellier, France, from March 2013 and January 2020. CM was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the MINI were used to assess AN severity and the other clinical characteristics, respectively. Results NLR was higher in patients with AN and history of CM (p = 0.029) and in patients with AN and history of emotional abuse (p = 0.021), compared with patients with AN without history of CM. In multivariate analysis, emotional abuse (β = 0.17; p = 0.027) contributed significantly to NLR variability. Conclusion In patients with AN, NLR is a low-grade inflammation marker that is influenced by various sociodemographic, clinical and biological factors. It is more directly affected by some CM types, especially emotional abuse, than by the presence/absence of CM history. Future studies should focus on mediators between CM and increased inflammation, such as interoceptive awareness, emotional dysregulation, food addiction, and stress sensitization. Level of evidence III. Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case–control analytic studies.

Article
Purpose Maladaptive exercise is common among individuals with binge-spectrum eating disorders. One mechanism that may drive engagement in exercise in this population is state body dissatisfaction. However, no studies to date have examined prospective, momentary relationships between state body dissatisfaction and exercise. Methods Adults with binge-spectrum eating disorders (N = 58) completed a 7–14-day ecological momentary assessment protocol assessing exercise and state body dissatisfaction several times per day. Multilevel models were used to evaluate prospective reciprocal associations between state body dissatisfaction and exercise. Mixed models examined trajectories of change in state body dissatisfaction pre- and post-exercise. Additional models examined exercise type (maladaptive vs. adaptive) as a moderator. Results Momentary increases (i.e., greater than one’s average levels) in state body dissatisfaction at any given timepoint did not prospectively predict engagement in exercise at the next nearest timepoint. Exercise at any given timepoint did not prospectively predict momentary increases in state body dissatisfaction. State body dissatisfaction was found to increase in the initial hours preceding an exercise episode (linear estimate, β = − 0.012, p = 0.004). State body dissatisfaction did not significantly change in the hours following engagement in exercise. Exercise type did not moderate these associations. Conclusion If replicated, our results may suggest that momentary increases in state body dissatisfaction may not be associated with exercise behaviors in individuals with binge-spectrum eating disorders. Level of evidence Level V: Opinions of authorities, based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, orreports of expert committees.

Article
Purpose This study sought to explore the associations between Intuitive Eating (IE), eating disorder (ED) symptom severity, and body image-related cognitive fusion within a clinical sample. IE was also examined as a possible mediator in the relationship between body image-related fusion and ED symptoms. Methods This study includes cross-sectional analyses with data from 100 adult females and 75 adolescent females seeking residential treatment for an ED. Self-reported demographic information, ED symptoms, IE behaviors, and body image-related cognitive fusion were collected from participants within the first week of treatment following admission to the same residential ED treatment facility. Results ED symptom severity was significantly negatively associated with three of the four domains of IE; unconditional permission to eat, reliance on hunger and satiety cues, and body-food choice congruence. A significant mediational effect of IE on the relationship between body image-related fusion and ED symptoms through IE behaviors was observed (β = 11.3, SE = 0.003, p < 0.001). This effect was only observed for the unconditional permission to eat (β = 0.13, p = 0.003) and reliance on hunger and satiety cues (β = 0.10, p = 0.005) domains of IE when the domains were subsequently analyzed individually. Conclusion Unconditional permission to eat and reliance on hunger and satiety cues appear to be particularly influential domains of IE in the relationship between body image-related fusion and ED symptom severity. It is possible that changes in these IE domains may be mechanisms through which body image-related fusion influences ED symptoms. Future longitudinal research is needed to better understand the relationship between body image-related cognitive fusion and IE and the potential for targeting these constructs specifically in the context of ED treatment. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional analysis from descriptive study.

Article
Purpose This observational cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate university students’ food label reading habits with and without orthorexia nervosa (ON) tendency. Methods Data were collected online with a questionnaire. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables, the ORTO-11 scale, the reading frequency of some components on the food label, and the evaluation of some opinions about the food label. The obtained data were evaluated with SPSS 25.0 statistical package program and GraphPad Prism program. Results A total of 674 university students (mean age: 21.03 ± 2.43 years), 537 women (79.7%) and 137 men (20.3%) were included in the study. It was determined that individuals with ON tendency read some nutrients, content information, serving size, health information, instructions for use, additives and brand more frequently compared to individuals without ON tendency (p < 0.05). At the same time, it was determined that individuals with ON tendency were more likely to agree with the idea that reading food labels is important for a healthy diet, compared to individuals with normal eating behavior (p < 0.001). Conclusion The study findings show that individuals with ON tendency have a higher habits of reading food labels compared to individuals with normal eating behavior. To reach a decision on this issue and to determine the diagnostic criteria for ON, future studies should be conducted on different groups and samples with higher participation, as well as studies using different screening tools to determine the tendency for ON. Level of evidence V, Cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Purpose Nonhomeostatic drives (e.g., reward and negative emotion) for eating are associated with weight gain over time. Higher average and lower intraindividual variability in physical activity (PA) levels are positively associated with health and weight outcomes, but have not been evaluated in relation to nonhomeostatic eating. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations between PA and nonhomeostatic drives for eating. The hypotheses were that average levels of and consistency in PA would be negatively correlated with nonhomeostatic eating. Methods Adult participants (N = 432) were recruited online and asked to report objectively measured PA using commercially available PA monitors for the previous 7 days and to complete self-report measures of reward-driven and emotional eating. Results Average daily steps (M = 6519.36) were negatively associated with emotional eating, but were not significantly related to reward-driven eating. Intraindividual variability in steps (M = 2209.85) was not associated with either type of nonhomeostatic eating. Adjusting for relevant covariates (e.g., age, BMI, gender), average daily step count was negatively associated with emotional eating (p = 0.01) but not reward-driven eating (p = 0.31) and variability in step counts was positively associated with reward-driven eating (p = 0.04) but not emotional eating (p = 0.52). Conclusion The results suggest that greater average levels and lower variability in PA are related to lower nonhomeostatic eating; thus, complex associations between PA and eating exist, and may impact weight and outcomes of treatment related to eating and weight. Level of evidence V, cross-sectional correlation study.

Article
Purpose Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is an eating behavior where patients obsessively try to reach health through “purity” of food. Narcissism is a personality trait characterized with the self-belief of grandiosity, importance and need of appreciation. Both of these conditions are connected through self-image in way of reaching perfection through health and body image, whereas one of the ways for reaching it is exercising. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate ON and its possible association with narcissism in fitness center users. Methods The study included 1017 fitness center users and three questionnaires were used for the assessment: general information, ORTO-R and Narcissistic personality inventory-13 (NPI-13). Results There was a significant negative correlation (r = − 0.467, p < 0.001) between the ORTO-R score and the NPI-13 score. Comparison of the ORTO-R score between different durations of using a fitness center showed statistically significant differences (H = 134.72, p < 0.001). The subjects who are using the fitness center for less than 1 year have the highest ORTO-R score, while those who are using it 1–3 years have the lowest ORTO-R score. Moreover, multiple linear regression showed that ORTO-R score retained significant association with NPI-13 (β ± SE, − 0.416 ± 0.026, p < 0.001) and the duration of using a fitness center (0.576 ± 0.068, p < 0.001) after model adjustment for age and BMI. Conclusion These results are implying that fitness center users could possibly be vulnerable of developing ON and that there is a strong association between ON and narcissism in this population. However, future larger-scale longitudinal studies are needed to address these findings. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional survey-based study.

Article
Purpose This scoping review presents an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence base for non-specific predictors, moderators, and mediators of family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Methods We identify ways in which end-of-treatment outcomes have been shown to differ based upon baseline clinical features and person-specific factors and explore psychological mechanisms that may explain differences in treatment response. We draw from this evidence base to outline recommendations for clinical practice, as well as directions for future clinical eating disorder research. Results Noted findings from review include that early response in weight gain and parental criticism may be particularly influential in treatment for anorexia nervosa. Further, for adolescents with either anorexia or bulimia nervosa, eating-related obsessionality may be a key intervention target to improve outcomes. Conclusion In addition to highlighting a need for attention to specific patient- and caregiver-level factors that impact treatment response, recommendations for research and clinical practice include testing whether certain targeted treatments (e.g., exposure-based approaches) may be suitable within the context of FBT for eating disorders. Level of evidence Level I: Evidence obtained from: at least one properly designed randomized controlled trials; experimental studies.

Article
Introduction Obesity is a major health problem with an increasing risk of mortality, associated with comorbidities and high rates of dropout. Research demonstrated that pathological eating behaviors could help to phenotype obese patients thus tailoring clinical interventions. Therefore, our aim was to develop (study 1), validate (study 2), and test in a clinical setting (study 3) the Eating Behaviors Assessment for Obesity (EBA-O). Method Study 1 included the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and McDonald’s ω in a general population sample (N = 471). Study 2 foresaw the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity in 169 participants with obesity. Study 3 tested the capability of the EBA-O to characterize eating behaviors in a clinical sample of 74 patients with obesity. Results Study 1. EFA identified five factors (i.e., food addiction, night eating, binge eating, sweet eating, and prandial hyperphagia), explaining 68.3% of the variance. The final EBA-O consisted of 18 items. McDonald’s ω ranged between 0.80 (hyperphagia) and 0.92 (binge eating), indicating very good reliability. Study 2. A second-order five-factor model, through CFA, showed adequate fit: relative chi-square (χ²/df) = 1.95, CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.075, and SRMR = 0.06, thus suggesting the appropriateness of the EBA-O model. Significant correlations with psychopathological questionnaires demonstrated the convergent validity. Study 3. Significant associations between EBA-O factors and emotional-related eating behaviors emerged. Conclusion The EBA-O demonstrated to be a reliable and easy-to-use clinical tool to identify pathological eating behaviors in obesity, particularly useful for non-experts in eating disorders. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive research.

Article
Purpose In manualized family-based treatment (FBT) for eating disorders, phase 1 of the 3-phase treatment—during which parents are put in control of eating-related issues—is perhaps the most critical phase, and is comprehensively addressed in the manual. Phase 2, during which control over eating is gradually returned to the patient, is more variable and the manual dedicates less space to this phase. The purpose of the current exploratory study was to assess Phase 2 practices of clinicians providing FBT and to compare these practices to the guidance offered in the manual. Methods In the current study, a survey assessing Phase 2 practices was sent to clinicians. Twenty-seven providers responded. Two providers reported that they did not provide FBT in an outpatient setting. One reported not currently providing outpatient FBT but had in the past. The remaining providers were currently providing FBT in an outpatient setting. Results No items addressing the core interventions of Phase 2, including encouraging age-appropriate independent eating, were endorsed by 100% of respondents as being addressed 100% of the time in Phase 2. Conclusion Responses reflected some adherence to the manual, along with examples of therapist drift and incorporation of therapeutic interventions that are not described in the FBT manual. Adherence to manualized treatments may improve outcome for some patients, while allowing for flexibility to address clinical situations that are not addressed in the manual. Level of evidence V. Opinions of respected authorities, based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, or reports of expert committees.

Article
Purpose Medical students have a higher risk of developing psychological issues, such as feeding and eating disorders (FEDs). In the past few years, a major increase was observed in the number of studies on the topic. The goal of this review was to estimate the prevalence risk of FEDs and its associated risk factors in medical students. Methods Nine electronic databases were used to conduct an electronic search from the inception of the databases until 15th September 2021. The DerSimonian–Laird technique was used to pool the estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. The prevalence of FEDs risk in medical students was the major outcome of interest. Data were analyzed globally, by country, by research measure and by culture. Sex, age, and body mass index were examined as potential confounders using meta-regression analysis. Results A random-effects meta-analysis evaluating the prevalence of FEDs in medical students (K = 35, N = 21,383) generated a pooled prevalence rate of 17.35% (95% CI 14.15–21.10%), heterogeneity [Q = 1528 (34), P = 0.001], τ² = 0.51 (95% CI 0.36–1.05), τ = 0.71 (95% CI 0.59–1.02), I² = 97.8%; H = 6.70 (95% CI 6.19–7.26). Age and sex were not significant predictors. Body mass index, culture and used research tool were significant confounders. Conclusion The prevalence of FEDs symptoms in medical students was estimated to be 17.35%. Future prospective studies are urgently needed to construct prevention and treatment programs to provide better outcomes for students at risk of or suffering from FEDs. Level of evidence Level I, systematic review and meta-analysis.

Article
Purpose Eating-disorder psychopathology is associated with self-harm behaviors. With much time spent and many social interactions taking place online, self-cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of self-harm that is digital. The current study examined digital self-harm in adults and its associations with eating-disorder psychopathology and behaviors. Methods Participants were adults (N = 1794) who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Participants reported whether they had ever posted mean things about themselves online, whether they had ever anonymously bullied themselves online and completed measures of eating-disorder psychopathology and disordered eating behaviors. Results Digital self-harm was reported by adults across demographic characteristics and across the lifespan, although there were some significant differences in demographic characteristics associated with reported digital self-harm. Participants who engaged in digital self-harm were younger than those denying digital self-harm. Eating-disorder psychopathology and disordered eating behaviors were significantly higher among individuals reporting digital self-harm compared with age-matched controls. Conclusions This was the first study to examine digital self-harm among adults and the first study to examine associations of digital self-harm with eating-disorder psychopathology and disordered eating behaviors. Importantly, digital self-harm is reported by adults and therefore is not limited to youth. Our findings that digital self-harm is associated with disordered eating suggests that digital self-harm is a clinically significant topic that needs further research to inform clinical practice and clinical research. Level of evidence Level III, Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-controlled analytic studies.

Article
Purpose Maladaptive exercise (i.e., exercise that is either driven or compensatory) is thought to momentarily down-regulate elevated fear of weight gain (FOWG). However, little research has examined associations between FOWG and exercise, and no research has measured FOWG at a momentary level or considered exercise type (i.e., maladaptive vs. adaptive). Thus, we examined both within- and between-subject associations between FOWG and exercise among individuals with trans-diagnostic binge eating. Methods We recruited treatment-seeking adults (N = 58, 82.9% female) to complete a 7–14-day ecological momentary assessment protocol which assessed levels of FOWG and exercise engagement and type. Mixed models and generalized estimating equations assessed within-subject associations, and linear regression assessed between-subject associations. Results There was no main effect of FOWG on exercise engagement at the next survey. However, unexpectedly, exercise type moderated this relationship such that the relationship between FOWG and exercise was strongest for episodes of adaptive exercise. Overall exercise frequency accounted for 10.4% of the variance in FOWG and exercise type explained an additional 1.7% of the variance in FOWG. Conclusion The findings of the current study indicate that momentary levels of FOWG are associated with subsequent adaptive exercise episodes, while higher overall levels of maladaptive exercise were associated with higher levels of FOWG. Future treatments should place a greater emphasis on reducing the frequency of maladaptive exercise by providing strategies for reducing FOWG. Level of evidence Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies.

Article
Purpose To (1) assess dietary intakes of pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery in comparison with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs); (2) compare their dietary intakes as well as their diet quality with a control group of pregnant women with no history of bariatric surgery. Methods Twenty-eight (28) pregnant women with previous surgery (sleeve gastrectomy, n = 7 and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, n = 21) were matched for pre-pregnancy body mass index with 28 pregnant women with no history of bariatric surgery. In at least one trimester, participants completed a minimum of 2 Web-based 24-h dietary recalls from which energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes as well as the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI) were derived. Results No differences were observed for energy intake between groups. All women had protein intakes within the recommended range, but most women with previous surgery had carbohydrate (67%) and dietary fiber intakes (98%) below recommendations. In both groups, mean total fat, saturated fatty acids, free sugars and sodium intakes were above recommendations, as opposed to mean vitamin D, folic acid and iron dietary intakes below recommendations for most women. Compared with the control group, pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery had lower overall C-HEI scores. Conclusion These results suggest that pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery would benefit from a nutritional follow-up throughout their pregnancy. Level of evidence III: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case–control analytic studies.

Article
Background and aims The concept of "Food Addiction" has been based on criteria of Substance Use Disorder. Several studies suggested a relationship between food addiction and eating disorders, but little is known about its extent or role. We aim at exploring if food addiction is coincident with a specific eating disorder (binge eating disorder appears the closest) or it is a separate diagnostic entity that afflicts in comorbidity with eating disorders or other conditions like obesity or even in the general population. Methods This systematic review and meta-analysis analyzed observational studies with a comparative estimation on rates of subjects affected by binge eating disorder and food addiction. Results Binge eating disorder shows higher comorbidity with food addiction compared to other eating disorders (OR = 1.33, 95% CI, 0.64–2.76; c ² = 4.42; p = 0.44;I ² = 0%), or each eating disorder [anorexia nervosa purging type (OR = 1.93, 95% CI, 0.20–18.92; p = 0.57) and restrictive type (OR = 8.75, 95% CI, 1.08–70.70; p = 0.04)], obese patients (OR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.25–10.09; p = < 0.0001) and individuals from the general population (OR = 55.41, 95% CI, 8.16–376.10; c ² = 18.50; p < 0.0001; I ² = 0%)but has decreased prevalence when compared to bulimia nervosa (OR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.33–2.22; c ² = 0.35; p = 0.74; I ² = 0%). Discussion and conclusions Our data show that the prevalence of food addiction in binge eating disorder is higher than in other eating disorders except in bulimia nervosa. Moreover, it is a separate diagnostic reality and can be detected in people without mental illness and in the general population. Food addiction might have a prognostic value, since in comorbidity, and should be addressed to boost treatment efficacy and patient’s recovery. Level of evidence I: Evidence obtained systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Article
Objective Extensive evidence from Western societies supports the role for body dissatisfaction in the etiological models of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, research of the underlying mechanisms of this relationship has been limited, especially in China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between body dissatisfaction and NSSI among college students in China. Possible mediating roles for psychological distress and disordered eating, as well as a moderating role for self-compassion, were also examined. Methods College students (n = 655, Mage = 20.32 years, SD = 1.02) were recruited from Henan province, China. Each participant completed questionnaires regarding body dissatisfaction, psychological distress, disordered eating, and self-compassion. Results A close to medium positive relationship between body dissatisfaction and NSSI was revealed with r = 0.24 (p < .001). The relationship was found to be fully mediated by psychological distress and disordered eating. The mediation role for disordered eating was found to be further moderated by self-compassion, suggesting that self-compassion acted as a buffer against the relationship between disordered eating and NSSI. Conclusion These findings indicate that body dissatisfaction, psychological distress, disordered eating, and self-compassion may play important roles in Chinese young adults’ NSSI. Researchers and practitioners need to pay closer attention to the underlying mechanisms of how body dissatisfaction links to NSSI to deepen the understanding of their linkage as well as to provide appropriate interventions. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Purpose This study was designed to examine (1) the types of technologies or other applications (apps) emerging adults use to track their eating, physical activity, or weight; (2) who uses these apps and (3) whether eating and weight-related concerns during adolescence predict app use in emerging adulthood. Methods Longitudinal survey data were obtained from EAT 2010–2018 (Eating and Activity over Time study, N = 1428), a population-based sample of ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (mean age: 14.5 ± 2.0 years), who were followed into emerging adulthood (mean age: 22.0 ± 2.0 years). Data were used to examine sociodemographic correlates of physical activity- and dietary-focused app use. Adjusted, gender-stratified logistic regressions were used to investigate longitudinal relationships between eating and weight-related concerns in adolescence and app use in emerging adulthood. Results Compared to men, women were more likely to use physical activity- (23.2 versus 12.5%, p < 0.001) and dietary-focused apps (16.1 versus 5.5%, p < 0.001). Among women, eating and weight-related concerns in adolescence, particularly unhealthy muscle-building behaviors (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.03–2.92), were associated with later dietary-focused app use. Among men, use of other muscle-building behaviors and body dissatisfaction in adolescence predicted use of physical activity- (ORother muscle-building = 1.60, 95% CI 1.03–2.49 and ORbody dissatisfaction = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.65) and dietary-focused (ORother muscle-building = 2.18, 95% CI 1.07–4.47 and ORbody dissatisfaction = 2.35, 95% CI 1.12–4.92) apps 8 years later. Conclusions Eating and weight-related concerns may predict later use of physical activity- and dietary-focused apps; future research is needed to understand whether use of such apps further increases eating and weight-related concerns. Level of evidence III, well-designed longitudinal cohort study.

Article
Purpose This study aims at clarifying the links between sexual violence and disordered eating (DE). Methods In a sample of 12,638 victims of self-reported sexual violence, we analyzed the situation of 546 victims that declared having developed DE. We assessed the characteristics of the assault (age, type of aggression) and the medical consequences (PTSD, depression, suicide attempts, anxiety disorders, etc.). Results DE prevalence was 4.3% in the victim sample. The age of the first assault in DE victims was significantly lower than that of the whole population (12 years vs 16 years for median; p < 0.001). A much higher prevalence of sexual assault consequences was present in victims developing DE with odd ratios (OR) for: self-mutilation (OR = 11.5 [8.29–15.95], p < 0.001); depression (OR = 5.7 [4.81–6.86], p < 0.001); self-medication (OR = 5.3 [3.86–7.19], p < 0.001); suicide attempts (OR = 4.5 [3.59–5.67], p < 0.001); post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 3.8 [2.99–4.78], p < 0.001); anxiety troubles (OR = 5.2 [4.11–6.47], p < 0.001); alcoholism (OR = 4.0 [2.81–5.58], p < 0.001). Conclusion This study confirms the link between DE and sexual violence, especially in childhood, leading to severe psychological consequences. In this context, DE should be envisaged as a coping strategy accompanying emotional dysregulation due to traumatic events, and be treated as such. Level of evidence Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies.

Article
Purpose Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is an obsession for healthy and proper nutrition. Diagnostic criteria for ON are lacking and the psychopathology of ON is still a matter of debate in the clinical and scientific community. Our aim was to better understand the Italian clinical and scientific community’s opinion about ON. Methods Anonymous online survey for Italian healthcare professionals, implemented with the REDCap platform and spread through a multicenter collaboration. Information was gathered about socio-demographic, educational and occupational features, as well as about experience in the diagnosis and treatment of EDs. The main part of the survey focused on ON and its features, classification and sociocultural correlates. Results The survey was completed by 343 participants. Most responders (68.2%) considered ON as a variant of Eating Disorders (EDs), and 58.6% a possible prodromal phase or evolution of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Most participants (68.5%) thought the next DSM should include a specific diagnostic category for ON, preferably in the EDs macro-category (82.1%). Moreover, 77.3% of responders thought that ON deserves more attention on behalf of researchers and clinicians, and that its treatment should be similar to that for EDs (60.9%). Participants thinking that ON should have its own diagnostic category in the next DSM edition had greater odds of being younger (p = 0.004) and of considering ON a prodromic phase of another ED, such as AN (p = 0.039). Discussion Our survey suggests that the scientific community still seems split between those who consider ON as a separate disorder and those who do not. More research is still needed to better understand the construct of ON and its relationship with EDs; disadvantages and advantages of giving ON its own diagnosis should be balanced. Level of evidence V (descriptive cohort study).

Article
Purpose This research explored whether orthorexia nervosa is associated with deficits in executive function. Methods A non-clinical sample of participants (n = 405; 80% women, 53% white, mean age = 24, mean body mass index = 25) completed the Orthorexia Nervosa Inventory (ONI) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function—Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results ONI scores were weakly to moderately correlated with all BRIEF-A scales (p < 0.001 for eight scales, p < 0.05 for one scale), exhibiting the greatest correlations with the scales assessing behavioral regulation: Emotional Control (r = 0.34), Inhibition (r = 0.30), Set Shifting (r = 0.25), and Self-Monitoring (r = 0.28). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eight of these nine relationships remained significant (p < 0.001 for five scales including all behavioral regulation scales, p < 0.01 for two scales, p < 0.05 for one scale) after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, body mass index, age, education level) and diagnoses of an eating disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and learning disability. Conclusion These findings suggest that, despite unique manifestations, orthorexia and anorexia may possess an overlapping neuropsychological profile marked by deficits in executive function, which may negatively impact daily life. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

Article

Article
Purpose Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) is characterised by excessive attention to a dietary regimen perceived as healthy. A critical factor in the distinction between ON and other eating disorders (EDs) is the dichotomy of quality-versus-quantity of food intake. We investigated whether specific types of diet or dieting frequency are associated with orthorexic features, explored the overlap between ON and EDs symptoms, and examined which constructs are predictive of ON after 6 months. Methods A total of 1075 students (75.1% female, mean age 20.9) completed a set of questionnaires assessing Orthorexia, Eating Disorders, Obsessions and Compulsions, Anxiety and Depression; 358 individuals (79.9 female, mean age 20.9) agreed to participate in the study and completed the same questionnaires after 6 months. Different regression models were defined to investigate our hypothesis. Results Findings suggest that ON is associated with the number and type of diets followed over a lifetime. Moreover, participants with EDs, body dissatisfaction, or a dysfunctional idea of thinness are more likely to report a greater degree of ON features. After 6 months, the best predictors of ON characteristics are the same ON characteristics assessed at the first administration, with a significant role in the ideal of thinness. Conclusions ON is more frequent in individuals with a previous diagnosis of EDs and in individuals who followed a restrictive diet or a vegan/vegetarian one; the number of lifetime diets, beliefs, and behaviors related to the ideals of thinness or body dissatisfaction is common features of ON. Moreover, considering that having ON features in the past is the best ON predictor in the present, we can presume that ON is a construct stable over time. Level of evidence Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies. (NB: Dramatic results in uncontrolled trials might also be regarded as this type of evidence).

Article
Background: Within the literature, there is a variety of different measurement methods for orthorexic behaviours. The ORTO-15 is the one that attracted most research attention. Many scholars criticized the ORTO-15 for its unstable factor structure and over-estimation of the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa. For this purpose, Rogoza and Donini (2020) re-assessed the original data and created a new tool, ORTO-R. The development of the ORTO-R theoretically solved many ambiguities associated with its parent measure. However, to date, no study, including the original one, tested the validity of the ORTO-R, leaving its utility somewhat speculative. Methods: We gathered data from 363 Lebanese individuals, who answered the ORTO-R questions and a set of measures used to determine the validity of the scale (eating attitudes, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression). Within this study, we analysed the internal consistency of the scale and different aspects of its validity (factorial, convergent and divergent). Results: Results supported all expectations; we successfully confirmed a one-factor measurement model of the ORTO-R, which appeared to be internally consistent. The ORTO-R score correlated positively to other orthorexic behaviors as well as to disordered eating attitudes, perfectionism, anxiety, and depression. It was also negatively related to self-esteem, but was unrelated to body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: The ORTO-R may be deemed as a valid instrument for the assessment of orthorexic behaviours.

Article
PurposeEating disorder (ED) prevalence and illness severity is rapidly increasing. The complicated interplay of factors contributing to the maintenance of EDs, including family/carer influences, highlights the importance of carer interventions within ED treatment. Carer interventions demonstrate positive outcomes for carers themselves, though are also hypothesised to benefit the patient indirectly. A systematic review was conducted to greater understand the impact of carer interventions on ED patient outcomes.Methods Eight databases, including CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO, were systematically searched. Intervention studies for parent(s)/carer(s) of a patient with an ED were included, provided they reported outcomes for the patient. No publication date restrictions were set. Included studies were quality appraised.ResultsTwenty-eight studies met inclusion for the review; all of which varied in intervention type, duration, content and setting. Patient diagnosis and treatment setting were mixed across studies, though the majority focused on Anorexia Nervosa within outpatient settings. Intervention content broadly included consideration of relationship issues and interactional patterns, psychoeducation, skill development, behavioural management, and peer support. Therapeutic models utilised were diverse, including but not limited to: family, interpersonal, cognitive, and psychodynamic approaches.Conclusion Several carer interventions showed positive outcomes for patients with EDs, with small group treatment formats being commonly used and proving effective through intervention content alongside a peer support element. Separate family therapy was suggested to be of equal efficacy, if not better, than family therapy alongside the patient. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research are considered.Level of evidence 1. Systematic review, evidence mostly obtained from randomised controlled trials.

Article
Objective American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have historically been excluded from eating disorder research. Consequently, not much is known about the validity of eating disorder assessment measures in this group. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure of a short measure for eating pathology, the seven-item Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q7), in AI/AN undergraduate women. Exploratory analyses examined the measurement invariance of the EDE-Q7 across AI/AN, White, and Latinx undergraduates.MethodsA sample of 150 AI/AN undergraduate women completed the full EDE-Q (28 items) as part of two larger studies. The seven items comprising the EDE-Q7 were selected from the full measure to test the factor structure. Random samples of White and Latinx women of equal sample size were chosen from the larger studies to test measurement invariance.ResultsConfirmatory factor analyses found support for the EDE-Q7 factor structure in AI/AN undergraduate women, and scores were strongly positively correlated with the original EDE-Q global scale and disordered eating behaviors. Exploratory analyses found support for the measurement invariance of the EDE-Q7 across AI/AN, White, and Latinx women. One-way ANOVAs showed no significant racial and ethnic differences on the EDE-Q7.DiscussionThe current study found psychometric support for the EDE-Q7 in AI/AN undergraduate women and provided preliminary evidence that the EDE-Q7 can be meaningfully compared across AI/AN, White, and Latinx undergraduate women. Further research should continue to investigate the EDE-Q7 and other eating disorder measures in AI/AN and other historically excluded groups.Level of evidenceV, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Introduction: Specific characteristics of sleep (e.g., duration, quality, and fatigue) are positively associated with (ED) behaviors, specifically binge eating (BE) potentially through decreased self-regulation and increased appetite. However, prior work has been largely cross-sectional and has not examined temporal relationships between sleep characteristics and next-day ED behaviors. Thus, the present study examined daily relationships between sleep and ED behaviors among individuals with binge-spectrum EDs. Method: Participants (N = 96) completed 7 daily ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys over 7-14 days; morning surveys assessed sleep characteristics and 6 randomly timed surveys each day captured ED behaviors. Analyses examined within-subject and between-subject effects of sleep quality, duration, and fatigue on BE, compensatory purging behaviors, and maladaptive exercise. Results: Within-subject sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with engagement in maladaptive exercise later that day. Additionally, between-subject sleep duration was significantly negatively associated with engagement in compensatory purging behaviors. Discussion: Within- and between-subjects associations between sleep quality and duration and compensatory behavior engagement indicate that sleep plays an important role in ED behaviors. Future research should incorporate sensor-based measurement of sleep and examine how specific facets of sleep impact BE and treatment response. Level of evidence: Level II: Evidence obtained from controlled trial without randomization.

Article

Article
Purpose Weight Bias Internalization (WBI) is pervasive and potentially damaging for health. Little is known about WBI in youth. As negative effects of WBI have been observed when controlling for BMI, measures that allow WBI to be assessed across different weight categories are needed. The Modified Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) is one of the most frequently used scales in this field. Our purpose was to obtain a Spanish validated version of the WBIS-M for adolescents across different weight statuses. Methods The data were collected from 298 secondary students (mean age 14.31; 48.32% girls; 18.8% were overweight and 6.4% had obesity). Internal structure was examined by a cross-validation analysis, using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in different subsamples. Results Item 1 showed a psychometric anomalous functioning and was deleted. The one-factor structure of the 10-item version was confirmed with adequate fit ([EFA (KMO = 0.915, χ²(55) = 1075.633, p < 0.0001)]; [CFA (χ²(35) = 200.515; GFI = 0.995; PGFI = 0.992; NFI = 0.991; SRMR = 0.060)]). Internal consistency was high (α=0.93;\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(\alpha =0.93;$$\end{document}ω = 0.93). Significant correlations with the same set of external variables assessed in the original version (anti-fat bias, self-esteem, mood, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, binge eating), all of them correlates of WBI in adolescents, were found. Girls and participants with obesity obtained higher scores. Conclusion The results provide support for the validity and reliability of our WBIS-M version for use with adolescents across weight categories in Spain. Level of evidence Level III, evidence obtained from well-designed cohort studies.

Article
Purpose Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increase risk of fragility fracture are common complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) present several limits in subjects with AN. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the new Radiofrequency echographic multispectrometry (REMS) technique in the assessment of bone status in young women with AN. Methods In a cohort of 50 subjects with restrictive AN and in 30 healthy controls, we measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS-BMD), at femoral neck (FN-BMD) and total hip (TH-BMD) using both DXA and REMS technique. Results BMD evaluated by DXA and REMS technique at all measurement sites were all significantly ( p < 0.01) lower in subjects suffering from AN subjects than in controls. Good correlations were detected between BMD by DXA and BMD by REMS measurements at LS ( r = 0.64, p < 0.01) at FN ( r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and at TH ( r = 0.84, p < 0.01) in subjects suffering from AN. Moreover, Bland–Altman analysis confirmed the good agreement between the two techniques. The subjects suffering from AN with previous vertebral fragility fractures presented lower values of both BMD-LS and BMD-TH by DXA and by REMS with respect to those without fractures; however, the difference was significant only for BMD-TH by REMS ( p < 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggest that REMS technique due to its characteristic of precision and reproducibility may represent an important tool for the evaluation of the changes in bone status in AN young women, especially during the fertile age and in case of pregnancy and breastfeeding. Level of evidence Level of evidence: level III cohort study.

Article
Purpose The Female Muscularity Scale (FMS) was specifically developed for assessing drive for muscularity in women. The current study aimed to translate the FMS into Chinese (FMS-C) and examine its psychometric properties among Chinese young women. Methods Based on standard procedures, the FMS was translated into Chinese. By using the psych and lavaan packages on R version 4.0.3, the current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and convergent and incremental validity of the FMS-C with a sample of 517 Chinese women college students (Mage\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${M}_{age}$$\end{document}= 18.86 years). Results Results showed a 2-factor structure including attitudes and behaviors of the FMS-C. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α) was .91 for the total FMS-C scale and .89 and .88 for the Attitudes and Behaviors subscales, respectively. Results also revealed evidence for good convergent and incremental validity of the FMS-C. Conclusion Findings suggest that the FMS-C can be a useful tool to measure both attitudes and behaviors underlying drive for muscularity and muscle tone concerns among Chinese young women. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Article
Abstract Background McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) enzyme, which muscles need to break down glycogen into glucose for energy. Symptoms include exercise intolerance, with fatigue, muscle pain, and cramps being manifested during the first few minutes of exercise, which may be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis. Case presentation This case report describes for the first time the clinical features, diagnosis and management of a 20 year- old patient with anorexia nervosa and McArdle disease, documented by means of muscle biopsy. Conclusion Anorexia nervosa and McArdle disease interact in a detrimental bidirectional way. In addition, some laboratory parameter alterations (e.g., elevated values of creatine kinase) commonly attributed to the specific features of eating disorders (e.g., excessive exercising) may delay the diagnosis of metabolic muscle diseases. On the other hand, the coexistence of a chronic disease, such as McArdle disease, whose management requires the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, can help to engage patients in actively addressing their eating disorder.

Article
Purpose Current conceptualizations and measures of orthorexia nervosa may not be accurately distinguishing between the healthy vs pathological pursuit of a healthy diet, leading to very high prevalence rates and risking the pathologizing and stigmatizing of healthy eating more generally. Recent research has identified healthy orthorexia as a novel construct conceptually distinct from orthorexia nervosa, which represents the non-pathological pursuit of a healthy diet. In light of the strong body of evidence supporting the role of positive body image in eating behavior, the current study aimed to examine the associations between healthy orthorexia, orthorexia nervosa, intuitive eating and indices of positive body image. Methods The current study employed a cross-sectional design. An online community sample (N = 835; 62% women; Mage = 40.24, SD = 14.45) completed self-report questionnaires including the Teruel Orthorexia Scale, Body Appreciation Scale-2, Functionality Appreciation Scale, Intuitive Eating Scale-2, and Experience of Embodiment Scale. Results Intuitive eating and indices of positive body image were significantly positively associated with healthy orthorexia and inversely associated with orthorexia nervosa. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that intuitive eating and indices of body image were uniquely associated with 13.3% of the variance of healthy orthorexia above and beyond that accounted for by orthorexia nervosa. Intuitive eating moderated the relationship between healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa. Conclusion The findings of this study provide support for intuitive eating and indices of positive body image as worthy of further exploration as important factors which distinguish between healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa. Level of evidence V, descriptive study.

Article
Purpose: We explored associations between clinical factors, including eating disorder psychopathology and more general psychopathology, and involuntary treatment in patients with anorexia nervosa. Our intention was to inform identification of patients at risk of involuntary treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study combining clinical data from a specialized eating disorder hospital unit in Denmark with nationwide Danish register-based data. A sequential methodology yielding two samples (212 and 278 patients, respectively) was adopted. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to explore associations between involuntary treatment and clinical factors including previous involuntary treatment, patient cooperation, and symptom-level psychopathology (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Results: Somatization (SCL-90-R) (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.16-5.81) and phobic anxiety (SCL-90-R) (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.97) were positively and negatively, respectively, associated with the likelihood of involuntary treatment. Furthermore, somatization (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.99), previous involuntary treatment (HR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.68-9.32), and neutral (HR = 2.92, 95% CI 1.20-7.13) or poor (HR = 3.97, 95% CI 1.49-10.59) patient cooperation were associated with decreased time to involuntary treatment. Eating disorder psychopathology measured by the EDI-2 was not significantly associated with involuntary treatment. Conclusions: Clinical questionnaires of psychopathology appear to capture specific domains relevant to involuntary treatment. Poor patient cooperation and previous involuntary treatment being associated with shorter time to involuntary treatment raise important clinical issues requiring attention. Novel approaches to acute anorexia nervosa care along with unbiased evaluation upon readmission could mitigate the cycle of repeat admissions with involuntary treatment. Level of evidence: Level III, cohort study.

Article
Purpose Limited research has explored conceptualisations of health and healthy eating in orthorexia nervosa (ON). This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate how ‘health’ and ‘healthy eating’ are conceptualised by individuals at risk for ON. This study examined the potential relationships between health anxiety, beliefs about health controllability and orthorexic symptomatology in our broader sample. Methods A total of 362 participants took a survey on health anxiety (measured with the HAQ), beliefs about the controllability of one’s own health (IMHLC) and ON symptomatology (E-DOS and EHQ). Participants ‘at risk’ for ON (n = 141), also completed an online qualitative survey about conceptualisations of health and healthy eating. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis (part A). The PROCESS macro for SPSS was used for the quantitative analysis (part B). Results Conceptualisations of health and healthy eating were complex. Four themes were generated from our qualitative data: ‘health is more than thin ideals’, ‘healthy food equals healthy mind’, ‘a body that works for you’ and ‘taking control of your body’. Our quantitative analysis revealed that health anxiety and beliefs in health controllability independently predicted ON symptomatology. Conclusion A richer understanding of what health means in the context of ON is important, given the centrality of this concept to the proposed classification of this disordered eating style. Our findings highlight that both health anxiety and health controllability are important targets for future investigation, given their potential relevance to the aetiology and treatment of ON. Level of evidence Level V, based on a descriptive study.

Article
Purpose The co-morbidity of binge eating and heavy drinking (BE + HD) is a serious concern due to the high prevalence rates and associated elevated severity. Clarifying the momentary factors that increase risk for binge eating and heavy drinking among BE + HD is important for expanding theoretical models of BE + HD and informing treatment recommendations. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to compare the momentary processes maintaining binge eating between BE + HD and individuals with binge eating only (BE-only) and to identify the momentary risk factors for binge eating episodes and heavy drinking episodes among BE + HD. Methods Participants (BE + HD: N = 14; BE-only: N = 37) were adults with clinically significant binge eating who completed between 7 and 14 days of EMA prior to treatment. Results The presence of food and within-day dietary restraint predicted higher odds of binge eating for both groups. Among BE + HD, the presence of alcohol and dietary restraint increased risk for subsequent binge eating and subsequent heavy drinking, and the absence of food increased risk for subsequent heavy drinking. Conclusion These results offer preliminary support for treatment interventions for BE + HD that focus on reducing dietary restraint and teaching strategies for urge management in situations with palatable food or alcohol. Future research should study the maintenance mechanisms of BE + HD with larger, more diverse samples and using study design approaches with more experimenter control (i.e., laboratory experiments). Level of evidence Level IV, multiple time series without intervention.

Article
Purpose Evidence suggests that difficulties identifying and describing one’s feelings, core components of alexithymia, are associated with attitudinal and behavioral symptoms of disordered eating; depressive symptoms also may underlie these associations. Specifically, research indicates that alexithymia is positively related to depressive symptoms, which in turn may promote both disordered-eating attitudes and certain disinhibited-eating behaviors (e.g., emotional eating). Findings also suggest that military-dependent youth with high weight may exhibit elevated depressive symptoms and disordered eating. As such, understanding associations among alexithymia, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating is particularly relevant for this vulnerable population. Methods We examined 149 adolescent military dependents (14.4 ± 1.6y; 55.0% female; 20.0% non-Hispanic Black; BMIz: 1.9 ± 0.4) at high risk for binge-eating disorder and obesity in adulthood. Participants completed questionnaires assessing two components of alexithymia (difficulty identifying feelings [DIF] and difficulty describing feelings [DDF]), depressive symptoms, emotional eating, and trait anxiety; disordered-eating attitudes were assessed via semi-structured interview. Results A series of regression-based models examined indirect relationships of DIF and DDF with disordered-eating attitudes and emotional eating through depressive symptoms. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals revealed a significant indirect path from each of the alexithymia components to disordered-eating attitudes via depressive symptoms; indirect paths to emotional eating were non-significant. Conclusion Results support the salience of depressive symptoms in the relationship between alexithymia and disordered-eating attitudes. Future research should utilize prospective designs and explore direct and indirect associations of alexithymia with other disordered-eating behaviors. Level of evidence Level III, evidence obtained from a well-designed cohort study.

Article
Purpose During the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak, most public hospitals worldwide have been forced to postpone a major part of bariatric surgery (BS) operations with unfavorable consequences for weight and obesity complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic BS on subjects with metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) during COVID-19 pandemic in a high-volume Italian center. Methods Between March 2020 and January 2021, all patients with MUO submitted to laparoscopic BS (sleeve gastrectomy [SG], one anastomosis gastric bypass [OAGB] and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB]) were enrolled according to the ATP III Guidelines, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Results In the study period, 210 patients with MUO underwent laparoscopic BS (77 RYGB, 85 SG and 48 OAGB) in our obesity referral center. Postoperative major complications occurred in 4 patients (1.9%) with zero mortality. At 9-month follow-up, a total weight loss (TWL) of 28.2 ± 18.4, 26.1 ± 23.1 and 24.5 ± 11.3% ( p = 0.042) was observed in RYGB, OAGB and SG groups, respectively. The rate of comorbidity resolution was very similar for all type of surgeries ( p = 0.871). Only two cases of postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection were registered (0.9%) and both cases resolved with medical therapy and observation. Conclusion Among the patients studied, all surgical techniques were safe and effective for MUO during the COVID era. This group of patients is at high risk for general and SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and therefore should be prioritized for BS. Level of evidence Level III, single-center retrospective cohort study.

Article
Background The current study investigated the experience of sexual harassment as a risk factor for weight gain and weight/shape concerns in a community sample of adolescents, with potential mediating factors self-objectification and psychological distress. Method 1034 Australian adolescents (aged 11 to 19 years) from the EveryBODY longitudinal study of disordered eating pathology participated. Data were collected through online surveys annually for 3 years. Participants completed self-report measures of demographics, sexual harassment, psychological distress, self-objectification, weight/shape concerns and BMI percentile. Results A parallel mediation model adjusting for baseline scores found no direct effect between baseline experiences of sexual harassment and change in BMI percentile or weight/shape concern after 2 years. Experiences of sexual harassment significantly increased self-objectification scores after 1 year in female adolescents. Subsequently, higher self-objectification significantly increased the risk of greater weight/shape concern after 1 year in female adolescents. However, no significant mediating relationship was found in the relationship between sexual harassment and weight/shape concern or BMI percentile for either gender. Psychological distress was found to be a clear risk factor for weight/shape concern in both genders after 1 year. Conclusions Intervention programmes in schools should focus on developing policies to reduce sexual harassment, self-objectification and distress in adolescents. Level of evidence Level IV, longitudinal multiple time series without intervention.

Article
Purpose Evidence that social difficulties promote the development and the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs) derive from self-reported data and only partially from experimental tasks. This study objectively assessed non-verbal behaviors of individuals with EDs in a psycho-social stress scenario. Methods Thirty-one women suffering from EDs (13 with anorexia nervosa and 18 with bulimia nervosa) and 15 healthy women underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), the paradigm of psycho-social stress, and were videotaped. Throughout the procedure, anxiety feelings were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state subscale and saliva samples were collected to evaluate cortisol levels. Non-verbal behaviors were analyzed through the Ethological Coding System for Interviews and were compared between study samples through multivariate analysis of variance. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between anxiety, cortisol and behavioral responses to TSST. Results Women with EDs showed reduced submissiveness, flight (cutoff from social stimuli) and gesture compared to healthy peers during TSST. Submissiveness and flight behaviors were negatively associated with stress-induced anxiety, while TSST-induced anxiety and cortisol increases were positively associated with looking at the other’s face behavior in participants with EDs. In this population, cortisol reactivity was also positively associated with submissiveness and negatively with gesture. Conclusion Women with EDs showed a hostile and freezing response to acute psycho-social stress: reduced submissiveness and flight may represent strategies to manage social anxiety. These findings confirm that the non-verbal behavior assessment provides complementary information to those derived from traditional measurements and suggests research and clinical implications. Level of evidence I Evidence obtained from experimental study .

Article
Purpose This longitudinal study examined how pre-intervention psychological health helps predict bariatric surgery (BS) success as percentage of expected body mass index loss (%EBMIL) over shorter to longer periods. Methods Adult candidates for BS ( N = 334, 67.4% females) completed the Symptoms Checklist 90 (SCL-90) questionnaire; on average, 11 months occurred between the pre-surgery psychological evaluations and the bariatric intervention. We explored the factor structure of the SCL-90 items and inspected how SCL-90 empirical factors compared with SCL-90 scales and general indices predicted %EBMIL at 3–6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up occasions, adjusting for gender, pre-intervention use of antidepressants and actual and ideal BMIs. Results Factor analysis combined the 90 items into 8 factors, which partially replicated the expected item structure. The SCL-90 empirical factors (but not the SCL-90 scales and indices) contributed to predict BS success. In fact, the Relational Distress factor directly protected from weight regain at 1-year follow-up, indirectly via 1-year %EBMIL at the 2-year follow-up, when it further strengthened the impact of the empirical factor of Generalized Anxiety on the 2-year BS outcome. The results also evidenced a cascade effect of the pre-surgery actual BMI across time as well as unique and direct effects of pre-surgery use of antidepressants and perceived ideal BMI on the 2-year outcome. Conclusions SCL-90 empirical factor scores for obese patients are more efficient in anticipating BS success compared with original scale scores. They reveal that relational distress and anxiety are risk factors for postoperative weight loss, in addition to pre-intervention actual BMI, antidepressant therapy, and perceived ideal BMI. Level of evidence III, well-designed cohort.

Article
Purpose: The use of psychometric instruments to measure latent concepts is common. The development of these instruments usually involves mechanisms to reduce response bias, such as the inclusion of reversed items. The aim of this study was to investigate method effects related to the wording direction of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) items, a one-dimensional instrument that assesses individual's level of anxiety when others observe their body. Methods: In total, 152 Brazilian adults (65.8% female) answered 2 formats of the SPAS: the original with 12 items (7 regular and 5 reversed); and a new format with all items written in the same direction (i.e., regular). Both formats were filled out at different times and alternately. Differential item functioning analysis (DIF) and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results: The original SPAS did not fit the data, but after allowing covariances between all reversed items, the fit improved. The wording effect was supported by the DIF, indicating a better fit to the data for the new format with all items worded in the same direction. Conclusion: The wording of the SPAS items had effect on the psychometric properties of instrument. When the wording of the reversed items was modified, the factor model fitted the data. Future studies should take these findings into account and evaluate the SPAS with all items worded in the same direction in different contexts. Level of evidence: Descriptive (cross-sectional) study, Level V.

Article
Purpose Research has drawn associations between Mindful Eating (ME) and perfectionism in the aetiology and treatment of eating disorders (ED), but understanding into the relationship between these factors and Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is limited. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between perfectionism, ME, and ON. Method Participants ( n = 670) completed the Düsseldorf Orthorexia scale, the Mindful Eating Behavior scale, and the Big-Three Perfectionism scale Short-form, to reveal the relationship between ON, ME, and perfectionism. The relationship was assessed using correlational and regression analyses. Results A positive association was observed between perfectionism and ON. Moreover, perfectionism demonstrated a significant negative correlation with three out of four ME facets, with “eating without distraction” displaying the highest correlation. The “eating with awareness” facet of ME demonstrated a significant relationship with ON, in a negative direction. An unexpected relationship was observed between the focused eating facet of ME and ON, with a positive association being found. A further regression analysis revealed both perfectionism and ME to predict orthorexic tendencies. Conclusion These findings identify a relationship between ON, ME, and perfectionism. It offers suggestion for the complexity of ME, and how it should be recognised by its different components, estimating a differential predictability and estimation of ON. Further research is required to clarify the direction of causality in the relationships observed, to inform the clinical diagnoses and intervention of ON. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Top-cited authors
• Sapienza University of Rome
• Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
• University of Wroclaw
• Villa Garda Hospital, Italy