Earth Sciences

Published by Science Publishing Group
Online ISSN: 2328-5974
Pacific Ring of Fire.
Indonesia Balance of Trade 1984-2014.
Indonesia current value of GDP, BOT and BOT/GDP ratio, 2000-2014.
Indonesia Balance of Trade, Low Projection of 5% 2015-2025.
Price Trend of Coal and Oil.
Indonesia is one of the mineral rich developing countries in the world. Indonesia has a large quantity of mineral resources such as natural oil and gas, hard minerals (metallic, non metallic/industrial mineral, coal, and stone), because it is located in the Pacific ring of fire. Mineral and energy commodities have always been giving contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indonesia besides doing regional development, because of its potential mineral resources. Trade of mineral commodity aims is to gain from trade of mineral to increase economic growth through Balance of Trade (BOT). Mineral commodity markets have been volatile for a long time. The trends of mineral commodity prices have been fluctuated and recently it changed dramatically due to commodity prices to increase within only several years. The aims of this study are to comprehend recent contribution of mining sector to Indonesian economy 1990-2014 and to analyze forecasting of mineral commodity future prices until 2025. The price trends of commodity mineral is increasing from time to time, but sometimes decreasing because of world crisis, scarcity, and other problems in the world related to mining, trade, and relationship between countries, such as fundamentals matter, including long-run demand growth, technical change that opens up new sources of supply, changes that transform the operation of financial markets, and macro-economic shocks, etc. Mining sector contribute about 6-12% of Indonesian Gross Domestic Product and increasing from time to time. Contribution of mining includes trade of mineral commodity, regional development by companies, etc. It is shown that mining is important for Indonesian economy. Methodology applied in this paper is data analysis using dynamic commodity and macroeconomic models and forecast using linear and polynomial regression with its trend line.
From 31 July through 13 August 2006 a series of fourteen earthquakes (M 3.9 to 6.1) occurred in the western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt (CMVB) in a twenty-five days period. The most prominent earthquake (Mw 6.1) occurred on 11 August 2006 at 14:30 UTC (9:30 local time) approximately at 18.37° N, 101.25° W and 81 km depth. The epicenter was less than 40 km from Huetamo, Michoacan a 41,250-inhabitant city and 60 km from the El Infiernillo dam embayment the third largest hydroelectric plant in Mexico. This earthquake was widely felt with minor to moderate reported damage. In Mexico City 250 km away from the epicenter the earthquake produced alarm among the population and several buildings were evacuated. The earthquakes series developed into two activity clusters one centered in the coast and separated about 300 km from a second inland cluster. The initial coastal cluster consisted of a nearly linear activity distribution, which includes shallow-depth earthquakes of reverse and normal faulting mechanisms. The inland cluster shows more compact and deeper hypocenters distribution. Earthquakes first-motion polarities indicate that ruptures occurred as a normal faulting, which is a characteristic of the CMVB earthquakes. The overall trend of earthquakes distribution shows two branches, one, along the El Gordo-Colima graben system direction (~N45°E) nearly perpendicular to the coast and another along an east-west direction parallel to the southern border of the CMVB. Our results indicate that these two branches might constitute part of the continental extension of the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary.
Variation of Sea Surface Temperature over tropical Pacific Ocean (5°S-5°N) during November 2008 through December 2009.  
Variation of sub-surface temperatures along 5° N cross section during November 2008 and December 2009.
Variation of sub-surface temperatures along 5° S cross section during November 2008 and December 2009.  
a Variation of Sea Surface Temperature over Nino 3.4 region during November 2008 through December 2009, b) same for temperature profiles up to 250 m depth.
Tropical Pacific Ocean is an important to study for identifying the influence on Global circulation. El Niño /La Nina even occurs over the tropical Pacific Ocean, with temperatures oscillations. With respect to increase in temperatures, the intensity of El Niño can be divided into strong, moderate and weak. As per the intensity, the year 2009 is a moderate El Niño, but is peculiar due to delay in formation. In this article, TAO/TRITON data is used for analysis between November 2008 and December 2009 to check the variations in the surface and sub-surface temperatures during the manifestation of El Niño. Actually El Niño manifest during December, but during 2009 El Niño it manifested in January. There is a clear evidence in surface and sub-surface temperatures as they are increasing from January 2009, which can explains the manifestation of El Niño.
Calculated spectrum (solid black line), red noise curve (green solid line) and the curves indicating the upper (red dashed line) and lower (blue dashed line) confidence bounds for the period 1981-2010, using OLR data.
Annual mean wavelet power spectrum of the rainfall anomalies averaged over CA. A 120-day cut off low-pass filter was applied to longterm anomalies in order to remove low-frequency modes such as interseasonal and interannual variability.
Comparison of some geographical features between eastern and western central Africa.
Monthly statistical values (mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation) of ISO power, for the three leading PCs.
In this paper we analyzed the annual variations in the 25-70-day intraseasonal atmospheric oscillations in central Africa, for the period 1981-2010, using the Outgoing Longwave OLR data. We then extracted the amplitude time series of the dominant modes of intraseasonal variability in 25-70 days filtered OLR anomalies, using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The EOF analysis has shown that three dominant modes characterized the intraseasonal atmospheric oscillation in Central Africa. The amount of variance explained by these three retained EOFs are 19.3%, 13.6% and 11.8% respectively, and they exhibit higher spatial loading over Northern Congo, Southern Ethiopia, and Southwestern Tanzania, respectively. The analysis of Principal Components (PCs) time series showed that the amplitude and of the intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) exhibit large annual variations. In fact the highest values of ISO amplitude are generally observed during October-April season, and much weakened signal the rest of the year. The fraction of yearly Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) power, occurring within October-April season are 79.3%, 77.92%, 78.73% for EOF1, EOF2, and EOF3, respectively.
Kartvelian form Dzevera (Kartli). 
Kartvelian form Kakheti. 
Kartvelians form Vachnadziani and Kalauri (Kakheti). 
Aleksandre Javakhishvili, a Georgian scientist of the beginning of the XX has established quite high standards in research methodology of Anthropology. He was the first who studied Kartvelian (Georgian) ethnographic (Kartlian, Kakhetian, Gurian, Mingrelian, Imeretian, Rachian, Mtiuletian) groups by use of different fields of sciences (History, Geography, Linguistics, Ethnology). He formulated a programme for researches in the Caucasian Anthropology; raised an issue of the necessity to found a scientific-public organization that would systematically study the anthropology of the Caucasus and its neighboring regions; he was the first who marked the autochthony of the Caucasian race; distinguished the western, eastern and metamorphic anthropologic types among Georgians; studied the dolichocephalism among Georgians; carried out researches about the local peculiarities of the settlements in the Georgian Caucasus and geographical distribution of the population.
Introduction: Improper spatial distribution of gardens at city levels can lead to low utility of the gardens, disturbance in the urban landscape, inadequate social interactions, management and maintenance problems, and reduced psychological and social security. Babol city as has faced increasing population over the past decades and the unimpeded construction. This has led to injustice in the distribution of public services, including gardens at city level. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the distribution of gardens at the level of Babol city by using spatial justice approach to determine the pattern of distribution and the extent of lack of access to the gardens, across Babol city. Materials and Methods: The present study is applied the based on the purpose and nature and is descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The data on the gardens of Babol city were collected from the Babol municipality green space organization and matched with Google Earth, Open Street Map and field view. To analyze the spatial distribution pattern of the gardens, models of directional distribution (standard deviational ellipse), mean center, multi-distance spatial cluster analysis and mean of nearest neighbor were used in Arc Gis software environment. Then, the radius of access to the gardens was determined by network analysis method. Finally, the radius of service and accessibility of the gardens was adapted to the population density of the neighborhoods of Babol city to determine the neighborhoods access to gardens. Results: The gardens have a north-south distribution at the level of Babol city. The center of gravity of the gardens is located in the city center and in neighborhood 6. The gardens have a scattered distribution across Babol and are randomly distributed and do not follow a specific pattern. By comparing access to different types of gardens with the population density of neighborhoods of Babol, it has been shown that downtown neighborhoods with high population density have good access to the gardens. It has also been found that there are no garden in the three overcrowded neighborhoods, including 14, 16 and 20, as well as in the eastern and western neighborhoods of the city. Discussion and Conclusion: The area of gardens per capita in Babol city is 0.73 square meters. According to the standard per square meter of 8 square meters in Iran, there is a deficit of 7.27 square meters at the city level. Therefore, despite the distribution pattern which is scattered, many neighborhoods are devoid of gardens and suffer from injustice in the distribution and access to the gardens. In particular, the shortage of neighborhood and urban gardens is extremely significant; therefore, in order to establish spatial justice in the distribution of gardens in Babol city, it is suggested to establish urban gardens in crowded neighborhoods without gardens, such as neighborhoods 14, 16 and 20 as well as in eastern and western neighborhoods of the city. Keywords: Spatial analysis Spatial justice Distribution of gardens Access to gardens Babol city
  • Peizhi WuPeizhi Wu
  • Tianhai LiuTianhai Liu
  • Mingyong LuMingyong Lu
  • [...]
  • Gang FengGang Feng
The effort of increasing mineral added value as a whole both vertical and regional is necessary required to improve the national income and regional development. The added value of nickel could be improved through developing the downstream industry such as stainless steel, non-ferrous alloys, other steel alloys, electroplating and chemicals, besides also its regional added value. The purpose of the study is to clarify the beneficial of nickel added value development for the wealth of the people of Indonesia through the improvement of the nickel sector economic added value which is beneficial for the national economic growth and the enlargement of the regional added value which is mainly beneficial for the welfare of the local people who live within the surroundings of the mine site. In fact, the development of both nickel added values have been carried out by the mining companies, even though it needs encouragement and enlargement within the coming years to increase its role to the economic development nationally as well as regionally or locally.
The most important branch of economy in Samtskhe region is agriculture, and the region has quite a high potential of agricultural production. This is evidenced by the quite fruitful and diversified types of soil in the region. In respect of productivity, brown forest soils, brown meadow, grey-brown and forest sierozems in Samtskhe, with most of the agricultural plots located over them are particularly fruitful. The small irrigation channels here are similar to those found all over Georgia and in the mountainous regions of Caucasus. Their sizes, structure, water conducting capacity and irrigation efficiency are relevant to the conditions of a mountainous relief. The conducting capacity of the irrigation channels is little, and most of the channels have ground or exposed beds. Provided the melioration system is put to order and by considering the fruitful soils spread in the region it will be possible to boost the agricultural productivity significantly.
The paper presents the modern condition analyses and development prospects of the main agriculture sectors of a mountainous region in the southern part of Georgia – Samtskhe-Javakheti. On the basis of literary sources and internet material examination, certain sectors’ value in provisioning of republic has been assessed. The importance of agricultural sector vectoring in the side agriculture has been outlined. Results of the research are interpreted in charts and graphic models. Field research process has revealed a growing number of ecological problems related to biological and household waste and also caused by "chemicalization". The research has shown that the issues about protection from soil erosion and the water supply acute in the region. It greatly hinders the development of agriculture and it's a great challenge for the region’s population, who are mostly employed in the agricultural sector. During the research, different types of humus and soil nutrient elements supplies, soil structure and physical properties were investigated. Ecological problems solution and agricultural production’s sustainable development activation, which will ensure ecological condition improvement in agricultural sectors, healthy products production and that will create a firm foundation for withdrawing the agricultural production import, are considered to be the main challenges of the region.
Abstract: The article describes the mineral composition and petrochemistry of a unique ancient (more than 1848–2011 MA) igneous rock of the Urals – plagioclase olivine clinopyroxenite. These rocks are considered the oldest in the Urals. In the literature they are described under the name izrandites. They are part of the foundation of the basement of the East European platform. These rocks are highly aluminous and calcic. They are characterized by a low amount of alkalis and magnesium oxide and a comparable amount of silicon and iron. A certain petrochemical similarity is found between the izrandites and the anorthite leucogabbro, troctolite, and noritic anorthosites of lunar highlands. This similarity enhances the closeness of distribution of the minor elements, the leading role among which belongs to Sr and Ba. In those and others rocks plagioclase is represented by anorthite or labrador, its amount makes up from 5–8 to 50–70%. The izrandites are representatives of the rocks of the lower part of the Earth's crust, which in composition and absolute age can be compared with the youngest leucogabbros and troctolites of the Moon. Keywords: Olivine Clinopyroxenite, Izrandite, Anorthosite, Leucogabbro, Urals, Earth, Moon
Bentonite is a type of clay with a very high proportion of clay mineral montmorillonite, resulting from the decomposition of volcanic ash. With high plasticity, Bentonite is highly water absorbent and has high shrinkage and swelling characteristics. Bentonite slurry is often used to solve problems in the construction of borings or excavating trenches in water- saturated soils. Over time, the uses of bentonite spread into more current applications including papermaking tech-nology, cut-off walls, wastewater purification and even into different aspects of nano-technology because of nano-sizes of bentonite particles. Due to its vast engineering applications, it is of highly research interest. In this present study, an analyt-ical approach has been made to find a suitable bentonite sample from three different types of bentonite samples (China, Pakistan and India) by analyzing their engineering properties and economy as well. Finally, China Bentonite sample is found to be most suitable with good engineering properties and economy than other samples.
Top-cited authors
Uriah Alexander Lar
  • University of Jos
Kseniia Mikova
  • Perm State University
Lasha Asanidze
  • Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
Nino Chikhradze
  • Ilia State University
Nana Bolashvili
  • Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University