An abstract provides a short (usually 100-150 words) overview of the purpose of the study. Often the abstract also contains information regarding the methods used to conduct the research, as well as some of the main findings of the project. The abstract provides a manageable way to decide if you are interested in reading the article in its entirety. Ask yourself...does this article provide the information that I am searching for in relation to my practice or interests? If so, you should move forward and read the article in its entirety. An important point to keep in mind is that reading the abstract should never substitute for reading the complete article. You should not rely on information in the abstract as the final word on the topic. It is important to read the full article in an effort to obtain a clear picture of what the author is trying to communicate and for you to make personal judgments about the importance or quality of the research findings. In essence, an abstract is an important tool that can save you the frustration of investing precious time in reading a full article, only to find that it doesn't really provide the information you were seeking.
Demands for educational accountability are being called for at all levels: preschool through graduate school. Standardized tests are being widely utilized, but this measurement is not appropriate for young children. Portfolio assessment is a more promising approach to measure children''s growth, development, and achievement. This paper outlines criteria that portfolios must have in order to be effective assessment tools. Methods of gathering information and tips for portfolio development are shared and several examples of children''s work samples are included
This paper outlines the use of the Writing with Symbols 2000 software to facilitate emergent literacy development. The program’s use of pictures incorporated with text has great potential
to help young children with and without disabilities acquire fundamental literacy concepts about print, phonemic awareness,
alphabetic principle, vocabulary development, and comprehension. The flexibility and features of the software allow early
childhood professionals to create a variety of early literacy tools for the classroom, including worksheets, storybooks, and
Our review examined four early childhood journals (Early Child Development and Care, Early Childhood Education Journal, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, and Early
Childhood Research Quarterly) and four developmental science journals (Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, and Merrill Palmer Quarterly) from 2005 to 2007. Only 57 articles out of over 1,000 (conservative estimate) included the term ‘play’ in the title, abstract
or as a key word. Of these 57 articles, only 19 were primarily focused on play, 16 from ECE journals and only three from developmental
science journals (Z=2.43, p<.05). While the ECE journals drew implications for practice, the developmental science journals did not. Seven ECE journal
articles dealt with the concept of play in education and four other ECE journal articles covered play and literacy. The findings
suggest the need for more careful use of the term play in early education and child development studies and a reevaluation
of rationales and methods for its study.
Technology use permeates virtually all aspects of twenty-first century society, though its integration in early childhood
settings and recognition as a developmentally appropriate practice remains problematic. A position is taken that education
professionals may be ‘missing the boat’ by not embracing technology usage as a developmentally appropriate practice. Concerns
are presented that both preservice education and inservice professional development require substantial improvement if early
childhood education professionals are to both recognize the role of technology in developmentally appropriate practice and
develop skills in using it in classroom settings.
KeywordsTechnology-Developmentally appropriate practice-Preservice education-Professional development
Many culturally diverse families and their young children with disabilities or delays are not provided appropriate early intervention/early
childhood special education services, especially not in a culturally sensitive and meaningful context. Families with diverse
backgrounds often feel helpless and stressful because their values are not respected, concerns are not identified, and therefore
their needs are not met due to the lack of support from appropriate resources. The purpose of this article is to provide a
positive strategy to empower families of young children with special needs and who are from culturally diverse backgrounds
through a family-centered, strength-focused family system model: Double ABCX model. Procedures of implementing the double
ABCX model was described and discussed. Supported by previous research and the current case studies, the double ABCX family
adaptation model has found to be an effective approach to serving diverse families of children with disabilities.
This paper offers suggestions on adapting common classroom activities found in early childhood classrooms to increase participation
of young children with limited motor abilities. It stresses the importance of de-emphasizing differences among children and
highlighting that all children, even those with severe disabilities, can benefit from the same activities.
Writing Workshop is an interactive approach to teaching writing as students learn and practice the importance of rehearsal,
drafting/revising, and editing their pieces of writing (Calkins, 1986; Graves, 1983). This study implemented a mixed methodology
design incorporating qualitative and quantitative analysis (Mills, 2007) by administering a pre survey to each child before
he/she began the Writing Workshop and a post survey after the intervention; systematic observational research as a checklist
(Glanz, 2003) to record observed practices of students during peer revising conferences; portfolios to assess student writing
and graded via a rubric; and lastly interview of students regarding confidence and ability in writing. Therefore, the purpose
of this study was to explore the writing processes of drafting/revising and editing to support first grade students to become
Many sexual abuse prevention programs originally designed for school children are inappropriately used with preschool children.
Programs used with young children need to take into consideration their unique learning abilities. This paper uses a developmentally
appropriate practice framework as a guide in helping early childhood professionals evaluate sexual abuse prevention programs.
The purpose of this research is to explore the role of a director of a preschool program who mentors and trains high school students to teach and work directly with preschool children in the context of individual lessons, small group activities, and large group instruction. This participant-observer research study also examines how the director assesses the high school students ability to work effectively with the preschoolers they are assigned to teach and addresses the pre-academic and social learner outcomes for these children in this unique preschool program. Parent feedback pertaining to preschool learning outcomes is also examined.
This article describes kindergarten from the perspective of the whole child. Specifically, it reviews current research on
best practices to improve children’s math and language arts competencies, memory skills, and the role of kindergarten in beginning
science. It also describes the social experiences children have in kindergarten with respect to their academic success. Similarly,
it reviews the impact of emotional competence on school success. This article then reviews research describing three major
influences on children’s kindergarten adaptation and success (i.e., transition, parental involvement, retention). The article
concludes with a discussion of full-day kindergarten programs and their potential for improving the chances of all kindergarten
children, especially low-income and ethnic minority children, for success in school.
KeywordsKindergarten-Cognitive, social, and emotional development-Transition, families-Full-day programs
The achievement gap in mathematics between African American and Caucasian students has been observed for several decades, though previous research has been unable to fully explain why the gap exists. Using a sample of 56 kindergarten and first grade students, this study examined the role that cognitive developmental level plays in the achievement gap. Results indicated that African American students scored significantly lower than the Caucasian students on a test of mathematical achievement. Furthermore, proportionally more African American students remained in the preoperational stage of development as compared to their same-age Caucasian peers. Finally, after controlling for cognitive developmental level, the achievement gap between the two groups became statistically indistinguishable, suggesting that cognitive developmental level mediates the relationship between ethnicity and mathematic achievement.
The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that
children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been
paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of children born preterm,
examine the methodologies used to ascertain skill deficits, and identify essential directions for future research. Overwhelmingly
the results of studies of academic skills indicate that children born preterm function lower than their full term peers. The
methodological flaws with existing studies that impede broad conclusions about specific skill deficits will be discussed.
It is critical that future research examine the academic skill deficits contributing to disability status so that effective
early intervention strategies may be developed and implemented.
KeywordsChildren born preterm–Academic skills–Academic outcomes–Special education
This descriptive study explored teachers’ outreach to families in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade, and its relations
to children’s early growth in language, literacy, and mathematics. Teachers (n=62) completed surveys reporting the frequency of outreach practices to families, and children’s (n=210) early academic skills were assessed at the beginning and end of the school year. In addition, parents described their
education, while teachers noted their education, experience, and number of minutes they devoted to various types of classroom
instruction. Results revealed that the frequency of teacher outreach varied both across practices and across teachers. Positive
associations emerged between teachers’ provision of workshops and children’s vocabulary learning, as well as between teachers’
invitations to volunteer in the classroom and children’s mathematics development, even after controlling for teacher, family,
and child factors. In contrast, the frequency of teachers’ phone calls to families was inversely related to children’s vocabulary
and mathematics learning. Results provide new information about the nature of teacher outreach during the school transition
period and its distinct, selective contributions to important early skills.
KeywordsTeacher outreach-Early childhood-Literacy-Mathematics-Vocabulary
Teacher educators describe a developmental process they use for preparing pre-service teachers to support preschool-age children
with and without disabilities in becoming socially competent. Social competence is crucial in developing the “whole” child
and may actually foster other areas of development. Using qualitative data gathered from multiple classes over several years,
the authors explain ways they guide future teachers in learning how to provide positive social environments. They describe
their observations of changes in students’ beliefs about their roles and responsibilities, which appear to be influenced by
the guided experiences they have provided. Activities implemented in early childhood and early childhood special education
courses are shared, as well as student work samples that illustrate developing awareness and understanding.
Research on the relation between social behavior and peer acceptance in preschool children and the long-term consequences of peer acceptance or rejection is reviewed. Preschool children who exhibit aggressive behavior tend to be rejected by peers at an early age and these first impressions have a lasting effect on peer acceptance, in spite of subsequent changes in the child''s behavior. Social behaviors that are related to peer popularity vary by age and sex. Children who experience high levels of peer acceptance in preschool and who have friends entering kindergarten with them make a better adjustment to school. Recommendations for fostering social development in preschoolers are discussed.
Peer acceptance during early childhood is related to children's academic achievement, adjustment in school, and even psychological well-being in adulthood. Children who experience low peer acceptance exhibit socially inappropriate behavior patterns, which are associated with irrelevant patterns of information processing. Therefore, as a way of helping children with low peer acceptance, a cognitive-social learning model of social skills training has been used because the model focuses on cognitive changes as well as behavioral changes. Three parts of the social skills training—enhancing skill concepts, promoting skill performance, and fostering skill maintenance/generalization—are discussed. In order to be successful, a trainer should understand the training model as well as behavioral patterns of children with low peer acceptance to provide theory-based and individualized feedback to each participant.
This article introduces the framework of Universal Design for Early Childhood Education (UDECE). The goal of the framework
is to synthesize best practices within the field of early childhood education and special education, providing a template
to support access and equity for all children. The UDECE framework includes examination of issues of access, the provision
of high quality educational practices, and issues of accountability for success and equity. By placing the needs of all children
at the core, UDECE extends philosophies embracing full inclusion into pathways through which this goal can be supported.