EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

Online ISSN: 2394-3211
Publications
Comparison of various parameters between the control and asphyxiated group. 
Objective: To assess the urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio (UA/Cr) in relation to Apgar score and cord blood gas analysis in identification of perinatal asphyxia and to define the cutoff values. Design: case control study. Setting: The newborns admitted in the department of pediatrics and NICU of Mediciti Institute of Medical Science, Ghanpur, Medchal mandal, Telangana from May-July 2011 were enrolled. Participants/patients: The study was conducted on 31 (18 males, 13 females) controls and 18 (12males, 6 females) asphyxiated neonates. Outcome measures: 5ml of arterial cord blood of newborn collected at the time of birth and spot urine samples were collected within 24-72 hours of life. Cord blood gas analysis were done immediately and Urinary uric acid was measured by modified Uricase method, urinary creatinine by modified kinetic Jaffe's reaction. Results: The mean urinary uric acid and creatinine ratio (2.58± 0.48 vs 1.89 ± 0.59) is significantly higher in Asphyxiated group than in the control group. The umbilical cord blood pH had significant positive correlation with 1(st) minute Apgar score (r= 0.41, p=0.003), 5(th) minute Apgar (r= 0.44, p=0.002), while urinary UA/Cr ratio had significant negative correlation with cord blood pH (r= -0.63, p=0.002). Urinary UA/Cr ratio with criterion of >2.43 had 80% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity with AUC of 0.84 (p=0.003) had a better predictive value. Conclusions: Urinary UA/Cr ratio is easy, non-invasive, painless and economical adjuvant parameter with better predictive value for diagnosing perinatal asphyxia with simple diagnostic equipment.
 
Ginseng has attracted interest because of its potential therapeutic role in diabetes therapy. No direct evidence has shown the effects of ginseng and its components, ginsenosides, on human islet β cell. In this study, we evaluated ginseng extract and ginsenosides (Rb2, Re, Rg1, Rd) on human pancreatic β cell function. The results provide direct evidence that ginseng extract promotes human pancreatic β cell function. Ginsenoside Rb2 increased islet β cell insulin release and promoted β cell migration. Ginsenoside Re had some impact on cell migration, but had no effect on islet function by evaluating insulin release. The other ginsenosides had no effect on insulin release and islet migration. To date, this is the first study that examines the impact of ginsenosides on human pancreatic islets in vitro.
 
Viral method of gene therapy a. Retro-virus In retrovirus the genetic material is in the form of RNA molecules, while that in the host is in the form of DNA. A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes. These copies of its genome can be integrated into the chromosomes of host cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.
The ability to transfect genes into cells and to cause their expression is leading to the practical emergence of human gene therapy, wherein, functionally active genes are putatively inserted into the (somatic) cells of a person requiring the expression of a given protein. A novel adaptation of gene therapy is the transfection of cells with nonresident genes in order to accomplish in situ expression of a pharmacologically beneficial protein or create a site for further therapeutic intervention. In other words, genes would act like drugs, generating a product with a specific pharmacological effect. In simple terms, gene therapy involves insertion of genetic material into a patient’s cells to make them capable of producing therapeutic protein. KEYWORDS: Gene, germ line, somatic, retrovirus, vectors.
 
FT-IR spectrum of 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(sulfanediyl))bis(1,4-bis(4-bromophenyl) azetidin-2-one) 2a.
ABSTRACT This study is concerned with the synthesis and characterization of the 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(sulfanediyl)) bis(1,4- bis(4-bromophenyl) azetidin-2-one) 2a. This compound was prepared by reacting 2,2'-(ethane- 1,2- diylbis(sulfanediyl)) diacetic acid with the appropriate 4-bromo-N-(4-bromobenzlidene) aniline 1a. The structure of these azetidin-2-one was established on the basis of the spectral data: IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass.
 
physical and analytical data
Triazine is a six member heterocyclic ring system having three nitrogen atoms. Many 1,2,4- triazine derivatives involve in several biological processes and serve as medicinally interesting compounds as they show a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity such as anti-protozoals, anti-cancer, estrogen receptor modulator,anti-virals, and anti-malerials. Keeping in view the high pharmacological importance we report here a synthesis of several 4- substituted-3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazin-5-one derivatives using environmentally benign protocol where, neat reactants are subjected to microwave irradiation. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. The confirmed structures were subjected to PASS for their probabilities of being biologically active. Biological prediction study of these derivatives was done using computer programme PASS to find out the most active molecules. Short reaction time, good yield (69-85%), simple workup procedureare the remarkable features of this protocol
 
antimicrobial activity of some new triazoles
anti cancer activity of some new triazoles
antibacterial activity of some new triazoles
6-(1,2,4-triazol-3-thioxo-5-yl)-3,5-diaryl cyclohex-2-enone (4) was obtained from the reaction of cyclohexenone acid hydrazide (2) with phenyl isothiocyanate. 2-substituted oxadiazole derivatives (9), (12) have been synthesized. The treatment of (8) with carbonyl compounds was investigated. The propionitrile derivative (5) was synthesised. The antimicrobial activity of (6, 9, 10 and 12) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was screened and the results were encouraging. The antitumor activity of against human cell lines was investigated. The structures of compounds (4-13) were elucidated by means of microanalysis as well as spectral measurements such as IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR and MS
 
Chemical structures and schematic representation of surfactants and Na-malat under study MATERIAL AND METHODS Materials Butanediyl-1,4-N,N'-bis(N,n-hexadecyl N-hydroxyethyl N-methyl ammonium bromide) represented as 16-4-16 MEA was synthesized [19] . Na-malate and Methyl methacrylate was purchased from Emerck (Germany) and National Chem. (India) respectively. Doubledistilled and deionized water was used for all physicochemical studies.  
Variation of CMC, Kraft Temperature, Oil solubilization, Foamability and Foam stability of 16-4-16 MEA surfactant on addition of Na-malate at 30 O C. CONCLUSIONS In this paper we report the physicochemical properties of novel hydroxylated 16-4-16 MEA surfactant in presence of Na-malate. Malate anion acts as bivalent counterion for dimeric surfactant in aqueous solution. The change in concentration of surfactant and counterion is very
Influence of bivalent malate counterion on physicochemical properties of butanediyl-1,4-bis(hexadecyl hyhdroxyethyl methyl ammonium bromide) surfactant was studied by conductometry measurement. Critical micelle concentration, average degree of micelle ionization, kraft temperature and gibbs free energy of micellization were determined from conductivity data. Oil solubilization and foamability was observed to increase at 1:0.5 surfactant to counterion charge ratio. The decrease in change in gibbs free energy and foam stability indicate that the micellization process was retards at theoretical unequal surfactant to counterion charge ratio(1:05).
 
This study was carried out to investigate the variation of traits; grain weight ear-1, grain weight plant-1 and 1000–grain weight in three winter varieties namely Batko, Diya and Krasnodarskaya 99 under the influence of the growth regulator, Furolan and mineral fertilizer. The grain weight ear-1 is one of the basic traits of which one could determine with high accuracy productivity or yield of the experimental variant or plot of any of winter wheat variety. Grain weight plant-1 or productivity as it may called, is one of the basic traits of winter wheat varieties, which determines yield. The 1000–grain weight is one of the basic quantitative traits, characterizing yield of the variety, seed and its technological qualities. In the variant treated with mineral fertilizers and growth regulator the grain weight ear-1 obtained was 1.31 g which was 0.12 g more than control (LSD05-variant = 0.01). Similar pattern was observed in the experimental variants of other varieties. The effect of factor C (growth regulator) during the formation of 1000–grain weight formed 5.0%. Furolan influenced the process of the formation of grains of winter wheat varieties during the last stages organogenesis.
 
Cell viability of HCT 116 cells after exposure to acetone extract from stem bark of C. odontophyllum at concentration ranging from 0-200 μg/ml after 48 hr of treatment. 
Cell viability of HCT 116 cells after exposure to menadione at concentration ranging from 0-50 μM after 48 hr of treatment. 
The ATP level in HCT 116 cells after treatment with IC50 for 30 mins, 60 min , 120 min and and 240 min. 
The level of ROS (superoxide anion) in HCT 116 after treatment with IC50 for 30 mins, 60 mins and 120 mins was detected using DHE staining. 
Canarium odontophyllum, had the potential to cause cytotoxicity towards colorectal cancer cell line by inducing cell death via apoptosis. The aim of this study was to further determine the underlying mechanism of acetone extract from the stem bark of C. odontophyllum against colorectal cancer cell line HCT 116. Methods: The IC50 value of acetone extract was determined at concentration range of 12.5 𝜇g/mL to 200 𝜇g/mL, 48 hr upon treatment. The level of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured using CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability assay and dihydroethidium staining assay detected by flow cytometry respectively, upon treatment of the cell line at IC50 concentration of the extract at timepoints 30 mins, 60 mins and 120 mins, respectively. Results: The acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark treatment showed cytotoxic effect against the HCT 116 with IC50 value of 84 ± 9𝜇g/mL with significant reduction (p<0.05) of ATP level from 139861.67 ± 63650.95 indicated by relative luminescence unit (RLU) at 30 mins of treatment to 29875.5 ± 7284.39 (RLU) after 4 hr of treatment. ROS level showed significant increased in the cell lines at 2 hr of treatment compared to the negative control with the value of 42.75 ± 5.30% and 22.35 ± 5.303301%, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark exerted its cytotoxic effect by a decreased in the intracellular ATP level and increased in the level of ROS.
 
ABSTRACT The main objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antibacterial activity of Siddha wound medicine prescribed by the Traditional Siddha Practitioner of Kanyakumari District, India. Veppampattai Thailam is an internal form of wound medicine. Phytochemical analysis of the Thailam, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, saponin, reducing sugar and tannin constituents. The unexplored area of hydroxyl radical scavenging assay of Veppampattai Thailam and extracts varied from the minimum inhibition 48.57% (25μl) of aqueous extract to the maximum inhibition 84.21 % (100μl) of Ascorbic acid. On the otherhand, reducing power activity of the Thailam and extracts varied from the minimum inhibition 35.53 % (25μl) of aqueous extract to the maximum inhibition 86.79 % (100μl) of Vitamin C. The antioxidant assay of the Veppampattai Thailam and extracts indicated promising antioxidant activities in concentration dependent manner. The antibacterial activity of Siddha medicine prescribed for wound (Thailam) showed both positive and negative activity. The prescribed Veppampathi Thailam showed the maximum zone of inhibition (26 ± 0.001 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and minimum zone of inhibition (1 ± 0.213 mm) against Klebsiella pneumonia. On the other hand, ethanolic extract of the Thailam fail to inhibit the growth of Klebsiella pneumonia. The trial Siddha medicine highlights the effect of Veppampattai Thailam as a great potential source to rid wounds. KEYWORDS: Veppampattai Thailam, phytochemical, antioxidant, Kalanch
 
The FAM channel of real time PCR for detection 14-bp INDEL. The colors indicate DNA of different patients, the color indicated patient No. 1; the color indicate the patient No. 5; the color indicate the patient No. 6; the color indicate the patient No.7.
The Cy5 channel of real time PCR for detection 14-bp deletion in patients with RPM. The colors indicate DNA of different patients, the color indicated patient No. 2; the color indicate the patient No. 3; the color indicate the patient No.4; the color indicate the patient No.9. 
To study the association of the 14-bp insertion/deletion (INDEL) polymorphism with the risk of RSA, PCR amplification was used Insertion or deletion of the 14-bp sequence in HLA-G generated PCR products of length 224 or 210 bp, respectively were observed and the three different genotypes (+14 bp⁄+14 bp, +14 bp⁄−14 bp, and −14 bp/−14 bp) were distinguishable by 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that the frequencies of the homozygous genotypes (+14 bp/+14 bp) were not observed in women with recurrent abortion. However, the frequency of homozygous genotypes (-14 bp/-14 bp) was significantly increased in women with RSA compared with the normal fertile control. There were a significant differences in allele frequencies of polymorphism between controls and URSA women (OR=1.9259, 95%CI=1.1269-2.3309 and P=0.0179). Real time PCR technique was evaluated in this wor , using art ycler syste , to detect 14bp insertion/deletion poly orphis in exon of 3 untranslated region of the H -G gene. The results showed the accumulation of PCR product was monitored by measuring the level of fluorescence. The results revealed there is no progress of PCR with extracted DNA as the template and the PCR product was not observed when detecting 14bp deletion in patients with RSA, indicating that when 14bp was deleted from DNA of HLA-G will cause defect in HLA-G protein and this lead to wo en’s abortion. Results of Immunohistochemical experiment was observed that HLA-G expression intensity was decreased in the outer layer of trophoblast cells in the placenta tissue in the first trimester of women with recurrent spontaneous abortion comparing with control based on the 4H84 monoclonal antibody (mAb) against HLA-G protein. This was suggesting that RSA is associated with a lack of expression of HLA-G protein by trophoblast cells, so remains possible that the HLA-G protein expressed by trophoblast cells in women with RSA may be functionally defective.
 
Mahatma Gandhi is an international symbol of peace. What remains lesser known are his teachings on health. The year 2018-19 marks 150 years of Gandhi. On this occasion we look back into the life and teachings of Gandhi and their impact on health. Today India, like many other developing nations, is facing double burden of diseases in the form of communicable and non communicable diseases. Majority of our health problems can be solved by following simple Gandhian methods. They are applicable to all aspects of health, namely, physical, mental and social health. His methods have survived the tide of time and are relevant even in the era of modern medicine. We take a dive into the history and search for health solutions which are simple, inexpensive, efficacious and above all, "swadeshi‟.
 
Map of Ouagadougou with the sites where sampling was done (CMA Paul VI, CHUP-CDG, Clinique les Tisserins and Hôpital du district de Bogodogo).
Distribution of DEC pathotypes among children under 5 years old.
Diarrheal diseases are an important public health and economic problem worldwide, especially in Burkina Faso. This prospective study aims to determine the prevalence of major diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes in stool samples from patients suffering from diarrheal diseases in four hospitals in Ouagadougou. After obtaining the informed consent, a total of 415 stool samples were collected from patients and Escherichia coli strains were identified using standard microbiological methods. We have used 16-plex PCR, which permit the identification of five different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli such as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in a single reaction simultaneously. From the 292 strains, 23 (8%) were positive for DEC virulence genes with 12 (4%) samples being positive for EAEC, 5 (2%) for EPEC, 3 (1%) for EHEC, 2 (˂ 1%) for EIEC and 1 (˂ 1%) for ETEC. The children under 5 years old were most affected (74%). However, EAEC is the predominant DEC isolated from the examined patients with diarrhoea. This study indicated that the five major DEC pathotypes continuous to be a principal cause of diarrhoea in Burkina Faso. The present results will contribute to highlight the need of a surveillance program to reduce DEC prevalence in hospitals in this country.
 
Forensic dentistry is the application of dental knowledge to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. Forensic dentists are involved in assisting investigative agencies to identify recovered human remains in addition to the identification of whole or fragmented bodies; forensic dentists may also be asked to assist in determining age, race, occupation, previous dental history and socioeconomic status of unidentified human beings. Identification is done by the comparison of ante-mortem and post-mortem dental records and using the unique features visible on dental radiographs. Forensic dentistry is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which can be presented in the interest of justice. The evidence that may be derived from teeth is the age and identification of the person to whom the teeth belongs. This is done by using dental records including ante-mortem radiographs and post-mortem photographs and DNA. The other type of evidence is that of bite marks, left on either the victim (by the attacker), the perpetrator (from the victim of an attack), or on an object found at the crime scene. Bite marks are often found on children who are abused.
 
Occupation related diseases are increasing day by day and one amongst them is musculoskeletal disorders due to improper ergonomics in dentistry. These disorders can result in pain and dysfunction of the neck, back, legs and hands and fingers. Ergonomics is an applied science concerned with designing products and procedures for maximum efficiency and safety. This article sets forth broad important background information on ergonomics so that the dental practitioner can have a general awareness of ergonomic risk factors as well as some basis for understanding the ongoing dialogue about ergonomics, its diagnosis, treatment, and regulation. This article provides alternatives to be considered by the practitioner in light of the practitioner’s own circumstances, experiences and goals
 
Electrolytes in the gills of C. gariepinus exposed to different concentrations of an oilfield wastewater after 28 days.
The electrolytic changes of twenty-eight adult Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), (mean weight 205 ± 12.89g SD; Mean length; 31.13 ± 3.82cm SD) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%) of an oilfield wastewater over a period of twenty eight (28) days were studied in a semi-static system. At the end of 28 days, tissue/organ and plasma samples were collected for electrolysis using standard methods. Insignificant (p≤0.05) fluctuations in electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and bicarbonates ions) were observed in exposed fishes when compared to the control group. These fluctuations in electrolytes suggest the effort made by the fish to combat the stress imposed by the toxicant. The ions (electrolytes) are involved in regulation of osmotic changes in the fish and can be used to measure long term effect of C. gariepinus exposed to oilfield wastewater. The proper treatment of oilfield wastewater prior to discharge into the recipient water body is advocated to reduce ecotoxicological problems.
 
ABSTRACT One of coronaviruses back again to attack human, COVID-19 is highly similar to SARS-CoV Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This study aimed to find the possibility of changing/evolution of one of the most virulent factor 'spike protein' which facilities the attachment of the virus to cell receptor(s), and in silico designing and finding of B epitopes that induce production of antibodies to neutralize and block this attachment. Results show that this protein is continuously changing among the retrieved protein sequences from all over the world. It has been found that there is some B epitopes,711 - MDLEGKQGNFKNL-189, 555- SNKKFLPF-562, 656 -VNNSYECDIPI -666, 1035- GQSKRVDFC- 1043, derived from Cons sequence constructed form global protein sequences released from 11 Feb to 06 April, these satisfied most of the required criteria, these can be offered for real wet applications.
 
The pandemic of COVID-19 had caused millions of deaths and left hundred millions of patients. Actually the disease will be controlled only through vaccination. With the prevalence of wrong information, convincing people to get vaccinated is very difficult. So, accurate vaccine information is critical and essential. The most common myths and rumors were related to COVID-19 vaccine safety and utilization. They include: The vaccines were developed rapidly without research, It is not safe and not necessary for children, They cause many variants of the virus, many side effects, complications and deaths, The mRNA vaccine is not considered a vaccine, They contain microchips, fetal cells and around 99% graphene oxide, They cause the body to be magnetic, They shed or release their components, They will alter DNA, It is unsafe for women planning to have a baby one day, They cause COVID-19 infection, abortion and miscarriage, They cause test positive for COVID-19 on a viral test, They should be postponed for certain period of time after getting a flu vaccine or another vaccine, Vaccines not needed for patients recovered from COVID-19, Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is the best one, Fully vaccinated do not need to avoid close contact with others or wear a mask, The second dose of vaccine is not necessarily the same as first dose and medical conditions are contraindication for vaccination. While social media posts and some news outlets may make it harder to know what is fact or fiction, the science is clear, approved COVID-19 vaccines safe and effective.
 
SARS-COV-2 Nucleocapsid protein visualized in PyMol reported in surface representation (whte color).
SARS-COV-2 Nucleocapsid protein structure visualized in PyMol is reported in cartoon representation [chain A (green), chain B(cyan) chain C(magentas), chain D(yellow)].
Shows Structure Alignment in between SARS-COV-2 Nucleocapsid protein and Different Organism host with ACE2 protein and its RMS score.
Human beings are presently experiencing a serious global public health issue that is Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has declared the novel Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has a single - stranded RNA genome. There are seven strains of human Coronavirus (CoVs) out of those three strains are highly pathogenic (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, 2019 - nCoV), which causes an endemic of severe Coronavirus (CoV) disease. The most important four structural proteins of COVID-19 are S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N (nucleocapsid) proteins.The nucleocapsid protein is one of the core components of the SARS-CoV-2. Nucleocapsid protein alone is able to form the capsid. In this present work, we have predicted tertiary structure of human,Capra hircus, Mus musculus with ACE2 protein with the help of Swiss model (automated protein structure homology-modelling server). Protein structure alignment and comparison of different organism's host with ACE2 protein and SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein in PyMol (3- Dimensional structure visualization Tool).We successfully performed Superimposition of proteins, comparative structural analysis.Calculate their RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation) and RMS score.
 
The diversity of life on Earth is indispensable to the healthy functioning of ecosystems. Habitat loss and overexploitation, driven by our express population growth, are the primary causes of biodiversity loss. COVID-19 has the potential to trigger enormous effects on biodiversity and conservation outcomes. This virus emerged due to wildlife exploitation, and the risk of new diseases increases with environmental degradation. Neither the proximate source nor a possible intermediate animal host of COVID-19 has been confirmed at this stage. As human activities continue to disturb ecosystems worldwide, we are likely to see more pathogens crossing from wildlife to humans in the future. The crisis provides us with a reset button on our affiliation with nature. International collaboration is paramount for the health of our nature, our economies, and our people. At this point, protected areas appear to be safe and, in many places, biodiversity is benefitting from reduced human activities. This may not be true everywhere, especially where enforcement has weakened but threats have not. The loss of conservation revenue caused by the COVID-19 pandemic does pose a major threat to conservation and anti-poaching activities longterm. We can pursue the opportunity to re-imagine and alter our relationship with nature while promoting community and global health. Linkages between biodiversity and human health present a broad range of opportunities for jointly protecting health and biodiversity, wildlife and for advancing human wellbeing. KEYWORDS: Biodiversity, Wildlife, COVID -19
 
Stem cells currently offer new hope for treating a great number of diseases. MSCs have immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties enabling them to have many clinical and therapeutic applications. They exerted broad-spectrum destroying function covering a wide range of bacteria, protozoa, parasites, and viruses that caused diverse clinical problems. But, there is still limited available data on how far MSCs have effective deleterious activity against viruses. Covid-19 (coronavirus infectious disease) is menacing the world and not hesitating. the viral load in COVID-19 causes a state of hyperinflamation and uncontrolled reaction of immune cells. Many researchers tried to test MSCs dual effect on immune cells. In this review, we summarize the role of stem cells in dealing with viral infections with special relevance to novel COVID-19. KEYWORDS: Stem cells, regenerative medicine, viral infection, immune cells, COVID-19.
 
Demographic characteristics of participants and knowledge score (N = 378)
The knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 play an important role in defining a society’s eagerness to accept behavioral change measures from health authorities. This study was a cross-sectional online survey regarding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of participants towards COVID-19. It was conducted from the 6 to 17 August, 2020. As it was not viable to do an institutional-based sampling, so it was decided to collect the data online. A total of 378 participants participated in the study. Out of the total, the mean age was 17.03 years (SD = 0.168, range = 17-18), 255 (67.5%) were female. A total of thirteen questions were used to measure knowledge on the COVID-19 virus. The mean knowledge score for participants was 10.77 (SD = 0.588, range 8–12). Participants were asked eleven questions in assessment of attitudes. The attitude of successfully controlling COVID-19 was significantly associated with age group, region and occupation. In order to assess the practices followed by the participants to prevent COVID-19 infection, all of the participants shared their agreement on avoiding meetings with friends, eating-out and sport events, as well as avoiding places where a large number of people would gather. The present study showed a good knowledge, positive attitudes and suitable practices in students of Dhaka. The health awareness programs, that are designed after pandemic declaration by WHO, played a vital role in improving the knowledge of the population, attitudes encouragement and sustaining the safer practices towards this COVID-19. In fact, this disease played a role of game changer in changing KAP in student. KEYWORDS: Changing Behaviors, Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, COVID-19 Pandemic.
 
Demographic characteristics of participants and knowledge score (N = 378)
ABSTRACT The knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 play an important role in defining a society’s eagerness to accept behavioral change measures from health authorities. This study was a cross-sectional online survey regarding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of participants towards COVID-19. It was conducted from the 6 to 17 August, 2020. As it was not viable to do an institutional-based sampling, so it was decided to collect the data online. A total of 378 participants participated in the study. Out of the total, the mean age was 17.03 years (SD = 0.168, range = 17-18), 255 (67.5%) were female. A total of thirteen questions were used to measure knowledge on the COVID-19 virus. The mean knowledge score for participants was 10.77 (SD = 0.588, range 8–12). Participants were asked eleven questions in assessment of attitudes. The attitude of successfully controlling COVID-19 was significantly associated with age group, region and occupation. In order to assess the practices followed by the participants to prevent COVID-19 infection, all of the participants shared their agreement on avoiding meetings with friends, eating-out and sport events, as well as avoiding places where a large number of people would gather. The present study showed a good knowledge, positive attitudes and suitable practices in students of Dhaka. The health awareness programs, that are designed after pandemic declaration by WHO, played a vital role in improving the knowledge of the population, attitudes encouragement and sustaining the safer practices towards this COVID-19. In fact, this disease played a role of game changer in changing KAP in student
 
Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effect of RECOVEREEZ FORTE ™: (A) Percentage of patients showing reduction in IL-6 Levels (B) Percentage of patients showing reduction in CRP Levels (C) Percentage of patients showing reduction LDH Levels (D) Percentage of patients showing reduction in D-Dimer levels.
trial enrollment fraction according to age and sex (a) average and standard deviation of participants' ages. N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provokes demanding immune and inflammatory events. Despite numerous reports on the use and testing of several potent therapeutic options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), satisfactory treatment has not so far been determined. RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM , consisting of a standardized cardamom extract is a natural product with substantial indications of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions along with inhibitory capacity averse to viral targets. In this context, we speculated that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM may ameliorate adverse effects in COVID-19 patients. Accordingly, in a multicenter prospective, open label, randomized trial, adult COVID-19 patients having mild to moderate symptoms were treated with RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM as an adjunct therapy. Patients were assigned to obtain standard of care along with a three times per day oral dose of 500 mg of RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM for ten days, or standard of care alone. Standard of care comprised all essential interventions, as per the discretion of the attending physician. Time to clinical improvement in terms of biochemical parameters such as IL6, CRP, DDIMER, LDH and an RTPCR COVID-19 test negativity in the treated patients was considered to be the primary end point. We enrolled 60 patients; of which 30 were allocated to RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM and 30 to the control group. The duration of COVID-19 positivity post-intervention was significantly shorter in RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM treated group than in the control group (p<0.001). RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM group also showed significant decrease in the levels of IL6, LDH, D-dimer along with increased lymphocytes confirming its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action. We conclude that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM can reduce the impact of COVID-19 manifestations and could serve as an alternative to oral steroids. We also suggest that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM may aid faster recovery mediated by its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in diseases other than COVID-19. The trial was registered in Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI - CTRI/2021/04/033143) in compliance with the International Council on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use – Good Clinical Practice (ICH–GCP) guidelines.
 
Health service Provided by Tele-Medicine in Bangladesh during COVID-19 Outbreak.
Telemedicine has pronounced potential to overcome terrestrial barriers to providing access to equal health care services, primarily for people living in remote and rural areas in developing countries like Bangladesh. Telehealth is an assembly of resources or methods for augmenting health care, public health and health education delivery and support using telecommunications Coronavirus and COVID-19 are presently two distressing names to people around the world. An epidemic of fear and hatred has been surging among people over the fast transmission of deadly coronavirus and taking treatment going to a doctor or hospital has become riskier for all kinds of patients, including the COVID-19 ones, telemedicine is imperative now more than ever. The infrastructure for telemedicine and telehealth services are being advanced in the country amid the outbreak of novel coronavirus pandemic as different government and non-government institutions and voluntary groups have come up with healthcare services through virtual center. Telemedicine could possibly save times for patients and cost of health system‟s operations; it can improve interdepartmental and inter-hospital communication and collaboration; it can provide opportunity for sharing best practices among physicians within Bangladesh and international hospitals, and can enhance better resource allocation. Stakeholders and patients alike are now scrambling to find a telemedicine service, a virtual platform which is facing an unparalleled demand in health sector. KEYWORDS: Telemedicine, Telehealth, COVID-19 Epidemic.
 
Background: The accelerated pace of COVID-19 vaccine development has heightened public anxieties and could compromise acceptance. The aim of this study was to assess the level of willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers in Gombe and the objectives was to assess the knowledge toward COVID-19 and the level of willingness of healthcare workers in Gombe to accept COVID-19 vaccine, and to determine factors that influence vaccination willingness. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 234 healthcare workers. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and were analysed using SPSS version 23 at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels. A P-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean age of respondents was 35.6±7years. Those who are aged 31 - 45years constitute about three-fifth (60.6%) of the study population. Of the total studied participates, 128(60.1%) were male and 150(70.4%) were married. About two-fifth of the participants were nurses. 54.9% of the participants worked in tertiary health facility while more than half (52.6) had worked for than 10 years. Majority (99.1%) of the participants had good knowledge of COVID-19while two-third (65.7%) of the healthcare workers are willing to accept COVID-19 vaccine. Professional cadre, years of experience and the type of health facilities remain significant predicators of willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine among the healthcare workers (P< 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, profession cadre, years of experience and the type of healthcare facility influence vaccination willingness among healthcare workers in Gombe.
 
Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating efficacy and safety of Intravenous Aviptadil as an add-on to the "Standard of Care" treatment in severe COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure. Design, Setting and Participants: A randomized, multicentric, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative Phase III clinical trial was conducted at 8 geographically distributed sites across India between April 2021 to October 2021. The study enrolled 150 participants who were tested and confirmed cases of severe COVID-19 with respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions: 12-hour intravenous infusions of Aviptadil over 3 successive days in ascending doses given as 0.166 mcg/kg/hr on Day 1 (equivalent to one 10 mL vial of 150 mcg), 0.332 mcg/kg/hr on Day 2 (equivalent to two 10 mL vials of 150 mcg each) and 0.498 mcg/kg/hr on Day 3 (equivalent to three 10 mL vials of 150 mcg each). Methodology: Severe COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure were randomized in two groups in a ratio of 1:1, to receive either Aviptadil or Placebo. Both the study drugs were given as an add-on to the standard of care (SOC). The SOC was kept as close as possible to the COVID-19 treatment guidelines specified by the Government of India. The study site staff, investigator and patients were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary endpoint of the study was resolution of respiratory failure whereas the secondary endpoints were improvement in WHO 7-point ordinal scale, improvement in PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio, survival of the patients and incidences of adverse events. Results: After the completion of treatment in Aviptadil group, an improvement was observed in the primary outcome of resolution of respiratory failure. Proportion of patients on Aviptadil demonstrated statistically significant odds, 2.1-fold, (p=0.0410) of being free of respiratory failure (no oxygen requirement) at Day 3 and 2.6-fold (p=0.0035) at day 7 as compared to the placebo group. An earlier resolution from the respiratory failure, with a median duration of 7 days was noted in the Aviptadil-treated group as compared to 14 days in the placebo group. A higher proportion of patients on Aviptadil shifted to the milder clinical state (32.43% vs 17.80%; p=0.0410 on Day 3 and 70.27% vs 45.21%; 0.0035 on Day 7) without the requirement of oxygen than the placebo group. A reduction of severity (based on WHO 7-point ordinal scale) in clinical status were also observed on Day 14 (p = 0.0005 by Wilcoxon rank sum test) and Day 28 (p = 0.0009 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). There were 68.42% Aviptadil-treated patients who showed 2 or more points improvement on the WHO 7-point ordinal scale as compared to 44.59% in the placebo group (p=0.003; Pearson chi 2 test; odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.38-5.24) on Day 7. On day 28, patients in the Aviptadil group had higher odds (1.38) of an improvement on WHO 7-point ordinal scale as compared to placebo with SOC. Aviptadil reduced the risk of death by 20% (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.66) in ARDS. Patients treated with Aviptadil demonstrated significant improvement in PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio vs. placebo from day 2 to over the week (p<0.05) and beyond. There were 15 deaths in the Aviptadil group and 18 deaths in the placebo group. No deaths were attributed to the Investigational products. COVID-19-related mortality occurred in 22% patients of the study population, due to respiratory failure caused by underlying medical conditions. Conclusion: Use of Aviptadil was safe and effective in improving the resolution of respiratory failure, shortening the time to recovery, decreasing respiratory distress and preventing death in respiratory failure patients. The rapidity and magnitude of clinical effect suggests a highly specific role of Aviptadil in combating the lethal effects of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome associated with COVID-19.
 
List of phytochemicals from T. chebula and reference drugs with Pubchem ID.
Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (T. chebula), is a valuable medicinal tree in Asian countries with potential anti-viral properties. It is considered as “King of Medicine” and “Mother of Medicine” due to its exceptional medicinal properties in fighting against various diseases. The bioactive compounds from the T. chebula were identified and in silico molecular docking was carried out aiming various SARS-CoV-2 targets. The binding energies of the T. chebula active compounds towards the active sites of various protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 were represented as MolDock scores and compared with the reference drug scores. Chebulinic Acid, 1,2,3,4,6 penta galloyl β-Dglucose, Chebulagic acid, Terflavin C, Arjunin, Terflavin D, Ellagitanin, Chebulanin, Casuarinin, Punicalin, Corilagin, 1,6 di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, galloyl glucose has shown high binding energies than the reference drugs. Further, in silico ADMEK analysis revealed, all the bioactive compounds from T. chebula having good bioavailability and no-toxicity except Pyrogallol. We thus hypothesize; various phyto-bioactive compounds of T. Chebula may act as a new alternative in the treatment of COVID-19 infection based on the holistic concept of traditional Indian medicine principle
 
The cosmetic and personal care industry traders are continuously looking for customs of improving their sales. Online advertising has become the most popular technique to approach the goals of modern-day industries. Because of corona virus, various health organizations have requested to stop or to cut the chain of this pandemic like washing or sanitizing the hand because of which the viruses spread would be controlled. While all the different industries have a downfall but, soap, hand care, cosmetic, and personal care industries are flourishing. The study tries to realize that, what marketing strategies are used by the beauty and personal care industries in the course of COVID-19. This panic leads to protective private care at the rise, parallel the skincare merchandise also has a call for and domestic supplies are more waited with the aid of the customers.
 
The suggested mechanism of action of Amiodarone on Coronavirus replication.
Percentage of patients with PCR-positive samples from inclusion to day 6 treated with hydroxychloroquine only (blue line), treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination (green line), and in COVID-19 control patients (black line).
Electrocardiograms recordings from a patient with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. A: Baseline ECG, QRS duration: 128 ms, QTc: 458 ms. B: ECG after 1 dose, QRSd: 160 ms, QTc: 472 ms. C: Notification from mobile continuous telemetry (MCOT). D: Notification from MCOT with QTc measurement (520 ms).
SARS-CoV-2 sensitivity to type I IFN pretreatment. A) Vero E6 cells infected with either SARS-CoV (black) or SARS-CoV-2 (blue) B) Vero E6 cells treated with recombinant type I IFN for 18 hours prior to infection.
As of 25 April 2020, the World Health Organization reports a total of 2,828,772 cases of 2019-nCoV infection and 197,924 deaths. No definite therapeutic agents or vaccines for COVID-19 are existing. Several therapies, such as remdesivir, ribavirin, and favipiravir, are under investigation and clinical trial. The use of convalescent plasma was recommended as an empirical treatment during outbreaks of the Ebola virus. While the production of vaccines and biotherapies that primarily target SARS-CoV-2 is necessary, the origination of drugs and biological medication can last between months to years, meaning it incapable of benefiting currently infected patients. Accelerated response to this pandemic would be significantly helped by the opportunity to repurpose old medications as novel antiviral medications. This review pays particular attention to the potential of repurposing already existing compounds that may offer new chances for managing people infected with SARS-CoV-2.
 
Healthcare systems are extremely undergoing pressure due to the increasing Covid-19 infection rate. There are several ongoing clinical trials to manage Covid-19, and Pharmaceutical companies claimed that a vaccine would be made available as early as Jan-March, 2021. The lack of an effective treatment and rapidly increasing cases, led many countries to focus on herbal medicines as a potential remedy to fight Covid-19. Natural compounds extracted from different plants have gained attention in the recent years for prevention and treatment for a variety of chronic conditions due to their multi-targeted characteristics. Frankincense gum resin is one among the many traditional natural medicines used in treating cancers, inflammation, respiratory and other chronic diseases. This article reviews the potential effects of Boswellia species gum resin, their extracts, and essential oils against several ailments, with a special focus on the Omani frankincense species B. sacra, which is reported to be anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, immune-modulatory, and antiviral. The manuscript also summaried the reports on the effcts of boswellic acid extracts when taken as a supplement on immune system and potential antiviral properties.
 
Objectives: To analyze of COVID-19 related death cases admitted in a tertiary level dedicated COVID hospital in eastern India from May 2020 to September 2020. Methods: A total of 312 Death cases in COVID-19 patients admitted in IPD of Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata from May, 2020 to September 2020 was enrolled. Data collected were analyzed according to standard statistical methods. Results: Average age of deceased was 57.98 years ± 1.11 and more >60 years of age was 45.6% of all deceased. Average age of males and females were almost similar. 67% of deceased were male and 33% were female. 50.7% of patients survived in hospital less than 24 hours only. 80.7% of deceased had co-morbidities. Diabetes (44.4% of deceased) was the leading among comorbidities followed by hypertension (42% of deceased) and diabetes +hypertension (37.6% of deceased). Amongst deceased 23.5% were smoker and all were male. All patients had shortness of breath (100%) as presenting features and 96.9% had fever and cough each. Diarrhea was present in 23.5% and Anosmia was present in 25.9% of deceased. At admission 90.7% of patients had SpO2 ≤90%, 69.1% of deceased had SpO2≤ 80%. 15% of patients had hypotension (SBP<100 mm of Hg). Tachypnoea (RR>25/min) were present at admission in 53.1% of death cases. Pulse rate > 110/min were present in 42.0% of cases. 33.4% of patients had leukocytosis (>11,000/cmm); whereas only 3.7% of patients had leukopenia. Neutrophil leukocyte ratio > 4 was present in 91.4% of patients. 61.1% of patients had hyponatremia (<135 meq/l). 60.1% of patients had C-reactive protein≥ 50 mg/l. Majority (94.60%) had D-dimer ≥ 1000 ng/ml. Conclusions: It can be observed that more critical and relatively younger patients came at emergency ward with more critical state leading to death within a day in majority. And half of the patients died within a day. A study with longer period of observation and larger sample size can lead to a real representative death analysis.
 
Acinetobacter spp. are bacteria responsible for hospital infections, especially among patients submitted to medical devices like mechanical ventilation and catheters. Severe-ill patients with COVID-19 require hospital care, often in Intensive Care Units. These patients are vulnerable to nosocomial or secondary infections as a consequence of immune system imbalance as a consequence of the acute infection by the SARS-CoV-2. This manuscript aims to analyse the current scientific literature on the impact of infection by species of the genus Acinetobacter concomitant to COVID-19 severe-ill patients. Carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. are prevalent almost worldwide, and strains with resistance to Polymyxin, Colistin and other antibiotics emerge as new threats to critically-ill COVID-19 patients. The context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly the use of empirical antibiotic therapy, may contribute to the selection of opportunistic pathogens and promote an increase of multidrug-resistance profiles, leaving as a legacy the proliferation of populations of Acinetobacter spp. hard to control in the hospital environment for the near future.
 
Population and number of confirmed case COVID-19.
Aim of present study is to analysis disease pattern, treatment and use of advance surveillance technology for controlling and spreading of Covid-19 disease. Europe countries and United States of America are more affected by RNA virus “SAR-Cov-2”. At present number of cases in China is constant and reduced which are nearly 40 cases per day. In United States of America, Covid-19 cases are jumped to 22.8 times within last 18 days which is highest among all Covid-19 cases. The pattern of Covid-19 disease is unique where disease rate is sharply increase or disease within 15-18 days. South Korean’s data showed some stability in number of Civid-19 cases and slightly drop down in numbers which indicated that disease is in control condition but numbers of Covid-19 cases per day are higher than China in present scenario. In case of Russia, confirmed case speed up but death rate is constant. Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine phosphate can be used for treatment of Covid-19 disease. Russia, China, Israel, Singapore and South Korea are using high-tech surveillance system for monitoring the movement of citizen including quarantine person under lockdown condition.
 
Demographic characteristics of the study population.
Prevalence of medical comorbidity and risk factor.
Pre-hospital medication consumption history.
Clinical characteristics of the patients at enrolment.
Haemato-pathological &radiological abnormalities at baseline.
Background: After the emergence of novel coronavirus disease (covid-19), several therapeutic agents of different mechanisms and groups have been tried and evaluated worldwide to reduce the toll of mortality and morbidity. But unfortunately, no such agent was proven beneficial in this regard. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral Favipiraivir in adults who got admitted into hospitals with features of respiratory tract infection and subsequently diagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia by RT-PCR for COVID-19 test. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either Favipiravir (1600mg 12 hourly on day 1, followed by 600 mg 12 hourly daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome of the study was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. Results: We enrolled a total of 100 patients in this study randomly after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria (with 60 assigned to Favipiravir and 40 to placebo). Among the participants who received Favipiravir had an average recovery time of 08 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 07 to 09), as compared with 12.5days (95% CI, 11 to 15) among those who received placebo. The in-hospital mortality was 1.66% with Favipiravir and 05% with placebo by day 15. Though there were some mild to moderate adverse drug reactions in both groups no serious adverse event was reported in any group. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that Favipiravir is superior to placebo in hastening clinical recovery and reducing mortality in hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 disease.
 
Pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites, can cause serious diseases leading to pandemic such as COVID-19 caused by coronavirus. Natural products from medicinal plants may act as suitable weapons to combat such diseases. Terminalia chebula, a famous medicinal plant of Bangladesh commonly known as ‘Haritaki’, was found to be active against viral infections by many investigators. For example, Terminalia chebula was shown to be effective against enterovirus (EC50 10.6 μg/mL). In this review work, it is inferred that screening of medicinal plants, including Terminalia chebula, against a wide range of viral infections may help to develop new drug against viral pandemics like COVID-19.
 
Top-cited authors
Sarah Ali
  • Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Buraydah.
Roshan Telrandhe
  • Dadasaheb Balapande College of Pharmacy, Besa, Nagpur-440034, Maharashtra, India.
Holy Brown
  • Rivers State University of Science and Technology
Gamal Abdul Hamid
  • Aden University
Vivek Sharma
  • Eternal University