E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks

Published by Scientific Research Publishing
Online ISSN: 2167-9525
Schematic of developed mHealth BEAT system. 
List of exercise sets performed by volunteers in BEAT validity study.
BEAT sensor attached to a slipper worn by a healthy volunteer. 
Acceleration data obtained by two sensors during shaker plate test (x axes of accelerometers, 45 Hz rotational speed). 
Physical activity is critical to improve the condition of patients with chronic leg and foot ulcers, especially those who are obese and experienced multiple co-morbid conditions. Unfortunately, these individuals are unable to engage in guideline based physical activity (PA) programs. A prototype of BluetoothTM enabled acceleration tracking (BEAT) mHealth system was developed and manufactured for remote monitoring and stimulation of adherence to PA in deconditioned patients. The system consists of a miniature accelerometer-based sensor, smartphone application, and a network service. Validation testing showed high reliability and reproducibility of the BEAT sensors. Pilot study with human subjects demonstrated high accuracy of the BEAT system in recognition of different exercises and calculating overall outcomes of PA. Taken together, these results indicate that BEAT system could become a valuable tool for realtime monitoring of PA in deconditioned patients.
Method for modelling Biological system [2]. 
This Staphylococcus epidermidis has been discovered as the most frequent germ detected during indwelling medical devices infection. This fact is well attached with the ability of this bacterium to form structured layered population known as biofilm. Inside S. epidermidis biofilm, bacterial cells present more different behavior than in their planktonic counterpart. This paper describes the thriving application of Petri net theory for modeling of interaction between different regulations actors leading S. epidermidis to switch from Planctonik to Biofilm. Indeed this biologic system is very sensible and has dangerous effect. We propose Agent Petri Nets model to describe and analyze the process of formation of Biofilm molecule. This model presents a formal framework based on Multi Agents system characteristics.
To find stimuli for getting young students interested in the primary prevention of cancer and a healthy lifestyle, internet resources have been searched that may motivate and facilitate this study. Teachers interested in teaching this subject can download for free and use them with the method felt as most appropriate; they consist of text, graphs, tables, images, quizzes and an interactive atlas. According to a personal experience, the use of these educational resources helps teachers in teaching and students in learning about cancer prevention. According to the World Health Organisation, cancer is a leading and growing cause of mortality with 10 and 14 million new cases worldwide respectively in 2000 and 2012. Several risk factors have been identified; if they are avoided, more than 30% of the cancers can be prevented. The five most important modifiable risk factors, among many others, are: smoking, alcohol, overweight, physical inactivity, low consumption of vegetables and fruit. Cancer may also have genetic causes or be related to certain infections that are more common in some areas than in others. According to several documents also quoted in this article, numerous behaviours that reduce cancer risk may, at the same time, help to prevent other important diseases. Some of the documents quoted here show the very great difference in cancer incidence and mortality rates often existing between different geographic areas. For example, prostate cancer incidence per 100,000 persons per year is 104.4 in New Zealand, and 3.9 in Chennai, India. Many studies found an increase over time in the incidence of certain cancer types in people that move from countries where their risk is low to countries where their risk is high, thus suggesting the important role of environmental changes and lifestyle. As an example of this, the risk of breast cancer among Hispanic women migrating to US increases with the duration of residence in the immigration country, and becomes up to 4 - 6 times higher after 3 or more generations. This provides an example of what can happen in transitioning countries as a consequence of some lifestyle changes, unless measures are taken.
This paper presents a system with real-time classification of human movements based on smartphone mounted on the waist. The built-in tri-accelerometer was utilized to collect the information of body motion. At the same time, the smartphone is able to classify the data for activity recognition. By our algorithm, body motion can be classified into five different patterns: vertical activity, lying, sitting or static standing, horizontal activity and fall. It alarms falling by Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) with map of suspected fall location, GPS coordinate and time etc. If a fall was suspected, an automatic MMS would be sent to preset people. The major advantage of the proposed system is the novel application of smartphone which already have the necessary sensors and can monitor fall ubiquitously without any additional devices.
eHealth architecture model (eHAM) simplified (ISO/TR 14639-2:2014). 
Models of services, processes and technology are useful tools for conceptualizing complex systems such as healthcare. The application of a component architecture helps illustrate the processes and technologies that are important to the operation of a health service and conceptualize the relationships between each component. Telehealth services are relatively recent and have characteristics that do not fit neatly into established models of health services. This paper analyzes the components used to build a telehealth in the home service in South Australia and the design choices that were taken. The service used commodity-based devices and systems to deliver simple to use, low-cost in the home care. Building on this analysis, the components required in an architectural component model of a telehealth service are identified enabling a provisional architecture for telehealth services to be derived from an existing internationally recognized architectural model for eHealth systems. Situated within the broad family of eHealth architectures, a Telehealth Architectural Model of telehealth processes, software, devices, common systems and ICT infrastructure is proposed that represents the components required to support telehealth and allows for customization of services according to clinical models of care.
Total mood disturbance of female rowing athletes.
Mood states of female rowing athletes with low TMD scores.
The error of different physiological signals. 
Mood states of female rowing athletes with high TMD scores.
Feature extractions of physiological signals. 
Athletes have various emotions before competition, and mood states have impact on the competition results. Recognition of athletes' mood states could help athletes to have better adjustment before competition, which is significant to competition achievements. In this paper, physiological signals of female rowing athletes in pre-and post-competition were collected. Based on the mul-ti-physiological signals related to pre-and post-competition, such as heart rate and respiration rate, features were extracted which had been subtracted the emotion baseline. Then the particle swarm optimization (PSO) was adopted to optimize the feature selection from the feature set, and combined with the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier. Positive mood states and negative mood states were classified by the LS-SVM with PSO feature optimization. The results showed that the classification accuracy by the LS-SVM algorithm combined with PSO and baseline subtraction was better than the condition without baseline subtraction. The combination can contribute to good classification of mood states of rowing athletes, and would be informative to psychological adjustment of athletes.
An electronic (web-based) questionnaire was devised to find out the extent of teleconsultation and e-mail use for patient-provided communications in dentistry. This project was carried out in 2011 inthe health care district of South-Ostrobothnia, in South-Western Finland.The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to all 120 regional dentists, to which 76 replies were obtained (response rate 63%). The responses indicated a surprisingly positive attitude towards teleconsultation. A clear majority of 91% indicated that it could bring additional benefits to the current consultation methods.This study revealed that a slight majority of dentists in the region use e-mail for patient communication and 53% used e-mail for consultation. Approximately 10% use videoconferencing for consultation.The study also revealed that the majority of those who do not yet use electronic consultation are willing to try them out in the future. Security issues are a concern for many dentists. Practically all respondents wish for written instructions on the use of electronic consultation.
In this paper, we introduce a system architecture for a patient centered mobile health monitoring (PCMHM) system that deploys different sensors to determine patients’ activities, medical conditions, and the cause of an emergency event. This system combines and analyzes sensor data to produce the patients’ detailed health information in real-time. A central computational node with data analyzing capability is used for sensor data integration and analysis. In addition to medical sensors, surrounding environmental sensors are also utilized to enhance the interpretation of the data and to improve medical diagnosis. The PCMHM system has the ability to provide on-demand health information of patients via the Internet, track real-time daily activities and patients’ health condition. This system also includes the capability for assessing patients’ posture and fall detection.
The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of studies that used Video Conferencing (VC) intervention for common chronic conditions. Chronic conditions account for the majority of poor health, disability, and death, and for a major portion of health-care expenditures in the United States. Innovative methods and interventions are needed to enhance care and management, improve access to care, improve patient outcomes, narrow health disparities and reduce healthcare costs. Video Conferencing could be particularly relevant in improving health, care management, access and cost in the care of chronic illnesses. A comprehensive literature search process guided by the PRISMA statement led to the inclusion of 27 articles measuring video conferencing, at least one chronic illness, and patient outcomes for adults living in a community setting. While VC has been found to be feasible and effective, a low number of randomized controlled trials limit evidence. In addition, studies in this review were not designed to address the question of whether access to care in rural areas is improved through VC. Hence, more research is needed.
Projection of individuals affected by dementia in Mexico, 2010-2050 [1].
Mental model of the behavior of the reactive interface.
Secondary mental model of the behavior of the reactive interface.
Cognitive structure of emotions of the behavior in completing the therapy.
Dementia is a syndrome of chronic and progressive nature, characterized by the deterioration of cognitive functions and behavior, which causes a disability and dependence on others. Alzheimer’s Disease is a type of dementia that affects cognitive functioning, behavior, and overall functionality of those who suffer from the irremediably progressive form, as it is a neurodegenerative disease. For this reason, development of a reactive interface is proposed to be inserted in a cognitive stimulation program. This program offers a series of exercises of mental functions, in order to delay or slow down the progress of this illness. The reactive interface allows access to these exercises and incorporates a user profile that predicts the possible emotions that may be experienced during the work sessions. In order to accomplish this, a cognitive structure of emotions is developed to be included in the reactive profile. This will allow enhancement of the interaction between the system and the patient. The user’s emotional state may interfere, considering within the design stage the phenomenon of altered consciousness during this degenerative process. The consciousness represents the interface of human beings with our environment. This proposal allows us to obtain information related to the user’s emotional state during the performance of specific cognitive tasks, permitting us to optimize the proposed stimulation activities.
Total energy consumption versus duty-cycle with 
Energy minimization is an important goal in wireless implanted communication devices. In this context, a cross-layer method is used to optimize parameters in different layers of OSI model, but, there are still several challenges affecting the optimization algorithm. The first point is the accurate energy model, and the second point is the suitable channel model exclude traditional free space channel model. In this paper, we establish a system level accurate energy consumption model and build a suitable channel model for implanted communication devices; analysis the energy-constrained duty cycle optimization with a cross-layer method. Simulation results reveal that adaptive duty cycle to minimize the energy consumption of the wireless implanted communication system is implemented based on accurate energy consumption model and channel model. Simulation results show a good performance on energy saving.
Platform compatibility matrix for solution plugins. 
Solution interoperability. 
In comparison with almost universal adoption of telephony and mobile technologies in modern day healthcare, video conferencing has yet to become a ubiquitous clinical tool. Currently telehealth services are faced with a bewildering range of video conferencing software and hardware choices. This paper provides a case study in the selection of video conferencing services by the Flinders University Telehealth in the Home trial (FTH Trial) to support healthcare in the home. Using pragmatic methods, video conferencing solutions available on the market were assessed for usability, reliability, cost, compatibility, interoperability, performance and privacy considerations. The process of elimination through which the eventual solution was chosen, the selection criteria used for each requirement and the corresponding results are described. The resulting product set, although functional, had restricted ability to directly connect with systems used by healthcare providers elsewhere in the system. This outcome illustrates the impact on one small telehealth provider of the broader struggles between competing video conferencing vendors. At stake is the ability to communicate between healthcare organizations and provide public access to healthcare. Comparison of the current state of the video conferencing market place with the evolution of the telephony system reveals that video conferencing still has a long way to go before it can be considered as easy to use as the telephone. Health organizations that are concerned to improve access and quality of care should seek to influence greater standardization and interoperability though cooperation with one another, the private sector, international organizations and by encouraging governments to play a more active role in this sphere.
Elderly inhabitants have a strong influence to healthcare facilities globally in the last few years as a result of the high demand on the healthcare services and the gap between the services provided by caregivers and the increasing number of older people. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies have been increasingly adopted in smart homes and used widely for indoor localisation. These technologies have been benefiting to healthcare domain where they improve the quality of services delivering by healthcare providers. This article presents a comprehensive review on RFID systems and healthcare research works in smart homes. We also compare RFID-based solutions in healthcare and distinguish challenges of smart home technologies in indoor environment. We also discuss research challenges related to Activity in Daily Living (ADL) in smart homes for wellbeing.
Classification of DL models according to the characteristics and tasks for which they were designed. Acronyms: Deep Network of Beliefs (DBN), Deep Network of Distribution and Target, Deep Info Max (DIM), AutoEnconder (AE), Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), Tensor Deep Stacking Network (TDSN), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Visual Geometry Group Network (VGG Net), Deep Layers Network (GoogLeNet), Fully Convolutional Network (U-Net), Residual Neural Network (ResNet), Deep Segmentation-Emendation Network (SegNet), Region Proposal Net (RPN), You Only Look Once (YOLO), Deep Triage (DT), deep learning-based algorithmic framework (DeepSEA), Holistically-Nested Edge Detection (HED), Graph Convolutional Natural Net (GCNN), Recurent Neuronal Network (RNN), Deep Dynamic Neural Network (Deep Care), Gated Recurrent Network (GRN), Recurrsive RNN (RvNNs), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Bidirectional RNN (BRNN), Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM).
Abstract Deep learning (DL) has seen an exponential development in recent years, with major impact in many medical fields, especially in the field of medical image. The purpose of the work converges in determining the importance of each component, describing the specificity and correlations of these elements involved in achieving the precision of interpretation of medical images using DL. The major contribution of this work is primarily to the updated characterisation of the characteristics of the constituent elements of the deep learning process, scientific data, methods of knowledge incorporation, DL models according to the objectives for which they were designed and the presentation of medical applications in accordance with these tasks. Secondly, it describes the specific correlations between the quality, type and volume of data, the deep learning patterns used in the interpretation of diagnostic medical images and their applications in medicine. Finally presents problems and directions of future research. Data quality and volume, annotations and labels, identification and automatic extraction of specific medical terms can help deep learning models perform image analysis tasks. Moreover, the development of models capable of extracting unattended features and easily incorporated into the architecture of DL networks and the development of techniques to search for a certain network architecture according to the objectives set lead to performance in the interpretation of medical images.
Adopted safety measures.
Prevalence of ringing delusion.
The exponential application of mobile technology has led to a concern about implications of electromagnetic radiation on human health. As we are aware that mobile phone radiates EMR when users communicate to others and that time subscribers of the device are regularly exposed nearby 40% - 50% of total mobile irradiation. We analyzed the risk of ”Ringing Delusion” among normal users, moderate users and heavy users when compared to low users. Although the ”Ringing Delusion” has not been added in medical terminology but we found frequently such kind of symptoms among mobile phone users. ”Ringing Delusion” may be considered as an imagination of ringing voice from cellular phone. The risk was also compared between urban and rural, male and female and adult and children population. The information was gathered through well designed questionnaires for cellular user's demographic and social characteristics, adopted safety measures and calling duration. Prevalence of ”Ringing Delusion” among rural users was higher than the urban users. A trend for the risk was also observed in male users in comparison to female. Study may support innovators to re-examine health effects of mobile phones.
Brief platform comparison. 
Median for AFP, hCG and uE3 for each genetic group [16]. 
Deviation range in a healthy population [32]. 
Through engineering projects, we have integrated software engineering, geographical information systems and HL7 standard to propose a model of an eHealth management platform for Down’s syndrome screening, replicable in all the country. It will use real time sample information acquired from the local population and will geographically reference this information in the territory of Panama for future research.
SHIMMER connect software. 
Captured ECG signal using MATLAB. 
Biomedical applications of body area networks (BANs) are evolving, where taking periodic medical readings of patients via means wireless technologies at home or in the office will aid physicians to periodically supervise the patient’s medical status without having to see the patient. Thus, one important objective of BANs is to provide the doctor with the medical readings that can be collected electronically without being in close proximity to the patient. This is done through the measurement of the patient’s physiological signals via means of wearable sensors. This paper investigates wireless BAN cooperation via actual measurements of human movement kinematics and electrocardiogram (ECG), which are believed to provide patients with easy healthcare for continuous health-monitoring. The collected information will be processed using specially designed software, which in turn will enable the patient to send a full medical chart to the physician’s electronic device. In this way, physicians will have the ability to monitor their patients more efficiently.
Summary of intervention results classified according to technology or device installed.
Objective:The main objective of this project was to studyhow to secure the wandering of elderly persons diagnosed with dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease by using healthcare technologies. Methods:The study was carried out during a three-year period (2008-2011) in the region of South Ostrobothnia, Finland. Thirty-two elderly persons living at home and diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease participated in the study. The ages of the intervention group ranged from 66 to 90 years; the average age was 81 years. A total of 63 different home care devices including 24 location based technologies were tested during the intervention.The choice of technology used was based on the individual needs of the elderly person. Results:Participants with mild stage memory impairment were able to use and benefit from the technology installed during the intervention to live more independently.The most useful devices were those that operated within the home. Nine of ten users of door alarm systems, five of nine users of GPS systems and all users of GSM systems were satisfied with the technologies. Conclusions:Location based alarm and access control technology can have a positive impact on the lives of elderly persons suffering from dementia. When chosen appropriately, technology can help to reduce or eliminate the wandering often associated with dementia.Regardless of the technology used, it should be installed when the elderly person is at the early stages of dementia; at later stages of the disease it is usually impossible for the elderly to adequately adopt the device.
ZigBee and Wifi protocol main parameters. 
The wide diffusion of healthcare monitoring systems allows continuous patient to be remotely monitored and diagnosed by doctors. The problem of congestion, namely due to the uncontrolled increase of traffic with respect to the network capacity, is one of the most common phenomena affecting the reliability of transmission of information in any network. The aim of the paper is to build a realistic simulation environment for healthcare system including some of the main vital signs model, wireless sensor and mesh network protocols implementation. The simulator environment is an efficient mean to analyze and evaluate in a realistic scenario the healthcare system performance in terms of reliability and efficiency.
Mobile Device with software. 
PPG Analysis for 3-in-1 monitor. 
M-health, which is known as the practice of medical and public health supported by mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs for delivering medical and healthcare services, is currently being heavily developed to keep pace with the continuously rising demand for personalized healthcare. To this end, the MobiHealthcare system, which provides a personalized healthcare based on body sensor network, is developed. The system includes various body sensors to collect physiological signals specifically for different requirements, a cell phone to facilitate the joint processing of spatially and temporally collected medical data from different parts of the body for resource optimization and systematic health monitoring, a server cluster with great data storage capacity, powerful analysis capabilities to provide data storage, data mining and visualization. Compared with existing M-Health system, the MobiHealthcare system is characteristics of low coupling and powerful parallel computing capabilities. Various healthcare applications have been implemented in the proposed system to demonstrate its effectiveness in providing a powerful platform.
Movement of ZED and ZR.
Movement communication area of ZED.
Route of the ZED in our experiment.
Images of the ZED and the ZR devices (IMI-Z-M-001).
This paper proposes a scheme to obtain location and vital health information using ZigBee system. ZigBee systems are wireless communication systems defined by IEEE 802.154. In the proposed scheme, location information is obtained using the Link Quality Indication (LQI) function of a ZigBee system, which represents the received signal strength. And, the vital health information are collected from the electrocardiogram monitor, the pulse and blood pressure device, attached to the patient’s body. This information is then transmitted to an outside network by ZigBee systems. In this way, vital health information can be transmitted as ZigBee sensor data while patients with the ZigBee terminal are moving. In the experiments using actual ZigBee devices, the proposed scheme could obtain accurate location and vital health information from the sensor data. Moreover, to achieve high reliability in the actual service, the collected amount of sensor data was confirmed by the theoretic calculation, when a ZigBee terminal passed through ZigBee routers. These results indicate that the proposed scheme can be used to detect the accurate location of the ZigBee terminal. And over 99% of the sensor data on vital health information was obtained when the ZigBee terminal passed through approximately four ZigBee routers.
Physical characteristics of subjects. 
Results of comparison of the degree of correlation between the two devices. 
Results from the ANOVA analysis with repeated data. 
Results from the linear regressions with mixed data method. 
Physical effort and its duration for each level. 
Research has proven the importance of cooling garments in reducing heat stress, especially for workers in extreme environments. The currently available cooling capacity of these garments should be controlled for improving their efficiency and autonomy. In this study, we investigated the Hexoskin wearable biometric shirt’s capacity to monitor heart rate. Twelve male volunteers wore a Hexoskin biometric shirt and Polar® H7 heart rate sensor and they completed two identical tests under two different climate conditions (25˚C ± 0.5˚C; 39% ± 1% relative humidity and 31˚C ± 0.5˚C; 60% ± 1% relative humidity). The results from four different statistical methods show a high correlation and an absence of significant differences between the Polar® and Hexoskin systems in monitoring the subjects’ heart rates. The Hexoskin wearable biometric shirt can be used to monitor the heart rate of humans in moderate or hot and humid climates under variable physical activities, regardless of their age, weight or height.
Perceptions of undergraduate students on the impact of the use of m-Health app*.
T test for paired sample of m-Health app use.
This study aims to explore the Sultan Qaboos University undergraduate stu-dents' perceptions and attitudes towards using m-Health app and its impact on improving their sports and health habits. Triangulation was used by applying a questionnaire and focus groups interviews to answer the research questions. The survey sample was (20) male and female students from four science and humanities colleges. Both quantitative and qualitative findings unequivocally reveal the students' positive perceptions and attitudes toward the use of the mobile health app. No statistically significant differences were found between the responses of either males or females, or the science and humanitarian colleges of the sample students. In light of these findings, the study set forth its conclusions and recommendations.
Top-cited authors
Kyriaki G. Giota
  • University of Thessaly
George Kleftaras
  • University of Thessaly
R.M. Kapila Tharanga Rathnayaka
  • Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
Chady Al Sayed
  • Université de Sherbrooke
Stéphane Hallé
  • École de Technologie Supérieure