Drustvena istrazivanja: Journal for General Social Issues

Print ISSN: 1330-0288
Publications
This chapter presents an overview of the authors’ work on age differences in children’s metacognition and reading comprehension during upper elementary and high school (9–17-years old) in Croatia, with an emphasis on gender differences. The focus was placed on upper elementary school as a crucial period for the development of metacognition in the domain of reading comprehension. In the first and the second part we draw on the literature supporting the developmental effects on metacognition and reading skill, as well as gender differences in reading comprehension. In the third part the results of several studies conducted by the authors are presented, followed by discussion on obtained age and gender differences. The findings indicated that the importance of metacognition for text comprehension intensified with age with a noticeable increase in this effect in the transition from lower to upper elementary school (after about 10 years of age). However, metacognition also played an important role in reading comprehension during high school. The pattern of age differences varied across components of metacognition. The effect of gender on metacognition in reading was mainly evident from the better performance of girls on the comprehension monitoring tasks. Finally, implications for education are discussed.
 
In this paper the authors examine the changes in the expressed degree of national pride and national attachment by comparing the results of surveys conducted on the Croatian representative sample in 1998 and 2002. Both surveys also examined the respondents' evaluation of the general situation in Croatia, their perception of major problems and achievements and satisfaction with the realization of Croatia's major goals. The results indicate that with the increase of pessimism and more negative evaluation of the situation in Croatia in 2002 there is also a decline in the expressed degree of national pride. However, a majority of Croatian citizens still expresses strong and positive national sentiments that spring mostly from Croatia's significant achievements in sports, national history and armed forces, and achievements in art and literature. On the other hand, results of both surveys show that the economic and political achievements of Croatia do not elicit feelings of national pride, most probably due to lasting economic, social and political problems of the country. The examined differences in the expressed national pride with regard to sociodemographic characteristics confirm previous results: national pride is significantly lower in members of the younger generation, those who are better educated, and in urban residents.
 
This study examines the relationship between some family variables and cigarette, alcohol and drug abuse. Differences between adolescent boys and adolescent girls, according to the family variables used, were also researched. The sample included 1 258 boys and 1 538 girls from all areas of Croatia. The adolescents described their family structures, the degree of family cohesion, parental social support, and family interaction (family activities and leisure time spent with family). They also described their use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs during their lives. The results show that, when compared to adolescents from single parent families, both boys and girls whose parents are married feel that they receive more parental social support. While adolescent boys do not make a distinction in their evaluation of family cohesion, adolescent girls whose parents are married evaluate family cohesion better than adolescent girls from single parent families. The family interaction scale showed a statistically significant difference only for the boy sample, on the subscale of leisure time spent with family. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted on both adolescent boy and adolescent girl samples with three types of substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs) as criterion variables, and four subscales of family functioning as predictors. Family variables are related to adolescent cigarette, alcohol and drug use, but predictive factors vary according to the gender of the participant. The results are discussed in relation to different socialization patterns of adolescent boys and adolescent girls.
 
The aim of the research was to examine the incidence and characteristics of smoking tobacco, alcohol consumption and the abuse of different types of drugs among Croatian youth. The research was conducted on a representative sample (N=2 823) of Croatian high school students. A comprehensive questionnaire was devised for examining the frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and abuse of various drugs along with the characteristics of the examinees and their families. The results were analysed with regard to age and gender differences regarding the frequency of substance abuse. During their lives 21.2% of high school students tried drugs, and a total of one fourth of those who tried drugs did it by the age of fifteen. The abuse of drugs is most widespread in the southern coastal area of Croatia, and in the City of Zagreb and northern coastal area. Within the month preceding the research, 62.2% of students consumed alcohol, 47.1% had successively five or more drinks in a day. Four fifths of the students smoked cigarettes once or twice in their lives, half of them in the last month, and one third of them smoke daily. Older students, as well as male students, use substances more often. Younger generations start experimenting with drugs, drinking alcohol and smoking regularly at an earlier age. In the discussion the results are compared with data from similar research in other European cities.
 
The aim of this study was to examine the relations of the quality of school life (QSL) with students’ academic achievement, motivation and inappropriate behaviors in school. The sample included 4999 fifth- to eighth-grade primary school students. The participants completed an adapted version of the QSL questionnaire, self-report measures of their goal orientations towards learning and scales assessing the frequency of truancy and discipline problems. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with academic achievement, goal orientations, truancy and discipline as criterion variables and students’ gender, age and QSL variables as predictors. Significant predictors of students’ academic success were stronger sense of school competence and less negative feelings about the school. Students with higher learning goal-orientation were more satisfied with their school and perceived it as a place where learning is fun. Performance-oriented students valued more a sense of achievement and had more negative feelings about the school. Students’ perceptions of the opportunity for future they get from schooling were significant predictors of both goal orientations. Students who are more truant perceive schooling as less relevant for their future and experience more negative feelings in school. Students who misbehave less frequently perceive learning as adventure, rate their relationships with teachers more favorably, but also consider themselves less socially integrated in schools. A stronger sense of school competence was a significant predictor of less frequent inappropriate behaviors. The implications of these findings for creating a stimulating school environment are discussed.
 
The aim of the present research was to examine whether parental child-rearing practices are related to different styles of children's leisure-time activities and to find out which aspects of parental behaviour and after school activities are related to children's school achievement and substance use. The research was carried out on a representative sample of 2 823 Croatian high school students. The participants completed scales that measured parental support, monitoring and joint decision-making. Adolescent's school achievement, leisure-time activities and self-reported alcohol and drug use were also measured. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with school achievement, alcohol and drug use as criterion variables and sociodemographic variables as covariates followed by parenting practices and leisure-time activities as groups of predictor variables. Parental monitoring was the only variable among various parenting practices that significantly predicted positive and negative aspects of adolescent behaviour. Lower monitoring was related to lower school achievement and more frequent substance use. Besides lower parental monitoring, inadequate support from the same sex parent was a significant predictor of drug use among adolescents. An unorganised pattern of after school activities named ''going out and having fun'' was the most significant predictor of a lower school achievement and more frequent substance use, while adolescents' involvement in creative and extracurricular activities and higher interest in reading and cultural activities was related to a higher school achievement. Additional analyses revealed that parents influence adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indirectly, by directing their children into various after school activities. The results are discussed in accordance with theoretical models that point out to the joint influence of parents and peers in adolescent psychosocial development.
 
The aim of this study was to examine which aspects of parentadolescent relations contribute to the quality of adolescentpeer relations. Five hundred and eight families participated in the study. The sample consisted of 969 parents (502 mothers and 467 fathers) and 508 children (254 females and 254 males), 12 to 18 years old. Parents were administered questionnaires measuring parent-child relationship, while adolescents completed questionnaires measuring their relationship towards peers. Several aspects of the quality of parent-child relations were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. The findings suggested that a distinction should be made between two aspects of adolescents' relationship with peers: involvement with peers (defined as the degree of activities with peers and friendships which are more superficial in nature) and the quality of the relationship with peers (defined as perceived social acceptance and attachment to peers). Different aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship predicted involvement with peers and the quality of peer relations. Parental acceptance and monitoring of the child appeared to be the most important predictors of the adolescent- peer relations. Parental acceptance of the child was associated with a higher quality of the relationship with peers, while low monitoring of the adolescents' activities was associated with a higher involvement with peers. Results also indicated that mothers' and fathers' child-rearing practices related in a similar way to the adolescent-peer relations.
 
Means and standard deviations of all the variables for thewhole sample and samples of girls and boys
Summary results of the setwise hierarchical multiple regression of self-reported altruism scores: The model including sets of all the control and predictor variables and their interactions
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between adolescents' empathy and maturity of moral reasoning with their self-reported prosocial behaviour. Fourteenyear- oldadolescents (N=311) were administered scales measuring emotional empathy, fantasy and prosocial behaviour. Kohlberg's structured moral dilemmas were used to measure moral jUdgement maturity. Data were analysed by means of a hierarchical regression analysis with emotional empathy, fantasy and moral reasoning and their interactions as predictors and prosocial behavior as a criterion variable. Intelligence, social desirability tendencies and sex of subjects were taken as control variables. The results showed that higher prosocial behaviour could be best explained by higher emotional empathy. Moral reasoning was not related to prosocial behaviour. Significant interaction of moral maturity and emotional empathy was found showing that the correlation of empathy and prosocial behaviour was stronger at higher levels of moral reasoning. Significant sex differences in prosocial behaviour were also found. Additional analysis indicated that girls were found to be more altruistic than boys due to their higher emotional empathy. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the current debate on the role of moral cognitions and moral affects in determining moral behaviour.
 
Interaction effect of perceived family economic status and adolescents' global self-worth on satisfaction with life  
Interaction effect of perceived family economic status and close friend's support on adolescents' satisfaction with life
In this research we aimed to determine to what extent socio-demographic variables, subjective material well-being, aspects of social relationships and personal resources predict adolescents' life satisfaction. The study included a representative sample of 2823 Croatian high school students. The participants completed scales measuring their perception of parental child-rearing practices, family cohesion, support from a close friend and global self-worth. The structured questions were used to assess students' global satisfaction with life, perception of economic status of their family and socio-demographic variables. The results of multiple regression analyses showed that adolescents' life satisfaction could be best explained by their higher self-esteem, family cohesion and parental support, and higher perceived material well-being. Significant interaction effects were also found which indicate that self-esteem and support from a close friend moderate negative effects of perceived material disadvantage on adolescents' life satisfaction.
 
The aim of this investigation was to determine whether pupils could be classified into groups based on their leisure activities and to study the relationship between leisure activities and coping strategies that pupils use when confronted with academic stress. The School Failure Coping Scale and Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire were administrated to 455 elementary school and high school pupils. A cluster analysis, used to classify pupils based on their responses to the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire, suggested four interpretable clusters. The first cluster consists of pupils who spend most of their leisure time going out and having fun. They are older pupils with low school grades and low scores on the problem solving coping scale. The second cluster consists of pupils who have low scores on all leisure activities. They are younger pupils with better school grades and low scores on the social support and forgetting coping scales. The third cluster consists of pupils who read books and go to the theater during their leisure time. They are older pupils with average grades, high scores on the social support coping scale and low scores on the forgetting coping scale. The fourth cluster consists of pupils who are least likely to engage in socially undesirable forms of relaxation and spend most of their leisure time in different sport activities. They are the youngest pupils with best school grades and high scores on all the coping scales except the emotional reactions coping scale.
 
The aim of this research was to examine the occurrence and characteristics of alcohol abuse among adolescents and to determine which factors could best explain students’ drinking habits and the maladjusted behaviour due to alcohol abuse. The research was conducted on a representative sample (N=4841) of first-grade high-school students in Croatia. An extensive questionnaire was used examining the frequency and modes of alcohol abuse as well as the examinees’ characteristics of behaviour and experience. The results demonstrate that alcohol abuse among high-school students is a frequent practice. Almost 80% of the examined students have drunk at least once in their lives, and almost half of them state they have had alcoholic drinks in the last 30 days. Furthermore, there is a considerable number of those who have in the intervals mentioned been under a strong influence of alcohol. The data generally indicate that students start drinking alcoholic beverages already in elementary school and that by the beginning of high school their drinking habits become very pronounced indeed. In order to clarify students’ drinking habits, the correlations of alcohol-drinking frequency variables have been calculated, intoxication in life and problems of behaviour due to alcohol abuse (criterion variables) with sociodemographic variables (gender, school-type, socio-educational status of parents), students’ school success, absence from classes and estimates of the occurrence of alcohol abuse and intoxication among the students’ friends. The results were processed by graded regression analyses. As the most important predictors of the criteria of alcohol abuse, intoxication and problems of behaviour due to alcohol abuse, in both samples of male and female students, a more positive (yielding) attitude towards alcohol is expressed, as well as poorer results in school, truancy and association with peers who drink extensively. The research results indicate that the more frequent and intensive use of alcohol is by and large a social activity to be associated with unacceptable behaviour and poorer school results.
 
Speed of human information processing (SIP) is a research construct which has been examined under different names and with different intensity for more than sixty years. Its importance is briefly described in four research fields: differential, experimental, aging and cognitive development. Since SIP presents an important component of contemporary intelligence models and life-span cognitive development research, an attempt for the construction of an integrated SIP picture was necessary. Review and systematic analysis of 42 research papers and additional related literature showed that there are problems with the validity of the SIP construct, but it also revealed other theoretical and empirical inconsistencies. A new proposal for SIP phenomena has been made, which abandons the SIP construct with related measures, and introduces the RCP property as one of the general attributes of every cognitive process.
 
In the paper the authors try to establish the differences between persons with lower and higher self-esteem in a number of measures covering certain aspects of the social evaluation construct and processes connected to it such as self-presentation. In the research 281 examinees participated, while a total of nine frequently used scales for assessment of certain aspects of social evaluation were used. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to speak of a considerably consistent difference between persons with lower and higher self-esteem, when social evaluation is concerned, and furthermore, persons with lower self-esteem indicate to a much greater extent the fear for resulting processes of social evaluation than persons with higher self-esteem.
 
In this text the authors challenge and critically assess some of the theses presented in the article of sociologist Vjeran Katunari} "To Be Worth and to Cost: Social-Cultural Prerequisites of Transition in the Recent Works of the Croatian Economists", who defined three approaches to classify the recent works of selected Croatian economists. The authors attempt to prove that exclusive separation and examining of the ideological foundations might not be a good starting point for the classification of the economists as it overlooks some other more important differences and possible classification criteria related to the subjects, theories and methodology of the analyses. Although it is indisputable that economics is not immune to ideological influences, the authors elaborate why overemphasising such an influence as the only criteria for classification might give a totally distorted picture of the present economic thought and its achievements. The authors argue that the differences among economists according to the subjects, theories and methodology are far more important and not always ideologically charged, and thus present better classification criteria which ought to be used in some future classifications of Croatian economists. The authors touch upon the methodological difficulties in creation of classification groups of the selected Croatian economists, which are the most profound in the group of "relativists" and especially review the faults in the classification of the first two groups (neoliberal reductionists and neoinstitutionalists). Following Katunari}'s framework of analysis, they use the discussion on the classification as the impetus for analysing key social and historical questions such as why socialism did not work out and what is the relation between ideology and economic policy in the functioning and development of the market. In conclusion the authors emphasise the need for interdisciplinary dialogue in revealing the mechanisms of influence of "non-economic" variables on economic results and behaviour of key economic agents on the market.
 
Based on Elias' theory of civilization we have analyzed the relation of contemporary communities regarding the right of public personalities (the president of a country) to the privacy of information concerning their health. What is the attitude of the doctor to contemporary bioethical principles? The answer to this question has been sought for in a comparative cross-national analysis of illnesses of the French president Francois Mitterand, the German chancellor Helmut Kohl and a few presidentiai candidates and presidents of the United States (Bob Dole, Dwight Eisenhower, T.D. Roosevelt, J.E Kennedy ...) The patterns of revealing medical secrets in cases of leading statesmen are recognizable: 1. Retrospective studies of illnesses of leading politicians (illnesses, diagnoses, therapy, causes of death - studies of the illness and death of Francois Mitterand and Hubert Humphrey). 2. Ad hoc statements of hazardous health conditions (the attack on Ronald Reagan, B. Jelcin's heart attack, H. Kohl's prostate gland surgery) 3. Prognoses of the expected health condition of presidentiai candidates serving as a source of information for voters at the oncoming presidentiai elections (Bob Dole, Bill Clinton). The study of described cases indicates that the conduct of doctors in revealing statesmen's health secrets does not fit into the medical deontology codex, nor does it follow the bioethical recommendations of the World Health Organization.
 
In spite of the fact that war and armed conflicts are mostly the cause of an immense number of refugees throughout the world, the international community uses legal definitions of the refugee status based on the concept of individual persecution, which do not include this form of exile. International organizations have refrained from defining the cause due to which people are forced to leave their homes, because they wanted to act as non-political, strictly humanitarian factors. More recent considerations of the refugee issue worldwide indicate that dealing with this problem from a purely humanitarian viewpoint is inadequate, because it neglects the basic question of war and peace, Le. conditions which give rise to a mass exodus of people. Authors analyze the basic socio-demographic characteristics of the refugee population in Croatia. An analysis is proposed, according to the most relevant characteristics, which could help organize aid and the return of refugees to their abandoned homes with more success. Comparison of the national structure of displaced persons from occupied territories with the national structure of inhabitants from the same regions before the war, indicates that in these areas ethnic cleansing of the non-Serbian population took place. The problems of displaced persons and refugees in Croatia are considered within the framework of new approaches in dealing with the refugee problem worldwide, according to which it is necessary in the first place to clearly define aggression and war as the cause of exile, and then undertake political, and not only humanitarian initiatives for solving this problem.
 
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of potential risk factors and protective factors on parents' psychological well-being and child-rearing practices. Data about socio-demographic variables, financial stress, depressive symptoms, perceived social support and parental practices (support, monitoring, involvement and joint decision-making) were collected from mothers and fathers from 287 two-parent and 283 lone-parent families. The results showed that financial hardship was the main predictor of parental depression and that parents who were more depressed were less involved in child-rearing, knew less about children's daily activities and provided children with less support. The influence of social support on parental practices was found to differ according to type of support. Instrumental support to parents contributed to higher parental support, monitoring and joint decision-making while emotional support from friends contributed to higher involvement in child-rearing. Support from friends and instrumental support moderated negative influence of financial stress and depression on parental monitoring.
 
In the paper different aspects of boys' and girls' selfconceptions in early adolescence are examined. The main objective of this research was to determine the relationship between the perceived social support from different sources (parents, teachers, friends, classmates) and global self-worth as well as various self-concept dimensions (scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioural conduct). The research was conducted on a sample of 340 sixth and seventh-grade primary school pupils. Stubjects were administered adapted versions of Harter’s (1985) scales measuring different self-concept and social support dimensions. Boys show significantly higher results on global self-worth, physical appearance and scholastic competence scales. Girls estimate that they are getting more social support from their parents and friends than boys. Separate hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on the results for the boys and girls samples with self-concept dimensions and global self-worth as criterion variables and various sources of perceived social support as predictor variables. The results indicate that perceived social support from classmates and/or friends significantly contributes to higher self-evaluations in all examined self-concept dimensions. Parental support is a significant predictor of greater global self-worth ratings, while perceived support from teacher significantly contributes to the more positive behavioural conduct ratings. The findings of this research also point out that the support of adults (parents and teachers) is more important for the development of girls’ self-evaluations. In the discussion the results obtained are analysed with regard to different socialization patterns for boys and girls.
 
Worldwide research of the effects of pornography use on attitudes and behavior has predominantly been of microscopic and experimental nature, with considerably less studies based upon "macro" perspectives and involving mid- -range theories. One such approach focuses on the dynamics of sex crime during a time span sufficiently long to cover transition from pornographic scarcity to abundance of easily available sexually explicit material (the dynamics of sexual crime is controlled by the dynamics of the comparable non- -sexual crime). This paper implements "the public crime statistics approach" to the case of Croatia. The time range of tracking and comparing temporal trends of the aggravated -sexual and non-sexual crime (rape and sexual assault versus murder and assault) spans from 1978, through 2003. Comparable to all the national studies conducted so far, the results do not support the notion of significant and independent increase in sex crime conditioned by the increase in pornography availability, but rather indicate (in the case of Croatia) certain structural causes that determine somewhat matching trends both of sexual and non-sexual violence.
 
The paper investigates the institutional framework to support knowledge transfer in Slovenia and Croatia. In transition economies knowledge transfer is subject to several sources of market failure which provides a justification for government intervention. The success of these policies also depends upon the ability of academic institutions and the business sector to collaborate in technology networks, innovation clusters and the mobility of researchers between the two sectors. The paper first surveys the innovation capacity of the two countries and concludes that although the overall level of innovative activity is above that of the new EU member states, it is highly skewed in both countries towards the public sector in research institutes and universities. The paper goes to review the knowledge transfer policies, institutional framework, and policy outcomes in the two countries. The paper concludes, firstly, that policies to support technology parks and business incubators have failed to generate much spin-off activity in either country. Secondly, Slovenia has been relatively more successful in its policies to develop technology networks, innovation clusters than similar policies in Croatia. This suggests that the gradual development of social capital and trust between the actors within clusters and networks is an important factor in overcoming the market failures associated with knowledge transfer.
 
The aim of this study was to explore to what extent effectiveness of primary schools can be explained by certain school characteristics, as well as to define the best determinants of school effectiveness. A total of 844 regular primary schools in the Republic of Croatia participated in the study, and 94,428 4th and 8th grade pupils were examined. Fourth-grade pupils completed objective tests in Croatian, Math, Science, integration of knowledge in different subjects and first foreign language, and eighth-grade pupils completed exams in Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Geography, History, integration of knowledge in science and social subjects, Croatian and first foreign language. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with average achievement of schools in 4th and 8th grades as criterions and different sets of school characteristics as predictors, which included school size, characteristics of status, management, program and teaching and school climate indicators. Results show that school effectiveness at the end of 4th and 8th grade can be explained by the examined characteristics, and their explanatory power was greater in 4th grade. The majority of characteristics pertaining to status, program and teaching contribute significantly to the explanation of school effectiveness, and characteristics pertaining to basic administrative and status determinants of school functioning have the greatest predictive strength. The implications of these findings in the context of explaining and improving school effectiveness in attainment of educational goals are discussed.
 
The paper deals with research of the importance of certain characteristics that Croatian voters are requiring of politicians filling the highest positions in the Republic of Croatia. The results presented are based on data collected through research of public opinion carried out by the Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, which included a representative sample of the Croatian adult population (N=1248) on the eve of the 2003 Parliamentary Elections (Lamza Posavec et al., 2003). The citizens ranked honesty first, then the level of education and patriotism, while characteristics such as compliance, attractive physical appearance and gender affiliation are ranked as the least important ones. According to the research, three broader dimensions could be discerned from the basic characteristics, those reflecting the public appearance of politicians, their representation of traditional and political values and their qualities as private persons. All the comparisons and testings indicated that different social and political groups require equally of the politician to have explicit personal qualities, while they differ amongst themselves in the importance they give to public appearance and the degree of representation of traditional and political values in political life.
 
The aim of our research was to investigate the prevalence of fear of school and between peer victimization in Croatian primary schools and to determine possible gender and age differences. An additional aim was to try to predict how fear of school and victimization are related to students’ personal characteristics such as self-esteem, social and organizational skills. The sample included 4999 fifth- to eighth-grade primary school students from 49 Croatian schools. The results show gender and age differences in the presence of fear of school that point to girls and older students experiencing more fear. The significant interaction effect shows that most experiences of fear of school can be found in older girls. The obtained gender and age differences in peer victimization point to boys and younger students reporting more experiences of victimization, and significant interaction effect shows that younger boys are the group most exposed to peer harassment. The hierarchical regression analyses show that fear of school can be significantly predicted based on students’ self-esteem, while peer victimization can be predicted based on student’s self- -esteem as well as their social skills. Students with more self- -esteem experience less fear of school, and students who have better social skills as well as more self-esteem are less likely to be victimized by peers. Practical implications of the findings are considered for development of prevention programs in the school setting.
 
The general purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-esteem in the relationship between Big Five personality traits, measured with the Big Five Inventory (John and Srivastava, 1999), and nonverbal social skills: emotional expressiveness, emotional sensitivity and emotional control, measured with the Social Skills Inventory (Riggio, 1986). The participants in this study were 303 students of Zagreb University. The results revealed the significant predictive power of Big Five personality dimensions on nonverbal social skills, and showed support for moderator and partial mediator effects of self-esteem on that relationship. Overall, the findings indicate mostly a significant role of self-esteem in the effects of neuroticism on the manifestation of nonverbal social skills.
 
U radu se iznosi rasprava o reformi njemačke Uprave za ruralni razvoj, odnosno koje sve uprave i institucije treba osposobiti za što uspješniju budućnost ruralnog prostora. Cijela rasprava podijeljena je 4 tematska bloka. Prikaz znanstveno- stručnog skupa završava potrebom o raspravi o budućnosti ruralnog prostora u Hrvatskoj.
 
Socijalizacija se u najširem smislu definira kao proces tijekom kojeg ljudi stječu stavove i vrednote određene kulture te uče ponašanja koja se smatraju prikladnima za pojedince, članove određenog društva. Ispitivanje kompleksnog procesa socijalizacije djece i mladeži značajno je svakom društvu, posebice tijekom naglih društvenih promjena koje uključuju i promjene društvenih normi i vrednota.
 
Tematski broj "Osnovna škola uHrvatskoj i društvo znanja" donosi spoznaje koje se temelje na empirijskim istraživanjima provedenim u okviru istraživačkih aktivnosti Instituta društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar. U tim se istraživanjima razmatraju fenomeni i problemi unutar osnovnoškolskoga sustava koji snažno utječu na njegovu ukupnu funkcionalnost i uspješnost.
 
The objective of the empirical research conducted was to answer the following questions: To what extent is Croatian ethnic identity expressed? In which way is Croatian identity expressed? Which factors influence the loss or subsistence of Croatian ethnic identity? Is there a connection between some sociodemographic characteristics of Croatian immigrants in Chile today and the expression of their identity? Based on the results obtained it is concluded that in a small number of cases there is a statistically significant difference in the answers according to the examinees' age, gender, education and other independent variables. In several cases a difference is indicated among examinees with regard to age, for example among examinees of the younger and older generations, especially regarding language, visits to Croatia and return to Croatia. It has been determined that Croatian ethnic identity is quite well preserved among the examinees. Namely, 58.8% of the examinees said that they always felt like Croats, 65% of the examinees are members of associations of Croatian immigrants, and 42.2% of them regularly communicate with relatives in Croatia. It is mostly the oldest generations who nurture and maintain Croatian customs, while Croatian ethnic identity is recognisable in all associations of Croatian immigrants. The examinees think that support should be given to younger people for greater participation in associations of Croatian immigrants as well as for learning the Croatian language. They see the key to success in establishing cultural and scientific cooperation between Chile and Croatia.
 
ln this text the authoress analyses the basic features of the program of mass privatization in Czechoslovakia, the results achieved so far, and also gives estimates about the prospects of a successful continuation of the process of privatization in the future, with regard to the separation of the two republics. Experience in applying this concept in practice indicates that inspite of various deficiencies, its basic advantage is in rapidly creating a broad foundation for privatization - millions of private owners.
 
ln this paper the authors have examined the influence of selective exposure to television on the perception of political space by means of testing the differences in evaluations of the major actors, in competition with status characteristics of the public. The results indicate that the consequences of exposure, in a context which is extremely favourable for the political influence of television, are relatively limited. Without changing the general trend, they amount to differences in evaluating the ruling, but not the oppositional options. The latter are thus perceived as more homogeneaus. The results also correspond with Gerbner's hypotheses on the partial reduction of political consequences of social status due to mere exposure and with more contemporary theoretical viewpoints on the minimal effects of exposure.
 
U znanstvenom diskursu europskih, pa tako i hrvatskih, demografa, sociologa, makroekonomista i znanstvenika s drugih srodnih znanstvenih područja, od 1980-ih godina sve je prisutnija problematika niskoga fertiliteta. Širina interesa i istraživačka interdisciplinarnost, sama po sebi, upućuje na opću društvenu važnost ovoga fenomena.
 
The work analyses the profiling of the Croatian political scene equally on the descriptive and structural levels. From a probability sample of 1248 citizens, 531 possible voters of the strongest Croatian political parties were selected (HDZ, SDP, HSS, HNS and HSP), which were then by means of discriminative analysis compared with regard to the represented social attitudes (ideological profile) and sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate that the connection between ideological and status determinants on the one hand and voting intentions on the other, even more than a decade after introducing the multi-party system in Croatia, is relatively modest, which speaks in support of the hypothesis on the unstable structure of the electorate, wherefore the decision of the individual resides to a greater extent in the specific, and less in global attitudes. Parties, according to their attitudes and social features characteristic of their own electorate, can only be roughly divided one from the other, mostly based on a unified ideological dimension, the continuum conservative – liberal, on one end of which are the voters of HDZ, HSS and HSP, while on the other stand the voters of SDP and HNS.
 
The aim of this study was to examine to what extent school achievement at the end of primary schooling could be determined by certain student characteristics and characteristics of their environment, teachers, teaching process, school and school principal. The sample included 44,801 students from 842 regular primary schools. School achievement was measured by objective exams in Croatian, English, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Geography and History and explored for each subject separately. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with student results on the exams as criterion variables and student characteristics, teacher and teaching process characteristics, and school and principal characteristics as predictors. The results of multiple regression analyses showed that 5.3% to 15.9% variance of knowledge in different subjects could be accounted for by student characteristics, while teacher and teaching process characteristics explained 0.2% to 1.1%, and school and principal characteristics 0.2% to 0.8% of additional variance. At the student level significant predictors were gender, parents’ education and family structure. At the teacher level significant predictors were teacher’s gender, qualification and continuity of teaching the same students, while significant predictors at the school level were school size and founder, personnel competence and principal’s experience. The problem of measurement and conceptualization of academic achievements is discussed in the context of the obtained results.
 
Based on available documentation and research of Croats in Slovenia it has been concluded that there is a high degree of integration of Croatian immigrants within Slovenian society, but a very weak integration in their own immigrant group. Rapid integration of Croatian immigrants within Slovene society has been enhanced by a number of factors: heterogeneous emigration, motives of permanent stay, cultural and religious similarity between the two countries, closeness of territory. A low degree of integration within their own immigrant group is the result of a long-term process. In the period when the two Republics gained independence the Croatian immigrants developed the need for social gathering and practising ethnic identity. From the period of migration up to the nineties Croatian immigrants did not feel the need for ethnic gathering although there existed several Croatian associations. Croats, together with the other peoples of former Yugoslavia in Slovenia, belong to the migrant population. Their minority status has not been recognised, causing them to be deprived of many rights and privileges secured by law for minorities. One of the consequences is that most Croatian immigrants have assimilated into their new environment, and with regard to the previous census most have declared themselves as Slovene citizens. Although there are several Croatian emigrant associations in Slovenia, they include a small number of third and fourth-generation members. The latter are more oriented towards Slovene culture. They seldom practise ethnic identity in the family, and there is also the threat of forgetting their mother tongue. All this is the result of a larger number of mixed marriages, as well as of the absence of Croatian language teaching in Slovene schools.
 
The paper analyzes psychosocial and sociocultural correlates of women's sexual health and satisfaction, as well as the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual health and satisfaction. Our respondents were 547 women from Zagreb, between 20 and 60 years of age, who filled in and posted a questionnaire on women's sexual health based on the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women. As expected, the correlation between sexual satisfaction and sexual health was confirmed. (The most frequently reported sexual problems in our community sample were hypoactive sexual desire and difficulties in reaching orgasm.) Age, intimate aspects of the relation (especially partner's satisfaction) and sexual performance (frequency of sexual contacts and orgasmic efficiency) proved to be the significant predictors of sexual satisfaction. In contrast to some earlier studies, homosexual and bisexual respondents reported higher levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual health than heterosexual women did. The authors identify four dimensions (sub-sample characteristics, characteristics of lesbian sexual contacts and lesbian intimacy, and sex-as-rebellion ideology) that should be helpful in explaining this finding.
 
The author gives basic information about the social circumstances and economic life in settlements of Burgenland (Gradišće) Croats in today's western Hungary according to the 1828 census. Fourteen contemporary settlements have been included: Petrovo Selo, Hrvatske Šice, Gornji Čatar, Narda, Temerje, Hrvatski Židan, Prisika, Plajgor, Unda, Koljnof, Vedešin, Umok, Kemlja and Bizonja. The subject of this census, archived in the Hungarian National Archives in Budapest, were people, houses and plots, wheat yields, fields, vineyards, orchards (especially plum orchards), large and small livestock, woods and inns. Based on numerical data from the census the author analyses the social relations and economic situation in the mentioned Burgenland-Croatian settlements in western Hungary, comparing them at the same time with quotes about Croats in western Ugarska (hist. Hungary) in the study of Slovak ethnographer Ján Čaplovič (Johann von Csaplovics) from that period. The 1828 census indicates that settlements of the west-Hungarian (Burgenland) Croats on the territory of today's west Hungary were, with regard to social structure and economic reality, markedly agricultural settlements, namely villages. Living in these and other settlements, Croats and other inhabitants constantly followed the same sociocultural pattern of life in rural communities, which as a rule participated very little in activities in a broader sense and at a time when modernisation was under way in the Habsburg Monarchy taking this middle European conglomerate of countries and peoples slowly from an obsolete feudal system into a newly emerging capitalist social horizon.
 
This paper deals with the changes in population trends of the Vukovar-Srijem region from the year 1857 to 1991. The analysis indicates that the basic determinants of population growth in that region, within the period of one century and a half, were migrational processes, whether it was a matter of immigration, emigration, or internal spatial redistribution of inhabitants. Hence, especially important for population dynamics were the First and Second World Wars, i. e. the subsequent agrarian colonization, the economic immigration of the work force in the 1950s and 1960s, migration to the leading macroregional centres of Croatia (Osijek, Zagreb), i. e; emigration to foreign countries from the 1970s as well as migration from rural to urban areas. In the population trends of the Vukovar-Srijem region we can discern five periods of fundamentally different population dynamics: 1) between 1857 and 1910 (a growth of 49. 5%), 2) between 1910 and growth 1931 (a growth of 7. 4%); 3) between 1931 and 1948 (a 44. 2%); 5) between 1971 and 1991 (a growth of 6. 5%). 9. 4%); 4) between 1948 and 1971 (a Population trends in the Vukovar-Srijem region in the past two decades have indicated a stagnation of sorts and a decrease in numbers. The future development of the population in this region will for the greatest part be determined by the unfavourable consequences (direct demographic losses, material destruction, ethnic cleansing) of the Great-Serbian aggression and years of occupation of most of its territory (1991-1998).
 
The Karlovac County belongs within the negative pole of the demographic and economic development of Croatia. The negative demographic trends have been present in the Karlovac County for a long time. These trends have gradually worsened since the 1970s culminating in the period after 1991. The most significant demographic trend characteristic of the observed area is depopulation. Therefore, in this paper the author has researched the changing population numbers in all the past censuses in order to determine the intensity of these changes throughout specific periods. Census population change is the most accurate indicator of demographic dynamics in any area. The causes of the current negative demographic situation are mostly a result of poor economic circumstances, due to years of insufficient investment planning in the area. In recent years the most important factor has been the Croatian War of Independence, which has further deteriorated the already unsatisfactory demographic characteristics. Population projections until the year 2021 indicate continuing negative features and trends of the demographic development of the County. In order for a breakthrough to occur there should be systematic stimulative measures for demographic renewal and economic development, which should be encouraged by all levels of government. Such measures should first be taken in the transportationally isolated rural areas of the County, as well as in places which were directly exposed to destruction during the Croatian War of Independence.
 
In this paper the authors are concerned with a brief review of a series of health-educative publications published in the Croatian language. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of free text publication SPAD-T were completed by using 12 different samples from health education articles published from 1872 to 1938. This analysis is used to confirm suitable historical material for utilization of contemporary calculated programs and to verify what wording or word clusters are used to convey information in the majority of published health educational presentations or articles. In addition, the analysis explores the thematic orientation of health education publications together with relations between different health education areas. The completed analysis discovered that straightforward words and simplified text were used to send information to readers at the beginning of modern health education publications. Also, the information is often presented in imperative order. In many cases these publications are grouped into different sections such as nutrition and healthy eating habits, hygiene, physical fitness, microorganisms, preventable diseases, mother and child health prevention, negative effects of alcohol and tobacco consumption and tuberculosis prevention. This analysis confirmed and concluded that the analyzed historical health education materials are suitable data material to utilize for written text calculated analysis.
 
The Croatian Association of Journalists has existed for 90 years, and yet its historical survey has still not been written, nor have any comprehensive reviews of the more important issues or certain periods of its existence been done. Little has been written, even less researched. This initially inspired this study which is, in addition to a critical evaluation of relatively modest bibliography, mostly based on original material from the Association's Archives (AHND). Having in mind the broader framework of political and social circumstances in Croatia and the Habsburg Monarchy, the programmatic conceptions of models of association and reasons for numerous unsuccessful ventures have been presented, as well as an attempt at creating a common "class" organization within the framework of the Writers' Guild (1900). Furthermore, the 1907 preparations are mentioned and finally the closing process of constituting the Association, in the autumn of 1910. Enclosed in the study is an overview of sources and bibliography list.
 
aThe purpose of this study is to mention the reemigration factor and its consequences, namely the influence that the returnees from the U.S.A. had on the attitudes of Slovak society in the forty years between the 1880's and the 1920's. The reemigrants were not only the bearers of material assets. They also brought back new experiences and their way of thinking became generally recognized and influenced the rural community. State oppression, however, did not allow for the coordination of their activities, nor did it enable the reemigrants to act in support of the national movement. Reemigration tendencies emerged among American Slovaks after WW 1. The fact-finding delegations of American Slovaks, who came to Slovakia in the post-war years, were successful in influencing Slovak politics. However, only a few individuals remained in Slovakia and entered politics. The majority of the returnees, however, came back to their original villages and devoted themselves to agriculture. Despite this fact, there were still some people among the returnees who invested their savings in business and industry, but many of them were unable to adapt to the unsatisfactory post-war conditions in Slovakia and therefore decided to emigrate once again.
 
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