Digital Studies/Le champ numérique

Published by Open Library of Humanities
Online ISSN: 1918-3666
An abstract for this publication is not available. Un résumé pour cette publication n'est pas disponible.
The Digital Humanities have attracted much attention as of late, including an increased concentration of DH-specific panels at the MLA conference, a focus in the MLA’s publication "Profession" (2011b), and a series of blog posts by Stanley Fish (2012a, 2012b). While this coverage has done much to expose scholars to the variety of the work being done in the digital humanities, the general sense of the digital humanities is still that it has more in common with the social sciences and computer sciences than the humanities, a sense that is apparent in popular articles like Fish’s blog posts (2012a,2012b) and Kathryn Schulz’s New York Times article “What is Distant Reading” (2011), and can even be felt to some degree when Johanna Drucker separates the digital humanities from speculative computing (2009 4-5). Data mining, database construction, and the development of visualisation tools require deep technological engagement, and appear entirely alien when compared to standard humanistic methods of enquiry.
Land Uses 1945-1066. 5
Estimated Hastings Area Land Use in c. 1066. 7
Military history has provided significant insight into the factors determining the outcome of armed conflict through time. At the same time, it often fails to adequately assess variables unrelated to historical accounts per se that may contribute to military outcomes. For example, in 1066, English and Norman forces engaged in a decisive battle near Hastings, U.K. Numerous historical accounts have chronicled this event, using a combination of eyewitness and participant testimony, as well as written records, and art forms. Few, however, have paid significant attention to the role of the local landscape in shaping events. In the case of Hastings, the battlefield itself provides an example of the way in which geography can contribute to our understanding of historical events. By applying environmental sources and a regressive cartographic analysis, this study demonstrates that there is, in fact, considerable evidence to suggest how the landscape appeared back to the time of the battle. This finding is significant, insofar as it opens the door to new research on the Battle of Hastings which may shed additional light on the events that occurred there and the factors that influenced the outcome of this crucial conflict in British history. It also reveals the importance of applying new methodological approaches to traditional disciplines such as history, to deepen and expand existing analysis.
In contemplating the design and implementation of new knowledge environments, what can we learn from book history and from the natural world about how environmental systems form, develop, and thrive? This essay uses the theory of ecodynamics to theorize the development of new knowledge environments for academic study, with illustrative examples from the history of the Christian Bible, and concludes by deriving some principles for those of us working to develop new digital scholarly resources. En contemplant la conception et l’élaboration de nouveaux environnements de connaissances, que pouvons-nous apprendre de l’histoire du livre et du monde naturel sur la façon dont les systèmes environnementaux se forment, se développent et prospèrent? Cet article fait appel à la théorie de l’éco-dynamique afin d’élaborer une théorie d’élaboration de nouveaux environnements de connaissances pour les études universitaires, avec des exemples illustratifs de l’histoire de la bible chrétienne, et conclut en obtenant quelques principes pour ceux d’entre nous qui tentent d’élaborer de nouvelles ressources numériques érudites.
This chapter examines the various textual traditions that inform the design and affordances of three INKE digital tools, namely NewRadial, the Dynamic Table of Contexts, and Bubblelines. In turning to earlier textual exemplars, such as the sammelbände and foldout engravings, the chapter illustrates certain commonalities between past and present textual media. Similarly, by examining the material evidence of Renaissance readers, including manuscript tables of contents and supplements to print indexes, the chapter considers the long history of customization that lies behind many of our digital applications today. In short, the chapter invites readers to situate a series of INKE tools within a much earlier and seemingly unrelated textual tradition. Ce chapitre examine les diverses traditions textuelles qui guident la conception et les affordances de trois outils numériques INKE, c'est-à-dire New Radial, the Dynamic Table of Contexts et Bubblelines. En examinant des exemplaires de référence textuels plus anciens, comme le sammelbände et les gravures reliées, le chapitre illustre certains points en commun entre les médias textuels anciens et actuels. De la même façon, en examinant les preuves substantielles des lecteurs de la Renaissance, y compris des tables des matières manuscrites et des suppléments à des index imprimés, le chapitre étudie la longue histoire de la personnalisation qui se cache derrière bon nombre de nos applications numériques de nos jours. Bref, le chapitre invite les lecteurs à situer une série d'outils INKE au sein d'une tradition textuelle beaucoup plus ancienne et apparemment sans lien.
Visualization of Jonathan Swift's correspondence as represented by the Republic of
The corner of Sun Street, Long Alley, Moorelds, in A Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster, and Borough of Southwark London: John Pine and John Tinney, 1746, by John Rocque. Courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
A clearly demarcated City Wall, from A New Plan of the City of London, Westminster,
The City Wall now largely invisible, in John Rocque's A Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster, and Borough of Southwark London: John Pine and John Tinney, 1746. Courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
Printers and booksellers for Eliza Haywood, 1720-1727.
This essay examines the possibilities for creating digital editions as representations of social and topographical networks of time and space, rather than as standalone e-versions of printed books. La présente dissertation étudie les possibilités de créer des éditions numériques comme représentations de réseaux sociaux et topographiques dans le temps et l’espace, plutôt que comme versions électroniques autonomes de livres imprimés.
Antedating the dictionaries of Nicot, John Palsgrave's grammar-dictionary was a pioneering work in the use of illustrative examples and vernacular literary citations. Unfortunately we do not know Palsgrave's procedure for the collection of citations, and we do not possess his original source volumes. To verify his citations I have relied then on various published versions of the works cited by him. Without marked-up originals, I have used different methods for locating citations in the source texts, including a computerized search of two of the larger works. This has become possible in recent years through the advent of sophisticated scanning and searching software and its availability to scholars in the humanities. Using these technologies I have located over 200 of Palsgrave's unreferenced and incompletely referenced citations. I have found in many cases significant differences between the author's original wording and Palsgrave's excerption of it. I maintain that this variation is intentional on Palsgrave's part, and that he adapts the text primarily for reasons of brevity and simplicity, concerns felt by many subsequent lexicographers. The purpose of this study is first to examine the various ways in which Palsgrave modified his citations, and second to contribute to the development of a standard terminology for this kind of study.
GEMMS Sermon Taxonomy.
Advanced Search for Sermons.
This essay describes the first phase of the GEMMS project (2014–2019), the purpose of which is to increase access to early modern English manuscript sermons and sermon notes (1530–1715) by creating a freely accessible online bibliographic database of records for these materials. It reviews the need for this resource, the current state of its development, and the challenges and successes to date as well as proposed developments in its next phase. Résumé Cet article décrit la première phase du projet GEMMS (2014–2019), dont l’objectif est de faciliter l’accès à des manuscrits et notes des sermons en anglais moderne naissant (1530–1715) en créant une base de données bibliographique en ligne et en libre accès des archives de ces documents. Cet article examine le besoin de cette ressource, l’état actuel de son développement, les défis et réussites jusqu’à présent, ainsi que les développements proposés pour la prochaine phase du projet. Mots-clés: sermons; manuscrits; base de données bibliographique; notes de sermons; Renaissance
The Virtual Paul's Cross Project, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, helps us to explore public preaching in early modern London, enabling us to experience a Paul's Cross sermon as a performance, as an event unfolding in real time in the context of an interactive and collaborative occasion. This Project uses architectural modelling software and acoustic simulation software to give us access experientially to a particular event from the past–the Paul's Cross sermon John Donne delivered on Tuesday, November 5, 1622. These tools enable us to integrate the physical traces of pre-Fire St. Paul's Cathedral with the surviving visual record of the cathedral and its surroundings to create a visual model of the Cathedral and its churchyard. They also enable us to experience a historically informed interpretation of Donne's preaching style, based on contemporary descriptions of his capacity to engage his congregations imaginatively and emotionally and to delight them with his wit. We are also able to assess the audibility of a sermon delivered without amplification in a large open space for people positioned at different places in the crowd, and in the presence of different sizes of congregation. Le projet virtuel de la croix de Paul, financé grâce à une subvention du National Endowment for the Humanities, nous aide à explorer les prédications publiques du début de l’histoire moderne de Londres, nous permettant de revivre un sermon à la croix de Paul comme une représentation, un événement se déroulant en temps réel dans le contexte d’une occasion interactive et collaboratrice. Ce projet fait appel à un logiciel de modélisation architectural et à un logiciel de simulation acoustique, pour nous permettre d’accéder de façon expérientielle à un événement particulier du passé, soit le sermon que John Donne a prononcé à la croix de Paul le mardi 5 novembre 1622. Ces outils nous permettent d’intégrer les traces physiques de la cathédrale St-Paul d’avant le Grand incendie de Londres aux vestiges préservés de la cathédrale et de ses environs pour créer un modèle visuel de la cathédrale et de son cimetière. Ils nous permettent aussi de revivre une interprétation historiquement documentée du style de prédication de Donne, d’après des descriptions contemporaines sur sa capacité à toucher ses congrégations par l’imagination et les émotions et de les enchanter par son esprit. Nous sommes aussi en mesure d’évaluer l’audibilité d’un sermon prononcé sans amplification dans un grand espace ouvert à l’intention de personnes se tenant à différents endroits dans la foule,et en présence de différents nombres de spectateurs.
Computerization of the 'DEOLF' holds an indisputable interest for lexicography, the history of grammar and linguistic theories. Ménage's work on the French language, extensive and varied, restricts the reader to partial assessments, necessarily imperfect (limited corpora unrepresentative of the whole). Computerization, reconciling horizontal and vertical readings, offers exhaustive analyses, faithful to the text converted into a database. Why computerize the 'DEOLF' rather than another work? The difficulties of choice are inherent in the organization of Ménage's various works on language, in their complementarity: despite the different genres — dictionaries or treatises on language and usage — and the autonomous publication of the 'Origines de la Langue Françoise' (1650), 'Origini della Lingua Italiana' (1669, 1685), 'Observations sur la Langue Françoise' (1672, 1675-6), and the 'DEOLF' (1694), the progression from one to another reveals the stages of Ménage's research and linguistic reflection. His last work, the 'DEOLF', constitutes the most complete form of his lexicographical undertaking: converting it into a database is to recognize its place in the history of early dictionaries. Far from betraying the author and his work, from causing the Book to be forgotten, the (non-fragmented) digitization of the 'DEOLF' will have the extraordinary merit of offering a synoptic view of the functioning of the dictionary, its semiotic systems and their different relevance. The 'DEOLF' is not usually regarded as a general language dictionary, but it far exceeds its object, etymology: it is indeed a key work, leading from Nicot to Littré, and it is time to appreciate its linguistic role, both synchronic and diachronic, for subsequent lexicography.
The assertion made by N. Catach (CHWP B.21), that the various editions of the 'Dictionnaire de l'Académie française' constitute a single, essentially unchanging lexicographical base, is tested on a sample corpus of computerized entries from the point of view of text forms, headwords, examples, semantic description and lexicographical discourse. Indeed, from the first edition to the eighth, the stock of lexical items changes little, the metalanguage scarcely evolves, and only in the ninth (in progress) is a seriously revised description of the lexical material — much of it still dating back to 1694 — being undertaken. The eight complete editions, each in two volumes, form a remarkably homogeneous, and eminently computerizable, corpus.
After several years of research work and publications on the lexicographic output of Abbé Jean-François Féraud, GEHLF (Groupe d'tude en Histoire de la Langue Française), TELMOO (Textes Lyriques Médiévaux d'Oc et d'Oïl), and the Morin-Dagenais research team (University of Montreal) joined together to create a database of the 'Dictionaire critique de la langue française' (Marseille: Mossy, 1787). This paper first briefly mentions the reasons motivating this project and the practical limits to which it is subjected. It then sets out a typology of the DC revealing the main syntactic regularities of its entries and showing how these regularities allow us to create a motivated reference system. It also discusses the problems of reproducing typographic characteristics of the original (such as italics, capitals, etc.) and justifies the choices made for the purposes of the project. Results that can be expected from the computerized version of the dictionary are then briefly examined, as well as the system of codes to be keyed in along with the capture of the text. In the latter regard, a choice was made not to overburden the input operation in order to minimize the risk of typing errors. Finally, the problems raised by the encoding of the DC's usage labels and notes, which constitute the dictionary's main interest, are discussed. It is shown that because these notes are not standardized, the provision of a search tool enabling the user to explore, according to individual needs, the extremely variable and often discontinuous formulations used by Féraud is a more realistic approach than trying to force the text to fit a rigid encoding scheme.
Language teaching is searching its way. With the advent of the electronic language learning environment (ELLE), the stakes are today far greater than in the past and also without precedent. ELLE presents the challenge of a comprehensive thought-out and concerted application of the new modes of solitary discovery the cybernaut is first of all an explorer and cooperative interaction. By redefining the very nature of the three poles of the learning situation the teacher, the learner and knowledge (in the present case the mastery of a language) the cybernautical approach fundamentally changes our way of conceiving teaching and learning.
In this paper, we present a multidisciplinary project, IMPRESS, which combines the digitization of three major 19th-century Belgian medical journals with a historical research project on the role of ideology in 19th-century Belgian medicine. We focus on the methodological choices that were made and discuss the extent to which text mining has allowed to identify and evaluate expressions of ideology in a corpus of scientific texts. In laying bare the difficulties and outcomes of both the digitization and the digital analysis (with a focus on the use of the program “AntConc”) we intend to contribute to current debate on the gains and limitations of digital methods in the humanities. We conclude that, while acknowledging the many interpretative interventions in preparing searches and qualifying outcomes, the use of the tool has allowed to reach more sophisticated research results than the exclusive use of non-digital methods would have.
Digital textuality will be defining the nature and uses of literacy to the same degree as printing has done since Gutenberg's invention. The article explores the implications of one of the fundamental differences between the screen and paper substrates: digital fluidity versus the fixity of paper. La textualité numérique définira la nature et les usages de la culture dans la même mesure que le fait l'imprimerie depuis l'invention de Gutenberg. L'article explore les implications de l'une des différences fondamentales entre les supports écran et papier: le caractère fluide du numérique par rapport au caractère fixe du papier.
On the web site of the Laboratoire de Français Ancien at the University of Ottawa we intend to offer free access to a query and research tool, both powerful and new, for use on Chrétien de Troyes’ masterpiece the 'Chevalier au Lion', Chrétien being the most famous writer of medieval French romances. We are preparing a presentation of all the 'Chevalier au Lion' manuscripts, with analysis and interpretation, that will constitute an indispensable collection of documents for future critical work — both for critical editions in general and critical editions of this particular work. Our aim is to show the educated public the text itself, accompanied by a series of indices, a study of the language and a complete lexicon of each manuscript copy. When the work is complete, the reader will be able to see images of the manuscript folios, to decipher the text by means of a first, "archeological" transcription (the text as is), and to understand it, through a second, critical transcription of the emended manuscripts. The series of indices will allow easy, automatic look-up of the text, and various types of query (phonetic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, semantic, literary, cultural, etc.). Morphosyntactic study will give a systematic framework for determining the meaning and import of textual forms and expressions encountered in reading. The lexicon will provide precise definitions for all the lexical words of each manuscript.
The design of digital information interaction tools is quickly evolving with the rapid increase in the number and size of online collections, as well as the technological capabilities offered by software development and communication technologies. 'Visual Interface Design for Cultural Heritage: a Guide to Rich-Prospect Browsing' aims to support this evolution by facilitating the progression from the merely functional tool, through one that is easily used, towards a pleasurable information interface. The concept of rich-prospect browsing is introduced as part of a theoretical framework of visual browsing interfaces which also includes Gibson’s well known affordances. This framework is used to describe and analyse an impressive set of novel visually mediated information interaction techniques that aim to improve the quality of the interactions between humans and digital information. This book is highly relevant to those interested in the design of human-information interactions, information visualisation, use and presentation of metadata, and digital libraries.
Jockers' recent book describes a host of digital techniques that can be applied to literary studies. The main focus is the idea of Macro-Analysis, developed during his work at Stanford Literary Lab, in collaboration with Franco Moretti. Le récent ouvrage de Jocker décrit de nombreuses techniques numériques qui peuvent être appliquées aux études littéraires. Le principal objectif est l’idée de la macroanalyse, mise au point dans le cadre de son travail au laboratoire littéraire de Stanford, en collaboration avec Franco Moretti.
A network image can be rendered for just about every aspect of day-to-day life for which data exist, including financial information, organizational data, mapping systems of every variety, social networks, and technical ecologies of all kinds. In her recent book, 'An Aesthesia of Networks: Conjunctive Experience in Art and Technology', Anna Munster discusses the issues that come along with these growing networks throughout our collective lives. In turn, she proposes an attempt to challenge the visual and conceptual habits that have made our representation of networks trivial and inconsequential.
Scholars involved in digital projects are witnessing a radical transformation in scholarly communication, knowledge representation, and collaborative practices, with an increased emphasis on interdisciplinarity. This sea-change in how scholars conceive of, undertake, and communicate their research is often registered in the perceived relation of the digital humanities to the humanities as a whole. However, the scope of rapid transformation in scholarly practice and interdisciplinarity is much larger than the digital humanities alone suggests, reaching across the humanities and social sciences, reconfiguring disciplinary formations, and revealing new contact zones between academic research and communities involved in policy making, data-driven corporate research, and social networking. Undertaking the dynamics of new interdisciplinary formations not only as its focus, but also through its breadth of coverage, Virtual Knowledge offers an empirical study of what practices, procedures, and power dynamics change (or remain unchanged) when emerging digital methods contact established disciplinary and institutional models. Les universitaires qui participent à des projets numériques remarquent une transformation radicale au niveau de la communication, de la représentation du savoir et des pratiques de collaboration érudites, avec une emphase accrue sur l’interdisciplinaire. Ce changement profond dans la façon dont les universitaires conçoivent, entreprennent et communiquent leurs recherches se manifeste souvent dans la relation entre les humanités numériques et les humanités dans leur ensemble. Cependant, le champ d’application de la transformation rapide des pratiques érudites et de l’interdisciplinarité s’étend beaucoup plus loin que les seules humanités numériques, rejoignant les humanités et les sciences sociales, reconfigurant les formations disciplinaires, et découvrant de nouvelles zones de contact entre la recherche académique et les collectivités impliquées dans l’élaboration des politiques, la recherche d’entreprise fondée sur les données et le réseautage social. En entreprenant la dynamique de nouvelles formations interdisciplinaires non seulement comme son objectif mais aussi par l’ampleur de sa couverture, Virtual Knowledge présente une étude empirique des pratiques, procédures et dynamiques de pouvoir qui changent (ou qui restent immuables) lorsque de nouvelles méthodes numériques entrent en contact avec des modèles disciplinaires et institutionnels établis.
Book history's disciplinary focus on the materiality and circulation of texts and textual objects has much to contribute to the domain of digital humanities. This chapter probes the legacy of D.F. McKenzie's notion of 'broken phials' and 'indeterminate texts' using the example of a flagship digital project The Printers' Web undertaken at Wai-te-ata Press, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. It offers an enhanced metacritical understanding of nineteenth century knowledge networks and points to new directions in textual scholarship in the twenty-first century. L’optique disciplinaire sur la matérialité et la circulation de textes et d’objets textuels de l’histoire du livre peut grandement contribuer au domaine des humanités numériques. Ce chapitre examine l’héritage de la notion de « fioles brisées » (broken phials) et de « textes indéterminés » de D.F. McKenzie, en faisant appel à l’exemple du projet phare numérique The Printers' Web entrepris à Wai-te-ata Press, à l’université Victoria de Wellington en Nouvelle-Zélande. Le projet offre une meilleure compréhension méta-critique des réseaux de connaissances du dix-neuvième siècle et ouvre la voie à de nouvelles orientations en matière d’érudition textuelle au vingt-et-unième siècle.
Social Media and Digital Activism, in the context of the Global South, have continued to redefine identities and transform traditional notions of citizenship, nationhood, and belonging. With the power of digital technologies to bring public and private issues to light, digital cultures have enabled the shaping of contemporary faces of entire nations in the South. The most potent example of how digital activism and new age digital cultures have helped chisel a South Asian queer identity in India and beyond is Section 377, an archaic, colonial law, established in the country by the British Raj, and that until August 2018, criminalized homosexuality as “carnal intercourse” or an “unnatural sexual act.” Although not applicable specifically to homosexuals, it is widely perceived as an anti-queer law in the country; cloaked in colonial textual ambiguity, it directs the colonial desire for sexual control towards colonial societies. This research focuses on an exploration of Indian queer dissident subaltern counterpublics, and how these communities (both members and non-members) congregate on Twitter to combat postcolonial and Victorian structures through new media as a decolonizing and transnational space. Therefore, the hashtags surrounding this event perform and decolonize Indian cyberspaces. The study equally investigates how the new wave of digital activism post reading down of the Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code has fortified identities of the marginalized and the non-marginalized alike and transformed the notion of the “self” and the “other.” Given this premise, this paper employs Twitter Search API to collect and filter tweets that explore the private and public discourses of a digital movement that has proved instrumental in the creation of digital spaces for the marginalized “other.” This body of work contributes to the pool of research that is focused on the understanding of South Asian digital identities and the creation of their digital spaces as a solution for social, legal, and political discrimination.
This chapter extends from research on the genealogies of modernist laboratories (aesthetic, scientific, and corporate) and their relationship to the formation of contemporary digital-humanities and new-media laboratories and collaboratories. The trajectory of this project, broadly conceived, leads from the modular principles of early twentieth-century industrial design and avant-garde aesthetics, to the implementation of modular architecture in the construction of mid-century corporate science labs, to the modularization of markup languages, interoperable digital tools, and collaborative and cross-disciplinary lab environments in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. In doing so, I traverse the conjuncture of multiple modularities and disciplinarities—from architecture, art, and industrial design to markup languages, source code, and digital tools—in the historical contexts of cultural, industrial, and postindustrial modernities. Ce chapitre va de la recherche sur les généalogies des laboratoires modernistes (esthétiques, scientifiques et institutionnels) et de leurs relations à la formation des sciences humaines numériques contemporaines et des laboratoires et collaboratoires de nouveaux médias. La trajectoire de ce projet, au sens large, mène des principes modulaires du design industriel du début du vingtième siècle et de l'avant-garde esthétique, à la mise en œuvre de l'architecture modulaire dans la construction des laboratoires scientifiques institutionnels du milieu du siècle, à la construction par modules des langages de balisage, des outils numériques interopérables, et des environnements de laboratoires collaboratifs et pluridisciplinaires de la fin du vingtième siècle et du début du vingt-et-unième siècle. Enfin, je passe par la conjoncture de multiples modularités et disciplinarités, de l'architecture, de l'art, et du design industriel, jusqu'aux langages de balisage, codes source et outils numériques, dans les contextes historiques des modernités culturelles, industrielles et postindustrielles.
Data flow diagram.
The ground floor at two different time periods: 1947 (above) and 1995 (below). Usine Raymond industrial complex.
Preliminary interface, developed within the framework of the research project, enabling the modeller and historian to test the integrity of the various configurations from within the Autodesk Maya environment (above) and preliminary interface in Unity3D (below).
The goal of our research is to improve the process of disseminating knowledge about built heritage. To this end, we propose to implement upgradeable digital models that include the time dimension. These models are designed to illustrate the evolution of heritage buildings and sites over time and record the historian’s interpretation of documentary sources. The research objective is to develop a 4D modelling protocol to optimize data organization so information is easier to access and modify. This paper explains why BIM platforms do not seem appropriate tools for the work we are doing. We describe our method based on the synergy between a SQLite database and a 3D software (Autodesk Maya) linked by an algorithm written in Python. We conducted a case study involving a heritage place in Montreal, Canada. This site provided an opportunity to test the protocol developed because it is composed of several buildings that have evolved asynchronously. L’objectif de notre recherche est de bonifier le processus de diffusion de la connaissance dans le domaine du patrimoine bâti. À cette fin, nous proposons la mise en oeuvre de modèles numériques évolutifs incluant la quatrième dimension, soit le temps. Ces modèles sont élaborés dans l’optique de rendre compte du processus évolutif de bâtiments et sites patrimoniaux, et de formaliser la façon dont l’historien interprète les sources documentaires. Nous avons développé un protocole de modélisation permettant d’optimiser l’organisation des données, afin d’en faciliter l’accès et la modification. Cet article explique pourquoi, dans le cadre de nos travaux, les plateformes BIM ne nous apparaissent pas comme étant des outils adéquats. Nous décrivons la méthode proposée, basée sur la synergie entre une base de données SQLite et un logiciel 3D (Autodesk Maya), liés entre eux par un algorithme écrit en Python. Nous avons réalisé une étude de cas portant sur un lieu patrimonial situé à Montréal, Canada. Ce site nous est apparu comme étant adéquat pour tester le protocole développé parce qu’il est composé de plusieurs bâtiments ayant évolués de façon asynchrone.
In this chapter, I will first position my considerations about the sustainability of ebooks for future research in the context of book history; moreover, I will introduce basic concepts of (migration and emulation) as well as challenges to the long-term preservation of digital data in greater generality. After that and taking current research on past (printed) books as an analogy, I shall try to outline which kinds of (digital) material will be indispensable in the future to do research on today's digital book production: published digital materials and unique (digital) artefacts. Finally, I shall present the results of my exemplary studies to find out which precautions for the future availability of digital material have been taken by various (German) institutions involved in the production of digital forms of books (typically publishers) as well as by public institutions, the mandate of which is to collect and secure future access to current books and unique artefacts (typically libraries and archives). Summarizing, I will expose what this could mean for future research on today´s ebooks--and for the requirements concerning ebook preservation measures and policies. Dans ce chapitre, je vais tout d'abord faire valoir mes considérations au sujet de la viabilité des livres électroniques pour de futures recherches dans le contexte de l'histoire du livre; de plus, je vais introduire des concepts de base de (migration et émulation) ainsi que les défis de la préservation à long terme des données numériques d'une manière plus générale. Ensuite, en me servant des recherches actuelles sur d’anciens livres (imprimés) comme analogie, je tenterai d'exposer quel genre de matériel (numérique) sera indispensable dans l'avenir pour entreprendre des recherches sur la production actuelle des livres numériques : documents numériques publiés et artéfacts (numériques) uniques. Enfin, je présenterai les résultats de mes études exemplaires pour découvrir quelles précautions ont été prises pour assurer la disponibilité future de matériel numérique par diverses institutions (allemandes) qui ont participé à la production de formes numériques de livres (généralement des éditeurs) ainsi que par les institutions publiques, dont le mandat est de recueillir et de garantir l'accès futur aux livres et artéfacts uniques actuels (généralement les bibliothèques et les archives). En résumé, j'exposerai ce que cela pourrait signifier pour les futures recherches sur les livres électroniques actuels -- et pour les exigences en ce qui concerne les mesures et les politiques de préservation du livre électronique.
One of the most potent criticisms of the TEI as a means for describing documents is that it is deterministic: it forces upon a text a set of a priori categories and thus largely determines how the text is understood. My contention is that critiques offered by scholars such as Jerome McGann can be answered in part by modifying one's conception of the text's poietic frame. If the entire process of editing is conceived of as an autopoietic system, the act of marking the text according to the TEI standards becomes but one stage of a process that is repeatedly questioned and open to revision. By conceiving of the system as editorial interaction with successive iterations of the text, the editor is made aware of the inherent textual and linguistic ambiguities of the source document and is forced to read actively and engage these ambiguities in pursuit of an adequate electronic text. These ideas will be demonstrated with examples from my work in digitizing a manuscript of records belonging to William Courten, a 17th-century naturalist and collector. L'une des critiques les plus négatives de la TEI (initiative pour l'encodage du texte) comme moyen de décrire des documents est qu'il s'agit d'une approche déterministe : elle impose à un texte un ensemble de catégories a priori et détermine ainsi en grande partie la façon dont le texte est compris. Je soutiens que l'on peut répondre en partie à des critiques offertes par des érudits comme Jerome McGann, en modifiant notre conception du cadre poïétique du texte. Si le processus entier de l'édition est conçue comme un système autopoïétique, le marquage du texte selon les normes de la TEI devient un processus qui est constamment remis en question et ouvert à la révision. En concevant le système comme une interaction rédactionnelle avec des itérations successives du texte, le rédacteur est sensibilisé aux ambigüités textuelles et linguistiques inhérentes au document de source et se voit forcé de lire activement et d'impliquer ces ambigüités dans la recherche d'un texte électronique adéquat. Ces idées seront démontrées par des exemples de mon travail de numérisation d'un manuscrit de documents appartenant à William Courten, naturaliste et collectionneur du 17e siècle.
Though the publication of the 'Complete works' of Dutch novelist Willem Frederik Hermans (1992-1995) is a challenge in itself, nowadays the aim of the mere publishing of 24 printed volumes is far from enough. Operating within an academic field of literary theory and criticism, in which a detailed and conscious use of scholarly edited texts is all but obvious, much more effort should be spent to communicate the merits of textual scholarship. With Hermans, an author known for the ongoing revisions of his texts, academic awareness on the 'textual process' and 'textual fluidity'' can be raised, by developing digital editions of some of his works, and by integrating genetic criticism's notion of the 'creative process'. But a range of other dissemination strategies should be developed as well. For a project like the 'Complete works' of Willem Frederik Hermans, that almost exclusively takes place within a national context, with a comparatively small group of interested academics, students and other specialists, well-chosen, tailored initiatives should be deployed to reach new and diverse groups of audiences within the general reading public. Within the contexts of an emerging digital culture and a thoroughly changing literary culture and book market, new challenges are abundant. This article focuses on a range of past and future initiatives, all of which were developed in close cooperation with other partners working within the fields of technology and digital culture, literary education and cultural heritage. Bien que la publication de 'l’Œuvre Complète' de l’écrivain néerlandais Willem Frederik Hermans soit déjà une tâche difficile, aujourd’hui il ne suffit plus de seulement publier le vingt-quatre volumes dans la presse. Puisque le projet soit réalisé dans le champ des études littéraires, dans lequel l’usage conscient et détaillé des textes édités est une évidence, il faut communiquer la valeur de la philologie avec beaucoup plus d’effort. Comme l’écrivain Hermans est connu pour la révision continue de ses textes, on pourrait sensibiliser le discours académique au 'processus textuel' et à la 'fluidité textuelle' en créant des éditions numériques d’une partie de son œuvre littéraire qui intègrent la notion du processus 'créatif' de la critique génétique. En même temps, il faut développer une gamme des stratégies de diffusion. Le projet de l’'Œuvre Complète' de Willem Frederik Hermans a lieu principalement dans un cadre national, dans un groupe relativement petit de chercheurs intéressés, d’étudiants et d’autres spécialistes. Par conséquence, if faut déployer des initiatives bien-choisies et façonnées afin d’atteindre nouveaux groupes diversifiés parmi un public de lecteurs plus large. Il y a beaucoup d’enjeux nouveaux, étant donné la culture numérique émergente, la culture littéraire transitoire, et les changements dans le marché du livre. Cet article traite une série des initiatives historiques et actuelles qui sont développées en coopération avec des partenaires dans les domaines de la technologie et la culture numérique, l’éducation littéraire et le patrimoine culturel.
7 Time spent checking submitted transcripts, in seconds, 1 October 2012 to 19 July 2013 
4 Upgraded Transcription Desk in 'maximised' mode, showing rotated image, transcription toolbar and tabbed transcription interface 
This article canvasses the multiple meanings of the word "social" in the contexts of editions, editing and texts. It may refer to a theory of editing; to varieties of practice; to manners of making; or to characterize the edition itself. Further, not all editions which claim to be "social," in any of these senses, are any such thing. A particularly egregious example is the so-called "Social edition of the Devonshire manuscript," whose claim to be "social" is poorly based. However, there is real potential in the making of editions which are more inclusive in their making, which achieve a wider impact and create new understandings in expanding circles of readership, whether or not we choose to label these as "social." Cet article examine les nombreuses significations du terme « social » dans les contextes de l’édition, de la révision et du texte. Le terme social peut désigner une théorie de la révision, une gamme de pratiques, des manières de faire, ou la caractérisation de l’édition proprement dite. De plus, les éditions qui se disent « sociales » que ce soit dans n’importe lequel de ces sens, ne le sont pas toutes. Un exemple particulièrement flagrant est le soi-disant « Social edition of the Devonshire manuscript », dont l’allégation de « sociale » est plutôt mal définie. Cependant, il existe de réelles possibilités dans la création d’éditions qui sont plus inclusives et qui permettent d’avoir des répercussions plus vastes et d’obtenir une meilleure compréhension en élargissant les cercles de lecteurs, que l’on choisisse de les qualifier de « sociales » ou non.
The history of the first edition of the 'Oxford English Dictionary' can be used as an example of a successful academic-public collaboration. The difficulties and eventual success of the OED are instructive for current academic crowd-sourced projects that are being undertaken with tools developed for the World Wide Web. The success of such projects depends more on the effective management of the project than on the tools it uses. L’histoire de la première édition de 'l’Oxford English Dictionary' peut être utilisée comme exemple d’une collaboration réussie entre les universitaires et le public. Les difficultés et le succès éventuel de l’OED sont instructifs pour les projets académiques actuels d’externalisation ouverte qui sont entrepris avec des outils mis en œuvre pour le W3. Le succès de ces projets dépend plus de la gestion efficace du projet que des outils auxquels il fait appel.
The genre of the scholarly edition is diverse in its forms, but it generally involves a reproduction of original source material in the context of a scholarly apparatus consisting of annotations which add scholarly value to the text by explaining the editorial decisions made in a particular passage, drawing attention to an interesting place in the text, or linking sections of the facsimile with secondary scholarship. This scholarly apparatus acts as a contextualization of the primary material with which it is concerned. Instead of being embedded within the original material, these additions are placed in margins, footers, and appendices separate from but engaged with the material. In every case of a footnote, marginal note, or other part of a scholarly apparatus, we can say that something provided by the editor is a “body” associated with something else that acts as the “target” of the commentary. This association of “body” and “target” is the essence of Open Annotation, an emerging standard on the World Wide Web for associating Web content in this manner. This sense of annotation—of associating one piece of content with another for some express purpose—is the foundation of the Shared Canvas data model, which we present in this chapter as one approach to representing digital facsimile editions in an open, shareable form. Le genre de l’édition critique est divers dans toutes ses formes, mais il représente généralement une reproduction des documents de source originale dans le contexte d’un appareil académique consistant en annotations qui ajoutent une valeur académique au texte, en expliquant les décisions éditoriales prises dans un passage en particulier, attirant l’attention vers un endroit intéressant dans le texte, ou reliant des sections de la reproduction avec un document académique secondaire. Cet appareil académique sert à contextualiser le document primaire auquel il est lié. Au lieu d’être intégrés dans le document original, ces ajouts sont placés dans des marges, des bas de page et des annexes séparées, mais impliquées dans le document. Dans chaque cas, qu’il s’agisse d’un bas de page, d’une note en marge, ou d’une autre partie d’un appareil académique, nous pouvons dire qu’une chose fournie par l’éditeur est un « corps » associé à une autre chose qui agit comme « cible » du commentaire. Cette association de « corps » et de « cible » est l’essence même de l’Annotation ouverte, une norme émergente dans le World Wide Web pour associer ainsi du contenu Web. Ce sens d’annotation — soit associer un élément de contenu à un autre dans un but précis — est la base même du modèle de données Shared Canvas, que nous présentons dans ce chapitre comme une méthode visant à représenter les éditions de reproductions numériques, dans une forme ouverte, partageable.
In the summer of 2017, Quinn Dombrowski, an IT staff member in UC Berkeley’s Research IT group, approached Geoffrey Rockwell about the possibility of merging the DiRT Directory with TAPoR, both popular tool discovery portals. Dombrowski could no longer offer the time commitment required to maintain the organizational structure of the volunteer-run tool directory (2018). This decommissioning of DiRT illustrates a set of problems in the digital humanities around tool directories and the tools within as academic contributions. Tool development, in general, is not considered sufficiently scholarly and often suffers from a lack of ongoing support (Ramsay & Rockwell, 2012). When tool discovery portals are no longer maintained due to a lack of ongoing funding, this leads to a loss of digital humanities knowledge and history. While volunteer-based directories require less outright funding, managing and motivating those volunteers to ensure that they remain actively involved in directory upkeep requires a vast amount work to ensure long-term sustainability (Dombrowski, 2018). This paper will explore the difficult history of tool discovery catalogues and portals and the steps being taken to save the DiRT Directory by integrating it into TAPoR. In particular, we will: – Provide a brief history of the attempts to catalogue tools for digital humanists starting with the first software catalogues, such as those circulated through societies, and ending with digital discovery portals, including DiRT Directory and TAPoR. – Discuss the challenges around the maintenance of discovery portals – Consider the design and metadata decisions made in the merging of DiRT Directory with TAPoR.
This study identifies how the flagship Digital Humanities conference has evolved since 2004 and continues to evolve by analyzing the topical, regional, and authorial trends in its presentations. Additionally, we explore the extent to which Digital Humanists live up to the characterization of being diverse, collaborative, and global using the conference as a proxy. Given the increased popularization of “digital humanities” within the last decade, and especially recent successes in popular press and grant initiatives, this study tempers the sometimes utopic rhetoric that appears alongside mentions of the term. Cette étude a pour but de cerner comment la conférence phare sur les humanités numériques a évolué depuis 2004 et continue à évoluer, en analysant les tendances thématiques, régionales et d’auteur dans ses présentations. De plus, nous explorons dans quelle mesure les humanistes numériques sont à la hauteur de la caractérisation en matière de diversité, de collaboration et de mondialisation, en utilisant la conférence comme intermédiaire. Étant donné la vulgarisation croissante des « humanités numériques » au cours de la dernière décennie, et en particulier les récents succès dans la presse populaire et les initiatives de subvention, cette étude modère la rhétorique parfois utopique qui apparaît aux côtés des mentions du terme. Mots-clés: ADHO; authorship; disciplinarité
Intellectual property (IP) is a subject of concern to all academics because it is the legal-economic infrastructure of all academic work. The long-increasing, now accelerating, and multilateral strengthening of IP regulation does not necessarily serve and in many ways opposes the interests of academics, who are well positioned to intervene critically in the copyfight that embroils their work, a copyfight with implications that extend far beyond academia, from the structure of the Internet to freedom of expression. La propriété intellectuelle (PI) est un sujet de préoccupation pour tous les universitaires car il s’agit de l’infrastructure juridique et économique de tout le travail universitaire. Le renforcement longuement accru, et maintenant accéléré et multilatéral de la réglementation sur la propriété intellectuelle ne vient pas nécessairement en aide, et bien souvent s’oppose, aux intérêts des universitaires, qui sont bien placés pour intervenir de façon critique dans le tournoi d’auteur auquel leur travail est mêlé, un tournoi d’auteur dont les implications vont bien au-delà du monde universitaire, depuis la structure d’Internet jusqu’à la liberté d’expression.
Founders Online, a digital initiative of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) of the U.S. National Archives, launched in June 2013. Since its debut, the site has attracted over a million visitors interested in learning more about the creation of the United States of America in the words of six of its Founding Fathers. Founders Online contains 177,000 letters or other writings of these men and their contemporaries. Widely used by academics and the general public, the site has demonstrated the value of digital humanities’ emphasis on free access. As a former assistant editor at Documents Compass, a program of the Virginia Foundation of the Humanities, I served as a project manager on the Early Access portion of the project. We worked directly with the staffs of the currently active Founding Fathers documentary editing projects to make preliminary versions of unpublished documents available for early viewing on Founders Online. These Early Access documents will eventually be replaced by fully vetted and annotated versions to be completed later by the documentary editing projects. Relying on a large staff of over thirty people, we transcribed or proofread over 50,000 Early Access documents from 2012 to 2015. My Early Access experience demonstrated the need to give employees constant feedback, to reward them for good work, and to encourage specialization among project staff. My experience also reemphasized the need for unified metadata standards when aggregating different sets of data from multiple projects into a single digital platform. Founders Online, une initiative numérique de la National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) des Archives nationales des États-Unis, lancée en juin 2013. Depuis ses débuts, le site a attiré plus d’un million de visiteurs intéressés à en apprendre davantage au sujet de la création des États-Unis d’Amérique d’après six des pères fondateurs. Founders Online contient 177,000 lettres ou autres écrits de ces hommes et de leurs contemporains. Largement utilisé par les universitaires et le public en général, le site a démontré la valeur de l’emphase des humanités numériques sur le libre accès. En tant qu’ancien rédacteur en chef adjoint à Documents Compass, un programme de la Virginia Foundation of the Humanities, j’ai travaillé comme gestionnaire de projet pour la partie d’accès anticipé du projet. Nous avons travaillé directement avec les membres du personnel des projets de montage documentaire de Founding Fathers actifs à l’heure actuelle, pour rendre disponibles en accès anticipé des versions préliminaires de documents non publiés sur Founders Online. Ces documents en accès anticipé seront éventuellement remplacés par des versions entièrement approuvées et annotées qui seront complétées plus tard par les projets de montage documentaire. Comptant sur un personnel nombreux de plus de trente personnes, nous avons transcrit ou relu plus de 50,000 documents d’accès anticipé entre 2012 et 2015. Mon expérience de l’accès anticipé a démontré le besoin de donner aux employés une rétroaction constante, de les récompenser pour leur bon travail, et d’encourager la spécialisation parmi le personnel du projet. Mon expérience a de plus souligné davantage le besoin de normes de métadonnées communes en transposant différents ensembles de données de projets multiples en une plateforme numérique unique. Mots-clés: Founders Online; Libre accès; transcription; métadonnées; externalisation à grande échelle; Histoire numérique
In this introduction, we provide context for a collection of essays that asks the question of where textual studies are going in an age of powerful and easy access to digitized documents and text. In a brief survey of historical, technological, and methodological developments that have led to this moment, we discuss the intersections of textual studies with editing, book history, and the history and phenomenology of reading, as well as, increasingly, information studies and interface design, and the role the digital humanities have played in facilitating these intersections. We conclude with a brief summary of the chapters contained in the volume. Dans cette introduction, nous plaçons dans son contexte un recueil d’essais qui posent la question suivante: Quelle direction prennent les études textuelles à une époque où l’accès à des documents et des textes numérisés est puissant et facile. Dans le cadre d’une courte enquête des progrès historiques, technologiques et méthodologiques qui ont donné lieu à ce moment, nous discutons des intersections entre les études textuelles et l’édition, l’histoire du livre, et l’histoire et la phénoménologie de la lecture ainsi que, de plus en plus, les études informatiques et la conception d’interface, et le rôle que les sciences humaines numériques ont joué pour faciliter ces intersections. Nous concluons avec un bref sommaire des chapitres contenus dans le volume.
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