Die Ophthalmologie

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Online ISSN: 1433-0423
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Article
Infrared pupillography was performed to investigate the effect of one week topical treatment with the prostaglandin analogue Latanoprost 0.005% on pupillary reflex to light stimuli in glaucomatous human eyes. Infrared pupillography using the compact integrated pupillograph was performed in 20 glaucomatous eyes of 11 patients. After 10 minutes dark adaptation one pupil was stimulated with a blue, yellow and white diode light of 100 ms duration. Measurements of pupil diameter, constriction latency, constriction amplitude and relative constriction amplitude were taken twice for each light source in a time interval of 15 seconds. After a 2 week wash-out period the measurements were performed from 8:00 to 10:00 a.m. before and one week after topical treatment with Latanoprost 0.005% applied as single dose once in the evening. The measurements after 1 week treatment with Latanoprost showed a significantly smaller pupil diameter for blue (p = 0.044) and white stimulus (p = 0.039) and the latency was significantly reduced (p = 0.029) as well. Although the statistical analysis shows some small significant differences in pupil diameter and constriction latency there were no clinical signs of changes in pupillary response due to Latanoprost. The system turned out as easy to use and showed reliable measurements during the study. How far latanoprost may lead to miosis and a decrease of constriction latency has to be investigated in further studies with larger study populations. Other topics concerning drug influence, diurnal rhythm and glaucomatous damage in pupillary light reaction will be investigated in the near future.
 
Article
Latanoprost, a prostaglandin F(2alpha)-analogue, has been widely in use in clinical practice for a period of over 5 years. The side-effects of latanoprost are analyzed and the clinical relevance is discussed. Hypertrichosis and increased pigmentation of eyelashes will develop in the majority of patients using latanoprost for more than 6 months. Increased pigmentation of the eyelids may also occur. Hyperpigmentation of the iris is seen in 12-18% of caucasians using latanoprost over a period of 1-2 years. Increased iris pigmentation seems more common in asian people and remains unchanged after discontinuation of therapy. Pigmentation of intra- and extraocular structures is caused by increased melanogenesis, not by melanocyte proliferation. Mild conjunctival hyperemia may develop in approximately 30% of patients, but is most often without clinical relevance. Further reported side-effects include anterior uveitis, reactivation of herpes-keratitis/-dermatitis and cystoid macular edema in pseudophakic and aphakic patients. A causal relationship has still not been proven for these side-effects. Systemic side-effects are rare (e.g. headache, facial rash, cardiovascular effects). No experience exists for treatment of glaucoma with latanoprost in childhood. Latanoprost represents a highly effective antiglaucomatous drug, rarely associated with vision-threatening complications. The most common complications are hypertrichosis of eyelashes and increased pigmentation of extra- and intraocular structures. A careful lifetime evaluation of these patients is recommended. Systemic side-effects are rare, but may occur.
 
Article
The therapy of malignant diseases of the conjunctiva with local chemotherapy is an extension of the therapeutic options in this field. We report on our experience in the therapy of malignant melanomas of the conjunctiva associated with primary acquired melanosis (PAM). Between March 1998 and April 2001, 13 patients with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva associated with PAM (6 female; 7 male; mean age 57+/-13 years) were treated with local chemotherapy. The tumor was classified as stage pT2 (pN0, pM0) in seven patients, stage pT3 (pN0, pM0) in three patients and in the remaining three patients the lid was involved in the malignant process (pT4, pN0, pM0). Local chemotherapy (mitomycin C 0.02% eyedrops 5 times a day) was applied after incisional biopsies in 2 cycles for 14 days with a 14-day break. In 4 patients a third cycle was included. Regression of the tumor was observed after completion of the therapy in all cases. Severe ocular or systemic secondary effects were not seen in our patients. Nine patients were without recurrence within the follow-up time. In three patients, a recurrence of the disease was observed. In these cases, the eyelid was involved in the process. Local chemotherapy with mitomycin C is a useful option in the treatment of malignant melanomas of the conjunctiva associated with PAM if the tumor stage is pT3 or less. From our point of view the combination with incisional biopsy is of great benefit. Prognosis of conjunctival malignant melanomas involving the lid margin (pT4) is poor.
 
Article
In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial we studied the protective effect of prednisolone-acetate 1.0% and dexamethasone 0.1% on the blood-aqueous barrier after cataract-extraction and posterior chamber lens implantation. Pre- and postoperative anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed after i.v. administration of 10% fluorescein-sodium in 20 eyes of 20 patients of whom 16 finished the study (mean age 68.7 +/- 11.0; 13 female, 3 male). The topical application of either drug 5 times daily for 5 days did show a significant difference in surgery mediated disturbance of BAB in each group before and after phacoemulsification. However, when comparing the effect of the two drugs with each other, a difference could not be detected (p = 0.35). To attain a statistical 95% probability that there is no significant difference between the two treatment groups, a number of 690 patients would have had to be investigated. The results can be interpreted as to be due to a better cornea penetration of prednisolone-acetate which compensate the higher glucocorticoid-potency and receptor-affinity of dexamethasone. The untreated fellow-eyes did not reveal a significant difference between the pre- and postoperative anterior chamber fluorescein-concentrations in either treatment group. Anterior chamber fluorophotometry is able to demonstrate the potency and influence of both prednisolone-acetate 1.0% and dexamethasone 0.1% eye-drops on the BAB following phacoemulsification and IOL-implantation. The difference of both drugs does not seem to be of clinical importance in this context.
 
Article
Most of the antiglaucomatous drugs affect ocular blood flow. Blood flow of the anterior uvea under the effect of glaucoma medication has been described in the literature, but measurement of microcirculation at the posterior pole correlated to glaucoma medication is rarely found. We present a placebo-controlled study in which we focused on the short and long-term effects of topical dipivefrine 0.1% on the microcirculation of the retina and optic nerve head. In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-masked study we examined 40 healthy persons (21 male and 19 female) with a mean age of 35 +/- 4.6 years. Two groups of volunteers (n = 20) were treated either with placebo or dipivefrine 0.1% for 5 days twice a day. Measurement of microcirculation was done at baseline, 30 min after the first application and on days 3 and 5. Microcirculation was evaluated by scanning-laser Doppler flowmetry (SLDF, Heidelberg Engineering; Heidelberg, Germany) [retinal and optic nerve head capillary blood flow (ONH)]. Systemic parameters were checked at all times of blood flow measurement (blood pressure, pulse); intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured at baseline, 30 min after and on days 3 and 5. Systemic parameters: None of serum medications affected blood pressure or pulse. Dipivefrine 0.1% lowered the IOP significantly (P = 0.01). Microcirculation: dipivefrine 0.1% leads to a significant reduction of retinal capillary blood flow (P = 0.01). ONH blood flow was not significantly affected by dipivefrine 0.1%. Retinal capillary perfusion is affected by dipivefrine 0.1% medication. In neuroprotection, it is of interest that glaucoma medication did not alter the microcirculation in a way that leads to an increase of hypoxemia. Therefore, we consider dipivefrine 0.1% not to be useful for long-term glaucoma treatment.
 
Article
In a 12-week double-masked trial we compared the ocular hypotensive effect of 0.25% timolol in Gelrite administered once daily (TG) to that of 0.25% timolol solution administered twice daily (TS). A second objective was to compare the tolerability and the safety of these treatments. Timolol in Gelrite is a new topical formulation of timolol in an anionic heteropolysaccharide gellan gum. A total of 156 patients entered the study after an appropriate wash-out. The medication schedule included one drop of test drug in each eye at 9 a.m. (active drug for both groups) and 9 p.m. (placebo for the TG group, active drug for the TS group). At trough, the mean decrease from baseline intraocular pressure (after appropriate wash-out) ranged from 5.7 to 6.3 mmHg for the TG group and from 5.9 to 6.2 mmHg for the TS group. The difference between the treatment group means ranged from -0.4 to 0.4 mmHg. At peak, the mean decrease from baseline IOP ranged from 5.3 to 6.2 mmHg for TG group and from 5.1 to 6.1 mmHg for the TS group. The difference between the treatment group means ranged from -0.7 to 0.4 mmHg. The results of this study support the hypothesis of a comparable hypotensive effect at peak and trough of 0.25% timolol in Gelrite q.d. to 0.25% timolol solution b.i.d. Furthermore, timolol in Gelrite has an acceptable tolerability profile. The incidence of blurred vision was higher in the Gelrite group, but this different was not statistically significant. The incidence of foreign body sensation was significantly higher in the Gelrite group (P < 0.022).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Article
Dapiprazole hydrochloride is an alpha-1-adrenergic inhibitor that anticipates the mydriatic effect of phenylephrine in dilator muscle receptors in a competitive way. The aim of this study was to determine for which indications for mydriasis pupil dilation by phenylephrine alone is sufficient and if the reversal by dapiprazole is convenient and the practical. In 286 eyes of 147 outpatients, the pupil was dilated for fluorescein angiography-FLA (100 eyes of 50 patients), examination of the fundus-Fd (99 eyes of 52 patients), central argon laser coagulation-cALC) (64 eyes of 32 patients), peripheral argon laser coagulation-pALC (16 eyes of 9 patients) and Nd:YAG capsulotomy (7 eyes of 4 patients) with phenylephrine 10% eyes drops, followed by reversal by dapiprazole 0.5%. The width and mobility of the pupil were tested at intervals of 10 min. When mydriasis by phenylephrine was insufficient, tropicamide was applied additionally. In 98% of FLA with scanning laser ophthalmoscope, 75% of cALC, 76% of Fd, 62% FLA with fundus camera and 38% of pALC, mydriasis could be reached that was sufficient for the indication. Diabetics showed significantly more sluggish pupil mobility (t1/2: P < 0.05 mydriasis, P < 0.005 reversal). The mean duration after using dapiprazole until reaching the starting value (+/- 1 mm) of the pupil was 44.3 +/- 26.3 min. In 86% of the examined eyes, the pupil reached its starting value within 1 h. The subjective degree of satisfaction with the application of dapiprazole was "satisfied" to "very satisfied" (5.4 +/- 1.4 points on a scale from 1 to 7 points). In fundus examination, fluorescein angiography by a laser scanner, diagnostic retinal examination and central laser coagulation, the combination phenylephrine/dapiprazole was most suitable. In our opinion, the combination is less suitable for peripheral argon laser coagulation and fluorescein angiography using a fundus camera.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' acceptance and intraocular pressure (IOP) readings of a new digital mobile tonometer (TGDc-01) and compare it to Goldmann applanation tonometry. Measurements repeated five times with the TGDc-01 and three times with Goldmann tonometry were performed in 100 eyes of 100 patients by two independent investigators. Patients' acceptance of both techniques was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean IOP with the TGDc-01 yielded 15.4 mmHg for investigator 1 and 12.7 mmHg for investigator 2 (range: 4-43 mmHg). Results of the measurements with Goldmann tonometry showed 17.6 mmHg for investigator 1 and 17.3 mmHg for investigator 2 (9-42 mmHg). The IOP difference of the two tonometry methods was highly significant (p<0.001). The intraobserver variability was 29% for investigator 1 and 8% for investigator 2. Mean IOP values of the two investigators taken with the TGDc-01 differed significantly (p<0.01) from each other by a mean of 2.6 mmHg. The new mobile tonometer TGDc-01 is better accepted by patients but IOP values are significantly lower compared to Goldmann tonometry and variability is high. Regarding glaucoma diagnostics it seems to be less suitable than Goldmann tonometry.
 
Article
Assessment of patient satisfaction and quality of life becomes increasingly important for the overall evaluation of therapy regimes. However, it is not certain whether standard quality of life questionnaires suffice to assess immediate changes in patient conditions such as induced by cataract surgery. The increase in visual acuity was observed in 152 cataract patients as an objective efficacy parameter. In addition, subjective patient satisfaction and quality of life was obtained from these patients by means of a cataract-specific questionnaire 1 day before and 4 weeks after surgery. The questionnaire concentrates on the patients' overall flexibility and mobility, their estimation of medical and nursing care, changes in ophthalmological conditions and on complications after surgery. With an internal consistency of 82% the instrument can be regarded as moderately reliable but self-reported quality of life before surgery was found to be remarkably biased. None of the above quality of life determinants showed a clinically relevant correlation with the objective increase in visual acuity (absolute correlations <20%). Significant impact factors for overall quality of life satisfaction were the patients' overall flexibility ( p=0.049) and their estimation of medical and nursing care ( p=0.027). Standard quality of life determinants provide independent subjective information in addition to the increase in visual acuity as an objective measure of clinical outcome. Overall assessment of patient satisfaction cannot be regarded as sufficient for the subjective evaluation of cataract surgery, since its estimation primarily depends on the patients' appreciation of medical and nursing care. An appropriately extensive means of quality of life assessment seems necessary and post-surgical data seems sufficient for the estimation of subjective therapy outcome measures in cataract patients.
 
Article
The purpose of this prospective clinical cross-sectional study was to analyse indications, intraoperative, perioperative and postoperative pecularities and complications as well as postoperative functional and morphologic results of the first 1000 consecutive elective round laser keratoplasties. The age of the 480 females and 520 males (362 x keratoconus), who had been operated on between 07/1989 and 04/2002 ranged from 20 to 92 years (mean 55+/-19). A total of 6 microsurgeons performed 718 x PK only, 222 x a triple procedure and 60 x additional IOL manoeuvres. Recipient and donor trephinations were accomplished with an 193 nm excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) from the epithelial side. In 895 eyes with perioperative corneal erosion, epithelial healing took not more than 3 days in half of cases. During a follow-up period of 1.9+/-1.5 years, in 35 eyes episodes of acute diffuse (8 irreversible) and in 12 eyes episodes of chronic focal (5 irreversible) endothelial immunologic graft reactions (4.7%) occurred between 6 weeks and 4.7 years after PK. Before/after suture removal, median values of astigmatism were 1.5 diopters (D)/2.5 D refractive, 3.0 D/3.3 D keratometric, and 4.0 D/4.2 D topographic. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.50/0.60, respectively. More than 12 years of experience with this new technique indicate that besides optical advantages, nonmechanical trephination does not cause intraoperative or postoperative disadvantages for the patient. Under standardised surgical conditions a massive increase of astigmatism after suture removal seems to be avoidable with laser trephination in most cases due to reduction of decentration,"vertical tilt" and especially "horizontal torsion".
 
Article
Prophylactic treatment of full-thickness retinal breaks is widely accepted. The side effects and benefits of prophylactic treatment, however, have to be considered critically. The complication rates of prophylactic procedures must be compared. The aim of our study was to find out the complication rate of cryopexy in prophylactic retinal surgery. Retrospectively we analyzed 1000 eyes of 746 patients who were prophylactically treated by cryopexy for different reasons. We included eyes with round holes, horse shoe tears and peripheral degenerations. Follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 7 years (average 30 months). Further surgical treatment was necessary in 3.4% of the patients (1.8% had a second cryopexy, 0.1% needed laser coagulation, and in 1.5% a subsequent scleral buckling procedure was necessary. In 17.6% of these cases (0.6% of all cases) the retinal detachment occurred in the periphery of the primary cryopexy after more than 1 year. In all our patients we did not find postoperative macular pucker or cystoid macular edema. The complication rate of cryopexy performed for the treatment of retinal holes and degeneration is low. This method has to be regarded as a therapeutic tool in the prophylactic treatment of (dangerous) retinal areas.
 
Article
A new data bank developed for ophthalmopathology using a computer-generated, multidigital data code is expected to be able to accomplish complex clinicopathologic correlations of diagnoses and signs, as provided by (multiple) clinical events and histopathologically proven etiologies, and to facilitate the documentation of new data. In the ophthalmopathology laboratory 2890 eyes were examined between January 20, 1975 and December 12, 1996. The main diagnoses and patient data from this 22-year period were recorded. To facilitate the presentation of data, a 10-year period with eyes of 976 patients enucleated from December, 1986 to December, 1996 was chosen. Principal and secondary diagnoses served for establishing the data bank. The frequencies of successive histologic and clinical diagnoses were evaluated by a descriptive computing program using an SPSS-multi-response mode with dummy variables and a categorical variable listing of the software (SPSS version 10.0) classified as (a) non-filtered random, (b) filtered by multiple etiologies, and (c) filtered by multiple events. The principal groups (e.g., histologic diagnoses concerning etiology) and subgroups (e.g., trauma, neoplasia, surgery, systemic diseases, and inflammations) were defined and correlated with 798 separate diagnoses. From 11 diagnoses/events ascribed to the clinical cases, 11,198 namings resulted. Thus, a comparative study of complex etiologies and events leading to enucleation in different hospitals of a specific area may be performed using this electronic ophthalmopathologic data bank system. The complexity of rare disease and integration into a superimposed structure can be managed with this custom-made data bank. A chronologically and demographically oriented consideration of reasons for enucleation is thus feasible.
 
Article
Anterior chamber fluorophotometry (Fluorotron Master II, Coherent, Palo Alto, Calif.) was used to investigate the influence of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthin on the circadian rhythm of aqueous humor secretion in two age-, race- and sex-matched groups of healthy volunteers. In ten males and ten females (mean age 27 years), aqueous humor secretion was measured over 24 h at: 0800, 0900, 1000-1400, 1500, 1600-2000, 2100, 2200-0200, 0300, and 0400 hours. Flow was calculated using the Yablonsky protocol of Fluorotron Master II. In group I all volunteers received about 800 mg trimethylxanthin in the form of caffeinated coffee between 2200 and 2300 hours. In group II volunteers went to sleep at 2300 hours. Sleep was only interrupted for measurements. During the daytime the mean aqueous humor flow was the same in both groups (0800 to 2200 hours) (Student's t-test): Group I (n = 10) RA 2.27 +/- 0.70 microliters/min LA 2.25 +/- 0.74 microliters/min Group II (n = 10) RA 2.23 +/- 0.73 microliters/min LA 2.06 +/- 0.64 microliters/min During the night the mean aqueous humor flow decreased in both groups (0200 to 0400 hours): Group I: RA 1.99 +/- 0.74 microliters/min delta flow = -12% LA 1.93 +/- 0.75 microliters/min Group II: RA 0.97 +/- 0.50 microliters/min delta flow = -56% LA 0.97 +/- 0.48 microliters/min The difference between groups was statistically significant (P = 0.01, t-test for unpaired samples). There was no significant change in mean aqueous humor flow between the daytime vs night in group I (P < 0.5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of temperature measurements with the ocular TG-1000 thermograph in a setup of sequential measurements performed by one observer (intraobserver) and a sequence of measurements performed by different observers (interobserver) in normal subjects without pathologies of the anterior segment of the eye. A total of 50 right eyes from 50 individuals (mean age 29.1 ± 7.9 years) without ocular pathologies or history of ocular surgery were enrolled in this prospective monocentric clinical case series. Eyes with signs of dry eye syndrome (based on a positive McMonnies questionnaire) were excluded from the study. Corneal surface temperature measurements were performed by three examiners to assess interobserver reliability. In addition, in a subgroup of 22 individuals, a sequence of 3 measurements were performed by 1 of the examiners to examine intraobserver reliability. Corneal surface temperature was measured within an interval of 10 s (11 frames) on a region of interest of 16 ± 12 mm (320 ± 240 pixels). Central and mid-peripheral local temperatures at 3 mm (3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock) were extracted and analyzed from the raw data. The ocular TG-1000 thermograph yielded consistent results for the interobserver as well as intraobserver conditions in measuring corneal surface temperature in the center as well as mid-periphery of the cornea. Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 or higher at all corneal locations, which proves a high consistency of results for the interobserver and intraobserver measurements. The average corneal surface temperature ranged between 34.0 °C and 34.7 °C with a slight decrease from the upper temporal (9 and 12 o'clock) to the lower nasal (3 and 6 o'clock) quadrants. The TG-1000 thermograph yielded consistent results of corneal surface temperature in individuals without anterior segment pathologies or history of ocular surgery. With the option of raw data export (11 frames within 10 s with a lateral resolution of 320 × 240 pixels) the thermograph offers a wide range of new diagnostic options for a spatiotemporal analysis of corneal surface temperature.
 
Article
Intraepithelial neoplasias of cornea and conjunctiva are rare epibulbar tumors. In this report we describe the cases of two male patients, aged 37 and 80 years, each with histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ of the cornea and conjunctiva affecting one eye. Both carcinomas recurred in spite of complete surgical excision of the tumor. One patient had additional cryotherapy. Both recurrences were treated once with radiotherapy using a conventional 106Ru applicator. The applicator was fixed to the sclera adjacent to the corneal limbus. A 100 Gy radiation dose was delivered with 2mm tissue penetration. No complications were observed post-operatively. The 2-year follow-up examinations showed no further recurrences. Brachytherapy with 106 Ru applicator was thus effective in achieving local tumor control. These findings suggest brachytherapy of the anterior segment using the 106 Ru applicator as the first-line procedure in the early stages of epithelia dysplasia or carcinoma in situ.
 
Article
Eyes with traumatic cataracts comprise a very heterogeneous group with respect to morphological and functional changes in the anterior and posterior segments. In the current study, data on 106 eyes with traumatic cataracts were analyzed. All eyes had undergone surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Heidelberg between 1987 and 1991. There was a total of 55 blunt (group A) and 51 perforating (group 2) injuries. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1; the mean age was 54.8 (+/- 15.2) years in group 1 and 43.7 (+/- 19.1) years in group 2. In 91.4% of the eyes in group A without zonular defects (A1, n = 35) and 65% with zonular defects (A2, n = 20) a posterior chamber IOL was implanted. This value was 66.7% following perforating injuries (B, n = 51). Mean visual acuity was 0.68 +/- 0.29 for group A1, 0.56 +/- 0.35 for group A2, and 0.52 +/- 0.30 for group B. In 7.5% of all eyes additional surgery was required because of delayed complications. Overall, relatively good visual acuity was obtained, but results largely depended on the severity of traumatic damage to the eye and the status of the zonular/capsular apparatus.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to report the multifactorial results of high-dose (106)Ruthenium plaque brachytherapy for (cilio-)choroidal melanoma and to confirm them by histological examinations. 100 patients with choroidal or ciliochoroidal melanoma treated by high-dose 106Ruthenium plaque brachytherapy were followed-up for 5 years. 12 secondary enucleated eyes were compared to a non-irradiated matched group by light microscopy. The 5-year local tumour control rate was 93%, the 5-year survival rate 91%. Late radiogenic side effects occured as a retinopathy in 13%, as an optic neuropathy in 5% and as a secondary glaucoma in 3% of the patients. 14% had to be enucleated, 10% developed metastases. The histopathologic examination revealed significantly higher degrees of necrosis (p=0,041), balloon cell degeneration (p=0,025) and fibrosis (p<0,001) in the irradiated melanomas than in the control tumours. High-dose 106Ruthenium plaque brachytherapy turned out to be an effective treatment procedure for posterior uveal melanoma (not exceeding a prominence of 5,5 mm) with a high rate of local tumour control and a low rate of side effects.
 
Article
Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) is a new keratorefractive procedure for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism, which may combine advantages and eliminate disadvantages of photorefractive keratectomy (e.g. pain, corneal haze) and laser in situ keratomileusis (e.g. flap and interface complications, dry eye, keratectasia). We present the results of 108 consecutively LASEK-treated eyes with a follow-up period of 12 months. LASEK was performed on 108 consecutive eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism using a keracor 117 excimer laser. The mean preoperative refraction was -4.12+/-1.30 diopters (D) spherical equivalent range: -1.75 to -6.0 D and maximal cylinder was 3.25 D. Results of the 12 months visit are available for 101 eyes (93.5%). No serious complications were observed. After 12 months, SE was within +/-1.0 D of emmetropia in 96% and within +/-0.5 D in 86% of the eyes; 6 eyes had to be retreated. None of the eyes showed haze worse than grade 1 or lost more than one line of best-corrected visual acuity. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was > or =20/20 in 80% and > or =20/40 in 98%. Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) seems to be safe and effective in treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism of up to -6.0 D. Preliminary results compare favourably with those after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis. Haze formation after LASEK seems to be low. Coverage of the stromal wound with a vital epithelial flap could positively influence postoperative wound healing reactions.
 
Article
Nine patients (11 eyes) with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid were treated with systemic azathioprine and a syngeneic nasal mucosa transplant from the inferior turbinate. Follow-up was 8-26 months (average 15 months). Grafting was successful in all cases. Treatment ameliorated the symptoms of pain in all patients and double vision in one. In 2 eyes in which simultaneous pannus resection had been performed, neither pannus nor corneal vascularization recurred. Late complications were recurrences with symblephara in two cases when azathioprine was stopped; in one patient with a serpiginous ulcer tectonic penetrating keratoplasty à chaud had to be performed; and in another a trophic ulcer was healed with a therapeutic contact lens.
 
Article
Up to now 73 patients with 101 very severe eye burns have been operated on in our clinic. Thirty-nine patients were treated by a penetrating keratoplasty. More than 1 year after the accident 8 patients were treated with keratoplasties, 11-12 mm in diameter. These large diameters were necessary, because 6 patients developed widespread progressive corneal ulcerations, and in 2 patients the artificial epithelium failed to protect the denuded corneal stroma and sloughed off because of deep stromal defects. The long-term follow-up in these cases is now at least 1 year. Six grafts remained clear with a healthy epithelial layer. The resulting visual acuity in these cases ranged from 0.1 to 0.5. Five patients developed a cataract secondary to the application of steroids. Two grafts were rejected in a very early period 2-3 months after transplantation. In corneal melting processes including the limbal region, treatment with large keratoplasties seems to be a possibility for long-lasting healing and rehabilitation in very severe eye burns. Important for the prognosis of the graft obviously is the restoration of an intact limbal region.
 
Article
We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with continuously progressive loss of vision. Fundoscopy revealed a picture consistent with Stargardt's disease and fundus flavimaculatus. This article provides a short overview of differential diagnoses worth considering in children and adolescents who present with a similar picture. After our initial workup, genetic chip analysis of the ABCA4 gene was performed, which yielded a heterozygous mutation. Because a second mutation could likely have been on a part of the gene not screened by chip analysis, and in light of the striking picture, a clinical diagnosis of Stargardt's disease was made.
 
Abb. 1 7 Fundusfoto des rechten Auges bei Erstvorstellung  
Article
This article presents a case of acute bilateral impaired vision and central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy. Looking directly into a laser beam of a laser pointer for only a few seconds can cause retinal damage in the form of lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer, up to retinal hemorrhage. Patients often complain about impaired vision and a central scotoma of the affected eye.
 
Article
We use the trapezoidal lamellar incision as standard construction for sutureless self-sealing wound closure in our clinic: a 7 mm incision for phacoemulsification and implantation of a 6.5 mm optic diameter PMMA posterior chamber less (PCL) and an incision up to 11 mm for ECCE with standard PCL. The operation can be performed in a nearly closed system because of the self-sealing wound construction. Experiments in cadaver eyes showed that the wound closure of a 7 mm incision with the no-stitch technique ruptured at a pressure five times greater than the cross-stitch-sutured corneoscleral incision and in an 11 mm incision four times greater (602 +/- 149 mmHg and 150 +/- 29 mmHg). Due to the high stability of the wound closure, no sutures are necessary. Complications arising in connection with sutures are therefore avoided. Clinically, two typical postoperative complications were observed: hypotony occurred in 1% and anterior chamber hemorrhage in 5%. These complications are exclusively caused by imperfection of the internal corneal opening.
 
Article
Patients with recurrent corneal erosion syndrome can suffer both psychologically and socially due to excessive pain. After the failure of conservative treatment, conventional surgical interventions, such as anterior stromal puncture have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological and functional results of minimally invasive excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (e-PTK) for treatment of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome and in particular, to evaluate the cumulative recurrence rate. Between July 1990 and January 2001, 116 e-PTKs have been performed mostly in the acute stage of the disease in this single center study. In 15 eyes an unsuccessful PTK had previously been performed elsewhere. Reasons for the erosion included trauma ( n=80), Cogan's epithelial dystrophy ( n=14), bullous keratopathy ( n=2), and in 20 cases no cause could be detected. A manually guided spot profile was applied in 99 cases (pulse energy 10 mJ, repetition rate 2/s or 3/s, 66-330 pulses). In 17 cases a scanning slit procedure was applied (intended ablation per scan 1 microm, repetition rate 20/s, 447-1,017 pulses). The broad deepithelialisation of Bowman's layer was treated with defocussed overlapping laser pulses. Complete epithelial closure was achieved after an average of 2.3+/-1.3 (median 2) days, the mean follow-up was 2.2+/-1.6 years with a maximum of 5.6 years. Best corrected visual acuity increased from 0.6+/-0.4 preoperatively to 0.9+/-0.3 postoperatively. The keratometric central power remained constant (preoperative 43.0+/-2.2 D (diopters), postoperative 43.3+/-1.9 D). The median keratometric astigmatism remained constant at 1.0 D. Only in 2 patients was an iatrogenic, not completely reversible irregular astigmatism of more than 2 D induced during the learning curve. The spherical equivalent did not change significantly (-1.0+/-3.3 D preop., -1.1+/-3.4 D postop.). In 9 eyes (7.8%) a recurrent epithelial defect occurred after 2-24 (average 8+/-6) months. The cumulative 1-year recurrence rate was 6.5%, the 2-year recurrence rate was 11.5%, the 3-, 4-, and 5-year recurrence rates were all 13.6%. For recurrent corneal erosion syndrome, e-PTK performed with low pulse energy and low number of pulses can be considered an effective treatment modality to achieve a fast and mostly durable epithelial closure. Even after broad removal of the loose epithelium, change of refraction or induction of an irregular astigmatism with visual loss seems to be the exception.
 
Article
The treatment of large uveal melanomas is always a challenge to the ophthalmic oncologist due to the expected long-term complications. The purpose of this study was to compare 125Iodine plaque brachytherapy with transscleral resection of large uveal melanomas in terms of preserving visual function and avoiding secondary enucleation. A total of 135 patients with similar tumor features were selected from a group of 211 patients with uveal melanomas where the tumor height was greater than 7.5 mm. Of these patients 87 were treated by 125Iodine brachytherapy and 48 patients by transscleral tumor resection. The mean follow-up time was 26 months. After transscleral resection 58% of the patients and after 125Iodine-brachytherapy 15% of the patients retained a visual acuity of > or = 0.1 after a follow-up of 28 months. Following iodine-brachytherapy there was a sixfold higher rate of secondary glaucoma. No difference was found with respect to the eye retention and mortality rate. Patients with large melanomas eligible for transscleral local resection have a better visual function than those treated by 125Iodine brachytherapy.
 
Article
Nd:YAG laser iridotomy is routinely used as a procedure for primary acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). The clear advantage of Nd:YAG laser iridotomy is to resolve pupillary block without opening the eye. Nevertheless it remains unclear whether Nd:YAG laser iridotomy is equally effective as surgical iridectomy. In this context cases in which AACG recurred despite patent Nd:YAG laser iridotomy are of interest. In a retrospective study, we analyzed the charts of 90 patients who presented with unilateral primary AACG in our department over 3 years and were treated with a surgical iridectomy. Surgical iridectomy at the 12 o'clock position was performed using a self-sealing corneal incision. Of the 90 patients with primary AACG, 13 (14.4%) had already been treated with Nd:YAG laser iridotomy. Despite the laser iridotomy, these eyes developed recurrent AACG. The presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) of these 13 eyes was 49.07+/-12.65 mmHg. In 4 eyes, continuous medical glaucoma therapy was used prior to AACG, 8 eyes showed signs of glaucoma damage at the optic disk or/and the visual field. In 2 eyes, the presenting high IOP at AACG could be lowered by medication. All other eyes were operated at high IOP. The average interval between the Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and the AACG was 24.5 weeks. After surgical iridectomy, the IOP was reduced to 12.69+/-4.11 mmHg and was 16.62+/-3.86 mmHg at the end of the observation period. In spite of Nd:YAG laser iridotomy recurrent AACG can occur. Surgical iridectomy is capable of permanently resolving the pupillar block in these cases.
 
Article
During organ culture, corneas swell and have to be de-swollen prior to transplantation using a medium. Both swelling and de-swelling lead to increased endothelial cell loss. Furthermore, dextran, the standard de-swelling substance, is toxic and deposited in the cornea. Whether HES is suitable as a continuous supplement for organ culture and keeps the corneas thin was investigated in this study. Forty-five human corneas were stored in MEM plus 7.5% HES 130 for 7, 15, 21, and 28 days. Endothelial cell count was determined before and after organ culture. After storage the water content and amount of adenosine phosphates were measured. Water content was 82.29% after 7 days, 82.98% after 15 days, 81.15% after 21 days, and 83.21% after 28 days. The endothelial cell count decreased by 1.20% after 7 days, 0.60% after 15 days, 4.29% after 21 days, and 6.89% after 28 days. ATP was 0.159 micromol/g dry weight after 28 days of organ culture. The water content of corneas stored in HES-containing medium remained constant even after 21 days of organ culture. Endothelial cell loss was less than in comparable studies using a standard medium containing 10% FCS; however, ATP concentrations were worse. HES 130 keeps the corneas thin and can be used as a continuous supplement. It facilitates the handling of corneas during organ culture, making dehydration before transplantation unnecessary, and thus also reduces potential stress factors for the cornea.
 
Article
The LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with severe lentiginosis associated with various abnormalities such as electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of the genitalia, retardation of growth and deafness. Ocular manifestations such as coloboma of the iris, the retina and the choroid have not been reported so far. We report the cases of two 10-year-old identical twins and their mother, showing typical manifestations consistent with the LEOPARD syndrome. Additionally, colobomas of the iris, the retina and the choroid were detected. In addition to the findings typical for the LEOPARD syndrome, we observed unusual ocular abnormalities in all three patients. It represents a discordant phenotype in monozygotic twins. LEOPARD syndrome is a disease with multiple alterations and abnormalities. Although ocular malformations seem to be rare, an ophthalmological examination is recommended in order to initiate early visual rehabilitation.
 
Article
Nd-YAG posterior capsulotomy in treatment of secondary cataract has the main disadvantage of increasing the risk for pseudophakic retinal detachment by destroying the posterior lens capsule. This is of great interest in high myopic eyes with an increased risk for pseudophakic retinal detachment. In 219 cases of secondary cataract in our clinic a surgical posterior capsule polishing has been performed and this group was followed up over 6 years looking for intra- and postoperative complications. The examined group included 209 myopic eyes with a bulbus length > 25 mm and 10 eyes with traumatic cataract; 24 eyes of this group had been primarily operated without a lens. The secondary cataract surgery was performed between 1990 and 1995, and the average follow-up period was 42 months. The intra- and postoperative complications were revealed retrospectively by examination of the patients in our clinic or by interviewing the patients' private doctors. The patients achieved a mean improvement in vision of 4 lines. In 9 cases intraoperative capsule rupture occurred (4%). In 35 of the operated eyes one or more relapses occurred during the follow-up period that made another polishing necessary (16%), and in 5 cases YAG capsulotomy was eventually performed (2%). Pseudophakic retinal detachment occurred in none of the cases. Surgical posterior capsule polishing is a low-risk procedure for treatment of regenerative secondary cataract. It is indicated especially in myopic eyes in order to reduce the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment by conserving the posterior lens capsule.
 
Article
The prevalence of human Down's syndrome is about 1:700. Investigations using animal models are therefore of clinical relevance for understanding its etiopathogenesis. No corneal changes have been reported with transgenic murine trisomy 16. A total of 20 fetal mice (n=40 eyes) with experimentally induced trisomy 16 were investigated from day 18 of pregnancy in order to determine whether visible developmental disorders of the cornea occur. All specimen were investigated microscopically in serial sections. In addition to disturbances in systemic development, the transgenic mouse fetuses showed high rates of malformation of the eyes. Developmental and differentiation disorders of the corneal epithelial cell layers and structural disturbances of the corneal parenchyma were found. Our findings are the first demonstration of developmental disorders of the cornea in mouse fetuses with trisomy 16. These minor anomalies of the cornea could well have resulted in keratoconus if the animals had survived. Our findings in transgenic mouse fetuses with trisomy 16 correspond to the clinical pattern of Down's syndrome in humans. Disturbed development of lids and lenses have a high prevalence, whereas corneal hypoplasia is found less often.
 
Article
The aim was to compare the different techniques of cataract surgery regarding early postoperative astigmatism and visual acuity. The data of three groups of patients (100 eyes) were analyzed retrospectively (1980-1982; 1987-1990; 1991-1993). Three different techniques of cataract surgery were used. Included in the prospective study were the data for 285 eyes, which underwent phacoemulsification, self-sealing incision and controlled induction of astigmatism. In the time period retrospectively investigated, we found that because of the advancements in operation methods, there was a reduction in the amount of surgically induced astigmatism. From 1980 to 1995 there was a clear increase in the number of patients with early low-grade postoperative astigmatism < 1 D (1980-1982: 6%, 1987-1990: 19%, 1991-1993: 64%, 1994-1995: 84%). There was an improvement in postoperative vision (with correction > 0.5) of 16% in 1980-1982 to 45% from 1987 to 1990, 58% from 1991 to 1993, and to 76% in 1994-1995. Surgical induced a stigmatism, which was considered to be a sign of unwanted increased postoperative astigmatism, was reduced from 1980 to 1993. Through controlled induction of astigmatism it was possible to compensate for preoperative astigmatism in the prospective group. Improved surgical techniques led to improvements in early postoperative visual acuity.
 
Article
The "nail-patella syndrome" (NPS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary systemic disease. The underlying defect of the LMX1B gene is localised on chromosome 9q34 and causes various typical clinical signs such as onychodysplasia, patella hypoplasia, renal involvement and open angle glaucoma. A 42-year-old mother and her 4-year-old son were examined in our hospital in order to exclude ocular involvement in a genetically confirmed "nail-patella syndrome". A clinical examination including corneal topography, gonioscopy as well as measurement of intraocular pressure and bulbus length was performed. The examination of both patients showed NPS-specific symptoms, however the boy revealed no indications of glaucoma. He suffered from marked amblyopia caused by excessive astigmatism of the left eye and a bilateral moderate hyperopia. Because of the co-segregation between the syndrome and open angle glaucoma, NPS patients should undergo regular ophthalmological controls including measurement of intraocular pressure. Experiments on mice have shown that mutations of the LMX1B gene result in alterations of several structures of the anterior segments. Thus, the described refraction abnormality could be the consequence of structural changes at the corneal level due to NPS.
 
Article
Pilomatrixomas (benign epithelioma of Malherbe) are often located in the eyelid or eyebrow. Clinically the diagnosis is rarely made. Histologically, especially in partial biopsies, they can be confused with a basal cell carcinoma. We evaluated 17 tumors in 17 patients (19 months to 80 years old). The interval between the diagnosis and total excision of the mass ranged from 4 weeks to 2 years. The clinical misdiagnosis appeared to be related to the patient's age: A cystic dermoid (4x) was considered most frequently in children and sebaceous cyst or atheroma (5x) in patients of middle age. Further diagnoses were as follows: Chalazion, basal cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma, epidermoid cyst, abscess, papilloma. Nine tumors showed calcifications that might be visible by X-ray examination. After a mean follow-up of 7.6 years no recurrence was observed. Pilomatrixoma should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of subepidermal solid or cystic tumors, especially in the upper eyelid and eyebrow.
 
Article
Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a rare disease which seems to have an inflammatory origin. Treatment is symptom-oriented and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). If CNV is present the trend is towards the use of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapy. Oral therapy with steroids should be initially attempted.
 
Article
PURPOSE: Since 1868, the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Heidelberg has been providing care for the pupils of the school for blind and visually handicapped children in Ilvesheim, Germany. Previous studies on the causes of low vision have demonstrated the effects of the advances in medicine and ophthalmology with an explicit decrease in the number of inflammatory corneal diseases, followed by a reduced number of students suffering from congenital cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate current data and to compare it to previous data. METHODS: Ophthalmological data and additional disorders could be evaluated in 268 students visiting the special education school Schloßschule Ilvesheim between 2000 and 2008. The findings were compared to the results of previous studies concerning the degree of visual impairment and diagnosis. The children were divided according to German social law into blind, severely visually handicapped and visually handicapped. RESULTS: Out of the 268 students 83 (31.0%) were premature infants and 69 of these had additional disabilities, 130 were blind and 51 severely visually handicapped. Of the students 142 had additional learning, mental and/or motor handicaps. The most frequent cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was optic nerve atrophy (36.2 % and 37.3 %, respectively). The frequency of hereditary retinal diseases among the blind children was slightly higher with 24.6 % as compared to the data analysis from 1981 and was 15.7 % and 17.1 % among the severely visually handicapped and visually handicapped, respectively. Retinopathy of prematurity was diagnosed in approximately 20% of blind and severely visually handicapped children. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the enormous advances of medical capabilities during the last decades the number of (formerly) premature infants has markedly increased. Most of these students are multiply handicapped and need extensive assistance. While the number of students suffering from hereditary retinal diseases was only minimally increasing during the last 40 years, the number of blind students without additional disabilities has decreased due to the improved technical means to integrate even blind students into main-stream schools.
 
Article
At present there are no data in the literature on the expression of matrix metalloprotein-19 in the human cornea. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-19 in the human cornea and to investigate its potential role in corneal wound healing using a MMP-19 knock-out mouse model. A method with Western blotting and immunohistological staining for MMP-19 was performed using paraffin embedded human corneas. Excimer laser keratectomy was performed in wild type (wt) and MMP-19 knock-out (ko) mice and the rate of re-epithelialization was analyzed after 8 h and 18 h. MMP-19 was strongly expressed in the human corneal epithelium mainly in the basal cell layer. MMP-19 was not expressed in the corneal stroma. In the mouse model the size of the corneal lesion after 8 h was 83% (wt) and 89.9% (ko) of the initial area (p=0.09). After 18 h the lesion was 17% (wt) and 13.3% (ko) of the initial area (p=0.01). Laminin-5 was expressed in the migrating epithelial cells with no differences between wild type and knock-out mouse. MMP-19 showed a strong expression in the basal cells of the human corneal epithelium. Corneal re-epithelialization was slightly faster in the MMP-19 knock-out mouse. No differences in the expression of laminin-5 could be detected.
 
Article
Evaluation of rotational stability of a microincision intraocular lens with plate haptic design (*Acri. Smart 46S, *Acri.Tec AG) and its centering in the capsular bag after implantation. In a total of 43 eyes in 37 patients a foldable, spherical microincision cataract surgery (MICS) intraocular lens (IOL) with plate haptic design was implanted through a 1.4-mm microincision by means of an injector system. The IOL was marked prior to implantation to allow exact determination of its endocapsular position. After 1 1/2 years the best corrected visual acuity, refraction, centering and rotational stability of the IOL were determined. No rotation or decentration was observed in any of the 42 eyes 12-19 months postoperatively. On the first postoperative day 1 IOL rotated in the counterclockwise direction by approx. 6 degrees as a result of flattening of the anterior chamber. Its position then remained stable. No unwanted complications occurred. Conclusions: *Acri. Smart 46S is a safe, effective and stable IOL that can also be used as the basis of complex refractive optical systems, e.g. for correction of astigmatism.
 
Article
To investigate the functional and morphological long-term outcome of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for superficial corneal scars of varying origin. Between 1989 and 11/2002, 317 PTKs were performed in Erlangen, of which 31 consecutive procedures were assessed in this prospective study. The intended laser ablation depth after epithelial debridement and pannectomy varied from 12 to 150 microm. We used the slit-scanning-mode (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) with a repetition rate of 20/s or 25/s, a pulse energy of 14.5 mJ (median) and a pulse rate of 2565+/-2036 (222-6962). In most cases a 6.0 mm metal mask was used to protect peripheral Bowman's layer. After a mean follow-up of 2.0+/-1.9 (maximum 6.9) years, best-corrected visual acuity increased from preoperatively 0.3+/-0.2 to 0.5+/-0.3 (increase 87%, no change 10%, decrease 3%). Corneal surface topography regularized significantly (p=0.02). The spherical equivalent increased only slightly from -0.4+/-2.5 D preoperatively to 0.2+/-2.9 D postoperatively. Likewise, mean keratometric central power did not change significantly. In 10 eyes the maximum postoperative haze was mild, in 4 eyes moderate, and there was only one recurrent scar after delayed epithelial healing following epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. In superficial corneal scars of varying origin an o-PTK using the 193 nm excimer laser can moderately increase visual acuity in most cases. Therefore, a lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty might be avoided.
 
Top-cited authors
Olaf Strauss
  • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Berthold Seitz
  • Saarland University Medical Center
Claus Cursiefen
  • University of Cologne
Frank Holz
  • University of Bonn
Erich Knop
  • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin