Diagnostica

Published by Hogrefe
Online ISSN: 0012-1924
Publications
Article
Analyzed the forthcoming WIT to see if it renders a more adequate measurement of the structure of intelligence than previous German intelligence tests, and to find out what kind of relationship exists between the WIT and the "Strukturmodell" of A. O. Jäger (1967). The study was based on 151 candidates for higher positions in the Civil Service. The results of factor analyses and a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate that the WIT measured at least 6 independent abilities, and an operationalization of L. L. Thurstone's (1938) model on which this test is based was successful with the exception of factors P and R. With that exception, and adding maker variables, Jäger's "Strukturmodell" (including his hypothetical memory factor) was verified. The WIT is currently the most differentiated instrument in the German language for measuring the structure of intelligence. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied psychometric properties of a German version (R. Göttert and J. Kuhl, 1980) of the AMS by T. Gjesme and R. Nygard (1970). Ss were 641 normal male and female German adolescents and young adults (aged 16–22 yrs) (participants in a scientific research competition) and 203 normal male and female German adolescents (aged 15–24 yrs) (secondary school students) (eligible nonparticipants in the competition). The test–retest reliability, validity, factorial structure, and internal consistency of the AMS and its 2 subscales (Hope of Success, and Fear of Failure) were analyzed. Results were compared to the psychometric properties of the original Norwegian version of the AMS. [An erratum concerning this article appears in Diagnostica, 1993, Vol 39(4), 369. Question 1 is corrected.] (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Constructed and empirically assessed theABI; the English adaptation is called Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI). Human Ss: 1,424 normal male and female German adults (average age 25 yrs) (university students in different fields). Measured the 2 central coping constructs, vigilance (the intensified search for and processing of threat-related information) and cognitive avoidance (the averting of threat-relevant cues), in 2 subtests, 1 containing 4 fictitious physical threat situations, the other 4 ego-threatening situations. Each situation was conjoined with 5 vigilant and 5 cognitive avoidance coping strategies. Analyses of the participants' appraisals of threat scenarios, psychometric properties, and factorial structure of the ABI were presented. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the validity of 2 questionnaires frequently used to assess marital quality—the DAS by G. B. Spanier (1976) and the PFB by K. Hahlweg (1979, 1986). Human Ss: 299 normal male and female West German adults (mean age 38 yrs) (partners in an unsatisfactory marriage or intimate relationship) (marriage counseling clients). 235 normal male and female West German adults (mean age 35 yrs) (partners in a satisfactory marriage or intimate relationship) (comparison group). All Ss completed the PFB, and a subsample of 245 Ss also completed a German version of the DAS. The 2 instruments were compared with regard to internal consistency, construct validity, and discriminant validity. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents results of an evaluation of the psychometric properties of the BFW. The BFW assesses both cognitive and emotional aspects of well-being and life satisfaction and includes the following factors: positive attitude toward life, problem awareness, somatic complaints, self-worth, depressive mood, and joy in living. Results from 294 male and female Swiss adolescents and young adults (aged 14–20 yrs) confirm the factorial structure of the BFW and reveal that the instrument has adequate reliability and validity. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Critically analyzes recently developed assessment techniques reported to be sensitive to the change produced by client-centered psychotherapy and their claims to theory relatedness and construct validity. The concept of sensitivity to change is discussed, specified, and determined with respect to its propositional content. It is demonstrated that such assessment techniques do not meet the standards set by themselves. (English abstract) (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed and tested the Berlin Everyday Language Mood Inventory (BELMI). The everyday concept of mood was analyzed, and a representative sample of mood adjectives was subjected to similarity scaling using hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting 10 major content domains of the mood concept are represented in the BELMI by 2 items each. Thus, the BELMI can claim both higher content validity and greater economy than other questionnaires. The BELMI includes 3 bipolar scales for measurement of basic state dimensions: pleasure–displeasure, arousal–calmness, and wakefulness–tiredness. This allows for simultaneous assessment of mood on both a specific and a global level. Studies showed that the BELMI scales were content specific, had satisfactory to good internal consistency, were sensitive to situational contexts, and were related to personality dimensions of the NEO Personality Inventory in an expected way. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the validity and reliability of a German version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) developed by C. Peterson et al (1982) on the basis of an attributions theory approach to learned helplessness. Classical item analysis of questionnaire responses from 100 male and female undergraduates shows that the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the German ASQ exceed those of the original American version of the questionnaire. A high correlation was found between scores on the German ASQ and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory by A. T. Beck et al (1961). (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In the present study, the psychometric properties and the validity of a German version of Breaugh and Colihan's (1994) questionnaire for measuring facets of job ambiguity are examined. These facets relate to the experienced uncertainty about the performance criteria to be met, the uncertainty about the work methods to be used, and the uncertainty about how to schedule the work. In agreement with the findings from Breaugh and Colihan (1994), the results of a confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 3-factor model provided a better fit to the data than a 1-factor (global) ambiguity model. However, an added specified 2-factor model, in which the items for measuring work method and scheduling ambiguity formed 1 factor, presented similarly good fit indices to the 3-factor model. Apart from that, the assessed item and scale characteristics correspond closely to those of the original questionnaire. Furthermore, the results revealed that the facets of job ambiguity are associated with a number of variables considered in the literature as their antecedents or correlates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed a 14-item scale of ambiguity tolerance. A consistency coefficient of .76 was obtained in a sample of 1,100 German teachers. The relationships to demographic and job-related variables and attitudes, respectively, provided evidence for external and discriminant validity. (English abstract) (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed a short form of W. Horn's (1962) intelligence test for brain-damaged patients that consists of 6 of its subtests. Multiple regression analyses showed high concurrent validity and numerical congruence with total test scores. All computations needed in psychometric single-case diagnosis that do not require knowledge of individual test scores are included in table form. (English abstract) (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Based on theoretical considerations of A. Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC; 1993), a new scale (the SOC-HD), independent of Antonovsky's questionnaire (SOC-A), was developed to measure the SOC construct. Using the deductive-rational method for development, the SOC-HD proved to be as internally consistent as the SOC-A. Correlations and factor analyses showed almost identical validity for both scales based on the responses of 5,133 adults. Differences in mean values for health status (self-reported heart disease or cancer vs good health) conformed to expectations: Healthy Ss scored higher on the SOC construct. Similar results were, however, found for other variables measuring similar constructs (Optimism, Depression, and Neuroticism). No significant differences could be found between healthy and unhealthy Ss in regard to their SOC scores by controlling for Depression and Neuroticism. The SOC-HD Scale with correlational results is appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the development and validation of the F-SOZU ("Social Support Questionnaire"). The F-SOZU assesses perceived social support via 4 scales: emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and social stress. In addition, individuals who are perceived as a source of support or as a source of stress are recorded. Results from a total of 384 male and female West German adults (including normal and clinical samples) indicate that the F-SOZU has satisfactory psychometric properties, including internal consistency, construct validity, and factorial structure. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the structure of agency-oriented and communion-oriented life pursuits. Human Ss: 159 normal male and female German adults (university students) (mean age 24.3 yrs) (Exp 1). 177 normal male and female German adults (university students) (mean age 23.4 yrs) (Exp 2). Ss completed a questionnaire (GOALS) designed to assess an individual's life goals. Ss in both experiments rated 24 life goals relating to 9 attributes reflecting importance, attainability and success. The results were factor analyzed. The test–retest stabilities of the GOALS scales were compared. Test used: GOALS Questionnaire. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the diagnostic value of the Moral Judgment Test (MJT) with 75 senior high school students and 86 16–28 yr old students. Findings indicate little difference among the age groups with regard to preference for prototypic statements: Almost all Ss preferred statements of the postconventional level. The same result was obtained when the developmental stage of an S was assessed by the analyses of the internal consistency of his/her response pattern. Even more refined tools of analysis, a 3-way ANOVA of the preference scores for each S individually, did not allow classification of an S as being in a particular developmental stage of cognitive moral judgment. It is concluded that the practical use of the MJT is limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the psychometric properties of a German-language scale for assessing generalized self-efficacy (GSE), a stable personality characteristic that reflects an individual's belief that he or she can cope with difficult demands. The 10-item scale has been used to assess perceptions of GSE in a wide range of empirical studies, including research on stress, psychosocial adaptation, and health beliefs. Results support the validity and reliability of the scale, revealing that GSE correlates positively with optimism, self-esteem, internal control and achievement motivation and negatively with anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined a German version of the revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R). Human Ss: 128 male and female German adults (political prisoners in the former East Germany) (mean age 53.3 yrs). 30 male and female German adults (crime victims) (mean age 46.5 yrs). Ss completed German versions of the IES-R in the form of self-report questionnaires, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Ss was assessed by a structured clinical interview. The reliability, validity, and diagnostic sensitivity of the IES-R were examined. Difficulties with factorial validity and the underrepresentation of numbing symptoms were addressed. Tests used: The IES-R (D. S. Weiss and C. R. Marmar, 1996), the Diagnostic Interview of Psychological Disorders (J. Margraf et al., 1991), Beck Depression Inventory, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues for the importance of construct validity in test use by stressing its role in providing a rational foundation for predictive validity. Questions of the adequacy of a test as a measure of the characteristics it is interpreted to assess are answerable on scientific grounds by appraising psychometric evidence, especially construct validity. Questions of the appropriateness of test use in proposed applications are answerable on ethical grounds by appraising potential social consequences of the testing. The 1st set of answers provides an evidential basis for test interpretation, and the 2nd set provides a consequential basis for test use. The following are stressed: (a) the importance of construct validity for test use because it provides a rational foundation for predictiveness and relevance and (b) the importance of taking into account the value implications of test interpretations per se. By thus considering both evidential and consequential bases of test interpretation and test use, the roles of evidence and social values in the overall validation process are illuminated, and test validity comes to be based on ethical as well as evidential grounds. (5 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Translated the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) validated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) into German and administered the translated version (the SPQ-G) to 683 university students. The good psychometric properties of the original version of the SPQ were preserved in its German translation with sufficient internal consistencies and good retest reliabilities of both the total and the subscale SPQ-G scores. An approximately orthogonal 2-factor structure was found. Male and female Ss exhibited differences in subscale profiles. The Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was positively correlated with the SPQ-G total score and with all of its subscales. Extraversion was negatively correlated with the 3 subscales of negative schizotypy. Ss with high SPQ-G scores differed from low-scoring Ss in psychophysiological and neuromotor variables that distinguish schizophrenic patients from healthy Ss. Items of the SPQ-G are appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed 2 Rasch scales for distributive justice using data from 429 students. These scales permit differentiation of persons in the extent to which they use performance in judging distribution situations (Equity Scale) or absolute equality (Parity Scale). (English abstract) (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Results from a series of Monte Carlo studies performed with a variety of random models that tested norms established by D. Leutner and I. Borg (see record 1984-19462-001) demonstrate that the norms are unsuitable proofs against similarity by chance due to their dependency on distance distribution. (English abstract) (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The application of dynamic procedures in intelligence testing implies variations of effective item difficulty within the intelligence test. The present study compared measures that take into account these variations for assessment. The measures are "error latency" (EL), describing the number of adequate solutions before the 1st mistake occurs; "quality of solutions" (QS), which reflects the degree of adequacy of the selected response alternative; and "quantity of solutions," representing the conventional scoring according to the categories "right" and "wrong." 308 2nd graders were administered the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices. Statistical analysis consisted of correlational methods. Results show that QS was of particular sensitivity within the range of high item difficulty, whereas all measures provided adequate assessment when medium item difficulty was given. Independence of QS and EL was shown for all levels of effective item difficulty. Methodological issues and aspects of validity of the different measures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In 2 independent and methodologically different studies, the hypothesis of the unfakeability of the Objective-Analytic Personality Test Battery (OAPTB) was tested on the level of means and variances of 75 test variables and factor scores from the German edition of the OAPTB. In the 1st study fakeability effects were examined by comparing a real selection situation with a research situation. In the 2nd study a test group given standard instructions was compared with a group given social desirability (SD) instructions. A comparison of the results of the 2 studies shows that the demanded unfakeability could be demonstrated only in some of the tests. Test variables with high formal similarity to questionnaires were especially susceptible to fakeability. Two factors were identified: Conformity vs Objectivity and Anxiety vs Adjustment. Possible causes and some consequences for the further development of OAPTB are discussed. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the effects of practice on concentration-test performance. Human subjects: 75 normal male and female West German adults (aged 18–75 yrs). The Ss were divided into 2 experimental groups, with Group A working on 9 concentration tests involving letter cancellations and Group B working on 9 concentration tests involving simple arithmetic. Both groups completed the tests 12 times—11 times during a 5-wk period, and once again 6 wks later. At the 1st and 11th testings, each group also completed the other group's set of tests. Changes in each group's performance on its own set of tests and transfer of training effects were analyzed. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the status of psychological assessment among West German psychologists. Ss were 661 psychologists working in clinical, organizational, educational, forensic, and other applied settings. Ss completed a mailed questionnaire assessing (1) the proportion of time spent on assessment in their professional practices, (2) the types of procedures applied (e.g., interview, behavioral observation, psychological testing), (3) use or nonuse of specific commercially available instruments, (4) reasons for not using specific instruments considered applicable to their practices, (5) use of privately developed instruments, and (6) perceptions of the need for new instruments. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the reliability and validity of the German version of the Youth Self-Report (YSR), a questionnaire derived from the Child Behavior Checklist. Human Ss: 292 male and female German school-age children, adolescents, and young adults (aged 11–18 yrs) (mixed psychiatric diagnoses). Ss' scores on the YSR were analyzed to determine the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient), discriminant validity, interscale correlations, and factorial validity of the instrument. Gender differences were determined, and results were compared to data from an American clinical sample. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the relationship between empathy and perspective-taking. The correlation between empathy and perspective-taking in the literature is reviewed. Four studies are used to illustrate their dependence on method and situations. A differentiation between the concepts is discussed, particularly when empathy is assessed by means of a self-report questionnaire. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Patients with different chronic pain syndromes rated their pain quality and intensity, using an adjective scale. Ss showed different values on the resulting pain factors and on extraversion, hypochondriasis, and neuroticism. A questionnaire was constructed to measure the amount of different pain aspects as well as the effects of a pain treatment. (English abstract) (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents results of a study on the psychometric properties of the MBI-D, a German version of C. Maslach and S. E. Jackson's (1984) instrument for assessing burnout among health professionals. Four samples totaling 449 male and female West German nurses and nursing students completed the MBI-D. Results concerning the item characteristics, factorial structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the MBI-D are reported and compared with findings from the original English version of the instrument. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a measure that assesses those childrearing parameters specified by the 2-process model of parental childrearing influence. It consists of separate scales for measuring the childrearing dimensions "praise," "blame," "inconsistency," "support," "restriction," and "punishment intensity." Using 239 boys and 265 girls (aged 10–14 yrs) as Ss, these scales, which assess parental childrearing as perceived by the S, reached satisfactory psychometric qualities. A comprehensive validation study, inspecting convergent as well as discriminant constellations, yielded significant associations between these scales and S variables in the areas of general and test anxiety, reactions to failure, cognitive abilities, and school performance. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Standardized 4 subtests of a motor-skill performance measure for age groups up to 72 yrs. Test–retest reliability was also established for the 4 subtests. (English abstract) (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Individualized measurement has been discussed as having some advantages over conventional testing strategies. During recent years there seems to be a renaissance of individualized tests which may be summarized as "antwortabhangige Tests" ("response contingent tests"). However, this is too broad a classification and must be subdivided. In classification or selection problems, "sequential response contingent tests" are called for. In the case of differential measurement of individual traits, "adaptive response contingent tests" are needed. The different strategies are defined theoretically and in terms of their features. A short overview of recent developments shows the trend in this type of psychological measurement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the development and validation of the Repression–Sensitization Coping Inventory (RSCI), a German-language questionnaire for assessing a person's style of coping with anxiety in a public speaking situation. The RSCI was designed to identify stress reactions on cognitive, affective, somatic, and behavioral levels and to reduce the close association between repression–sensitization (R–S) and neuroticism found in existing R–S measures. Based on results from 112 normal male and female German adults (aged 18–25 yrs) who completed a preliminary version of the RSCI as well as standard personality inventories, 2 subscales (Sensitization and Defensiveness) of the RSCI were constructed. Results concerning the construct validity, factorial structure, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the RSCI are presented. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the construction and validation of a reactance questionnaire. The scale is composed of 18 items covering the "generalized" motivation of producing and experiencing psychological reactance. The test-theoretical values meet the requirements demanded of a psychological measure. (English abstract) (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the development and validation of the SIQ, an 18-item instrument for assessing emotional, value-related, and intrinsic dimensions of interest in university studies. Intrinsic motivational orientation, extraversion, use of learning strategies, and achievement, among others, were also evaluated. Results from 298 male and female university students support the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the SIQ. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) is the self-report version of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), a semistructured eating disorders interview. The EDE-Q allows for assessment of the specific eating disorder psychopathology on the four subsales of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern. The present study provides a test-statistic evaluation of the German version of the EDE-Q. In samples with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical eating disorders, and nonclinical, subclinical, and psychiatric comparison groups (N = 706), the EDE-Q was highly consistent internally and stable. The factorial structure of the EDE-Q was partially confirmed. All EDE-Q measures were significantly correlated with those of the EDE, but; as expected, were usually slightly higher. Further support for the convergent validity was provided through significant correlations with other eating disorder questionnaires. The EDE-Q discriminated between groups and was sensitive to change through therapeutic intervention and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses item-writing techniques for instructional texts proposed by J. R. Bormuth (1970), K. J. Kauer (1978), and P. J. Finn (see record 1977-07205-001). Additional approaches are suggested, procedures for reducing the text to the gist of its content are described, and a method for generating multiple choice items with the help of the concept of semantic features is presented. (English abstract) (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reports on an item analysis and a test of homogeneity, based on a probabilistic model, of R. Hogan's Empathy Scale (see record 1969-12966-001). The German version of the scale and the 12 scales of the Freiburger Personality Inventory were administered to several sample groups ( N = about 500). Results confirm earlier findings that the scale reflects empathy, extraversion, and sociability. (English summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In response to Rost and Bachmann (2010) information is given on the factor analysis and intercorrelation of the subscales of FLM 4-6 and FLM 7-13.
 
Article
Auf der Grundlage umfangreichen Datenmaterials zur Zukunftsorientierung von Jugendlichen wurden 100 Items zur Erfassung kognitiv-motivationaler Aspekte der Zukunftsorientierung entwickelt und einer Stichprobe von 344 18- bis 25jährigen Jugendlichen aus verschiedenen sozialen Gruppen zur Beurteilung vorgelegt. Faktorenanalysen erbrachten Faktoren, die thematisch verschiedene Lebensbereiche in den einzelnen Komponenten der Zukunftsorientierung repräsentieren. Itemtrennschärfen und interne Konsistenzen der Faktoren waren zufriedenstellend. Zwischen den einzelnen Komponenten der Zukunftsorientierung sowie zwischen den Faktoren innerhalb einer Komponente wurden korrelative Beziehungen berechnet. Die Ergebnisse werden theoretisch und methodisch diskutiert. On the basis of extensive data dealing with the future orientation of adolescents, 100 items were developed to measure the cognitive-motivational aspects of future orientation. A sample of 18 to 25 year old adolescents (N = 344) from various social groups was tested. Factor analyses produced factors representing the thematically different life areas within the individual components of future orientation. Discriminability of the items and internal consistency of the factors are satisfactory. Correlations were calculated between the individual components of future orientation as well as between the different factors in each component. The results are discussed with regard to theory and method.
 
Article
A German version of Underwood and Froming's "Mood Survey" (MS), the "Stimmungs-Skala" (St-S), is presented, and three studies bearing on the reliability and validity of this scale are reported. Factor analyses replicate the two-factor structure of the MS, with the subscales "chronic mood level" and "reactivity", i.e., frequency and intensity of mood changes. The two subscales show a moderate negative intercorrelation and a high level of internal consistency and test-retest-reliability, over a five-week-period. The scores are independent of social desirability and are meaningfully correlated with personality measures of sociability and level of activation. Correlations of the "mood level" subscale and these variables are consistently higher than the corresponding correlations of a state-measure of mood (SES). Correlations of both St-S-subscales and depression proved to be high and reliable. Results of a longitudinal study, based on the "experience sampling method", in which mood changes were assessed over three one-week periods, distributed over a total of eight months, indicate the ecological validity of the St-S. Possibilities for the use of the St-S, as well as advantages of the St-S over state-oriented mood assessments are discussed.
 
Article
Zusammenfassung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die faktorielle Struktur und die Messinvarianz der Kid-KINDL Selbst- und Fremdeinschätzung bei 8- bis 11-jährigen psychisch kranken Kindern untersucht (Kid-KINDL Selbst : N = 441, Mädchen: 52 %, Jungen: 48 %, Alter: M = 9.44, SD = 1.12; Kid-KINDL Fremd : N = 462, Mädchen: 55 %, Jungen: 45 %, Alter: M = 9.51, SD = 1.11). An einer ersten Stichprobe ergaben sich in Explorativen Faktorenanalysen Hinweise auf zwei zusätzliche Psychopathologie-Faktoren. Mit konfirmatorischen Faktorenanalysen wurden an einer zweiten Stichprobe unterschiedliche Modelle untersucht. Das Modell mit Doppelladungen krankheitsassoziierter Items auf den HRQoL-Faktoren und Psychopathologie-Faktoren zeigte die beste Modellanpassung, wobei die HRQoL-Dimensionen mit den Pathologie-Faktoren unkorreliert waren. Zwischen Selbst- und Fremdeinschätzung konnte partielle metrische Invarianz nachgewiesen werden. Die Eindimensionalität einiger Items muss aufgrund der Ergebnisse angezweifelt werden, was eine valide Erfassung einiger HRQoL-Dimensionen einschränken dürfte. Für den Einsatz in der Qualitätssicherung empfehlen sich die Kid-KINDL Skalen Selbstwert, Familie und Freunde.
 
Article
The construction and evaluation of a multidimensional questionnaire for the assessment of emotional states is reported. The 16 scales are based on similarity analyses of emotion related words. Each category is represented by 1 noun (e.g., aversion). Subjects rate the intensity of their feelings on a 6-point rating scale. A total of 905 subjects participated in 12 studies designed to evaluate the inventory. The assessment of emotional states in comparable situations resulted in retest reliabilities between r = .37 and .92 (Md = .70, N = 105). Joy, fear, sadness and anger correlated .75, .80, .79 and .83, respectively, with other scales on these emotions (N = 208). Some scales (e.g. aversion and anger) had high loadings on the same factor in different factor analyses. Nevertheless, these scales correlated differently with criterion scales and responded differently to conditions designed to elicit emotions. Sensitivity of the scales was confirmed by studies in which subjects imagined emotion eliciting situations (N = 103), read aversive texts (N = 110 and 120), saw aversive slides (N = 45 and 66), or were frustrated by an experimental task (N = 28). Under these conditions subjects scaled more intensive feelings as compared to neutral situations with many effect sizes d > 1. As expected, negative emotions correlated moderately (r.30 to .40 in most cases) with neuroticism (N = 304). Correlations with social desirability or deception scales were about zero (N = 414). In summary, the scales proved to be useful for a fast and broad assessment of emotional feeling states by self reports.
 
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die Skala dysfunktionaler Einstellungen (DAS) hat sich als ein effektives Selbstbeurteilungsinstrument erwiesen. Vor allem zur Untersuchung der kognitiven Vulnerabilität und Reaktivität bei remittiert depressiven Personen ist ein unmittelbarer Vergleich der Änderung dysfunktionaler Einstellungen in kurzen Zeitabständen notwendig. Bislang gab es keine geeigneten parallelen Kurzversionen für die DAS. Die Studie untersucht die psychometrischen Eigenschaften sowie die Vergleichbarkeit der DAS-18A und DAS-18B. Bei 94 depressiven und 110 gesunden Probanden wurden die psychometrischen Kennwerte der Kurzversionen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: DAS-18A und DAS-18B zeigten gute Reliabilitäts- und Validitätswerte sowie eine ähnliche Item-Faktor-Zuordnung wie die Ausgangsform der DAS. Die Ergebnisse empfehlen die beiden Kurzversionen als parallele und zeitökonomische Testformen, die für wiederholte (Labor–) Untersuchungen geeignet sind.
 
Top-cited authors
Elmar Brähler
  • University of Leipzig
Heinz Walter Krohne
  • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Carl-Walter Kohlmann
  • University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd
Andreas Hinz
  • University of Leipzig, Germany
Anja Tausch
  • SRH Fernhochschule - The Mobile University