Development Policy Review

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1467-7679
Print ISSN: 0950-6764
Publications
The trend for developing country governments to adopt policies designed to slow the rate of demographic increase has been most noticeable in the poorest countries. In 1980, according to information collected by the UN Population Division, only 12 of the least developed countries (about one-quarter) regarded their population growth rates as too high, with only eight of these intevening directly to lower growth rates. By 1990, 24, or about half of the least developed countries regarded their population growth rate as excessive; 18 of them reported that they were intervening directly to lower it. This article reviews the research in population and development since the mid-1980s which has led or, as I interpret it, has not led, to the emergence of this more pessimistic consensus. Recent research has downplayed fears that rapid population growth inhibits saving and investment in physical capital, and concern has shifted from "burdening the social sectors' of health and education to the misallocation of existing resources between segments of the population. -from Author
 
Western donor agencies in their development projects to increase the income for rural women have neglected the domestic residence as a unit of production of food water and fuel: 1) directly produced by sources in the field 2) physically delivered to the residence 3) processed and 4) distributed to household members for consumption. An alternative approach to home economics and market-oriented production is suggested. Homestead economics is the study of womens labor as a scarce resource consisting of daily livelihood management. The detailed mechanics (time effort and spatial dynamics) of womens work needs to be dissected in order to determine the appropriate tools or organizational improvements that would improve the satisfaction of basic needs and the standard of living in specific circumstances. When a participatory research approach is used women can be involved in self-discovery and researchers can be a useful resource. Outreach to women must entail more than training courses publication of practical handbooks for literate women and activation of womens groups. The influence of Western feminism on donor project design in Africa has not been realized partly because there are real differences in the role of women and the value of children and the physical environment. Although reproductive-age women have heavy work schedules their children who have completed primary school are part of the homestead work force and are waiting for betrothal do have available time. Some indirect advantages of involving teenaged girls in training are a delay in age at marriage and an affect on lifetime attitudes. The main components which would have to be adapted to the local situation are training in nontraditional skills related to homestead management and maintenance and promoting formation of female youth groups for support and income-generating activities. Gender stereotyping is not an issue because improvements in womens homestead work is part of other efforts at limiting childbearing; state support for creches paid maternity leave husbands willingness to share the burden of housework and state support for market production. Donors must account for existing material conditions in program planning.
 
Poverty alleviation has not been achieved through rural development efforts in the Andean region of South America. The social and environmental crisis can be addressed by engaging the rural poor with their considerable skills in resource management in the development effort. Efforts need to be coordinated both within and outside the immediate peasant situation. For example, the origins of the biased spatial organization of resource use, (the best lands are dominated by large farmers and more fragile lands are in the hands of small farmers) need to be addressed in any viable strategy of sustainable development. Obstacles need to be overcome at the field, farm, community, region, and national level in technological, institutional, political, and economic ways. This article focuses on the regional and institutional level and technology as instrumental to change at the local level. The structure of the discussion centered on the main ideas of "sustainable thinking," the application of this thinking within a case study in Chimborazo conducted from 1988 to the present in the Ecuadoran Andes, and a description of how resource use has changed over time within the context of regional economic, social, and demographic change. There is an analysis of how peasants have struggled to sustain their social systems through changes in resource and labor use systems. Future efforts might be better coordinated based on the unsuccessful experiences exposed in the case study. The article further develops the ideas proposed by Gow on sustainable use of the land and the need for political commitment, institutional strengthening, improved local organization, environmental education, and economic development. Peasants constructed their own ideas about desirable livelihoods. This thinking led to the attacks on the hacienda as a way of coping with integration into the national economy. The peasant federations were not changing the basic structures underlying this incorporation. The local level could only do so much toward changing regional and national political strategies. These federations need support, because they are part of a weak and limited process of dealing with underdevelopment.
 
PIP This comparative study on the two rural drinking water supply and sanitation projects in the state of Kerala, India, was conducted to determine the impact of community participation on the project outcomes. Both were piped water schemes delivered by the Kerala Water Authority (KWA); one had adopted community participation by the beneficiary community, the other contained no community participation component. Project 1 was served by the Dutch/Danish project and Project 2 was served by KWA alone. A total of 160 respondents were involved in the study, 80 individuals belonged to each project. Technological outcomes, particularly in terms of water quality, were found to be better in project 1 than in project 2. 40% of the people in Project 1 villages and 25% in Project 2 villages switched over completely to the "safe" water supply provided by the project. It was also found that the health habits of the beneficiaries in project 1 were far better compared to project 2, specifically in covering drinking water containers and use of latrines. In addition, there was more continued community involvement in project 1 than in project 2. Satisfaction-wise, the majority (75%) of respondents in project 1 areas claimed satisfaction with the project as compared to 30% of project 2 respondents.
 
The author applies a simultaneous equations model to data from 40 developed and developing countries to determine the interrelationships between fertility and infant mortality and their combined effect on quality of life. "The following empirical results can be summarized: There is overwhelming evidence that the fertility rate has a positive effect on the infant mortality rate in most of the countries, slightly more so in the developing countries. While there is a positive causation running from infant mortality to fertility rates in most of the countries, this phenomenon is more pronounced in the developed...countries. Mutual causation between the fertility and infant mortality rates characterizes most of the countries...[and] the replacement effect of a lost child or infant is greater if the loss affects a male than if it affects a female...."
 
PIP The production of raw silk yarns from cocoons (reeling) is a crucial middle stage in the silk industry. The author reviews the experience of attempts to encourage women's entrepreneurship in this industry in Karnataka, South India. Reeling is a potentially lucrative field with possibilities for upward mobility from small-scale to large-scale production if credit is readily available. The industry in India employs large numbers of skilled female workers from all communities and is one of few in which a sectoral gender policy is being implemented. While these factors may be thought to be conducive to the development of women entrepreneurs, none were in the areas studied at the time of research. No women were involved in marketing through the official marketing system and no women's co-operatives were operating. While women were listed among registered reelers, men controlled the businesses. Men simply used women to obtain supplementary bank loans or funds through other avenues otherwise open to only women. Policies for women in reeling have therefore proved to be overwhelmingly unsuccessful. The author considers gender inequality and gender policy at length in this context and concludes that the problem is systemic and structural in nature. Policy implications are considered.
 
One influential view blames Nigeria's failure to translate its oil wealth into national prosperity on the country's social, political and institutional fragmentation, which provides little incentive for technocratic planning or policies based on shared growth or the public good. This article explores an alternative theory: that at certain periods Nigeria's development trajectory has in fact been influenced by technocratic planning and that the strategy followed typically neglected agriculture, subjected markets to excessive regulation, and involved exchange‐rate policies which discouraged exports. These propositions are argued with reference to the contrasting case of Indonesia, which has pursued market‐friendly, export‐promoting policies, and a pronounced rural‐agricultural bias in development spending. Five possible areas of explanation for the contrast are explored: differences in the political interests of the policy‐makers, in their social origins, in their intellectual backgrounds, in their experience of economic management and mismanagement, and in their exposure to inclusive, egalitarian political movements.
 
Corruption in the public sector erodes tax compliance and leads to higher tax evasion. Moreover, corrupt public officials abuse their public power to extort bribes from the private agents. In both types of interaction with the public sector, the private agents are bound to face uncertainty with respect to their disposable incomes. To analyse effects of this uncertainty, a stochastic dynamic growth model with the public sector is examined. It is shown that deterministic excessive red tape and corruption deteriorate the growth potential through income redistribution and public sector inefficiencies. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that the increase in corruption via higher uncertainty exerts adverse effects on capital accumulation, thus leading to lower growth rates.
 
Many policies in India, including economic reform policies, are officially intended to alleviate poverty. But how committed is the Indian government? And to what? This article addresses India's social spending priorities over the past decade. Looking at the rhetoric in budget speeches, actual expenditure patterns and the process by which budgets are formulated, it finds a widened concept of poverty and a shift away from income and employment programmes to human development. The budget-making process is not very participatory, and the role of the Finance Ministry has increased. Although the widening of the concept of poverty has positive aspects, within the overall context of structural adjustment it has facilitated the politically convenient neglect of other dimensions (income and employment).
 
Empirical studies of land rights privatisation have tended to underemphasise the unintended impacts of land rights reform relative to establishing whether the predicted impacts have occurred. This article, in reviewing some of the unintended consequences of the 1998 Uganda Land Act, draws attention to ways in which intended impacts may be undercut by lack of both consultation and foresight in anticipating responses to new legal provisions and by lack of adequate resourcing of the reform process. It also recognises that unintended outcomes may sometimes reflect appropriate adaptations of legal provisions at the local level, and briefly considers what light the Ugandan experience can throw on recent proposals for Normalisation of informal property rights in the Third World. Copyright Overseas Development Institute, 2004.
 
To explore factors underlying growth and poverty reduction in Africa while overcoming some of the limitations of cross-country analysis, this article uses micro-level survey and panel-data evidence from Uganda spanning 1992-2000. The high elasticity of both income growth and poverty reduction with respect to agricultural output (coffee) prices confirms the benefits from Uganda's decisive liberalisation of output markets. It also suggests the importance of product diversification to protect the poor against price shocks and the potential of cotton-market improvements in tackling persistent poverty in the North. The importance of improving access to basic education and health care emerges more clearly than in cross-country analysis, but benefits depend on complementary investments in electricity and other infrastructure, and reductions in civil strife. Copyright Overseas Development Institute, 2003.
 
This article examines the extent to which the 2006 revisions to the EU's Generalised System of Preferences improved market-access opportunities for developing-country agro-food exports. It shows that they resulted in only a slight increase in the percentage preferential margin, but that there has been a significant increase in the value of preferential trade and of the preferential margin enjoyed by exporters. This was accompanied by changes in the ranking of beneficiaries. Countries such as China, Brazil, Argentina, India and South Africa maintained their significant shares of GSP agro-food exports, but other countries such as Thailand and Vietnam have now emerged as major GSP beneficiaries. Copyright (c) The Authors 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Comparison of the 2000/01 and 2006 World Development Reports
The World Bank's World Development Report 2006 addresses equity and development, defining equity as respect for equal opportunities combined with the avoidance of absolute deprivation. Equity has up to now remained a marginal issue in development economics. This detailed analysis endeavours to place the subject within the context of the evolution of World Bank thinking and policies. The wealth of the concept is illustrated, the downside being the difficulty in defining it accurately. We also emphasise the gap between the prospects opened up by such an enlargement of development goals and the report's policy recommendations, which are generally merely an extension of the World Bank's traditional analyses. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
This article reviews the scope of current partnerships between Asia and its development partners in aid and other areas, ranging across infrastructure, finance, trade, the environment, the private sector, poverty and social exclusion, and governance. It then turns to the key choices facing the partners, concerning: aid and aid partnerships; a new regionalism in and with Asia; strengthening multilateralism; facilitating business partnerships; and civil society partnerships. It concludes with questions about how to drive and monitor the relationship in the future, and ten propositions about future partnership. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Annual averages of net FDI inflows to developing
Measures of openness for selected regions, 1980-99 (%)
Infrastructure development for selected regions, 1980-99
Measures of institutional quality for selected regions, 1980-99
Despite improvements in the policy environment, sub-Saharan Africa's share of foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries continues to decline. This article provides an explanation for the deterioration in SSA's FDI global position. It argues that, although SSA has reformed its institutions, improved its infrastructure and liberalised its FDI regulatory framework, the degree of reform has been mediocre compared with the reform implemented in other developing countries. As a consequence, relative to other regions, SSA has become less attractive for FDI. An important implication of these results is that in a competitive global economy, it is not enough just to improve one's policy environment: improvements need to be made both in absolute and relative terms.
 
Recognition of 'Farmer's Rights' is an attempt by developing countries to evolve a counterclaim to breeders' Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) promoted under the TRIPs Agreement of the WTO. India is one of the first countries to have granted rights to both breeders and farmers under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001. This multiple rights system aims to distribute rights equitably, but may pose the threat of an 'anticommons tragedy' i.e. too many parties independently possessing the right to exclude others from utilising a resource. If under-utilisation of plant genetic resources results, the Act will have negative consequences for sustaining crop productivity and for the welfare of the very farming communities it seeks to compensate. Copyright 2004 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Despite the recent international effort to expand access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developing countries, its coverage still varies significantly from country to country and is strongly correlated with per capita income. However, regional and political variables are also important. Cross-country regressions indicate that, controlling for political and economic characteristics and the scale of the HIV epidemic, Latin American and African countries have better coverage than predicted. Whereas the level of HIV prevalence was a significantly (negative) factor when accounting for HAART coverage in June 2004, this effect had disappeared by December 2004. The improvement appears to have benefited democratic countries in particular. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Many community-based tourism ventures face marketing problems similar to those of other rural producers. They depend on intermediaries, such as private companies, membership organisations, public sector institutions and non-governmental organisations, to facilitate market access. The article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intermediary, based on different levels of marketing support. Reflecting discussions about marketing assistance in other rural sectors, it argues that intermediary institutions have different areas of expertise and experience different constraints in terms of capacity-building, marketing know-how, financial resources and overall livelihood impacts. Instead of pursuing individual support strategies, it is therefore necessary to develop combined approaches of marketing assistance, depending on location, tourism resources and existing organisational structures. Copyright Overseas Development Institute, 2004.
 
Slums and trends in access to water in SSA, 1990-2004 (%) 
This article reviews the changing perspectives for improving access to water in the slums of developing countries, especially in sub‐Saharan Africa. While much of the literature continues to maintain an aversion to state‐led urban development policies, there is now increasing emphasis on the importance of informal, small‐scale providers and communitarian initiatives, following the many failures of privatisation. The article argues that market‐oriented solutions are inappropriate for sub‐Saharan African countries where over two‐thirds of the urban population live in squatter settlements with multidimensional challenges.
 
Regulatory framework for trade in fish and fishery products from Africa to the EU
Export of fish and fishery products as percentage of GNP 
The changing nature of the international trade regime presents a series of new challenges to fish industries on the African continent. This article explores how WTO and EU trade negotiations and regulation impact market-access possibilities for African fish exports. It comes to the conclusion that while bilateral negotiations with the EU have been beneficial for some African countries, collective bargaining power in the context of Economic Partnership Agreements might produce more strategic outcomes in the medium term. Copyright 2007 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Many development economists prescribe trade as a poverty-reducing formula. But how is this elixir supposed to work? This article contributes to the lively debate on this topic with household evidence from Tanzania - a poor country even within sub-Saharan Africa, the poorest region. About 81% of the poor work in agriculture, which accounts for 88% of the export bundle. The article describes existing poverty and then evaluates the poverty-reduction potential of trade, trade policy and market access. The article extends the analysis by simulating tariff changes and four switching scenarios that swap some poor households into trade-related sectors, such as cash cropping or tourism, to project national poverty reductions of up to 5.6% and household income increases of up to 21.5%. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
After being marginalised in the 1980s, land-reform policies came back to national and international development agendas during the 1990s, resulting in a revival of academic research on the subject. This article reviews the empirical literature on access to land, rural development and public action for evidence on when and how the state should intervene in the allocation of rural land. The review suggests that positive impacts are obtained if, and only if, public actions on the allocation of land are carried out under certain conditions and in a certain way. The article ends by highlighting the need to elaborate empirical models that take into consideration opportunity costs and interactions, and that integrate individual responses with aggregate effects. Copyright (c) The Authors 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
The accountability movement in public policy hails a new programme for US foreign assistance - the Millennium Challenge Account established in 2004 with the aim of 'picking winners' for grants among developing countries based on their demonstrated quality of governance. This article uses the MCA's own rating system to dispute its claim to know in advance which countries are best positioned to meet major development goals. High governance scores alone bear little or no relationship to growth in national income or decline in poverty. Attempting to measure public-policy performance limits the range of choice available to policy-makers, and may inadvertently limit true performance. Copyright (c) The Author 2010. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Decentralisation offers significant opportunities to improve government accountability by exerting stronger pressures both from below (demand) and above (supply). The literature contains many examples, however, where the potential has not been realised, partly because decentralisation reforms have often been introduced without thinking through their accountability implications. Even when accountability is taken into account, the efforts tend to emphasise either the supply or the demand side of the equation, but not both. Drawing on the sets of literature on fiscal, administrative and political decentralisation, this article presents a methodology for studying this. Copyright (c) The Authors 2010. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This article surveys the recent literature relating to the rationale for scaling up aid and improving its effectiveness. Modalities such as General Budget Support (GBS) are being introduced to increase country ownership and strengthen budget systems and domestic accountability. However, recent assessments of GBS programmes and Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms highlight a number of shortcomings which call into question the role of donors in supporting institutional change. Political-economy factors are often overlooked. Moreover, in a number of countries, donors are deeply involved in core policy processes, undermining their capacity to play a more constructive role. As a consequence, the strengthening of domestic accountability remains an elusive objective. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Since the mid-2000s, significant strides have been made in Rwanda to implement the 'aid effectiveness' agenda as captured in the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This article explores the historical evolution of this process since 1994, exposing the complex manoeuvring to establish workable practices, and the less visible political implications of this agenda. The Rwandan government is considered to have strong 'ownership' of aid strategies. However, the article demonstrates that the concept of progressive ownership implicit within 'aid effectiveness' discourse is misleading. The evidence points rather to joint ownership between donor and recipient, reflecting limitations to the amount of control over aid that donors will cede. Copyright (c) The Author 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This is an empirical case study of 'street-level' officials in a classic 'regulatory' public agency: the Environmental Health Department in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana, where privatisation and contracting-out of sanitary services have imposed new ways of working on Environmental Health Officers. Both internal and external organisational relationships are analysed to explain the extent to which these officers have adapted to more 'client-oriented' ways of working. Their positive organizational culture is credited with much of the positive results achieved, but was not sufficient to cope with the negative impact of politically protected privatisations on the officials' ability to enforce standards. Nor could it entirely overcome the deficiencies in training and incentive structures which should have accompanied the changes in service delivery. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
CGE modelling has dominated analysis of the impact of external liberalisation on poverty. This article provides a structuralist critique of standard neo-classical CGE models. It highlights five sets of gaps and partial achievements in the modelling of issues affecting the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies: duality and structural rigidities; efficiency gains and quota rents; the investment and savings specification; the nature of public expenditures; and the modelling of financial fragility, risk premia and issues of credibility. It outlines a model that makes it possible to analyse more plausible stories about the impact of both current and capital account liberalisation and questions the realism of existing approaches to ex-ante poverty impact assessment. Copyright Overseas Development Institute, 2005.
 
This article reviews the effectiveness and efficiency of key policy instruments for MDG (Millennium Development Goals) achievement, focusing on the role of demand‐ and supply‐side factors in education and health‐service utilisation. It comes to the following conclusions. First, specific policy interventions can have a considerable impact on social‐service utilisation. Second, demand‐side policies have proved extremely effective in the education sector, but may need more consideration in the health sector. Third, policy effectiveness and efficiency are highly dependent on initial conditions and the specificities of the respective policy. Fourth, complementarities between MDG targets are likely to be very important.
 
ACP imports from and exports to the EU, 2004
The Economic Partnership Agreements between the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries and the European Union should serve as an opportunity to accelerate ACP global and regional trade integration and as an important tool for development and the eradication of poverty. There are, however, a number of preconditions. This article argues that institutional quality plays a key role in successful trade liberalisation. In fact, only countries with high-quality institutions, partly in the form of good government regulation, are likely to benefit from trade. Unfortunately, the vast majority of African countries have excessive regulation that hinders them from taking advantage of trade. The necessary reforms to resolve this problem pose significant challenges, implying major risks for these countries in the EPA process. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
This article provides a review of literature on the relationship between poverty and the institutions of collective action and property rights, as outlined in the conceptual framework of Di Gregorio et al. (2008). Using the elements of the framework as a guide, it offers an overview of how researchers and practitioners identify and evaluate these concepts. The article emphasises the multidimensionality of poverty and the necessity of applying various approaches and tools to conceptualising and measuring it. In addition to highlighting the crucial role that institutions play in poverty reduction, it shows power relations and the political context to be of fundamental importance in poverty-related studies. Copyright (c) The Authors 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
The formal financial mechanisms for managing adaptation to climate change under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are falling significantly short of meeting needs in the most vulnerable countries. Given the close relationship between development and adaptation, it is tempting to use existing channels of development assistance to fill this gap. However, it is imperative that development assistance is not seen as a substitute for specific adaptation finance. This article therefore attempts to distinguish between the two roles, and considers how development assistance might support and complement adaptation funding and action under the Convention, rather than competing with or substituting it. Copyright (c) The Authors 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
According to rent-cycling theory, low rent aligns the interests of the elite and the majority in providing public goods and efficiency incentives to promote economic growth, while high rent risks deflecting the elite into self-enriching rent deployment, which distorts the economy and triggers a collapse from which recovery is protracted because rent recipients resist reform. The theory also predicts, however, that this collapse will self-correct by shrinking per capita rent, which strengthens incentives for wealth creation. This article tests the prediction in Mauritius, Kenya and Côte d'Ivoire where intensifying land scarcity has shrunk per capita rent; Mauritius meets the prediction, but Kenya and Côte d'Ivoire do not. Copyright (c) The Author 2010. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This is the first in an occasional series of DPR Debates, designed to illuminate specific issues of international development policy. Each debate will bring together two well-known researchers or practitioners, giving them the opportunity, over three rounds, to test and challenge each other's ideas. The debates are intended to be robust but accessible, rooted in rigorous research but useful to the wide readership of Development Policy Review. Copyright (c) The Authors 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Very little is known about how changes in the retail environment affect consumers'diet and health status, especially in developing countries. This article examines the impact of supermarket purchases on the dietary practices of households in Guatemala, using an instrumental variable method to take account of the potential endogeneity of the supermarket purchase variable. The results reveal that supermarket purchases increase the share of highly and partially processed foods at the expense of staple foods, and are also positively and significantly associated with individual Body Mass Index. Different policy moves should be envisaged towards'healthier'diets. Copyright (c) The Author 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This article provides a CGE analysis of the medium to long-run impact of FDI inflows on poverty and income distribution in Bolivia. The simulation results suggest that FDI inflows enhance economic growth and reduce poverty. However, the income distribution typically becomes more unequal. In particular, FDI widens disparities between urban and rural areas. The Bolivian government may promote the growth-enhancing and poverty-alleviating effects by overcoming labour-market segmentation and providing complementary public investment in infrastructure. But simulated policy reforms or alternative productivity scenarios are hardly effective in reducing the economic divide. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
Employment of foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises has been shown to promote growth by boosting wages, increasing the transfer of technology and enhancing productivity in host countries. Yet, the factors affecting such multinational employment in Africa have not been studied. Using panel data, this article indicates that - in contrast to natural resource availability - good infrastructure, higher income, openness to trade and an educated labour force have a significant positive impact on employment. In order to realise the employment benefits of FDI, therefore, sub-Saharan Africa needs to attract investments in non-natural resource industries, and host countries need to improve their infrastructure and educate their population. Copyright 2004 Overseas Development Institute.
 
This article discusses some recent developments that may help bring about more affordable prices of essential medicines for developing countries. Governments of developing countries should support campaigns for such prices. Generic competition will also bring gains, though these may differ between different income groups. Enterprises could be persuaded to provide free, or subsidised, medicines for their employees, by the expenditures being allowed against liabilities for profits tax. The UN Global Fund could complement the efforts of public action groups, enhance a government's fiscal capabilities and also encourage other measures to reduce the costs of providing medicines. Copyright 2004 Overseas Development Institute.
 
Despite their critical importance for Africa, and African efforts to the contrary, tropical commodity problems have been touched on only marginally in the WTO Doha Round. This article examines African proposals in the area, their reception in the WTO, and their relation to the current international policy debate. It goes on to provide an explanation, in political economy terms, for their relative success and failure, before concluding by discussing the prospects for finding any international forum where the issues raised by African countries could receive meaningful consideration. Copyright 2007 Overseas Development Institute.
 
There is an influential view that South‐East Asia's economic success is based on export‐oriented industrialisation, and that African states should above all imitate this aspect of Asian development strategy. This article, however, uses evidence from Indonesia, Nigeria, Malaysia and Kenya to argue: (i) that the historical roots of South‐East Asian economic success actually lie in pro‐poor agricultural and rural development; (ii) that even when it has been pro‐rural, as in the case of Kenya, African development strategy has not been pro‐poor; and (iii) that pro‐poor agricultural development, not export‐oriented industrialisation, should be the first priority of African states seeking to achieve sustained growth and poverty reduction.
 
This article consolidates and expands on evidence on how National AIDS Commissions (NACs) in sub-Saharan Africa are measuring up to expectations that drove their rapid adoption across the continent. While their overall performance seems reasonably good, most NACs still lack adequate power and incentive structures to hold line ministries accountable, a key requirement for co-ordinating activities and mainstreaming HIV-AIDS across the public sector. Second-generation African NACs urgently need the authority and institutional stature to effectively co-ordinate the channelling of the larger funds now available through government bureaucracy. The evolution of the epidemic also imposes requirements different from those when the current NAC architecture was crafted. Copyright (c) The Authors 2009. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Applied Tariff by EU25 to the GTAP group "Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa"
Comparison of Tax Rates for 2001 (percentage rates)
Current and Estimated Trade Elasticities
Computable general equilibrium models are widely used for trade policy analyses and recommendations. There is, however, increasing discomfort with the use of these models, especially in Africa. This article demonstrates that the results of several such studies of the impact of trade reforms in Africa differ drastically in terms of both magnitude and direction, failing to take account of key features of African economies. It also outlines potential consequences of the misuse of CGE models for policy evaluation and suggests pitfalls to be avoided. Copyright (c) The Authors 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This article analyses demand constraints on agricultural growth in seven countries of East and Southern Africa using an applied general equilibrium framework. It finds that both traditional and non-traditional export crops have limited potential to raise incomes because of demand constraints (for traditional exports) or a relatively small base (for non-traditional exports). The best prospects for agriculture-led growth remain in the food sector, where domestic demand represents a large and growing market. Improvements in market efficiency and simultaneous growth in the livestock sectors can help spur demand further and avert falls in prices. Achieving rapid gains in farm incomes, however, also requires investment in rural infrastructure to reduce marketing costs, and demand- enhancing growth in the non-agricultural sector to spur demand. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
In sub-Saharan Africa, there is fairly broad agreement that increased investment in key public goods such as roads and communications infrastructure, agricultural research and water control will be required if revitalised agricultural development is to take place. However, it has proved more difficult to reach agreement on what needs to be done to improve the performance of agricultural markets. In this article we set out an agenda for investment and policy reform in this area, providing a brief theoretical examination of the co-ordination problems involved before examining in turn demand and supply constraints affecting smallholder farmers, and policies for price stabilisation and the co-ordination of support services. We also argue that increased attention needs to be paid to governance issues. Copyright 2006 Overseas Development Institute.
 
The Tracking Development project aims to explain the divergences in development outcomes in sub‐Saharan Africa and South‐East Asia over the past fifty years through the pair‐wise comparison of four countries in each region. The development trajectories in South‐East Asia revealed that the transition to sustained growth has consistently been associated with policies aimed at (i) macroeconomic stabilisation; (ii) improving life in the rural sector, increasing agricultural productivity and ensuring an ample supply of food; and (iii) liberalising the economy and creating conditions of economic freedom, particularly for peasant farmers and other small actors. In Africa, initiatives in these directions have been taken in some instances, but the simultaneous pursuit of all three policy objectives has not occurred. Most noticeably, policies aimed at macroeconomic stabilisation were pursued in both regions, but whereas in South‐East Asia these were associated with policies leading to poverty reduction, this was not the case in Africa.
 
This article utilises historical information to throw light on the forces shaping British aid policies towards Africa. It outlines key long-term policy developments, summarises the influences shaping these policies and comments on the present juncture of UK policies. It shows that, while there have been many influences, governments have enjoyed considerable policy autonomy, being largely unconstrained in pursuing their preferences in a top-down manner. This autonomy has mainly been used for the pursuit of long-term development, as against the promotion of the UK's national interest. The present thrust of UK policies to achieve massive increases in aid to Africa is a prime example of this policy autonomy. Copyright Overseas Development Institute 2005.
 
This article examines the consequences of the return to Africa of donors that are not members of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC). It categorises these donors according to form, content, size and modality of their aid. It finds that their return increases external financial flows, in particular to countries not targeted by DAC donors. Moreover, for some donors like China and India the flows are closely related to other financial flow s such as trade and investment. Furthermore, it finds that the return of non-DAC donors may conflict with plans to harmonise aid and may simultaneously raise transaction costs for recipients. Copyright (c) The Author 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Comparison of transport and livelihood circumstances of rural case-study areas
Within current poverty reduction programmes, focus on the social-welfare millennium development goals is widening to embrace a concern with infrastructural investment, particularly for remote areas. The previously popular assumption that rural disadvantage can be remedied by road-building is resurfacing. Using survey data from Ethiopia, Zambia and Vietnam, this article explores how effective such investment is in addressing mobility and social-service accessibility in rural areas. The findings indicate that, in extremely remote areas, road improvements may catalyse the expansion of social-service provision, as evidenced in Ethiopia. However, given the poor's relative lack of motor vehicles and ability to pay for public transport, they are, by no means, a sufficient condition for enhancing the mobility of the rural poor. Copyright (c) The Authors 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
This study analyses the outcomes of African independent power projects (IPPs). Nearly 40 such projects have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. More balanced outcomes are perceived in North Africa than across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), for reasons linked to more attractive investment environments, more robust policy frameworks, fewer planning mishaps, abundant low-cost fuel and secure fuel contracts as well as credit enhancements such as sovereign guarantees. With few exceptions, these elements were absent in SSA, where the role of development finance institutions and the strategic management of projects seem more important. Copyright (c) The Authors 2008. Journal compilation (c) 2008 Overseas Development Institute..
 
Top-cited authors
Andrew Dorward
  • SOAS, University of London
Julio A. Berdegué
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Dave D. Weatherspoon
  • Michigan State University
Stefano Ponte
  • Copenhagen Business School
Stephen Biggs
  • SOAS, University of London