Design Journal, The

Published by Bloomsbury Publishing
Print ISSN: 1460-6925
Assumptions about how design students use virtual and physical modelling during design development were tested in this study. The aim of the experiment was to observe what students actually do rather than what it is supposed that they do.Design undergraduates were briefed on a one-day project. After a morning spent developing ideas on paper, they were assigned to an afternoon of modelling using physical or virtual techniques. Sketches, models and progress diaries kept by the participants were collected for analysis.The results of the physical techniques support conventional notions of the value of sketch models as a medium for evaluating and stimulating ideas. The results of the virtual techniques suggest that CAD has little or no value as a stimulus for ideas.
Map of the Brussels metro (published by STIB/MIVB, Belgium).
Modelling disability. © McDonagh and Thomas, 2010.  
Users, representative from STIB/MIVB, and researchers evaluating the Brussels metro collectively. © Charles Kartz, 2008.  
Markers of danger zones fi rst installed 2001. © Charles Kartz, 2008.  
This paper describes, analyses and reflects on a co-creation process between people with and without disabilities as they redesign the Brussels metro transport system over a two-decade period. Users who are visually impaired and blind become experts in the process while people without disabilities, a group of transport companies and service developers, become more empathic towards those with different needs. Our narrative reveals an inclusive design process that takes into account the particular capabilities and dispositions of people through a discussion of techné, which is described as embodied know-how enacted through daily life. This paper illustrates how people, with and without disabilities, achieve an increasingly more symmetrical negotiation as they work together towards a common goal. Techné is identified as key to engaging in a co-creation process towards developing empathy with users and discovering the nuances of users' authentic needs, and has the potential to impact design outcomes in profound ways.
The idea generation stage is probably the least understood aspect of the 'fuzzy front end' of new product development (Khurana and Rosenthal, 1997). One approach to understanding it - and to managing it - is through the study of those individuals who have a record of encountering the 'lucky accident' of successful new product ideas. The paper draws on two case studies of successful product innovation which describe the importance of the interaction between users and a scientist-entrepreneur. These suggest that a key success factor may be an unusual combination of an object-fixated 'collector's' attitude to technologies, in which these are decontextualized and valued for their own sake, combined with an appetite for the social exchanges involved in exploring the world of the user.
Creating an effective work environment and process is necessary for successful product design and development. Literature and design managers explain their unique design processes in the hope of re-applying it or transferring it to others. Those who follow try to duplicate or use parts of the processes in an attempt to replicate creativity, innovation and product success. However, because all the variables cannot be taken into account, it is impossible to transplant the expert knowledge base, the experience of others, and the personal team dynamics or decisions that enabled successful product design.Delivering good product design, at a reasonable cost, within a given timeframe has always been the challenge of most companies. With this in mind, what tools and processes are overlooked? How can industrial designers enable communication, understanding and teamwork to achieve these goals within their own organization?The following paper proposes a specific process and communication tool that can be applied in its entirety or as components to current design development processes. The Product Development Bank, a prototype interface tool, is a visual database of text and image notation that is grouped and linked in a specific framework that mimics teamwork habits and styles. This tool recognizes that the design activity is based on one's own experience, education and history. As a legacy tool it has the propensity to become an educational or historical template while aiding the tracking of critical decision selection.This process tool can be categorized into two general areas: human-based and technology-based.The application of the shared knowledge-based tool utilizes both human experience and technology to draw upon expert experiences and document critical design and engineering issues for the team benefit. The design development bank's interface is tied into a relational database, Thinkmap™, to allow relevant subject matter to surface and move in proximity to the main subject matter.This paper will focus on the explanation and implementation of the knowledge-based tool for a range of disciplines concerned with product development - design, engineering, manufacturing and marketing. The paper will specifically use the design and manufacture of computer products as a case example. The overall intent is to provide communication and education on all levels for an extended period of time, at reasonable costs, and a low barrier of entry for implementation. The end purpose of the product development bank is to enable relevant dialogue while maintaining and developing expert knowledge for improved product design.
This paper examines the role of designing through making in the fashion design process. It draws upon empirical data collected through a series of case studies conducted with womenswear design and manufacturing companies targeting differing segments of the UK clothing and fashion market (Sinha, 2000). An examination was made of the areas of the design process that the designer was immediately involved with, and, therefore, an examination of the designer's role in the fashion design process. Models of fashion design processes were constructed to compare how activities and design decisions differed. Five generic phases were elucidated, differences in activities, decision-making and garment-styling were noted to arise from how information was taken on about the market, analysed and used, size of companies, types of consumers targeted, number of retail distribution outlets (potential market size) and finance available to the company. This paper seeks to demonstrate that the role of designing through making is undeniably vital throughout all market levels in the fashion industry and questions the current role of the fashion designer. The paper concludes with recommendations for further areas of study.
In this paper, a design approach is introduced for designing products with added emotional value. First, the approach was established, based on a theoretical framework and a non-verbal instrument to measure emotional responses. Second, the value of the design approach was assessed by applying it to the design of mobile telephones. Mobile telephones were found to be useful vehicles as people appear to have strong feelings about this product. A user study was conducted which resulted in the identification of two user groups ('trend followers' and 'security seekers') and for each group an emotional profile. Four telephones were designed which, for each group, either were intended to or were not intended to match the group's profile. Finally, these designs were evaluated with the non-verbal instrument. The results indicate that the approach is appropriate for designing products with added emotional value. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed and further research directions indicated.
This paper investigates the association between economic competitiveness and the existence of strategies for the promotion of design in different countries. It presents the findings of a survey that identified where design programmes, support schemes and national design policies have been adopted. Conclusions are developed comparing this map of design strategies with countries' economic sophistication and geographical position. Evidence shows that more advanced economies have been exploiting design as an asset for their economic advantage and for the international promotion of their image. In contrast, developing countries - with very few exceptions - have disregarded design as a tool for economic and social development.
Kandinsky postulated a fundamental correspondence between colour and form. Using a slightly altered version of his historical questionnaire, a recent empirical study (Jacobsen, 2002) showed that about half of the non-artist students assigned red to the triangle, blue to the square, and yellow to the circle. Frequently, world knowledge associations were stated by referring to a traffic sign, a warning triangle, and the yellow sun. Kandinsky's assignment, however, was the one least preferred. A new study with experts in the visual arts revealed yet differing assignments. It is argued that colour-form assignments as well as the motivation to produce them depend on a multitude of factors. World knowledge, education, historical change, societal, group-specific and individual leitmotifs constitute important influences. We show how Kandinsky's particular colour-form assignments became a symbol for the Bauhaus in a historical process comprising simplification and the mere setting down of examples as critical stages.
Description of visual stimuli and number of variations.
Profile of the Chinese and Canadian consumer samples.
Rankings of product cues importance.
The purpose of this study is to explore and investigate the functional and aesthetic attributes of denim jeans and the perceptions and behaviours generated within the youth market. In order to understand the varied considerations a consumer makes in her purchasing decisions, and within a cross-national context, the countries of China and Canada were selected for the current study. The sample consisted of 247 Chinese women and 380 Canadian women. The results indicate that Chinese respondents were more concerned with the functional characteristics of denim jeans, whereas their Canadian counterparts focused heavily on their aesthetic appeal. It is also evident that social conformity played a significant role in the consumption of denim jeans among the Chinese, while self-expression/personal enhancement was more important to the Canadian consumers. The findings of this study provide insight and implications for fashion practitioners on future product design and development, and further research on this topic is recommended.
The focus on the definition of product appearance in both the industrial design profession and in design education renders product aesthetics hollow and superficial. This preoccupation prevents industrial design from evolving into an authentic, substantive discipline that effectively addresses important issues of our time. For example, one of our most pressing contemporary concerns that is not being effectively addressed by product design and manufacturing is sustainability. Others, not unrelated to sustainability, include notions of meaning, identity and culture associated with the design and production of our material objects. The dominance of superficial, fashion-oriented, essentially hollow aesthetic definitions suggests a barrenness of thinking, a relinquishment of creativity, and a replacement of originality by bland, market-led 'safe' solutions.
The suit is standard formal menswear traditionally; almost all businessmen wear suits to work every day. In Hong Kong, some retail shops only offer a list of similar suit styles to customers. However, the suit designs currently available might not be able to cope with the needs of young male customers. Young men in Hong Kong seek out styles that look good and they have their own preferences on suit design, which might be different from other age groups; hence, there is a strong market niche for this age group. The aim of this research was to understand the needs of young men aged from eighteen to thirty-two with regard to a perfect menswear suit and recommend a desirable suit design for them. Forty-seven young men and twenty-seven young women were invited to complete the questionnaire relating to the issues of creating a perfect suit for young men in Hong Kong in terms of aesthetics, comfort and functionality, and ten male respondents from the questionnaire survey were invited to the wearing trials. Finally, a menswear suit was designed according to the findings of the questionnaire survey and wearing trials.
Product design is considered in terms of utility, aesthetics and 'higher' or spiritual meanings. Drawing from other creative sources, such as music, literature and art, the argument is made that enduring and profound meaning is found when worldly or mundane considerations are infused with 'higher', religious or spiritual understandings. This can in certain cases be explicit, in other cases it is implicit. In religion there is a long history of spiritual meanings informing the creation of artefacts. However, most contemporary products lack such considerations and because of this, it is argued, our material culture is often bereft of higher meaning, unfulfilling and consequently highly transient. The question is raised as to whether or not spiritual meaning can or should be part of contemporary product design, and if so, how this might be achieved. This paper explores issues of identity and our responses to environmental and social concerns in seeking answers to these questions.
This paper introduces an approach for designing products with added affective appeal. We first establish the necessity for such an approach, given the complexity of existing tools and methods, and the growing need to take into account users' affective preferences in the design process. Secondly, we expose the theoretical framework behind our approach, grounded in a transfer of tools from sensory evaluation to qualify and quantify a product's key attributes. We present the results of two studies that allowed us to assess and validate the approach by applying it to the preliminary design phase of an office chair for Steelcase, a leader in the office furniture industry. Office chairs were found to be useful vehicles as people have a prolonged and intimate sensory interaction with this product. A comparison of users' affective reactions to a group of office chairs in different sensory situations allowed us to assess the relative weight of each sense in the perception of the product. Critical product attributes were singled out by applying a free categorization approach to the group of office chairs; free categorization being the act of creating meaningful groups of products according to their perceived similarities or differences.
Design is more than an individual act of creation, it is also defined by extended negotiations between designer and client. Expressed as differences of opinion on trial designs, the need for such negotiations stems from different conceptions of the role and possibilities of design. Negotiation between client and designer is conventionally presented as the means by which the end result (design) is achieved. In this paper, we take a different view, arguing that design can be seen as a medium through which broader relationships can be explored and negotiated. The empirical material is taken from a case study in which the negotiation of design occurs predominantly between two clients of the same design agency, rather than between the agency and the clients. This negotiation is necessary for two reasons: first, negotiation over design enables the parties involved to clarify and confirm their corporate images and second, it allows reconciliation between the parties as they attempt to collaborate on a single product. Design as clarification and reconciliation is explored using a case study of charity affinity credit cards.
This paper explores the factors that cause client defection in the graphic design industry within the context of the business relationship in which it takes place. The paper examines the literature pertaining to defection and relationship dynamics. It highlights studies that demonstrate the financial benefits of customer retention while bemoaning the fact that few organizations seem to understand the importance of developing long-term relationships. A qualitative approach was adopted for the primary research. The findings show that the most common reasons for switching are dissatisfaction with either pricing or design quality. A new model of switching behaviour is proposed, together with a set of practical measures that design agencies can instigate to reduce the likelihood of defection. The implications of this study suggest that design agencies should encourage more active and cooperative participation in the relationship by clients.
Craft has been accused of 'discontinuity' (Greer, 2006), simply producing objects to be looked at rather than used. This paper suggests that there is a role for craft practitioners and craft thinkers in the world of interactive technologies. By focusing on new roles for jewellery and through discussion surrounding issues related to this new role, the research proposes that a synthesis between interactive technologies and craft creates a new space for craft and a new method of research practice.Research into wearable computing in the 1990s led by design labs such as Philips and IBM, envisioned clothes and jewellery which would enable communication and entertainment systems to be integrated into clothing and jewellery. The mode and purpose of wearing jewellery make it an appropriate choice as a controlling device in physical computing (Wallace and Dearden, 2005). The challenge for the craftsperson is to demonstrate that craft thinking can add to the field of interaction design through the application of knowledge and understanding of the cultural and personal significance of the worn object and an understanding of materials and processes.The researchers have employed methods from their individual practices as a jeweller and multimedia artist to produce physical objects interfaced with digital media as a vehicle for exploring user response. A hybrid of user-centred design methods, interactive technology and craft thinking are fundamental to the research. In user-centred design the designers engage actively with end-users to gather insights that drive design from the earliest stages of product and service development, right through the design process (Black, 2004). The value of the jeweller and multimedia artist collaborating as researchers is in applying the specific skills, knowledge and sensibilities of craft and interactive media to conception and making. However, within craft and multimedia art, evaluation frameworks as understood within other disciplines such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and product design, simply do not exist: analysis of objects and their reception by wearers is based on implicit knowledge and subjective assumptions.The combination of methods from within and without craft has enabled the researchers to suggest new ways of synthesizing jewellery and technology and suggested new areas for further research in terms of engagement and functionality. The synthesis of methods from outside the traditional domain of craft, in particular from user-centred design, has resulted in a new methodology for craft practice, repositioning the craftsperson from a guardian of tradition to an agent of change.
To reduce the chance of product failure after its market introduction, we use the concept test. Unfortunately, the concept test is not without problems. First, we do not always measure what is intended, and the measure may have limited predictive validity for the future market situation. Second, the concept test is not well integrated in the product development process. We propose that computer-aided design (CAD) may be the solution. CAD may improve concept test validity. One can make very realistic representations of the new product, and the flexibility of CAD enables us to confront respondents with more variations to the product design, to better estimate their preferences. Finally, since CAD is used more often in product development, we can use its data and tools to integrate the concept test in the development process. We give examples of how to apply CAD in a concept test to improve validity and integration in product development. To find out whether our assumptions regarding the advantages are valid, we formulate research issues and propositions. We finish with discussing other factors that may influence the integration of CAD and the concept test in product development.
Design contributions to strategy formulation and implementation, based on published empirical literature 
Diagrams used in interviews: i) stakeholder involvement in design activities; ii) design support of the firm’s operations (Porter’s Value chain); iii) roles of design from strategy to market; iv) evolving contributions of design over time 
Many aspects of strategic importance can be influenced through effective use of design. An integrated, holistic application of skilled design resources can make important contributions to competitive advantage. Identifying such contributions elicits a framework useful for clarifying the concept of 'strategic design' in general terms, and for describing design's use in specific organizations. This paper presents such a framework and descriptions of two contrasting firms, based on interviews with designers and others in design-related roles in each. These demonstrate differing approaches to the use of design as a strategic resource, and how such a framework helps identify and describe them.
Early in this interpretive essay the author discloses a paradox in generating knowledge for designing: a process of knowledge generation that is supposed to invest the designer/researcher with a rich knowledge base coldly reveals that we may be incapable of attaining the most desirable state of knowledge for the most adequate level of designing. The tacit question that emerges from that proposition and the sequent discussion is this: are designers caught in a 'catch 22' web? The rhetorical position emerged from a study that was intended to discover phenomena that affect the care of museum artefacts. As the study unfolded, it was evident that designed (or built) space has direct and indirect implications for tile care of artefacts. But it also became apparent that the means of eliminating or mitigating the effects of the built environment on artefact care - that means being knowledge of how spaces function in use and over time - is impossible to attain fully. Certainly, knowledge that space evolution plays a significant role has been attained, but knowledge about how that evolution will take place seems beyond reach. The emergence of the entire discourse was facilitated by the investigative process applied, which bears the assumption that understanding should be based on the realization that different phenomena in the objective environment are interdependent.
Trends indicate that design expertise is increasingly outsourced by companies. A fresh and creative input by external designers can be highly valuable for innovation and business success. Surprisingly, however, few firms have fully exploited the business potential of design investment. One approach to build up and leverage design expertise would be to establish a strategic alliance with an external design resource to supply a constant flow of fresh ideas and insights to enhance product development and innovation. A conceptual framework delineates both the main advantages and challenges of design alliances and links this with the resource-based perspective of strategic management. Three company cases are compared to explore how innovation and advances in industrial design may occur through a design alliance.
This paper presents the result of an in-depth qualitative study of a team effort in collaborative design. Seven industrial and product designers were interviewed with a focus on the experiences relating to roles and the dynamic of the group process. The study resulted in a three-tiered view of how roles are related in group design, consisting of role-taking - the active pursuit or assignment of roles; role-shaking - the negotiation and reimagining of roles; and finally role-breaking - the radical renegotiation or displacement of roles in the group. The paper ends with a number of conclusions about structuring of team design efforts given certain norms about roles in a design team.
This paper describes how animal forms can be seen in the styling of modern motorcars. Many animals are highly optimized for fast movement and this produces aesthetic features such as curvaceous forms, symmetry, wholeness and distinctive body profiles. All of these features can be seen in modern car styling. Since people generally associate animals with elegance and efficiency, the use of animal forms in car styling can lead to forms with a wide appeal. In addition, the use of animal forms is inherently compatible with functional requirements because of the high level of optimization of natural forms.
This paper considers the meaning of taste in relation to convention, associations with cultural elitism, innovation and creativity, and aesthetic discrimination. This is followed by a discussion of the relationship of taste to 'design for sustainability'. Drawing on the work of authors such as Thackara and Chapman, it is demonstrated that diversity in taste can be accommodated and welcomed within this relatively new and developing area of design. A series of original, exploratory artefacts illustrate how these new directions can be manifested within a broader understanding of product design.
New directions in design are exploring a variety of contemporary issues that are challenging conventional assumptions in the design and production industries. The artefacts emerging from these new, essentially design-centred, directions are often conceptual in nature and, judged against current industrial design norms, sometimes appear to be rough-and-ready and imprecise. However, they are also highly creative, inspiring and, in their process of production, frequently more sustainable. This paper provides an overview of these new directions and discusses their relevance and contribution in broadening our understandings of the potential of product design. The work of various designers is discussed and illustrated, and this is supplemented with a series of design explorations, conducted by the author, that address various criteria related to design for sustainability (DfS).
In order to understand how design can become a strategic resource it is necessary to understand how design management is related to other management philosophies. This article aims to understand the reasoning of strategic management and analyse the design management literature and the arguments for why design contributes to strategic development. From being a linear process strategic management has developed into an organizational learning process based on dialogues. Is this development considered by theories concerning design management? Not to its full potential. The literature studies show that design management could be related to the recent management literature in which integrationis a key word. Design as a strategic resourceis based on three integration processes. These are conceptual, functional and visual integration. The empirical studies show that at companies in which all three integration processes have taken place there has also been a great deal of organizational learning. Thereis potential to relate the organizational learning perspective of strategic management also to developing a design management concept.
In this study, we examined how design-intensive firms secure returns from their design innovations - also referred to as appropriability. Previous research indicated that barriers that restrain or obstruct imitation by competitors may increase the returns that ultimately accrue to innovative firms. In this study, we focused on one barrier to imitation in particular, i.e. the reputation mechanism. More precisely, we examined whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are strong deterrents against imitative behaviour. A case study approach was considered most appropriate for our research objectives: to build theory (rather than test theory) and to gain in-depth insight into the 'how' and 'why' of determinants and strategies of appropriability of design innovations. The focus of the case analysis was upon Dutch and ltalian avant-garde design manufacturers operating in the furniture industry. The results of our case analysis indicated reputational sanctions to be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceived a reputation for innovation to be a factor in their competitive success. Linkages between (regionally concentrated) firms fostered the effectiveness of this barrier to imitation as such linkages made it relatively easy to detect imitative behaviour and to impose reputational sanctions.
The Spiral Apartment House, by architect Zvi Hecker: a building as a sunflower.(Source: Zvi Hecker.)  
Section drawing illustrating the innovative system of spatial relationships established between the pathway and the dwelling units, Kerem Hataiminim (Amihay Arbel).  
Schema depicting correlations between the different questions provided to students in the survey.  
Metaphors affect the way designers think, perceive, conceptualize and organize their knowledge. The vague character of metaphors allows for capturing the essence of a problem under different perspectives. In the design domain, this cognitive strategy can help to reflect on a problem situation and restructure it anew. This is particularly relevant in design problem-solving which by definition is ill-structured. Empirical research dealing with the use of metaphors as a supportive design tool was carried out. The investigation enabled an insight into the way metaphors helped students, and into the knowledge gained from the application of this tool in design problem-solving. Moreover, it was possible to identify what were the most frequent difficulties found during the process, and what could be the role of metaphorical thinking in future design tasks. Metaphors are proposed as an alternative reflective approach and as an educational tool for the development of design skills.
Marking the transition from post-industrialism to the information age, contemporary architects are experimenting with computer-aided design to generate striking new forms and surfaces. Accommodating external data in dynamic and transformative ways, their designs embody the frenetic exchange of information that defines our times. Yet, despite its considerable intrigue, such work is perhaps not as philosophically revolutionary as it might seem.
There has been an increasing emphasis on the concept of emotion and its ramifications in design discussions. Emotional responses to designed products are studied in order to inform the design of new ones. This article is an attempt to cast light on the underlying assumptions and enabling conditions involved in this recent emergence of a concern with emotions in design. To achieve this, a historical narrative is reconstructed by bringing a number of important design movements into dialogue with the different stages of capitalist production as well as the leading philosophical paradigms. The article ends with a brief discussion on the vicissitudes of emotionally driven design as it comes into contact with the logic of the market.
There are similarities and differences between the contexts of craft, design and fine art. The differences are subtle but fundamental. Historically, the context of craft was utility and the context of fine art was aesthetic. In recent times, utility has become a characteristic of design; although craft objects may still have utility, they now more popularly serve aesthetic purposes. The context of design is fluid because designed objects are amenable to modification and change but still perform the same function. In contrast, the context of craft is less fluid. Like fine art, if craft objects change they become new objects.A complex of human values, tastes, attitudes, social and cultural norms, and patterns of consumption determines the contexts in which craft, design and fine art objects are located. In this article, we draw on ideas from cultural ecology to offer a conceptualization of the contexts of design, craft and fine art objects. We use the notion of cultural niche to explore the dynamic relationships between people, objects and contexts.
Creative metaphors in language juxtapose two words which appear quite different on the surface, but share an underlying similarity given a particular context. In the metaphor 'life is a river,' the vehicle 'river' modifies the tenor 'life' and draws our attention to life's meandering and the constant flow of time. Scholars have emphasized a dynamic tension between tenor and vehicle and that the vehicle ('river') is always salient modifying the tenor ('life') and never vice versa. A central argument of this paper is that: (1) the vehicle is salient because it is always relatively more concrete than the tenor on the sensory-verbal-symbolic continuum, and (2) the vehicle always modifies the tenor implicitly and spontaneously so that they are experienced as a unity. These ideas have been extended to successful art and design metaphors. The surface difference in artworks and design objects is between denotative subject matter and connotative style or function and form respectively. The underlying similarity reflect the influence of concrete sensory style or form properties which resonate with subject matter or function respectively thereby creating a tacit experience of fit. This unified experience establishes a bridge between the viewer/user and the work that is the foundation for a personal attachment to it.
This paper explores the design process activity using a speculative metaphor which parallels the film-making process with the process of designing products. In the context of design, the scripting of artefacts is both verbally and non-verbally communicated through a storyboard of visual documentation, verbal discourse and textual information. The concept of 'scripting' is explored in this paper through one aspect of an ongoing research investigation of industrial design students, their educational context and the artefacts that are designed. A focus on ethnographic-oriented approaches allows for an exploration that includes but is not limited to the tradition of investigating explicit design procedure. Through in-depth involvement in the design studio an eight-week design project is documented and considerable insights are gained into the social and cultural forces that influence the 'scripting' of designed artefacts.
The cultural aspects of product design are considered here in terms of significance and meaning. Industrial design, from its early Modernistic roots to the present, is briefly discussed in order to consider its positive and negative impacts, and the application of the principles of sustainability to the field is described. Development of the discipline, to embrace and articulate ethical, spiritual and environmental sensibilities is considered as a way of overcoming the instrumental and often vacuous nature of much contemporary product design. Re-establishing a sense of connection, in process and product, is suggested as a way of creating more environmental, socially responsible and meaningful objects. 'Meaning' itself is also described, and differentiated from 'acquired significance', in order to consider a more insightful and mature approach to the design of 'the material'.
The ability to work in teams is increasingly demanded by the 'digital melting pot' of current design practice. In design education group projects with group-based assessment are strategies often adopted to reap the benefits of economy of scale. However there is a fundamental problem with group-based assessment. Those who work hard are demotivated through lack of acknowledgement and 'free riders' receive the same grade. The design of an effective learning environment for group work clearly needs to employ methodologies which encourage students to adopt a deep approach to the learning activities. This article illustrates some vital educational concepts which clarify the dynamics of the learning environment and offer a framework for the design of group-based assessment. The author was part of a multidisciplinary team which designed an online Self and Peer Assessment Resource Kit (SPARK). The system solves the problems and yields the generic skill benefits arising from well-designed group projects.
Head rotation and eye rotation.
Limits for information presentation.
Recommended reading distances.
Dial scale sizes (measurements in centimetres).
Relations of character sizes (measurements in minutes of arc).
As more and more technology is added to the automobile interior it needs to be designed in a usable and efficient way: to facilitate safe driving. This paper reviews guidelines and visual design principles for automotive instrumentation. Guidelines were compiled, categorized and analysed in order to determine whether they were valid and usable for today's design of information presentation in automobiles. By doing this, contradictory guidelines and gaps in knowledge were identified and discussed. However, there appeared a consensus within the different guidelines of best practice, and many are still usable by designers today.
The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the impact of developments in computer-assisted technology on the role of drawing in the communication design process. It is mainly based on findings from interviews with two groups of communication designers working in commercial practice in London-based design consultancies or publishing companies. One group was interviewed on two separate occasions, once in the mid-80s and again within the last 18 months (1997-98). The other group was chosen to represent new approaches to graphic or communication design, or design for applications such as multimedia and website design that were not prevalent in the mid-80s.
A two-dimensional perceptual map based on similarity data.
Vectors derived from ratings of structural package characteristics plotted in the perceptual map. 1: Rough (R 2 = 0.31), 2: Broad (R 2 = 0.33), 3: Heavy and Fat (R 2 = 0.31 R 2 = 0.30), 4: Vivid (R 2 = 0.31), 5: Organic (R 2 = 0.62), 6: Dynamic (R 2 = 0.44), 7: Rounded (R 2 = 0.31).
The design for a new Bols vodka bottle (right), next to an existing bottle.
This article presents a three-step method for the systematic design of a package's structural characteristics that visualizes product attributes and brand values. This method was tested in an initial pilot study. In step 1, the structural characteristics of a package which consumers' associate with product attributes were defined; this step required a series of consumer studies. In step 2, the extent of the design space was investigated in order to formulate design guidelines to express product attributes. In today's market, brand values are important when designing packages, therefore in step 3, a new bottle for a specific brand was designed by adding their brand values to the design guidelines derived from steps 1 and 2. Whisky and vodka were used as the product categories in this research.
Current in-car audio systems are part of a demanding driver-vehicle interaction that is responsible for a high number of traffic accidents. This paper addresses this issue and describes some common problems regarding current in-car audio systems. A project is presented which was initiated to explore alternative interfaces using touch-based interaction, resulting in a working prototype, tested on 25 people. The prototype demonstrates how the focus on touch interaction and the change of position and interface controls, without the use of any expensive or advanced technology, can significantly alter the drivers' operation of the in-car audio system. The results are encouraging.
This paper outlines the development of environmental product design, and recent moves to incorporate a 'triple bottom line' approach to sustainability. Within this context, the paper describes recent initiatives in Australia and New Zealand, with a particular focus on research work undertaken by the Centre for Design at RMIT with manufacturing companies in the region.
This paper examines international product design award schemes to identify the relationship between successful manufacturers in design award schemes and their corporate design competitiveness. Four international product design award schemes - the International Design Excellence Award (IDEA), iF Product Design, Red Dot Product Design and Japanese Good Design Award (JGDA) - were selected from a group of 22 potential schemes. The awards were comparatively reviewed in detail, and the inter-dynamics of the benefits of the award schemes were discussed. In order to reveal the true value of winning awards in reflecting corporate design excellence, a new qualitative analysis method that takes into consideration the selectiveness of different awards was developed. The results from the qualitative analysis challenge the popular belief of simply regarding the number of awards won as corporate design excellence. The design excellence of the award winners were re-ranked according to the new method developed through this research. The findings of the research suggest that this could be a truer reflection of reality.
This paper draws on practice-centred research combining craft practice and digital technology to illuminate the role of beauty in facilitating the engagement with digital complexity. In a climate where digital technology is increasingly prominent in our everyday lives, the role of beauty is seen frequently as an extravagance. As digital technologies extend their reach, the power we have to change and expand our potential for engagement with technology grows accordingly. To regard beauty as a stylistic afterthought is a flawed strategy.The phenomenon of human-digital technology interaction raises the potential for captivation, enchantment and fascination or frustration, distrust and doubt. Here we explore the ways beauty can create accessibility to the complexities inherent in much technology, referring to examples from the applied arts. We state the case for the relevance of craft to the design of digital systems and three-dimensional digital devices focusing on the role of research and method in this process. We define beauty in this context as a form of enchantment, drawing from perspectives from philosophy, human-computer interaction and the applied arts. This paper is based on research which illustrates the role of beauty and enchantment in the conception of digital jewellery, how people respond to enchantment and beauty, and how this acts as a key to a personally meaningful engagement with digital technology. Personal subjectivity and criteria for beauty are explored and responded to through the process of making objects which aim to enchant and linking this to an equally significant mode of communication. The results present a reflective view of the role of beauty and craft knowledge in the conception and design of digital devices and interfaces.
Linking antecedents of behavioural and habitual change with varying levels of design intervention strategies. 
Case study methodology. 
Sustainable design takes into account environmental, economic and social impacts enacted throughout the product lifecycle. Design for Sustainable Behaviour (DfSB) is an emerging activity under the banner of sustainable design which aims to reduce products' environmental and social impact by moderating how users interact with them. This paper presents the results of research investigating the application of Design for Sustainable Behaviour in two product case studies, one examining social impacts of mobile phones and the other environmental impacts of household refrigerators. It analyses selected behaviour models from social-psychological theories and highlights the barriers to sustainable consumption. A model is developed to illustrate the factors stimulating changes in behaviour, and design intervention strategies are highlighted and their application within Design for Sustainable Behaviour discussed. The two case studies are used to illustrate how Design for Sustainable Behaviour could be applied to enable users to adopt more sustainable patterns of use. Conclusions are drawn as to the potential for designers to change use behaviour; the appropriateness and acceptability of the strategies presented; and the ethical considerations related to their selection.
In this benchmark study, we seek to identify strategies, operating practices, and philosophies employed by some of today's best-regarded industrial design consultancy firms in both the USA and Europe. In addition, we attempt to map important trends in the field of design. To reach our objectives we compare the design practice of design consultancy firms with a strong reputation and highly esteemed client base with competitors lacking these assets. In total, we interviewed 50 well-regarded and little-known industrial design firms operating in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, the UK and the USA. Additional information was obtained by interviewing clients of professional design services and industry experts. The findings of our benchmark study indicate that design consultancy firms face new competitive challenges, among other things, due to convergence of related markets, the challenges of the globalization process and the influence of new information and communication technologies that allow firms to exploit economies of scale and scope. Our research further identified six factors that seem critical for success in present-day design consultancy, namely being a full design service provider or niche player, maintaining excellent long-term client relationships and achieving customer satisfaction, having an entrepreneurial attitude, having an interdisciplinary and multicultural orientation, maintaining a strong focus on building and sustaining an excellent image and finally engaging in a cycle of continuous learning.
Things occupy significant portions of physical and symbolic space in our daily lives and yet their appearance in scholarly discourse is either infrequent or scattered across academic departments. Disciplines and areas of study such as industrial design, anthropology, material culture studies, engineering, philosophy, as well as media and cultural studies, do routinely examine, analyse and debate the significance of material objects, but the symbolic meanings and values ascribed to them vary widely within these branches of learning. Design studies, which has traditionally regarded objects in formal rather than social terms, can benefit by expanding its discourse to include a more socially- and culturally-rooted understanding of objects. This knowledge will serve to inform not only design studies but also other disciplines about the role of design in fashioning objects.
Through the combination of innovative and emerging design and manufacturing technologies, a new bespoke industrial design methodology is emerging whereby there will be the ability for individuals to cost effectively control the design and manufacture of individual customized products. The use of novel design devices such as haptic modelling systems that can be used to create a customized three-dimensional model of a desired object, and the subsequent ability to three-dimensionally 'print' the design via rapid manufacturing technologies, will see the emergence of a breed of bespoke industrial designer. This paper introduces research work being undertaken at Loughborough University that is investigating these technologies and the effects and opportunities that they will have on the design and manufacturing community.
Mood boards are one method that can improve inspiration and communication during a design process. These mood boards are typically a collection of abstract media which the designer uses for personal inspiration and also to discuss and communicate with the client and possibly other stakeholders including users. The authors' experience as both designers and educators indicates that mood boards are a 'love it or hate it' issue. Some claim mood boards can inspire creativity and aid communication. Others dismiss them as of no value. The literature is curiously limited on the subject, possibly due to the subjective nature of the issue. This paper starts to explore the potential of mood boards as design research and support tools by looking at both practising and student industrial designers' attitudes to and use of mood boards. The authors conducted a scoping study that is discussed in this paper. The findings revealed that design practitioners valued mood boards as a tool for communication with non-designers and as an instrument to inspire lateral thinking. However, mood boards were undervalued and misunderstood by the sample group of industrial design undergraduate students.
The development of design for sustainability is considered within a design-centred research approach. This form of investigative activity is of particular interest to the design disciplines and here it is distinguished from other types of design research and discussed in terms of its potential relevance and contribution in advancing material culture in more sustainable directions. As its name suggests, this emerging form of design research within academia focuses especially on the activity of designing, and is complemented by more traditional primary and secondary source research methods. However, in order to advance this type of research activity, particularly in the challenging area of design for sustainability, it is necessary, at least temporarily, to disconnect design from the bottom line in order to more freely explore new ideas and new possibilities. A basis for design-centred research is outlined and supplemented by examples from the author's own research experiences.
There is a developing awareness of the interconnected nature of design, its connections with other disciplines and the convergence of different design disciplines as boundaries are increasingly contested and transgressed. Yet, to my mind, the most significant boundary currently not only being crossed but being dismantled is the boundary between professional and amateur, or more pertinently, between 'designer' and 'user'. Recent design methodology has stressed the importance of taking a user-centred approach, but has not envisioned a position where designer and user are essentially one and the same. This change in perspective has the potential to transform design education, design practice and the consumption of design.As design practice became more specialized and the technology involved became more esoteric, amateur creative involvement in many disciplines became unattainable. Yet, emerging technologies today in fact offer the potential to reduce dependence on professional design, and afford access to advanced production techniques.Describing a recent exhibition in which visitors to the gallery had the opportunity to not only create designs for products on screen, but have them actually manufactured and displayed as a part of the show, this paper describes the choices made by designers and craft makers developing such systems, and explores the tensions between professional and amateur creative activity. An exploration is also made of the issues raised for design education and the potential impact of systems that remove distinctions not only between different design disciplines but also between designer and user.
Six points of clothing pressure (Makabe et al. 1991). Point 1, where underbust line and undercup cross Point 2. where the underbust line and anterior axillary line cross (seam) Point 3. where underbust line and scapular line cross Point 4. where lateral area of cup and ribcage band cross Point 5. where ribcage band and anterior axillary line cross (seam) Point 6. where the bra straps stand on the shoulder. factors and bra components evaluated in this paper. Table illustrates the result of the ranking of the bra design factors by the respondents. Referring to Table I, it was found that comfort has the highest score. Fitting acquires the closest scores to comfort.  
Commercial bra designs are inadequate in overcoming all of the bra's problems. Physical and physiological problems for the human body are commonly caused due to the poor design of bra components: for example, pressure from tight shoulder straps, pain rashes resulting from rigid underwires, irritation by bra cup seams and so on. The bra is closely fitted to the wearer. It is important and necessary to evaluate and analyze bra design problems in order to provide suitable methods to alleviate those problems.This paper reviews and evaluates the design problems of commercial bras in technical terms of fit, support, cup shape, underwire, sizing, elastics and fastening. The causes and effects of those problems are also discussed with physiological concerns. An interview survey with 80 women was conducted in order to obtain women's desires concerning bra design factors, and to investigate the statistics on the typical bra components which would commonly cause uncomfortable feelings.
The architecture and exhibition planning, competition and design process of the new Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa.
The four curatorial departments of Art, Maori, Environment, and History as set out in Te Papa's architectural competition documentation (Architect Selection Competition: Stage 2 Documents and Volume 1 General Information and Instructions; 01.1990 MU000477/001/0002, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa).
New Zealand architectural firm JASMAX's winning concept plan that substituted a tripartite cultural model (diagram by Jasmax Design Director Pete Bossley; Bossley, 1998a, p. 19).
The Exhibitions Concept Plan (ECP) accommodated the four curatorial departments by means of dedicated, shared (two departments) and integrated exhibition spaces oriented around a central core or ihonui (Exhibitions Conceptual Plan; circa 1990-1992; MU000361/002/0003, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa; reproduced in Gorbey, 1998, p. 21).
With the introduction of the ECP, JASMAX re-designed its architectural concept plan by the incorporation of a new wedge space that 'cleaved' the building and a bisecting wall (diagram by Jasmax Design Director Pete Bossley; Bossley, 1998b, p. 23).
This article considers the changing role of exhibition design and its contribution to interpretation in the increasingly audience-centred museum environment. By examining the case of the Museum of New Zealand/Te Papa Tongarewa, this article considers the designers' creative role in framing the problem and connecting with the needs and desires of potential users to reshape both the institution of the museum and visitors' experience. This article concludes with a preliminary map of the key interpretive design considerations of concepts, contexts and narratives as a guide to the exhibition design process in contemporary museums, and for those who seek to bridge the gap between expert knowledge and public audiences. This creative interdisciplinary role for design in bridging the gap between growing expert knowledge and satisfying an increasing desire for democratic participation in its dissemination can be seen as an important cultural role for design and one worthy of further critical consideration.
Top-cited authors
Pieter Desmet
  • Delft University of Technology
Joseph Giacomin
  • Brunel University London
Paola Pierri
  • University of the Arts London
Vicki Tsianakas
  • King's College London
Sara Donetto
  • King's College London