Dermatology Research and Practice

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Relationship between annual expenditure for Dupilumab and delta EASI percentage.
Relationship between annual expenditure for Dupilumab and delta DLQI percentage.
Relationship between annual expenditure for Dupilumab and delta NRS percentage.
Health care spending in Italy is high and continues to increase; assessing the long-term health and economic outcomes of new therapies is essential. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis, a clinical condition that significantly affects patients’ quality of life at a high cost and requires continuous care. This retrospective study aimed to assess the direct cost and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of Dupilumab and patients’ clinical outcomes. All AD patients treated with Dupilumab at the Sassari University Hospital, Italy, between January 2019 and December 2021 were included. Eczema Area Severity Index, Dermatology Life Quality Index, and Itch Numeric Rating Scale scores were measured. ADRs and drug expenses were analyzed. A statistically significant posttreatment improvement was observed for all the indices measured: EASI (P<0.0001), DLQI (P<0.0001), NRS (P<0.0001). The total expenditure for Dupilumab, in the observed period, amounted to € 589.748,66 for 1358 doses, and a positive correlation was shown between annual expenditure and delta percentage of variation pre- and posttreatment for the clinical parameters evaluated.
Te treatment options for mycosis fungoides (MF) have been expanding but unfortunately many of the currently used treatment modalities are unavailable in Egypt and other African/Arab countries. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on the treatment of hypopigmented MF (HMF), which is a frequently encountered variant in our population. We aimed to develop regional treatment guidelines based on the international guidelines but modifed to encompass the restricted treatment availability and our institutional experience. Special attention was also given to studies conducted on patients with skin phototype (III-IV). Treatment algorithm was formulated at Ain-Shams cutaneous lymphoma clinic through the collaboration of dermatologists, haematologists, and oncologists. Level of evidence is specifed for each treatment option. For HMF, phototherapy is recommended as a frst line treatment, while low-dose methotrexate is considered a second line. For early classical MF, we recommend Psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA), which is a well-tolerated treatment option in dark phenotype. Addition of either retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist and/or methotrexate is recommended as a second line. Total skin electron beam (TSEB) is considered a third-line option. For advanced stage, PUVA plus RAR agonist and/or methotrexate is recommended as frst line, TSEB or monochemotherapy is considered a second line option. Polychemotherapy is regarded as a fnal option. All patients with complete response (CR) enter a maintenance and follow-up schedule. We suggest a practical algorithm for the treatment of MF for patients with dark phenotype living in countries with limited resources.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy. The biological behavior of this entity is remarkably indolent. Claudin plays an important role in tight junctions, regulating paracellular passage of variable substance including growth factors and maintaining the polarity of epithelia. Up- or downregulated claudin expression has been reported in many cancers. Nevertheless, claudin expression in BCC of the skin remains unclear. We therefore examined the status of claudin 1 and 4 expressions in BCC and adjacent normal skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our IHC results demonstrated high claudin 1 expression and low claudin 4 expression in 33 of 34 lower-grade BCCs. In lower-grade BCC, claudin 1 was increased and claudin 4 was decreased compared with the normal skin. Claudin 1 was inclined to be highly expressed in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumour cells in the periphery of tumour nest. Conversely, almost all lower-grade BCCs (33/34) and one of two higher-grade BCC lacked or showed focal positivity for claudin 4. These results imply that the expression pattern is characteristics of lower-risk BCC. Interestingly, one of the two higher-grade BCCs demonstrated the converse expression patterns of claudins, with decreased claudin 1 and increased claudin 4. The combination of immunohistochemical claudin 1 and 4 expression may offer a useful ancillary tool for the pathological diagnosis of BCC. Furthermore, membranous and intracellular claudins may present future therapeutic targets for uncontrollable BCC.
Background: Solar radiations that reach the Earth can be divided into ultraviolet, visible light, and infrared. Overexposure to these radiations can facilitate adverse skin diseases such as sunburn, skin cancer, and photoaging. People who drive vehicles for an extended period are likely to develop skin cancer in the exposed body area. Method: This research proposes a wearable protective device around the upper arm to measure the transmitted radiation through the front and the side windows. A novel skin type classification algorithm using a color sensor was created to provide an accurate skin type identification. Also, the device was programmed to calculate the time before sunburn occurrence based on the ultraviolet index, sunscreen's sun protection factor, and skin type. Results: The prototype was tested inside a Toyota Camry model 2001 vehicle with an accuracy of 97%. The front window had transmitted more infrared radiation compared to the side window. The highest recorded value was 76.76 mW/cm2. On the other hand, the side window had transmitted more ultraviolet compared to the front window as it lacks the protective polyvinyl butyral layer that the front window has. The highest recorded ultraviolet index was 3.5. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of wearing the designed solar band and using appropriate UV and IR protection while driving a vehicle to prevent skin diseases from occurring.
The study flowchart.
The pattern of decrease in mean Lichen planopilaris activity index in two groups.
Categorical background characteristics of participants by intervention groups.
:e change in mean Lichen planopilaris activity index over time in two groups.
Two-level linear regression model analysis results of Lichen planopilaris activity index.
Background: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp that causes cicatricial alopecia. No therapeutic approach has been approved for this disease due to the rare frequency. Methotrexate and corticosteroid are commonly considered second- or third-line therapy. The efficacy of a combination of methotrexate and corticosteroid has been reported in some dermatological and immunological diseases. However, the efficacy of this combination in LPP is not clear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the impact of methotrexate alone and in combination with corticosteroid on LPP. Materials and methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 28 patients who referred to the dermatology clinic affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran during February 2015-December 2016, and 24 of them completed the trials. Fourteen patients received 15 mg methotrexate per week alone and the other fourteen subjects received 200 mg prednisolone plus 15 mg methotrexate per week. The primary outcome was Lichen planopilaris activity index (LPPAI) score. Moreover, we evaluated photographic changes and symptoms during the study. Results: The mean of LPPAI in both groups decreased during the follow-up with a similar pattern of LPPAI changes in both groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the two intervention groups regarding the LPPAI score. We found no difference in the symptoms and photographic assessments in methotrexate and combination therapy groups during follow-up. In both groups, exclusively one adverse effect was reported. Conclusions: Our results showed that methotrexate therapy with and without corticosteroids had similar efficacy and safety.
Comparison of PASI, VAS, and DLQI scores in each group at the baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 12.
Background: Attention to the administration of probiotics for the treatment of psoriasis has recently increased. Aim: In the present study, improvements in dermatology life quality index (DLQI), psoriasis area severity index (PASI), and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in the psoriasis patients receiving Lactocare® probiotic were compared to psoriasis patients receiving placebo. Methods: A total of 52 psoriasis patients were included in this study and randomly divided into treatment and placebo (control) groups. The control group received topical hydrocortisone associated with placebo; in the treatment group, Lactocare® was administrated orally associated with hydrocortisone. The mean of VAS, DLQI, and PSAI scores was recorded and evaluated pretreatment and post-treatment in both groups for 3 months. The mean of the scores in the control groups was compared to the treatment group. Intragroup analysis was preformed with a comparison of the mean of these scores at baseline 4-, 8-, and 12-weeks post-treatment. Results: In the treatment group, a significant decrease was seen in PASI, VAS, and DLQI scores compared to the control group on week 12 post-treatment. Conclusion: Oral administration of Lactocare® probiotic (two times daily) associated with administration of topical hydrocortisone resulted in the improvement of PASI, DLQI, and VAS scores in the patients with psoriasis after 12 weeks of treatment. PASI reduction occurred in all patients who received probiotics.
Visual analog scale (VAS).
Fordyce angiokeratoma is a benign lesion commonly developing on the scrotal skin. The incidence increases with age. About half of these lesions may be symptomatic and frequently cause itching and bleeding. Although the treatment is not always considered necessary, several treatment methods are used for symptomatic cases, especially for cosmetic purposes. Treatment options include surgical excision, laser ablation, electrocoagulation, cryotherapy, and sclerotherapy. The most widely used methods are electrocoagulation and cryotherapy. Although these two methods are similarly effective and safe, there are differences in means of patient comfort and cosmetic outcomes. Patient comfort can be defined as pain management during the procedure and the healing period. Bleeding and wound infection are other parameters that may decrease patient comfort. Patients would prefer treatment methods with less or no pain and shorter recovery periods, healthcare providers, and insurance. The cosmetic result is another critical issue, especially for patients with multiple lesions. Treatment methods avoiding genital scars are more likely to meet the aesthetic demands of the patients.
Chemical substances used during batik processing may affect the physiological function of the batik worker’s skin barrier. This study assessed the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, and skin acidity in 61 batik workers from the batik center in Paseseh village, Tanjung Bumi subdistrict, Madura Island, Indonesia. Forty-five batik workers involved in dry work including drawing patterns on the cloth with wax and sixteen batik workers involved in wet work including dyeing the cloth with a dye bath were included in this study. The mean TEWL level in the dry work section was 59.87 ± 11.94 g/m2/h on the palmar and 29.00 ± 13.09 g/m2/h on the dorsal side of the hand, while the mean TEWL in the wet work section were 47.39 ± 9.66 g/m2/h on the palmar and 37.07 ± 10.00 g/m2/h on the dorsal side of the hand. The mean skin hydration level in the dry work section was 49.80 ± 19.16 arbitrary units (a.u.) for the palmar side and 52.77 ± 16.21 a.u. for the dorsal side of the hand, while the mean levels of skin hydration in the wet work section were 47 ± 12.73 a.u. and 62.94 ± 10.09 a.u. for palmar and dorsal side, respectively. The mean levels of skin acidity in the dry work section were 5.45 ± 0.19 for the palmar side and 5.30 ± 0.20 for the dorsal side of the hand, while the wet work section had 5.30 ± 0.19 and 5.10 ± 0.19 for the palmar and dorsal side of the hand, respectively. The TEWL levels were found to be higher on the palmar side of the hand in both the dry work and wet work sections, which was consistent with the measurement of skin hydration levels that were lower on the palmar side of the hand. The mean skin pH levels for both work sections were considered within the normal range.
ROC curve for simplified multivariable model. This simplified multivariable model exhibited high discrimination (c-statistic 0.821, 95% CI: 0.783–0.859) using the area under the ROC curve. AUC = 0.821 (95% CI: 0.783–0.859).
Calibration plot of observed versus predicted risk by quintile. This simplified multivariable model featured good calibration with predicted risk similar to observed risk and using the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of fit test (χ42 = 1.19, p=0.88).
Potential predictors of skin cancer on screening TBSE.
Simplified multivariable model and point scoring system.
Objective: There is insufficient evidence to generate skin cancer screening guidelines at the population level, resulting in arbitrary variation in patient selection for screening skin examinations. This study was aimed at developing an easy-to-use predictive model of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk on screening total body skin examination (TBSE). Methods: This epidemiologic assessment utilized data from a prospective, multicenter international study from primarily academic outpatient dermatology clinics. Potential predictors of NMSC on screening TBSE were identified and used to generate a multivariable model that was converted into a point-based scoring system. The performance characteristics of the model were validated in a second data set from two healthcare institutions in the United States. Results: 8,501 patients were included. Statistically significant predictors of NMSC on screening TBSE included age, skin phototype, and history of NMSC. A multivariable model and point-based scoring system using these predictors exhibited high discrimination (AUC = 0.82). Conclusion: A simple three-variable model, abbreviated as CAP (cancer history, age, phototype) can accurately predict the risk of NMSC on screening TBSE by dermatology. This tool may be used in clinical decision making to enhance the yield of screening TBSE.
Factors that should be considered in the shared decision-making regarding the treatment of AD.
Factors that should be incorporated in therapeutic protocols of AD.
Reasons for referral of pediatric patients with AD.
Roadmap of pediatrics AD patient in Saudi Arabia.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is characterized by pruritic eczematous lesions, affecting up to 20% of the children and negatively impacting their quality of life. Guidelines for AD management are available worldwide, but specific guidelines for pediatric AD in Saudi Arabia are lacking. This consensus document aims to identify the needs for the diagnosis and management of pediatric AD in Saudi Arabia by gathering the opinions and recommendations of key experts. We conducted a three-step modified Delphi method to develop the present consensus. The experts agreed that pediatricians and dermatologists commonly encounter AD; however, it is still under-recognized in its early stage in Saudi Arabia. The family physicians should be involved in assessing suspected children with a family history of atopy, particularly in patients with isolated lesions. Further, the experts confirmed that AD diagnosis should be documented, showing assessment criteria used, key morphological characteristics, and features used to ascertain the severity of the disease. There is still a need for simple validated diagnostic criteria suitable for daily practice for pediatric AD. The experts highlighted several medical conditions that pertain to the diagnosis and management of AD in Saudi Arabia.
Factors associated with poor adherence.
Methods to improve adherence.
Background: Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease in adolescence. It is also prevalent in adults, especially females. The disease has a considerable impact on health-related quality of life. Many studies have reported the negative impact of acne on patients due to skin disfigurement, ineffective treatment, and adverse effects of the treatment. Numerous factors contribute towards nonadherence to therapy. Summary. This review discusses the various factors that are related to treatment nonadherence such as ineffective therapy, adverse effects with topical pharmacotherapy such as skin irritation and erythema as well as patient-related factors such as lack of knowledge of disease and a poor patient-physician relationship. Various methods are being adopted to increase adherence to treatments. Increased adherence to acne therapy has been associated with the use of dermocosmetics, such as moisturizers and cleansers. Encouraging the use of dermocosmetics in synergy with pharmacological regimens could support improved treatment adherence resulting in better clinical outcomes for acne patients. Conclusion: Dermocosmetics as an adjunct to pharmacological regimens has the potential to improve clinical outcomes by increasing treatment adherence in patients with acne.
Results of EBS allergen patch tests.
Distribution of handled products.
Results of patch tests with products handled in the workplace.
Introduction: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common occupational disease. Its diagnosis is essentially based on interrogation and patch tests. However, commercially available batteries are sometimes not appropriate for the working conditions and the handled products, which must then be tested. In Tunisia, no previous study has focused on the contribution of patch tests with handled products in the workplace. The objective of this study is to establish the sociodemographic and occupational profile of the patients benefiting from patch tests with handled products in the workplace to identify the characteristics of these products as well as to evaluate the relevance of their positivity and their contributions in terms of aetiological diagnosis of occupational ACD. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study conducted for a period of 10 years from January 1st, 2006, to December 31, 2015, among patients exercising a professional activity and consulting the Dermato-Allergology Unit of the Occupational Medicine ward of the University Hospital Farhat Hached of Sousse for the exploration of ACD. Results: During the study period, 113 patients received patch tests of handled products in the workplace with a prevalence of 7.3% of patch-tested patients during the same period. The mean age was 35.79 ± 9.45 years with a male predominance (sex ratio = 1.35). The most represented activity sectors were the health sector in 30.1% and the textile sector in 21.2%. The majority of patients were professionally active (61.9% of the study population) with an average professional seniority of 10.28 ± 8.49 months. In total, 138 patch tests with handled products were carried out of which 46 tests were positive (33.3%). After the analytical study, variables independently significantly associated with the positivity of patch tests with handled products in the workplace were the male gender and the working in the plastics industry. An occupational disease was declared to the National Health Insurance Fund for 8 patients, i.e., 7.1% of cases. Conclusion: Patch tests with handled products in the workplace can provide strong arguments for the professional origin of the ACD.
Objectives. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a vast drug arsenal and guidelines available for its management and diagnosis and different medical specialties engaged in providing care. is study aimed to outline the therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to the AD of allergists, dermatologists, and pediatricians and verify whether they are compliant with the guidelines. Methods. A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire administered through the SurveyMonkey ® platform was disclosed by participating medical societies to their medical associates. Results. Of the 1,473 participating physicians, the use of moisturizers as part of AD treatment was observed among pediatricians (91.9%), dermatologists (97.5%), and allergists (100%; p � 0.07). e preference for the use of new emollients was lower among pedi-atricians (57%) than dermatologists (75.9%) and allergists (71.4%; p < 0.001). e prevalence of wet-wrap therapy was lower among dermatologists (16.3%) than allergists (51%; p < 0.001). e recommendation of proactive treatment with topical cor-ticosteroids was more frequently reported by allergists (65.3%) than pediatricians (43.3%) and dermatologists (40.8%; p < 0.001), and the same trend was observed in relation to proactive treatment using calcineurin inhibitors. e use of oral anti-histamines to control pruritus was mainly considered by pediatricians (69.2%) and dermatologists (59.2% p < 0.001). Clinical experience with systemic immunomodulating agents was greater among allergists (77.5%) and dermatologists (60.8%; p < 0.001), with cyclo-sporine being the most cited systemic immunomodulating agent. Environmental control of aeroallergens was recommended by pediatricians (89.8%), dermatologists (86.9%), and allergists (100%; p � 0.01). Conclusion. ere were differences in the therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to AD used by allergists, dermatologists, and pediatricians and those recommended by the guidelines, especially regarding the use of wet-wrap therapy, proactive treatment with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors, prescription of anti-histamines, recommendation of phototherapy, and control of aeroallergens.
Acne vulgaris, or acne, is a prevailing cutaneous predicament that customarily crops up on the face, neck, and trunk in the forms of comedones, papules, pustules, and nodules. According to epidemiologic explorations, acne affects 9.4% of the global population, making it the eighth most common disease globally. Acne perturbs up to 85% of adolescents, while it is periodically misconceived as an ailment that affects teenagers only; nonetheless, it also affects myriad adults. Acne has well-documented psychosocial ramifications, including adverse effects on self-perception, mental health, and social functioning. Trifarotene is basically a novel fourth-generation locally applied retinoid approved for the first time in the regimens of both face and truncal acnes. The exclusive topical retinoid that adheres precisely to RAR-gamma, the epidermis' most frequent isoform, is trifarotene, approved in October 2019. The current review evaluates the role of trifarotene in treating acne.
Stress plays an important role in the causation and aggravation of psychodermatological conditions such as acne vulgaris. Alpha casein hydrolysate (αs1-casein hydrolysate; Lactium) has been shown to decrease serum cortisol levels, reduce stress-related symptoms, and promote relaxation. “This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Lactium™ plus standard care to those of standard of care alone in reducing stress levels and acne severity in patients with acne vulgaris.” The C.E.R.T.A.I.N trial (Name registered with Clinical Trials Registry-India-No. CTRI/2019/01/017172) is a randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label, two-arm, investigator-initiated clinical trial. A total of 100 patients with moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: Lactium™ plus standard care or standard care alone. Stress levels were assessed using serum cortisol levels, Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) acne severity scale scores, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was also used to assess the impact of the skin disease on patients’ quality of life. At 12 weeks, stress levels were significantly lower in group A (Nixiyax plus standard of care) than that in group B(only standard care), as measured by the change in serum cortisol levels (4.75 ± 4.46 vs. −0.24 ± 5.22). Furthermore, the mean change in PSS scores (3.09 ± 2.04 vs. 0.90 ± 2.76) and HAM-A scores (5.11 ± 1.94 vs. 1.25 ± 3.13) was significant. Patients in both arms had a significant decrease in total, inflammatory, and noninflammatory acne lesions, as well as a significant improvement in DLQI and IGA scores. In patients with moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris, Lactium™ was found to be both safe and well-tolerated. Lactium™ plus standard care is more effective than standard care alone in reducing acne severity through stress reduction.
AST, ALT, and GGT before and after treatment of the two groups.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of metformin and methotrexate (MTX) versus MTX monotherapy in treating psoriasis in patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods: A prospective clinical trial was conducted using metformin and MTX to treat psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome. A treatment group of 35 psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome was treated with MTX and metformin. A control group of 31 psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome was treated with MTX only. Results: Patients treated with the combined regimen showed measured improvement in disease status compared to those treated with MTX monotherapy. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores of psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome using the metformin and MTX combination were significantly lower than those treated with MTX only (p < 0.05). The combination treatment group also showed a significant decrease in blood sugar and triglyceride levels after 3 months (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in subclinical indexes between the treatment and control groups. Conclusion: In this treatment sample, a combination of metformin and MTX in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome showed positive responses and no serious side effects.
Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a clinical sign that commonly occurs in obesity; however, its specificity and sensitivity have been controversial. It is unknown if AN severity degree can be a useful marker for cardiometabolic disorders screening. We suggest that the stratified analysis of AN severity degree in neck by Burke's scale could be a useful tool in the screening of cardiometabolic alterations in obese children. Objective: The aim of this study was the association of AN severity degree in neck by Burke's scale with anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters in obese school-age children from Mexico City. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 95 obese school-age children stratified by AN severity degree in neck by Burke's scale. Anthropometric and fasting biochemical measurements were determined. Variables were compared by x 2 test for frequencies and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni posttest for continuous variables. Linear regression analysis adjusted by gender, BMI, and age was performed to evaluate the association between AN severity degree and cardiometabolic alterations. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: As AN severity degree in neck by Burke's scale increased, diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001) and triglycerides (p=0.02) significantly increased and adiponectin significantly decreased (p=0.02). Positive associations between grade 3 AN and waist circumference, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were observed. Conclusion: Our findings could be used to identify an easier clinical tool to prevent obesity progression and its complications in pediatrics. There are no similar studies.
A decline in quality of life in men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is frequently reported, so we aimed to evaluate the psychosocial burden related to AGA in Polish male patients with AGA. We enrolled 75 adult patients with AGA. The study was conducted in an outpatient dermatology clinic in Poland. Each participant answered 23 dedicated questions about demographic data, history of the disease, and a psychosocial condition. Overall, 38.7% of patients did not notice any impact of AGA on their contact with other people or activity in their free time; 50.7% of patients observed little or no effect on their relationship with their partner; 60% of patients often or sometimes felt embarrassed by their baldness (mainly those aged 18–25 years; p=0.002); 66.7% of patients reported a rather large negative impact on their self-esteem; and 81.3% of patients sometimes experienced stress in everyday life. We conclude that AGA impairs the emotional condition and social functioning of men of all ages, but particularly of younger men. Broader interventions should be planned to allow access to a psychological and psychosocial support, starting treatment at an early stage of the disease, and involving family physicians in the treatment of AGA.
Objectives: There is conflicting evidence as to whether oral lichen planus (OLP) can undergo malignant transformation into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of Brazilian patients with either OLP or OSCC. Patients and Methods. This study was conducted in São Paulo, the world's fourth-largest city by population. Two groups of patients were analyzed. The OLP group consisted of 370 patients, while the OSCC group consisted of 154 patients. The OLP patients were followed up for up to 21 years to monitor clinical benefits from the management or changes in the lesion morphology; conversely, patients with OSCC were examined only twice for diagnostic purposes and referred to a specialized center. Data concerning systemic diseases, use of medications, type of oral lesions, and health-risk behaviors were recorded for patients in both groups. Results: None of the patients with OLP developed OSCC at the lesion site. Only one female patient with erosive OLP developed OSCC in the normal, lesion-free oral mucosa. None of the OSCC patients had concomitant OLP lesions; however, a higher percentage of OSCC cases (17.5%) showed white plaques (most likely oral leukoplakia) as a precursor lesion. Conclusion: The findings strongly suggest that malignant transformation of OLP is virtually nonexistent in the Brazilian population.
The relative expression of CD70 gene in patients with AA (n = 40) compared to HCs (n = 40). The relative CD70 gene expression in AA lesions ranged from 0.07 to 10.70 (mean 2.41 ± 2.71, median 1.22), while in non-lesional areas, it ranged from 0.01 to 0.82 (mean 0.16 ± 0.19, median 0.12). Wilcoxon signed rank test (p1) was used to compare the expression in AA lesions and non-lesional areas. Mann–Whitney test (p2) was used to compare the expression in AA lesions and HCs. Mann–Whitney test (p3) was used to compare the expression in non-lesional areas and HCs. ∗Significant at p<0.05. AA: alopecia areata; HCs: healthy controls; CD: cluster differentiation.
The relative expression of CD27 gene in patients with AA (n = 40) compared to HCs (n = 40). The relative CD27 gene expression in AA lesions ranged from 0.09 to 11.96 (mean 3.19 ± 3.65, median 1.58), while in non-lesional areas, it ranged from 0.0 to 1.68 (mean 0.25 ± 0.38, median 0.14). Wilcoxon signed rank test (p1) was used to compare the expression in AA lesions and non-lesional areas. Mann–Whitney test (p2) was used to compare the expression in AA lesions and HCs. Mann–Whitney test (p3) was used to compare the expression in non-lesional areas and HCs. ∗Significant at p<0.05. AA: alopecia areata; HCs: healthy controls; CD: cluster differentiation.
(a) The correlation between CD70 mRNA levels in AA lesions (n = 40) and SALT score. (b) The correlation between CD27 mRNA levels in AA lesions (n = 40) and SALT score. rs: Spearman coefficient; ∗significant at p<0.05; AA: alopecia areata; SALT : Severity of Alopecia Tool; CD: cluster differentiation.
(a) The correlation between CD70 mRNA levels in AA lesions (n = 40) and SALT score. (b) The correlation between CD27 mRNA levels in AA lesions (n = 40) and SALT score. rs: Spearman coefficient; ∗significant at p<0.05; AA: alopecia areata; SALT : Severity of Alopecia Tool; CD: cluster differentiation.
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an acquired hair loss disorder induced by a cell-mediated autoimmune attack against anagen hair follicles. CD27-CD70 is a receptor-ligand complex which enhances T helper and cytotoxic T cell activation, survival, and proliferation. The overstimulation of this complex can lead to a lack of tolerance and the development of autoimmunity. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the gene expression of CD27 and CD70 in patients with AA. Methods: CD70 and CD27 mRNA expressions were evaluated by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in scalp biopsies from 40 AA patients (both AA lesions and non-lesional areas) and 40 healthy controls (HCs). The Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score was used to assess AA severity. Patients were evaluated for signs of AA activity, including a positive hair pull test and dermoscopic features of black dots, broken hairs, and tapering hairs. Results: The gene expression of CD70 and CD27 was significantly higher in AA lesions than in non-lesional areas (p < 0.001 for both) and HCs (p=0.004, p=0.014, respectively). There were significant positive correlations between AA severity and gene expression of CD70 (p < 0.001) and CD27 (p=0.030) in AA lesions. Significant associations were detected between signs of AA activity and lesional gene expression of CD70 and CD27. Additionally, CD70 and CD27 gene expression was significantly lower in non-lesional biopsies compared to HCs (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Gene expression of CD70 and CD27 was increased in AA lesions and was associated with disease severity and activity. Thus, both molecules can be a predictor of AA severity and activity. Furthermore, the expression was reduced in non-lesional scalp areas. Thus, a lack of CD27 and CD70 expression may initially predispose to immunological dysregulation and the development of AA.
Flowchart of subjects.
. Dupilumab was considered a therapeutic option due to its availability in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, especially by allergists (35 (71.4% vs. 240 (20.4%) pediatricians and 101 (41.2%) dermatologists; p < 0.001). Investigations of the re- lationship between AD and food allergies were considered by
Sociodemographic data according to the different specialties.
Questionnaire answers (always and almost always).
Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a vast drug arsenal and guidelines available for its management and diagnosis and different medical specialties engaged in providing care. This study aimed to outline the therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to the AD of allergists, dermatologists, and pediatricians and verify whether they are compliant with the guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire administered through the SurveyMonkey® platform was disclosed by participating medical societies to their medical associates. Results: Of the 1,473 participating physicians, the use of moisturizers as part of AD treatment was observed among pediatricians (91.9%), dermatologists (97.5%), and allergists (100%; p=0.07). The preference for the use of new emollients was lower among pediatricians (57%) than dermatologists (75.9%) and allergists (71.4%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of wet-wrap therapy was lower among dermatologists (16.3%) than allergists (51%; p < 0.001). The recommendation of proactive treatment with topical corticosteroids was more frequently reported by allergists (65.3%) than pediatricians (43.3%) and dermatologists (40.8%; p < 0.001), and the same trend was observed in relation to proactive treatment using calcineurin inhibitors. The use of oral anti-histamines to control pruritus was mainly considered by pediatricians (69.2%) and dermatologists (59.2% p < 0.001). Clinical experience with systemic immunomodulating agents was greater among allergists (77.5%) and dermatologists (60.8%; p < 0.001), with cyclosporine being the most cited systemic immunomodulating agent. Environmental control of aeroallergens was recommended by pediatricians (89.8%), dermatologists (86.9%), and allergists (100%; p=0.01). Conclusion: There were differences in the therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to AD used by allergists, dermatologists, and pediatricians and those recommended by the guidelines, especially regarding the use of wet-wrap therapy, proactive treatment with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors, prescription of anti-histamines, recommendation of phototherapy, and control of aeroallergens.
The flowchart of the study.
20-year-old female patient’s right leg: the appearance of pinpoint bleeding, the endpoint of the microneedling procedure.
A 47-year-old female patient with refractory patches on the dorsal aspect of her left forearm: (a) before treatment; (b) six months’ follow-up after treatment by topical pimecrolimus 1% on the pointed lesion. No changes were observed.
(a) A 47-year-old female patient with three refractory patches on the dorsal aspect of her right forearm, before treatment, (b) two months after treatment by microneedling plus topical pimecrolimus 1% on the pointed lesion (the largest lesion of the three), (c) three months after treatment with same procedure, and (d) at six months’ follow-up after treatment.
Objective: Vitiligo is a common, autoimmune disease that results in the destruction of the melanocytes and manifests as depigmented macules on various areas of the skin. Numerous treatment options have been proposed for vitiligo. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of microneedling plus topical pimecrolimus 1% versus the sole use of topical pimecrolimus 1% for the treatment of vitiligo. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 30 skin lesions on 15 Al-Zahra hospital patients. Each patient had two similar lesions in the limb area, and each lesion was considered a separate treatment group. The left or right side of the patient's lesion was randomly assigned to receive microneedling plus topical pimecrolimus for three months, while the other side received only topical pimecrolimus 1%. As part of the follow-up, digital photography was taken at the baseline and biweekly for three months after treatment and six months' follow-up. The following methods were used to evaluate the results: DLQI questionnaires, patient satisfaction questionnaires, and two independent dermatologists comparing the improvement rate for each group. Results: Topical pimecrolimus 1% treatment led to unsatisfactory results, whereas the combination of microneedling and topical pimecrolimus1% treatment produced a more favorable overall outcome (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study established that combination therapy results in more significant patient improvement. Additionally, one patient experienced mild skin irritation as a side effect of topical pimecrolimus.
Introduction: The objective of this work was to document the comorbidities and environmental factors associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) in dermatology Venereology in Cotonou. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, and analytical study included, from January 2016 to December 2018, in the Dermatology-Venereology Department of the National Teaching Hospital Hubert Koutoukou Maga (CNHU-HKM) of Cotonou, children and adults after free and informed consent, in whom the diagnosis of AD was retained according to the criteria of the United Kingdom Working Party. Severity was assessed using SCORAD (severity scoring of atopic dermatitis). Results: The overall prevalence of AD was 7.7%. AD was more frequent in children (56.8% and 40.6%) and adults (59.8% and 37.4%) from urban and periurban areas (0.003 < p < 0.034). It was more frequent in children who regularly dewormed and those with complete vaccination (0.001 < p < 0.01). In 54.8% of children and 58.9% of adults, flare-ups occurred during the warm season. The main associated comorbidities were rhinitis and conjunctivitis in both children (49.7% and 36.1%, respectively) and adults (32.7% and 26.2%, respectively). The main triggering factors in children were heat (43.2%), pneumallergens (28.4%), and skin irritants (22.6%). In adults, we noted skin irritants (58.9%), heat (47.7%), and psychological factors (34.6%). In adults, the use of detergent soaps was associated with lichenified and severe AD (0.003 < p < 0.006) and that of lightening soaps with acute AD (p=0.042). Conclusion: AD in the Dermatology-Venereology Department of the CNHU-HKM of Cotonou was associated with comorbidities. It was influenced by environmental factors related to the tropical climate and by skin irritants or allergens.
Background. Pregnancy leads to several skin changes, but evidence about structural and functional skin changes is scarce. Findings on skin structure and function in children in their first year reveal rapid skin maturation, but evidence indicates that in particular, water holding and transport mechanisms are different from adults. Important questions include whether maternal cutaneous properties predict infant skin condition, and if so, how. This is especially relevant for the skin’s microbiome because it closely interacts with the host and is assumed to play a role in many skin diseases. Therefore, the study objective is to explore characteristics of skin and hair of pregnant women and their newborns during pregnancy and in the first six months after delivery and their associations. Methods. The study has an observational longitudinal design. We are recruiting pregnant females between 18 and 45 years using advertisement campaigns in waiting areas of gynecologists and hospital’s outpatient services. A final sample size of n = 100 women is the target. We perform noninvasive, standardized skin, hair, and skin microbiome measurements. We establish the baseline visit during pregnancy until at the latest four weeks before delivery. We schedule follow-up visits four weeks and six months after birth for mothers and their newborns. We will calculate descriptive statistical methods using frequencies and associations over time depending on scale levels of the measurements. Discussion. The majority of previous studies that have investigated infants’ skin microbiome and its associations used cross-sectional designs and focused on selected characteristics in small samples. In our longitudinal study, we will characterize a broad range of individual and environmental characteristics of mothers and their newborns to evaluate interrelationships with skin parameters and their changes over time. Considering the combination of these multiple variables and levels will allow for a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationship of the newborn’s skin maturation. This trial is registered with (Identifier: NCT04759924). 1. Background The skin is widely considered the largest organ of the human body, and it fulfills a variety of essential functions. One of the most important functions is protection. However, there are certain periods in life when skin health is challenged [1]. Two of these periods are during pregnancy for women and during the first few months after birth for both mothers and their newborns. It is well known that pregnant women may undergo a wide range of skin and hair changes such as pigmentary, vascular, hair growth, nail, and connective tissue alterations [2–6]. These effects are also assumed to continue after childbirth [7]. The scalp hair is particularly affected: hormonal changes during pregnancy lead to a high anagen rate of nearly 90% of all hair follicles during the second and third quarters of pregnancy [8]. However, some women experience postpartum diffuse hair loss, which is enhanced in women already having hair loss problems prior to pregnancy. This hair growth disorder is known as telogen effluvium, lasting between six weeks and up to six months after delivery [9]. But why there are significant individual differences in postnatal hair loss remains unclear. So detailed evidence about the structure and function of skin and hair changes during and after pregnancy is largely lacking. In contrast, evidence about skin function and skin structure in newborns and infants is more common. Immediately after birth, the rapid skin barrier maturation is well studied [10], but evidence indicates that in particular, the water holding and transport mechanisms are very different to adults in the first year of life [11]. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements indicate that after the first month after birth, TEWL seems to become similar to the adult skin [10, 12, 13]. Until one year of age, TEWL increases [10, 14, 15], and pH values of the skin surface decline from immediately after birth to several months later, indicating skin barrier maturation [10, 15, 16]. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in associations of the skin microbiome and skin health [17]. The above-described physiological changes of the skin from birth during the first year of life may also interact with the skin microbiome [18]. Oranges et al. conclude that the skin microbiome of newborns resembles the microbiome of moist skin sites in adults [13]. Other study results indicate associations between the richness and diversity of the microbiome, the skin, and environmental properties [18–21]. This signifies complex interrelationships between physiological development, microbial colonization and growth, and external influences. Until now, few studies have explored possible associations of skin function and microbiome between mothers and newborns. Dominguez-Bello et al. showed that the method of delivery (vaginal or via C-section) is linked to the diversity of the cutaneous bacterial colonization [19]. Additionally, results of 50 mother-child pairs indicate similarities of the children’s bacterial genera to those of their own mothers [22]. Other study results suggest associations between environmental conditions, age, and the skin microbiome [23, 24]. However, most study results are based on cross-sectional study designs, ignoring changes over time. Because of the multiple interactions between skin structure, function, and microbiome, it is necessary to consider and measure all aspects over time. 2. Methods/Design 2.1. Aim The aim is to measure skin and hair characteristics of mothers and newborns over time and determine demographic, environmental, and health characteristics associated with skin microbiome development. Therefore, we will answer the following research questions:(1)Are there associations between health, skin, and hair characteristics of mothers and newborns?(2)How does the skin microbiome change during pregnancy and after birth?(3)Do maternal health and skin characteristics predict the skin characteristics of newborns and infants? 2.2. Study Design We perform a longitudinal, descriptive cohort study including females during pregnancy and puerperium, and their newborns until six months of age shown in Table 1. Inclusion baseline visit during pregnancy (16th–36th week) t0 Delivery + 4 weeks t1 Delivery + 6 months (end of the study) t2 Informed consent x x newborn Inclusion/exclusion criteria x x newborn Medical examination x x¹ x¹ Dermatological examination x x¹ x¹ Skin measurements x x¹ x¹ Skin microbiome x x¹ x¹ Hair metrix analysis x x¹ x¹ x¹ = visit for mother and baby.
Study flow chart.
Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease for which effective therapy has been long since invented. Thus, the morbidity has been decreased as technology has advanced, but the permanent disability has continuously generated stigma for centuries. The stigma causes the emergence of a poor psychological impact on people with leprosy (PwL). These impacts make new PwL reluctant to get appropriate therapy for their initial symptoms and are, thus, troublesome in accomplishing the goals of the leprosy elimination program. The aim of this review is to provide the history of psychological impact amongst PwL in countries across the globe. Methods: This is a literature review study. A keyword-based search was conducted in digital libraries. Articles reporting on PwL's psychology and related issues, such as quality of life, opportunity of building a marriage, and getting hired, were included. The data were presented based on a leprosy history timeline with cutoff points, namely, the invention of promin (1941) and multidrug treatment (1970). Results: In total, 38 studies were included in this review. These studies showed that PwL's knowledge towards leprosy has been increasing; nevertheless, their attitude is still lacking. The emotional response was described by various negative feelings that had persistently occurred. These poor psychological impacts were followed by poor treatment-seeking behavior and resulted in low quality of life. Conclusions: From year to year, the PwL's knowledge about leprosy has been getting better; nevertheless, their attitude towards the disease is still poor. The emotional response, social participation, and quality of life of PwL are persistently poor due to the persistent stigma.
Introduction: Periungual, palmar, and plantar warts are difficult to treat with poor treatment response. Intralesional (IL) bleomycin has shown promising results for their treatment in a few reports. However, we need further evidence before opting it for treating difficult sites and resistant warts. Hence, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy and safety of IL bleomycin for the treatment of resistant palmoplantar and periungual warts. Methods: In this retrospective study, we included all patients who were given IL bleomycin for warts over a year. Maximum three sittings of bleomycin (1 mg/ml) were given monthly, and they were followed up for 3 months after the procedure. The response was categorized as complete, near-complete, significant, moderate, mild, and no clearance for 100%, 75-99%, 50-74%, 25-49%, 1-25%, and 0% clearance, respectively. Results: Out of 29 patients, follow-up details were available only in 19 patients (53 warts). The mean duration was 2.5 ± 1.47 years. The number of past interventions ranged from 2-4. Wart clearance after the first intervention was complete in 36.84%, near-complete in 26.31%, significant in 26.31%, and moderate in 10.53%. Wart clearance after the last intervention was complete in 89.47% and near-complete in 10.52% of patients. However, during 3 months of follow-up after the last injection, 15.78% had a recurrence. None of them had severe local and systemic side effects. Conclusions: IL bleomycin could be a better treatment option for the treatment of resistant and difficult warts. However, we observed a higher recurrence rate even in a shorter follow-up. Hence, we need further studies with larger samples.
Introduction: The child's skin diseases are common and very diverse. Many studies concerning pediatric dermatoses have been carried out in Africa and the rest of the world. Few epidemioclinical data reflect these skin diseases in children, especially in the east coast of Madagascar. We aim to describe the pattern skin diseases among children seen at the University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, Madagascar. Patients and Methods. A retrospective study over a 3-year period from January 2017 to December 2019 was conducted in children seen in the Dermatology Department of University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, with skin diseases. Results: During the study period, 347 children out of the 1584 new patients were retained with a sex ratio of 0.86. The mean age was 6.4 years old. The main diseases identified were skin infectious diseases (43, 23%), allergic dermatoses (24.21%), and autonomous dermatosis (15.56%). Conclusion: Our study revealed the importance of infectious and allergic dermatoses in Toamasina. It is necessary to carry out simple preventive actions such as hygiene.
Flow diagram.
Photoaging can significantly contribute to lower quality of life. Medium-deep peeling using trichloroacetic acid allows controlled keratocoagulation through the dermis and into the dermal papillary layer that is effective for skin rejuvenation. The purpose of this article is to give updates regarding the efficacy, possible adverse events, and patient satisfaction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling for skin rejuvenation by assessing various photoaging parameters. A systematic review of prospective trial articles collected from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus databases was conducted on November 2, 2020. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on the photoaging parameters used by each study. Adverse events and patient satisfaction as the secondary outcome were assessed based on patients-perceived improvements. Five studies included three randomized comparison studies and two prospective cohort studies. These studies show that TCA peeling significantly improve the cosmesis of photoaged facial skin. Low concentration is effective for superficial sun damage. Medium-depth peels using a higher concentration of TCA or as combination therapy are effective as skin resurfacing agents to reduce wrinkles. Some adverse effects may occur but usually resolve within weeks. Overall patients were satisfied with the treatment result. An equivalent basic skin preparation such as topical retinoic acid skin priming prior to intervention is necessary for more objective comparison. Further research studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up period are required. This evidence suggests that TCA peeling is effective in photoaging treatment, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy with other modalities.
Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents.
Knowledge questionnaire of skin cancer.
Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR (ORa) for KAP.
Background: Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers, and melanoma is a highly preventable cancer. In Ecuador, few studies have evaluated the awareness levels of the population about the disease. For this reason, the objective of this study was to measure the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding skin cancer and its determining factors. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis using an online self-assessment questionnaire containing 40 questions was delivered. A total of 537 participants were included in this study. Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were assigned to each participant based on the number of correct or appropriate responses. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results: In total, 75% of participants referenced knowledge of the harmful effects related to noncontrolled solar exposure. Concerning sunscreen, 76.7% knew the reason for using it. The female group was 1.68 times more likely to get a higher score than the male group, and the groups between 61-70 and 71-80 years were 0.30 and 0.17 times less likely to get a higher score compared with the less than 20-years-old group, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate the requirement to increase the population's knowledge about skin cancer and possible protection measures. For this reason, the prevention and health promotion programs at a national level from primary healthcare centers are recommended. Due to the limitation of the representativeness of the sample, the use of more studies among Ecuadorian residents of the low socioeconomic level and replication in different provinces of Ecuador is justified.
Contributing factors of molluscum contagiosum (N = 49).
Overall clearance rate of molluscum contagiosum at the end of the second visit (N = 47).
Background: Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a benign infection caused by a member of the Poxviridae family, molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The contributing factors for MCV infection are different in different populations and study areas. Few studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of cryotherapy in the treatment of MC. The study's objectives were to determine contributing factors and outcome after cryotherapy of MC among patients attending a tertiary hospital in Northern Tanzania. Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was conducted at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) from September 2018 to August 2019, involving all patients clinically diagnosed with MC. We used a consecutive sampling method to recruit study participants. We treated all participants with cryotherapy and assessed them after two weeks. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21. Results: There were 49 patients with MC who agreed to participate in this study with a median age of 8 (IQR 3-22). We found 18.4% of patients with active atopic dermatitis (AD) had MC while those with a history of atopic diseases (Ad) were 32%, and 22.4% had a history of using immunosuppressive drugs. The clearance rate of cryotherapy on MC lesions was found to be 94%. Hypopigmentation was the commonest adverse effect. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that AD and immunosuppression may be contributing to MC development. Based on the clearance rate results, cryotherapy has shown to be effective and may be used in the treatment of MC.
The articles included in the study.
Methods: A literature search was conducted (1990-2021) in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SID, IranDoc, and Magiran databases. From the 102 reviewed articles, 17 articles were selected to be included in the current article. Results: Various forms of olive have long been used to accelerate the healing of various wounds and skin damage such as diabetic foot ulcers, atopic dermatitis, diaper dermatitis, episiotomy wound, and nipple ulcer but there are still no credible documents or articles that provide reliable evidence of topical use. Conclusion: According to the information obtained from the articles reviewed, olive oil appears to be an effective, safe, and available treatment. This study suggests that olive oil is an alternative remedy to minimize the frequent use of chemical-based treatments. More research may be beneficial to reach certainty in terms of curative properties of olive oil in similar or different injuries in different populations.
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic, intense itching, and eczematous lesions affecting about 25% of children and 2% to 3% of adults worldwide. Abrocitinib is a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase-1 (JAK1) enzyme inhibiting the inflammatory process. Therefore, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of abrocitinib for moderate-to-severe AD. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and EczemATrials till Feb 1, 2021, for reliable trials. The analysis was conducted using an inverse-variance method. The results were pooled as mean difference/event rate and 95% confidence interval. Results: Abrocitinib 100 mg and 200 mg were associated with higher IGA response, EASI-50% responders, EASI-75% responders, EASI-90% responders, number of participants with at least 4-point improvements in NRS, and quality of life measured by DLQI and CDLQI than placebo. Also, 100 mg and 200 mg were associated with lower SCORAD index, %BSA, PSAAD index, and POEM index than placebo. Abrocitinib 100 mg and 200 mg were not associated with adverse events such as upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, dermatitis, atopic, any serious adverse events, and death. Conclusion: Abrocitinib in dose 100 mg or 200 mg is an effective, well-tolerated, and promising drug in treating patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. However, the analysis favored the efficacy of abrocitinib 200 mg over 100 mg, but side effects such as nausea and headache are likely to occur more with 200 mg.
Box plot of IL-17 serum levels. The middle line represents the median. The ends of the boxes represent lower and upper quartiles and the ends of the whiskers represent the minimum and maximum. BCC, basal cell carcinoma; NMSC, nonmelanoma skin cancer; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.
Area under the ROC curve analysis to determine the value of IL-17A in NMSC patients.
Clinicopathologic characteristics of NMSC patients and their respective IL-17A serum levels in each subgroup.
Background: Role of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in carcinogenesis and cancer growth is controversial. Although some researches support its antitumor activity, some others suggest that it promotes the growth and development of different types of cancer including skin cancer by activation of STAT3. Although the function of the cytokines such as IL-17A has been extensively studied in various types of cancer, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has not received much attention. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the serum levels of IL-17A in NMSC patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 60 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as 57 age-sex matched healthy individuals as control group. Measurement of IL-17A serum levels in both case and control groups was performed by a commercially reliable sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, we observed that IL-17A serum levels in NMSC patients were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001). Also, both BCC and SCC patients had higher levels of IL-17A in their sera in comparison to the controls (P=0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between SCC and BCC patients regarding serum levels of IL-17A. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that IL-17A may play a role in inducing the growth and progression of NMSC and it can be used as a therapeutic target in these patients in future.
Bar diagram showing the seasonal variation of skin diseases among different sex.
Distribution of common skin diseases according to the seasons.
Seasonal variation of different skin infections in the pediatric patients.
The skin diseases of pediatric population are varied which change according to age and season. There is a rarity of studies on pediatric skin conditions from Nepal. This observational study from the only tertiary care referral pediatric center of the country highlighted the burden of pediatric skin diseases in Nepalese population. All new cases of pediatric patients less than 14 years of age consulting the pediatric dermatological OPD of Kanti Children’s Hospital from January 2017 to December 2017 were included in this study. Demographic details of all the patients such as age and sex were recorded. The diagnosis was made clinically in most instances and appropriate laboratory and histopathological examination were performed wherever necessary. A total of 7683 pediatric patients were included in the study. Among these, there were 4574 (59.53%) males and 3109 (40.47%) females. The most common skin condition was infections among 2463 (32.12%) followed by eczematous conditions in 1711(22.27%) and hypersensitivity reactions in 1510 (19.65%). Infections were more common during the summer months. Overall, both infectious and noninfectious skin diseases were significantly more common during the warmer (summer and spring) months as compared to colder (autumn and winter) months (p
Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of clinical diagnosis based on malignancy subtype.
Sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of malignant lesions and 95% confidence intervals based on anatomical site.
Positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis of malignant lesions and 95% confidence intervals based on anatomical site.
Background: The increasing incidence of skin cancers in fair-skinned population and its relatively good response to treatment make its accurate diagnosis of great importance. We evaluated the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of malignant skin lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis with histological diagnosis as the gold standard. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, we assessed all the pathology reports from specimens sent to a university hospital laboratory in 3 consecutive years from March 2008 to March 2010. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for clinical diagnosis of malignant skin lesions stratified by their histological subtype. Results: A total 4,123 specimen were evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity for clinical diagnosis of malignancy were 90.48% and 82.85%, respectively, whereas the negative predictive value was shown to be 99.06%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.23 and 0.11, respectively. Conclusion: Pathological assessment of skin lesions remains the cornerstone of skin cancer diagnosis. The high NPV and the relatively low PPV indicate that clinical diagnosis is more efficient in ruling out malignancies rather than diagnosing them.
Serum levels of IL-17A in active and stable disease and healthy controls.
The correlations of serum IL-17A levels with age (a) and age of onset (b) in vitiligo patients.
The correlations of serum IL-17A levels with age (a) and age of onset (b) in vitiligo patients.
Background: Vitiligo is a chronic condition characterized by skin depigmentation. Although not life-threatening, it significantly impacts quality of life. The pathophysiology of vitiligo remains poorly understood, and treatment options are limited. Mounting evidence supports the importance of autoreactive T cells and, particularly interleukin-17A- (IL-17A-) secreting Th17 cells, in vitiligo. IL-17A targeting has been proven successful in various inflammatory dermatological conditions, including psoriasis and lupus erythematosus. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between serum levels of IL-17A and the clinicopathological characteristics of Vietnamese vitiligo patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 52 nonsegmental vitiligo patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Serum levels of IL-17A were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We evaluated the correlation between IL-17A levels and clinical characteristics including leukotrichia, disease duration, vitiligo activity, and body surface area involvement. Results: Patients with progressive vitiligo had significantly higher IL-17A levels than patients with stable vitiligo (P = 0.014) or healthy individuals (P = 0.002). In addition, serum IL-17A levels were higher in vitiligo patients with leukotrichia than in patients without it (P = 0.04). Furthermore, serum IL-17A levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.39, P = 0.004) and age of onset (r = -0.33, P = 0.016) in vitiligo patients. Conclusions: Higher serum levels of IL-17A in patients with progressive vitiligo and leukotrichia suggest a potential role of IL-17A in melanocyte destruction in the epidermis and the follicular matrix.
Before correction: facial asymmetry, nasolacrimal, and nasolabial sulci are deeper on the right (a); skin is easy folded (b).
Before correction: facial asymmetry, nasolacrimal, and nasolabial sulci are deeper on the right (a); skin is easy folded (b).
After one procedure (a), after two procedures with calcium hydroxylapatite injection (1.5 mL) (b, c).
After one procedure (a), after two procedures with calcium hydroxylapatite injection (1.5 mL) (b, c).
After one procedure (a), after two procedures with calcium hydroxylapatite injection (1.5 mL) (b, c).
Undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia is one of the most common diseases of nowadays, which does not fit into the group of hereditary syndromes. This condition is diagnosed in 20–50% of the population at any age. The study aimed to correct the facial soft tissues of patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia through the cosmetic procedure of calcium hydroxylapatite injection. In 2018, a 36-year-old patient addressed the beauty salon with signs of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, such as severe asymmetry of the face, infraorbital and nasolabial sulci, and thin and easily folding skin. Signs were observed from the age of 22, i.e., for 14 years. The therapy was performed using special features of the correction of facial soft tissue changes in patients with connective tissue dysplasia (CTD) using calcium hydroxylapatite-based products (Radiesse®, Merz North America, Inc., USA). Particular attention is given to the need for early correction to prevent premature skin aging related to this condition. After 14 days, a significant improvement of the patient’s skin condition was noted after the passing of two procedures. Her condition was estimated as consistent with T1-2P0G0A1Zh1 P1M1K1 and corresponded to grade I age-related changes in the superficial soft tissues. The performed treatment showed high efficacy in case of mild connective tissue dysplasia diagnosis. The results showed that when collecting information from anamnesis, the diagnostic criteria for dysplasia should be considered. If the criteria are met, the cosmetological correction with collagen stimulators becomes possible.
Demographics (grade and age).
Participant group scores before and after STI presentation.
Scores of each individual question before and after STI presentation.
Background: According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), half of the 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur annually in youth aged 15 to 24. It is critical for dermatologists to be able to provide young patients with accessible education about how to identify, prevent, and treat these conditions. Our pilot study sought to assess the impact of a live presentation about STIs in high school students and to evaluate students' baseline and acquired knowledge about common STIs using a before and after survey. Methods: This survey study was conducted as part of the health education curriculum at a suburban high school. An interactive scenario-based presentation about STIs was given to participants. Identical, deidentified preintervention and postintervention surveys were completed by subjects to assess their baseline and acquired knowledge of STIs. Each question was worth 1 point, for a total of 8 points. Results: 74 high school students were surveyed. Overall, there was a mean improvement of 1.85 points in the posttest score in comparison to pretest score with a standard deviation of 1.58 (p < 0.0001). Among all participants, the mean pretest score was 1.07 (SD = 0.75) and the mean posttest score was 2.92 (SD = 1.59). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that many young adults are unaware of the common types of STIs, symptoms, and potential complications. While our scenario-based presentation was effective at providing understandable content to help improve students' knowledge regarding STIs, additional educational resources in varied formats could likely further these gains.
:e participants' demographic characteristics (N � 150).
A precis of the regression analysis results for predicting resilience based on spiritual well-being (N � 150).
Psoriasis skin disease affects the patients’ health and quality of life to a great extent. Given the chronic nature of the disease, identifying the factors affecting adaptation to the disease can provide guidelines required for helping these patients deal with their problems. This study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the relationship between spiritual well-being and resilience in patients suffering from psoriasis. The present study is a descriptive-analytical work conducted in the largest city in the south of Iran in 2019. 150 patients diagnosed with psoriasis completed Ellison and Paloutzian’s Spiritual Well-Being Scale and Connor and Davidson’s Resiliency Scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS v. 20, descriptive (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson, regression, and t-test). The significance level was set at 0.05. The obtained mean scores were 54.84 ± 13.25 for resilience and 73.22 ± 11.13 for spiritual health. Spiritual health predicted 43% of the variance of resilience, and all resilience-related factors had a significant positive relationship with spiritual well-being-related factors (P>0.05). An analysis of the relationship between demographic variables on the one hand and resilience and spiritual well-being on the other indicated that an increase in the patients’ academic status, duration of the disease, and age correlated with an increase in their resilience and spiritual well-being. Also, male patients and married patients were found to possess higher levels of resilience and spiritual well-being. According to the findings of the present study, spiritual well-being correlates with resilience in patients with psoriasis. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is recommended that more attention be paid to promoting spiritual health in the care plans of these patients.
Before and after photographs of a female patient with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to chemical peeling with excellent response after one session of 1927 nm wavelength laser treatment combined with topical hydroquinone 4% cream for 6 weeks after the laser treatment.
Before and after photographs of a female patient with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to chemical peeling with excellent response after one session of 1927 nm wavelength laser treatment combined with topical hydroquinone 4% cream for 6 weeks after the laser treatment.
Background: Treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in patients with dark skin is challenging as the treatment itself might provoke paradoxical PIH. Only few studies examined the safety and efficacy of nonablative laser treatment in these patients. The objective was to examine efficacy and safety of nonablative 1927 nm wavelength laser followed by bleaching creams in the treatment of PIH. Methods: It was a prospective interventional pilot study that was conducted during 2019. All patients were of Fitzpatrick skin type IV who had unsatisfactory response to topical bleaching creams used for at least three months. Patients received one to four sessions of laser treatment (6 weeks apart) followed by topical hydroquinone 4% cream twice daily for 6 weeks. Improvement was assessed by two blinded independent dermatologist evaluators. Results: A total of nine patients were enrolled and the outcome could not be assessed in one patient who was lost for follow-up. The affected sites were the abdomen, face, and other body parts. Three of the eight evaluated patients had excellent response (37.5%), four had satisfactory response (50.0%), and one had nonsatisfactory response (12.5%). The downtime was manifested as edema and erythema that disappeared after 5 to 7 days. Improvement was more evident in first session and it declined in subsequent sessions. None of the patients had paradoxical pigmentation after treatment. Conclusions: Low energy low density nonablative fractional 1927 nm wavelength laser treatment followed by topical hydroquinone 4% cream for 6 weeks is a safe and effective modality for improving PIH in patients with darker skin types.
Serum 25(OH)D level based on the CSSC score scale. Data are shown as mean, minimum, maximum, and SD.
Several autoimmune papulosquamous skin conditions such as psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematous, and lichen planus have been associated with vitamin D deficiency or correlated with serum vitamin D level. This study was aimed at comparing the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in patients with facial or scalp seborrheic dermatitis with healthy subjects. This case-control study included 289 patients (118 with psoriasis and 171 sex- and age-matched control subjects) from the outpatient clinic of two hospital dermatology departments in the west of Mazandaran province, Iran. All patients and control subjects were studied during one season to avoid seasonal variations in vitamin D levels. Serum mean ± standard deviation of 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in seborrheic dermatitis patients than in control subjects (20.71 ± 8.16 vs. 23.91 ± 7.78, P = 0.007). Serum 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with the risk of developing seborrheic dermatitis (odds ratio (OR): 0.898, 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.840–0.960, P = 0.002). Also, vitamin D under 30 ng/ml was associated with OR: 4.22 (95% Cl: 1.077–16.534, P = 0.039) for seborrheic dermatitis. The severity of scalp disease was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D level (P = 0.003). Cases with severe scalp scores had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D level compared to moderate OR score (P = 0.036). A similar trend was not seen in the facial disease. The 25(OH)D values are significantly lower in seborrheic dermatitis patients than in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the scalp disease severity was associated with lower serum 25(OH)D level. Our results may suggest that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis.
Relation between depression and alopecia areata severity grading.
Relation between anxiety and SALT score.
Relation between anxiety and alopecia areata severity grading.
Introduction: Alopecia areata is one of the commonest causes of nonscarring alopecia. Since hair is a vital part with very high cosmetic concern, hair loss might have a significant negative impact on patient's life. Hence, we aimed this to investigate depression and anxiety in patients with alopecia areata. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 75 consecutive eligible patients of alopecia areata were interviewed over one-year period in the dermatology outpatient department. We recorded the relevant history and examination details in the present proforma. Nepali versions of Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used for the assessment of depression and anxiety, respectively. Data analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11.5. Results: Among 75 patients, the prevalence of depression and anxiety were 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, with median depression score = 5 (IQR = 0.0-10.0) and median anxiety score = 5 (IQR = 0.0-11.0). Out of all depressed patients, 82.0% had minimal and 18.0% had moderate depression. However, none of them had severe depression. Likewise, out of all patients with anxiety, 89.0% had mild and 11.0% had moderate anxiety, but none of them had severe anxiety. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common psychological problems in patients with alopecia areata. Because of their direct impact on treatment outcome, we, treating dermatologist, must be aware of them, and we should counsel our patients for consultation with the psychiatrist on time for their maximum benefit.
Skin conditions on hands and the face during the pandemic (n = 2356).
PPE used by healthcare workers during the pandemic (n = 163).
Background. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, prevention is the key to limiting the spread of this disease. The frequent handwashing and use of sanitizers resulted in notable skin changes among some individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of the new onset of dermatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic in a university population from Saudi Arabia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered online questionnaire by sending an invitation link to students and employees of Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University in June 2020. A chi-squared test was used to note differences regarding hand and face dermatitis. Results. Of the total 2356 participants, 34.8% reported skin changes or symptoms over hands, and 15.3% reported skin changes on their face during this pandemic. 88.7% of the participants reported a change in handwashing habits during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 62.2% of participants were not using any hand sanitizers before COVID-19 but began using them during the pandemic. There were significantly higher percentage of skin conditions in females (on hands (ScH): 42.6% and face (ScF):19.2%), individuals working in environments requiring frequent handwashing (ScH: 40.3% vs. ScF: 17.2%), those working in facilities where they have to interact with people during the pandemic (ScH: 41.1% vs. ScF: 18.7%), those encountering COVID-19 patients (ScH: 48.6% vs. ScF: 24.8%), those exposed to chemicals (ScH: 48.6% vs. ScF: 24.8%), and healthcare workers (ScH: 51.3% vs. ScF: 24.3%). Conclusion. It was found that during the pandemic, skin changes were common among the general population as well as among healthcare workers. The frequency of handwashing and the use of alcohol-based sanitizers were contributing factors for dermatitis. Although hygiene is an extremely important preventive measure in this pandemic, maintaining skin integrity is also vital. Appropriate knowledge and good practice can prevent dermatitis in this pandemic, with regular hydration of the skin being a key factor. 1. Introduction An ongoing pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported globally, with millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths to date [1]. These numbers are increasing daily around the world. The spread of this deadly infection is from person to person through close contact—either directly through the inhalation of small droplets produced as a result of sneezing, coughing, or talking by infected persons or indirectly through contact with contaminated surfaces [2]. Currently, there is no effective antiviral treatment or vaccine available against this virus. The only way to prevent and reduce the rate of this infection is by using surface disinfectants, regularly washing hands, using hand sanitizers, covering the mouth and face with face masks, and using personal protective equipment (PPE) [3]. Evidence has indicated that countries that strictly followed guidelines of complete lockdown, physical distancing, and prevention strategies reported a reduced burden and fewer cases of COVID-19. Hand hygiene comes first in prevention strategies and for the reduction of hospital-acquired infection [4]. Hand hygiene with soaps and water or by using an alcohol-based sanitizer is the widely used method that is cheap, effective, and simple against COVID-19 [5]. The WHO emphasizes hand hygiene at the right times in a sufficient way in order to prevent the spread by 50% [3, 6]. Alcohol is commonly used in sanitizers as it possesses disinfectant and biocidal properties. These properties vary depending on the strength, type, and antiviral activity of the alcohol being used in sanitizers [7]. In 2017, the WHO developed two hand rub formulations for the prevention of enveloped viruses [8]. Antiviral and antibacterial activity of sanitizers increases with higher concentrations of alcohol mixed with other organic/inorganic acids [9, 10]. The efficacy of sanitizers in preventing the spread of many pathogens has been well documented [11]. However, precautions must be taken when frequently using sanitizers, as the excessive use of these agents may cause side effects. For instance, oils secreted by the sebaceous glands of the skin have inherent antiviral properties [12]. The continual use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers washes away these oils, leaving the skin dehydrated, which in turn results in fissures and erosion, allowing easy access to pathogens and increasing the risk of microbial infection [3]. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers markedly increased following the recommendations suggested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO to fight against COVID-19 [13]. Consequently, this not only led to panic buying and overuse of sanitizers but also increased the supply of substandard products in the markets [14]. These products have limited antiviral activity, leading to the emergence and re-emergence of some microorganisms and dermatological problems [15]. The excessive use of soaps (bars or liquid) and detergents is also harmful. Frequent and prolonged handwashing causes a disruption of the lipid barrier (epidermal), resulting in increased skin sensitivity to any physical and chemical agents [16]. Although soaps and detergents are weak irritants, overzealous use of them causes cumulative irritant contact dermatitis and redness of the skin, mainly over the back of the hand and the webs of the fingers [16]. Other dermatological problems include contact cutaneous xerosis, flaking, allergic or irritant contact, dermatitis, and eczema [17, 18]. Some countries reported an increased incidence of skin problems during this pandemic [19–22]. In light of the aforementioned concerns and the increased incidence of hand eczema reported around the world, this study aims to identify the prevalence and associated factors of dermatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Study Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020. 2.2. Study Setting and Study Population A total of 2356 individuals participated in the study. An invitation link was sent to students and employees of Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Participants who accepted the invitation filled the online questionnaire. Individuals from both the general population and healthcare workers were included in the study. All the data were collected anonymously through SurveyHero online. The study design obtained the required ethical approvals of the ethics committee of the Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University (PSAU/COM/RC/IRB/p/80). The consent to participate was a part of the questionnaire. 2.3. Data Collection Tools The data were collected using the self-administered questionnaire.The questionnaire was administered in both Arabic and English versions and was translated back and forth by two bilingual translators. The questionnaire was developed after an in-depth literature review and was reviewed by two independent dermatologists. A pilot study of 30 participants was conducted, and the questionnaire was adjusted accordingly. 2.4. Statistical Analysis A descriptive analysis was conducted. Mean/median and standard deviation (SD)/interquartile range (range) were reported for continuous variables, while frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The Shapiro–Wilk (S-W) tests were conducted for the variable age and showed a value of 0.01, indicating that age variable was not normally distributed in our sample population. A chi-squared test was conducted to observe differences with respect to hand and face dermatitis. A value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Data are reported in tabular and graphical form. SPSS version 25 was used to conduct the analysis. 3. Results Data from 2356 individuals were collected. Of the total number of participants, 55.9% were females, 76.4% were single, and the majority (93.0%) were Saudi nationals. The median age of participants was 21.00 (IQR: 18–26). 27.8% were employed or self-employed, and 56.1% were students. 64.5% of respondents had a monthly family income that was less than 10000 Saudi Riyals (Table 1). Variables Total n = 2354 (%) Skin conditions on hand (n = 821) Skin conditions on face (n = 360) Yes (%) value Yes (%) value Gender Male 1038 (44.1) 260 (25.0) <0.001 107 (10.3) <0.001 Female 1318 (55.9) 561 (42.6) — 235 (19.2) Marital Status Single 1842 (78.2) 604 (32.8) <0.001 272 (14.8) 0.19 Married 514 (21.8) 217 (42.2) — 88 (17.1) Employment Employed 656 (27.8) 281 (42.8) <0.001 123 (18.8) 0.004 Housewife/Student 1700 (72.2) 540 (31.8) — 237 (13.9) Healthcare worker Yes 163 (6.9) 95 (58.3) <0.001 54 (33.1) <0.001 No 2193 (93.1) 726 (33.1) — 306 (14.0) Handwashing Yes 1003 (42.6) 404 (40.3) <0.001 173 (17.2) 0.022 No 1353 (57.4) 417 (30.8) — 187 (13.8) Encounter with people having COVID-19 Yes 910 (38.6) 374 (41.1) <0.001 170 (18.7) <0.001 No 1446 (61.4) 447 (30.9) — 190 (13.1) Encounter with COVID-19 patients Yes 105 (4.5) 51 (48.6) 0.003 26 (24.8) 0.006 No 2251 (95.5) 770 (34.2) — 334 (14.8) Use of chemicals Yes 345 (14.6) 177 (51.3) <0.001 84 (24.3) <0.001 No 2011 (85.4) 644 (32.0) — 276 (13.7)
PRISMA flowchart describing the steps of study selection.
Background: Atopic dermatitis or eczema is one of the most common dermatologic problems, especially in children. Several studies have hypothesized that alteration of gut-colonizing microbes might have induced and conditioned the development of the disease. Thus, modulation of microbial diversity and abundance might help alleviate symptoms and conditions for patients. Given the ability of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms in modulating the immune system, probiotics administration has been studied in previous research in the management of eczema. However, until today, there are conflicting results between studies making inconclusive recommendations towards probiotics supplementation in the management of atopic dermatitis. This case-based review was done to assess and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of probiotics supplementation in the management of eczema in children. Method: An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed-NCBI, Cochrane, EBSCO, ProQuest, and SCOPUS in March 2020. Individual studies and reviews were then gathered for screening using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The included studies were then critically appraised for their validity and importance. Result: A total of 5 studies, all of which were RCTs, were included in this review. Out of all the studies included, 4 showed no clinically significant improvements in using probiotics in the management of eczema in children as they did not pass the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of eczema severity as determined by SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis). Conclusion: Supplementation of probiotics in the management of eczema in children does not show a clinically relevant difference vs. standard treatment in reducing eczema severity.
Bivariate correlation between the DLQI score and (a) the age of the patient showing a significant negative correlation between the two and (b) the duration of the disease showing no correlation between the two.
Bivariate correlation between the DLQI score and (a) the age of the patient showing a significant negative correlation between the two and (b) the duration of the disease showing no correlation between the two.
Chronic urticaria (CU) is a skin condition characterized by sudden and recurrent episodes of wheals, angioedema, or both and commonly associated with itching for a duration of more than six weeks. The available data indicate that urticaria markedly affects both objective functioning and subjective well-being of patients. A review of patients' records with chronic urticaria attending Civil Service Hospital from January 2018 to December 2019 was done. A detailed demographic data of all patients with chronic urticaria was also retrieved. Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire (DLQI) Nepalese version was used for the assessment of the impact of disease on life quality. Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare means, and principle component analysis for factor analysis was used. A total of 149 patients were included, with a male-to-female ratio of 1 : 1.9. The mean age of the study population was 32.86 ± 12.837 years. The mean DLQI score was 8.30 ± 6.73 with men having a significantly greater score than women (p < 0.02). DLQI scores negatively correlated with age (p < 0.01). There was a high internal consistency among items (Cronbach's alpha 0.89), and all items had satisfactory correlation with each other as well. Principle component extraction revealed that there were two underlying factors in the DLQI questionnaire on measuring quality of life in chronic urticaria. Males had a greater impairment in quality of life than females due to chronic urticaria. Most severe impairment was seen in symptoms/feelings subdomain. It also revealed that there were two different underlying factors in DLQI questionnaire.
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic dermal disease transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female sand fly. Morocco hopes to eliminate all forms of leishmaniasis by 2030. These dermatoses pose a real public health problem in the country. Although the information is available on the disease, individual knowledge of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand fly is not yet developed. Exploring people's beliefs and popular behaviours about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its vector allows health officials to know the sociocultural aspects of the disease and to improve prevention and control actions. Objectives: To identify the knowledge of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its vector in the population in central Morocco. Methods: Based on the epidemiological data of leishmaniases in the province of El Hajeb, we conducted a field survey and personal interviews in April and May 2019, among 281 persons belonging to the localities where leishmaniases were registered. Results: Our results show that the participants use the concept of "Chniwla" (61.6%) for sand fly and the concept of "Hboub Chniwla" (50.8%) for cutaneous leishmaniasis; 24.6% of the respondents do not know how the disease is transmitted to humans and 43.7% use traditional treatments and home remedies to cure themselves. 44% of participants believe that sand fly does not transmit the disease to humans and only 6.4% were aware of their responsibility in vector control. Conclusions: The study concluded that there is a need to simplify the scientific terminology in the health education of citizens regarding these dermatoses and their vector by integrating the popular concepts obtained in this study to raise public awareness and facilitate their involvement as active actors in the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Patch test positive reactions within season.
Patch tests results of different allergens according to the season.
Patch tests results of different allergens according to the season.
Patch tests results of different allergens according to the season.
Aim: To study the influence of season on patch tests results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study which concerned all the patients of the Tunisian center, who consulted in the Dermato-Allergology Unit of Occupational Medicine Department of Farhat Hached University Hospital-Sousse (Tunisia) over a period of 07 years. All the patients were tested by the European Standard Battery allergens (BSE). Results: The data of 1000 patch tests were analyzed during the study period. More than half of the patch tests (58.6%) was positive. In winter, 63% of patch tests showed a positive reaction versus 52% of patch tests in summer without a statistically significant association. However, results of lanolin alcohols, epoxy resin, and Sesquiterpene lactone mix varied significantly with season. Atopy was significantly associated with 18.8% of positive reactions in winter and only with 5.2% of positive reactions in summer (p = 0.015). Conclusion: Seasonal variations in patch tests results were more significant with some allergens of European Standard Battery and in atopic patients.
Patient demographic characteristics.
:e distributions of all skin diseases according to gender.
:e most prevalent skin diseases according to age groups.
Background: Geriatric health care has become a worldwide concern, but a few statistical studies were carried out about skin diseases in this age group in the nursing home of Iran. Aims: In this study, we set out to determine the frequency as well as the age and gender distribution of dermatological diseases in nursing home old age residents. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all patients over 60 years who were living in a charity nursing home complex of Rasht in 2017 participated in this study. Baseline information on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, and medication were gathered by medical staff during a face-to-face interview. Full-body skin examination was done by dermatologists. Biopsy, and pathological and laboratory methods were used to confirm the diagnosis of suspected lesions or disease. Results: In this study, 259 people underwent the study. 52.9% were male, and their mean age was 73.5 years (SD = 9.1 years). Hypertension (20.9%); diabetes mellitus (9.7%), and hypothyroidism (2.3%) were the most common underlying diseases. Most of them (85.7%) had age-related skin changes. The benign neoplasm was the most common skin disease among patients (68.3%), followed by infectious diseases (46.3%) and erythemo-squamous (31.6%). None of them had precancerous lesions or skin cancers. There were not any differences between skin disorders and gender or age groups in this study. Conclusion: Our study suggests that skin manifestations and diseases are common among nursing home old age residents in this area. Therefore, this should constitute one of the top priorities of aged care physicians and nurses.
Background: Large epidemiological studies on patterns of skin diseases in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to gather available epidemiologic data describing the pattern of skin diseases in different geographical areas in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of articles was conducted in PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science through October 2019. We included all published cross-sectional studies that provided data on relevant incidence or prevalence of skin disease in Saudi Arabia. The risk of bias within the included cross-sectional studies was assessed using the Hoy tool for the prevalence studies. All statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis software. Results: The present meta-analysis included 14 studies that reported the frequency of the skin disease patterns in different regions in Saudi Arabia with a total sample size of 30436 patients with an overall low risk of bias. The diseases of skin appendages and dermatitis were the most commonly reported skin diseases in Saudi Arabia (24.8% (95% CI, 24.3-25.3) and 24% (95% CI, 23.6%-24.6%), respectively). Skin infection represented about 18.5% (95% CI, 18.1%-19%), while the papulosquamous disorders represented 5.3% (95% CI, 5%-5.6%) of the skin diseases in Saudi Arabia. Skin cancers were pooled from only two studies. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were the most common malignant neoplasm in Saudi Arabia (51.4% and 22.5% of the malignant neoplasm, respectively), while malignant melanoma represents only 3.8% of the malignant skin cancer. Conclusion: Adnexal disorders and dermatitis are the most common skin disease in Saudi Arabia, followed by skin infection and pigmentary disorders. While skin cancer is more frequent than other countries, awareness campaigns should be initiated to increase knowledge about the harmful effect of long-term sun exposure.
Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are life-threatening conditions caused by drug reactions. There are multiple causative drugs and different risk factors associated with SJS/TEN. Objectives: To study the epidemiology of SJS/TEN and associated mortality rate in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Methodology. A retrospective chart review of all patients with the diagnosis of SJS/TEN who were admitted to King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH) in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, for the period between Jan 2014 to Jan 2019. The Careware information health system is used at KFSH, and patients were identified searching the diagnosis SJS/TEN. Results: Total of 10 patients with diagnosis of SJS/TEN were admitted to KFSH for the period from Jan 2014 to Jan 2019. Antibiotics were the culprit in 5 out of 10 patients. 9 out of 10 patients survived with good outcome. One patient with the diagnosis of TEN died, given extensive skin involvement complicated by sepsis. Conclusion: Despite the limitation of this study given small sample size, this is the first study of its kind that discusses the epidemiology of SJS/TEN in Saudi Arabia. We found the estimated incidence rate of SJS/TEN in Qassim region to be 7.6 cases per million person-years. Antibiotics and antiepileptics were the culprits in 8 out of 10 patients.
Top-cited authors
Vikram Mahajan
Valerio De Vita
  • University of Naples Federico II
Francesco Pastore
  • Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli
Maria Chiara Mauriello
  • University of Naples Federico II
Gabriella Fabbrocini
  • University of Naples Federico II