ABSTRACTA3 Thinking is fundamental to Toyota's benchmark management philosophy and to their lean production system. It is used to solve problems, gain agreement, mentor team members, and lead organizational improvements. A structured problem-solving approach, A3 Thinking builds improvement opportunities through experience. We used The Toyota Way to introduce these concepts and practices and we incorporated A3 Thinking into the case analysis dimension of our functionally integrated MBA class, Managing People and Processes. Results of A3 Thinking were communicated by the A3 report, using a single 11” by 17” sheet of paper. We surveyed students at the end of the semester, after they had created numerous A3 reports for case analysis. In addition to reinforcing A3 Thinking concepts, students and faculty found that A3 reporting added value to case analysis, class discussions, and presentations and pushed the focus of analysis into key issues and root causes often overlooked in a more intuitive approach. Emphasis on conciseness and graphics helped students improve communication and the format of the A3 reports helped instructors quickly review and evaluate the case analyses.
In a small section collaborative learning environment where student work teams promote mutual learning about investments, students limit the opportunity to learn from other students if they are absent from class. Absenteeism not only denies the student the opportunity to learn from others but also denies other members of the student's work team the opportunity to learn from the absent student. Other team members' absenteeism should be costly for individual performance if collaborative learning fosters learning and retention. The research finds that while absenteeism is detrimental to the student's own performance, absenteeism of other team members from team activities has a significant negative effect on both individual exam and homework scores. The conclusions validate the benefits of active learning and of encouraging attendance in collaborative learning environments in all disciplines.
One issue in undergraduate business education remaining underexamined is student absenteeism. In this article, the literature on undergraduate absenteeism is reviewed culminating in a proposed conceptual framework to guide future research, and an exploratory investigation of management students’ attitudes about absenteeism is conducted. Implications for research practice are discussed.
This article aims to investigate the academic performance (measured by quality points) of the business students in quantitative courses. It also explores the impact of a number of factors on the academic performance of business students in these courses. A random sample of 750 third- and fourth-level business students at the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE) was chosen. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, t test, and correlation. The results indicated that the academic performance of the business students in quantitative courses differs across the fields of study (Accounting, Finance, Management, Marketing, Management Information Systems, Economics, and Statistics), the nationality (Emirati or non-Emirati), the type of high school (private or public), the major track in high school (science or art), the gender (except for Business Stat 1 and Production and Operations Management courses), and the age (except for Quantitative Methods for Business and Operations Research courses). The study has a number of implications for both administrators and instructors. For administrators, it will make them aware of the impacts of the factors under investigation on business students’ performance in quantitative courses. Therefore, this will improve the administrators’ ability to design more effective plans to enhance students’ learning experience and in turn their performance in those courses and accordingly their overall performance. For instructors, this study will indicate which students might perform poorly in quantitative courses and in turn lead to taking the necessary actions to enhance their performance in these courses. Instructors should organize separate classes for management and marketing students on one hand, and students of other fields of study on the other. Different teaching strategies, course contents, assessment approaches could be used for different groups. Similarly, students could be classified according to grade point average and major track in the high school. Once again, different teaching strategies, course contents, assessment approaches could be used for different groups.
In today's era of global competition, organizations must manage their functions and activities in a manner such that they are responsive to customers' needs and can provide excellence in service to the customer while also being efficient and cost conscious. These issues are extremely common in corporate organizations, but such concerns are equally relevant in service industries, including institutions of higher education. This study is conducted at a private, undergraduate institution of higher education. We utilize focus group evaluation and conjoint analysis combined with economic analysis in the form of a newly designed preferred utility economic cost diagram to pick the ideal services that should be provided to enrolled students at the institution. The package of ideal services accounts for preferred utility expressed by students and a new methodology (preferred utility function) to balance these against financial considerations to optimize services and financial gains for a college adult education program. This combination of focus groups and mathematical techniques can be easily employed by educational institutes.
The traditional core Masters in Business Administration (MBA) curriculum consists of a broad range of courses that can be considered as a whole, or divided into qualitative and quantitative courses. Regression models were developed with “QualGPA” and “QuantGPA” as response variables, and gender, pre-MBA academic indicators, and personality factors (measured by the RightPath6® profile) as the explanatory variables. Results may provide pedagogical insight for faculty teaching increasingly diverse MBA classes. Additionally, there are recruitment implications for those hiring MBA graduates, as well as implications for MBA students in decisions regarding MBA concentrations and subsequent career choices. While gender alone was not a significant variable in any model, gender–personality interactions were significant. Across both course categories, performance tended to be higher for students who were more “Detached” than “Compassionate,” with the exception of females in quantitative courses. Additionally, “Extraversion” and “Reactiveness” significantly enhanced performance among males in qualitative courses, and “Conscientiousness” had a strong positive performance effect among females in quantitative courses.
Student academic performance is of major interest to all stakeholders of higher education institutions. This study questions whether or not statistical analysis of information that is readily available in most universities' official records system can be used to predict overall academic success. In particular, this study is an attempt to understand factors that affect academic success for business students by examining gender, age, ethnicity, and performance in two required core knowledge courses as predictors of academic success for a large sample of undergraduate students at a Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business–accredited business school. The results suggest that student performance is significantly related to some basic demographic variables, but the strongest predictors of overall academic success are the grades the students receive in core knowledge courses that are typically taken in the earlier semesters of business students' plans of study.
Web Enhanced Instruction (WEI) is not intended to replace the traditional classroom setting, but rather to supplement the traditional lecture with course content that can be accessed from campus or the Internet. WEI has the potential to extend the boundaries of traditional classrooms by providing new opportunities for communication and interaction between students and the instructor. While the potential benefits of augmenting the traditional class with WEI have been recognized and discussed, what has remained largely unknown are student reactions to WEI as an addition to the traditional lecture. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been widely used in the Information Systems research to gather user reactions to information systems. The TAM examines users' perceptions of Usage, Usefulness, and Ease of Use. This research applied the TAM to the academic setting to measure student reactions to Blackboard, the WEI tool used in this study. Using several multivariate methods, results suggest that students (n = 692) found that the Blackboard elements which are associated with Course Content (Course Documents, Lectures, Student Tools, Announcements, and Quizzes) are used more often and are seen as more useful than those items that provide Course Support and communication (Discussion Board, External Web Sites, Faculty Information, and E-Mail).
ABSTRACTE-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a “hybrid” e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners’ satisfaction with these tools. This study assesses hybrid e-learning acceptance by learners using three critical success factors: instructor characteristics, information technology infrastructure, and organizational and technical support. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine and validate the hypothesized relationships among the three factors and their effects on learners’ acceptance of hybrid e-learning. A total of 538 usable responses from university students were used to validate the proposed research model. The influence of the three factors on learners’ decision to accept hybrid e-learning was empirically examined. The results show that all three factors significantly and directly impacted the learners’ acceptance of hybrid e-learning courses. Information technology infrastructure and organizational support were proven to be key determinants of the instructor characteristics as a critical success factor of hybrid e-learning acceptance by learners. Implications of this work for higher education institutions, researchers, and instructors are described.
Web-based education is a popular format for the delivery of college courses. Research has shown that it may not be the best form of education for all students. Today, many students (and student advisors) face a choice in course delivery format (i.e., Web-based or more traditional classroom courses). This research study examines the relationship between student personality characteristics and their achievement scores as a means of identifying predictors of academic success in an undergraduate business program using Web-based education. The results of the study show that four basic personality characteristics are highly correlated to student achievement in Web-based courses. Use of these personality characteristics as variables in a regression model is shown to be a highly accurate predictive tool to aid students in the decision as to whether to take a particular Web-based course format or a more traditional classroom course.
In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based computer simulation, Virtual Leader, grounded in an experiential or situated learning paradigm. After training, students from both programs engaged in a complex in-basket exercise to examine the quality of their leadership and managerial abilities. In this exercise, participants from each training intervention worked with their trained cohort to accomplish a day of managerial work. Participants were observed and their individual and collective actions and decisions on behalf of the organization were evaluated. Using qualitative research we compared the organizational decisions associated with each group to determine which pedagogical technique resulted in the most effective application of student learning. While technical learning pedagogy was associated with greater information acquisition, the game-based computer simulation (an experiential, social-interaction oriented pedagogy) was associated with better decision quality and more shared cognition. Evidence suggests that students taught with the game-based computer simulation collectively demonstrated a greater ability to apply what they learned.
Excel spreadsheets have been used in many classrooms to teach modeling and analysis of real business problems. This can be done with relative ease but often the modeling approach may be inappropriate and the analysis results not easily implemented. In this article, we illustrate these difficulties with the modeling of the number of equipment required in future years, given demand (historical and projected) and the amount of equipment held. We show how the desired output can be, and needs to be related to the given input. For this purpose, we apply the TREND function to predict data into future years. The real learning of this article comes from deriving actionable implementation solutions from the modeling results. We discuss this in terms of converting future equipment numbers into an equipment acquisition plan.
The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, “the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit” (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an accounting student will progress through the auditing course with the responsibility of learning how and why internal controls are assessed. Research in expert systems applied to auditing has shown that there is strong support for the constructive dialogue used in expert systems as a means of encouraging their use in decision making (Eining, Jones, & Loebbecke, 1997). The purpose of this study is to provide the student or novice auditor with a method for developing a more comprehensive understanding of internal controls and the use of internal controls in audit planning. The results of the study reinforce previous findings that novices do better when an expert system applies analogies along with declarative explanations, and clarifies the length of time in which the use of active learning in a training system can provide an improvement to declarative knowledge, but procedural knowledge must be acquired over a longer time frame.
Faculty teaching in online environments are universally encouraged to incorporate a variety of student-to-student learning activities into their courses. Although there is a body of both theoretical and empirical work supporting this, adult professional students participating in an online MBA program at an urban business school reported being at best indifferent and often negative regarding these learning activities. A case study was performed to explore how pervasive this attitude was and the possible reasons for it. Through various sources of data and exploration, we discovered that common interactive modalities are not associated with either perceived learning or satisfaction. A content analysis of a data analysis course revealed that 64.5% of responses recalled student-to-student interactivities when responding to a “learned least from” query. We identified three possible reasons for these negative responses: time inefficiency, interaction dysfunction, and flexibility intrusion. We conclude that, although some working professional students probably do learn from student-to-student interactivity, the costs incurred may be too great. If working adult students present a different profile than those students typically represented in academic research and thus have different needs and expectations, we may need to rethink the design of online education delivered to them.
Do students learn to model OR/MS problems better by using computer-based interactive tutorials and, if so, does increased interactivity in the tutorials lead to better learning? In order to determine the effect of different levels of interactivity on student learning, we used screen capture technology to design interactive support materials for modeling and solving the transportation problem in a spreadsheet. A controlled experiment was carried out and the results indicate a general support for the effectiveness of interactive tutorials in enhancing students’ learning of modeling concepts. However, the study also found that excessive interactivity increased the cognitive load for the students and hindered their learning by making it difficult for them to consolidate concepts, integrate previous knowledge, and create meaningful mental models of the process.
Although group project concepts and skills have become a major component in most information systems (IS) academic programs, very little research has attempted to examine factors that may improve or undermine effectiveness of IS group projects. Accordingly, based on relevant literatures, this study develops and empirically tests a model of factors affecting IS group project effectiveness. The research model posits that group cohesion and group efficacy will have positive effects on group effectiveness (project success and expected impact), whereas perceived loafing is expected to have a negative effect on IS group effectiveness. Data collected from 104 students working in 29 groups to complete semester-long projects in two IS courses revealed that group efficacy had positive impact on group effectiveness and perceived loafing demonstrated a partial effect. Contrary to expectations, the impact of group cohesion was nonsignificant. These results could be useful in evaluating groups' potential for success and creating conditions conducive to enhancing effectiveness and success of IS student group projects.
The extensive computational and formatting capabilities of today's spreadsheets enable users to create sophisticated analytical models with professionally formatted outputs. But good-looking reports can mask a host of input errors, formula mistakes, and computational problems. This article examines the subject of spreadsheet error detection in detail and describes an experiment designed to identify those factors influencing the error-detection capabilities of a sample of spreadsheet users.
The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various approaches to student evaluation. Understanding these trade-offs may be particularly important as faculty members seek to balance competing obligations, such as research and service requirements, while ensuring instructional effectiveness. This article presents propositions for examining how various institutional, instructor, and student characteristics influence the selection and use of student performance evaluation techniques (i.e., exams, papers, and group assignments). In conclusion, we suggest that agency theory may serve as a foundation for understanding current evaluation practices and guiding instructors in their selection of appropriate evaluation mechanisms.
The article discusses the classroom lecture that improves the traditional instruction in decision analysis by relating decision making under risk to the principal-agent problem. The baseline decision scenario is examined both from the perspective of a firm desiring to maximize the expected profit and from the perspective of a risk-averse manager desiring to maximize the expected utility. The article also provides students' assessments regarding the effectiveness of the lecture.
With the development of Internet technologies, online distance education is becoming an important format for teaching, learning, and instruction. In the 21st century, bleeding edge technologies make it possible for more and more students, especially adults, to benefit from an online education. This new paradigm in education allows students to pursue a second or third degree without sacrificing their jobs. Despite the advances in technology, existing online course management systems are far behind in the technological applications needed to deliver the highest quality online education. The existing distance education systems do not give enough consideration to many important issues, like personalization, mobility of students and instructors, and coordination among online study groups, which seriously affect further development of online education. This article discusses the potential applications of intelligent agents and other modern technologies to solve these problems and make online education more accountable in the open and dynamic environment.
Authors who write introductory business statistics texts do not agree on when to use a t distribution and when to use a Z distribution in both the construction of confidence intervals and the use of hypothesis testing. In a survey of textbooks written in the last 15 years, we found the decision rules to be contradictory and, at times, the explanations unclear. This paper is an attempt to clarify the decision rules and to recommend that one consistent rule be chosen to minimize confusion to students, instructors, and practitioners. Using the t distribution whenever σ is unknown, regardless of sample size, seems to provide the best solution both theoretically and practically.
We revisit the relationship between attendance and performance in the undergraduate university setting and apply agency theory in the instructor–student context. Building on agency theory propositions in the educational setting advanced by Smith, Zsidisin, and Adams (2005), we propose that the student and instructor must align goals to promote the student's achievement of performance learning outcomes, and attendance functions as a behavior-based alignment mechanism to encourage the convergence of faculty and student interests. Further, we propose that attendance does not equally affect lower- and higher-performing students and that absences are also negatively related to students' cumulative grade point average. We test these hypotheses with data from undergraduates enrolled in management courses at a state university in the southeast. Our results show that attendance is positively related to exam performance, there are more pronounced negative effects of an absence for lower-performing students than for higher performers, and absences are negatively related to a student's cumulative grade point average. We discuss the implications of our findings for students, instructors, and universities as well as practice in teaching and learning.
In the standard scoring procedure for multiple-choice exams, students must choose exactly one response as correct. Often students may be unable to identify the correct response, but can determine that some of the options are incorrect. This partial knowledge is not captured in the standard scoring format. The Coombs elimination procedure is an alternate scoring procedure designed to capture partial knowledge. This paper presents the results of a semester-long experiment where both scoring procedures were compared on four exams in an undergraduate macroeconomics course. Statistical analysis suggests that the Coombs procedure is a viable alternative to the standard scoring procedure. Implications for classroom instruction and future research are also presented.
The purpose of this study is to explore how well a curriculum that combines operations management and information systems uniquely prepares students for the workforce. To address our research questions, a Web-based survey was developed. We sent our survey to 203 alumni that graduated from the Department of Operations Management and Information Systems at Northern Illinois University. We assess alumni perceptions of how well our department prepared them in general and technical skills as well as how important these skills were in their current position. We investigate factors useful in predicting preparedness for both general business and technical skills. Overall, students felt prepared in most of the important skills we studied. We also found a significant positive relationship between alumni-perceived importance of general and technical skills and perceived preparedness for those skills. More recent graduates felt the most prepared for both general business and technical skills. Our findings highlight the importance of general skills for future advancement and caution educators against overemphasizing currently popular technical tools at the expense of teaching the more general business skills. Results presented here provide new knowledge for curriculum designers at the intended institution and lessons for other schools. This research also provides a methodology or process that can be repeated at other institutions that combine information systems with operations management, or with other functions such as decision sciences or accounting. An implication of the results is that schools redesigning their programs may want to consider a curriculum that combines operations management and information systems.
In this paper, a method for analyzing data from student evaluations of teaching is presented. The first step of the process requires development of a regression model for teacher's summary rating as a function of student's expected grade. Then, two-sigma control charts for individual evaluation scores (section averages) and residuals from the regression model are used to identify both excellent and poor outcomes. The performance of an individual whose scores are out of control on both charts cannot be explained by expected grade and therefore is worthy of note.
Information technology (IT) artifacts such as animations are increasingly used in educational institutions. Researchers caution that, if we are to derive benefits from animations and other such IT artifacts, we must understand how to use it optimally. In this study, we look at the effects of animations in supporting learning processes. IT-enabled animations dynamically depict changes in events and are used in the classroom as external representations to elaborate on the knowledge content transferred in the classroom. Research in related disciplines has investigated the effects of using these animations on student learning outcomes and has reported conflicting results. We propose that the theory of cognitive fit in information systems could reconcile these conflicting findings and offer some insight into how these animations might be used most beneficially. We conduct laboratory-based experiments to test our ideas. Our findings indicate that these representations are superior to text-based representations and reduce students' cognitive load only in learning tasks where animations have a good cognitive fit. We discuss the implications of our findings for the use of animations and other external representations in the classroom and for future research on the role of Technology Mediated Learning.
This conceptual paper suggests a methodology for increasing student satisfaction in core courses by applying the principle of mass customization to increase student satisfaction. It proposes that customization can be increased by increasing course flexibility along three dimensions: content flexibility, schedule flexibility, and course length flexibility. The increased flexibility provides opportunities for both student-centered customization and the cross-functional integration of the core course with other disciplines. Core courses were targeted because of their high volume of students specializing in something other than the core course being taught and the associated general disinterest of these types of students. There are two main sections. The first section provides an overview to the proposed course structure while the second provides suggestions about computer-based technology that can be used to support the structure presented in the first section. Examples are presented that pertain to a core course in statistics, but the technology and course structure presented are easily adaptable to core courses in any discipline.
Although the field of operations management has come a long way since its beginnings in scientific management, the field still appears somewhat amorphous and unstructured to many. Introductory operations management textbooks usually include a number of largely disjointed topics, which leave many students (and their instructors) without a coherent framework for understanding the field. As a result, the importance and sequencing of topics varies widely between courses and instructors, even within the same university. This article applies the newly developed Collective Causal Mapping Methodology to create a causal map for the entire field of operations management. The causal map is built on expert opinions collected from over 250 academics and practitioners representing many areas of expertise, schools, organizations, and countries. This collective causal map is then used to create a new framework for understanding and teaching operations management. This framework can aid instructors in determining which topics should be taught in an operations management course, how these topics might be grouped and sequenced, and the important interrelationships among the topics that should be stressed to students.
We compare three control charts for monitoring data from student evaluations of teaching (SET) with the goal of improving student satisfaction with teaching performance. The two charts that we propose are a modified p chart and a z-score chart. We show that these charts overcome some of the shortcomings of the more traditional charts for analyzing SET data. A comparison of three charts (an individuals chart, the modified p chart, and the z-score chart) reveals that the modified p chart is the best approach for analyzing SET data because it utilizes distributions that are appropriate for categorical data, and its interpretation is more straightforward. We conclude that administrators and faculty alike can benefit by using the modified p chart to monitor and improve teaching performance as measured by student evaluations.
In introductory information technology (IT) courses, communicating technical concepts so that they can be comprehended by all students, technical and nontechnical, has been a concern. Another challenge in such courses is to teach the real-world applicability of technical concepts. In this conceptual article, we focus on a relatively unexplored issue in IT education—which instructional method is more effective in improving the learning outcomes of all students taking introductory IT courses. In doing so, we consider two instructional methods, lecture and multimedia case studies, and argue that either of these instructional methods, adopted singly, will be perceived by students as less effective in accomplishing learning outcomes than adopting a combination of the two instructional methods. Our arguments both augment existing knowledge about the differential influence of lecture and multimedia case studies on students’ learning outcomes and questions the wisdom of adopting either of these methods singly in introductory IT courses. We derive insights from the literature and anecdotal evidence, presented as four propositions, which illustrate the relationship between the two instructional methods and the specific learning outcomes students perceive they affect.
The article discusses a teaching exercise designed to introduce the area of production operations to incoming Master of Business Administrations (MBA) students and fuel the development of effective student groups. It notes that prior to their arrival, each of the 95 students had been assigned to a study group of five members based on prior work experience and diverse skill sets. It says that active learning techniques built into the exercise combined cognitive production planning requirements.
ABSTRACT“The Bicycle Assembly Line Game” is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7–10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the highest revenue wins. Students learn through discovery “What drives output rate?”; “How is capacity managed relative to market demand?”; and “Why does inventory accumulate?” Because task times are constant, the game provides a nice lead-in to the topic of line balancing. This game has been successfully used in both undergraduate- and MBA-level operations management courses.
This research advances the understanding of how to define, evaluate, and promote e-learning success from an information systems perspective. It introduces the E-Learning Success Model, which posits that the overall success of an e-learning initiative depends on the attainment of success at each of the three stages of e-learning systems development: system design, system delivery, and system outcome. To study this model, an online version of an undergraduate quantitative methods core course for business students is developed using a prototyping strategy. Four cycles of development are traced, each comprised analysis, design, implementation, testing, and enhancement. Findings from the study confirm the validity of using the proposed success model for e-learning success assessment. In addition, an action research methodology is also found to be a valuable impetus for promoting e-learning success through an iterative process of diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluating, and learning.
The assessment of student learning styles can be of significant value for developing and evaluating an appropriate mix of pedagogical techniques and activities. With this in mind, learning style preferences were collected from over 300 undergraduate business telecommunications students. These set of data show that a breadth of learning style profiles are exhibited by undergraduate business telecommunications students. Most importantly, this article demonstrates a process to evaluate whether or not the current course structure either favors or disadvantages any particular learning style profile. Because there are many learning style profiles present, the evidence that no single profile is disadvantaged gives the instructor confidence in the mix of pedagogical techniques and activities that are employed in this particular course.
Student faculty ratings are used at most institutions of higher learning for three important reasons. First, the ratings provide direct feedback to the faculty, and this enables faculty to adjust their teaching styles. Second, the ratings provide the administration with information intended to assist in guiding and mentoring faculty toward more effective pedagogical performance in the classroom. Third, the ratings also provide the administration with information to be used in the reappointment, tenure, and promotion processes, as well as for assignment of salary range adjustments and teaching awards. To be of real value, however, all of this is predicated on the use of a valid and reliable faculty-rating instrument along with a system designed to provide both the faculty and the administration with norming reports that allow for appropriate comparisons of ratings. This article reports such a study conducted within a large department of a business school and recommends that the process used be adapted by other business school departments and other academic units across the university and at other universities to ensure a more universally appropriate usage of students’ ratings.
Students' perceptions about the use of online learning tools have been shown to vary among studies. Their perceptions may have a profound impact on performance in the course and subsequent behavior toward continued use. This article presents a theoretical framework to identify three dimensions of perceived usefulness, namely, performance-related outcome expectations, personal-related outcome expectations, and intrinsic motivation. Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), a new expanded model is proposed to capture more details about students' perceptions of an online learning tool. I also examine the relationships of these three dimensions with perceived ease of use, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use in the context of online technologies used as an integral component of the course requirements. My findings demonstrate the utility of the expanded TAM to distinguish between the influences of the three proposed dimensions. Results also show that, within the context of this study setup, intrinsic motivation had the most influence on intentions and perceived ease of use of the learning tool had relatively little importance. Limitations and implications are offered.
The main concern is a longstanding one in classroom instruction—the determinants of effective team performance. The paper explicitly examines the effect of teacher-controlled factors on the use and functioning of student teams. From a sample of 500 undergraduate students, data are obtained on aptitude, diversity, instability, motivation, personality style, size, and performance. The regression results suggest that team motivation and instability, which are both partly controlled by the instructor, are particularly important in determining a team's performance. An implication is that instructor decisions about team make-up and incentives can have a significant impact on student achievement.