Background and purpose of the study: Acenaphtho derivatives have been reported as antitumor agents. Due to this fact and also with the aim of developing the chemistry of potentially bioactive heterocyclic compounds via efficient reactions, a facile procedure for the synthesis of 9-(alkylthio)-acenaphtho[1,2-e]-1,2,4-triazines via two step condensation of thiosemicarbazide and acenaphtylene-9,10-quinone to form acenaphtho[1,2-e]-1,2,4-triazine-9(8H)-thiones and subsequent reaction with benzyl chloride derivatives is reported.
9-(alkylthio) acenaphtho[1,2-e]-1,2,4-triazines were synthesized via the reaction of acenaphtho-9,10-quinone with thiosemicarbazide, and then with the benzyl chloride derivatives. Cytotoxicity of some prepared compounds was assessed through MTT assay on three different human cancerous cell lines (HL-60, MCF7, and MOLT-4 cells). Molecular docking studies were performed via AutoDock4.2 software in order to confirm an apoptosis-inducing activity of acenaphtho scaffolds via the Bcl-2 protein.
Excellent yields of the products, short reaction times and simple work-up are attractive features of this synthetic protocol. The evaluated compounds exhibited moderate to good cytotoxic activities. Docking results on the active site of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) supported the experimental biological data and agreed well with previous in silico data for commonly used anti-cancer drugs. Moreover; results were analyzed considering binding efficiency indices.
The outcomes of the present study may be helpful in future targeting of Bcl-2 with the aim of developing apoptosis-inducing agents.
Long-term clinical employment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with significant side effects including gastrointestinal (GI) lesions and kidney toxicity. In this paper we designed and synthesized new imidazolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles by molecular hybridization of previously described anti-inflammatory compounds in the hope of obtaining new safer analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.
The target structures were synthesized by preparation of 5-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester 5. The reaction of hydrazine hydrate with this ester afforded the 5-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide 6 which was converted to target compounds 7-15 according to the known procedures. In silico toxicity risk assessment and drug likeness predictions were done, in order to consider the privileges of the synthesized structures as drug candidates.
The analgesic and anti-inflammatory profile of the synthesized compounds were evaluated by writhing and carrageenan induced rat paw edema tests respectively. Compounds 8, 9 and 11-13 and 15 were active analgesic agents and compounds 8,9 and 11-13 showed significant anti-inflammatory response in comparison with control. Compounds 11 and 13 were screened for their ulcerogenic activities and none of them showed significant ulcerogenic activity. The active Compounds 11 and 12 showed the highest drug likeness and drug score.
The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of title compounds were comparable to that of standard drug indomethacin with a safer profile of activity. The results revealed that both of oxadiazole and triazole scaffolds can be determined as pharmacophores.The in silico predictions and pharmacological evaluations showed that compounds 11 and 12 can be chosen as lead for further investigations.
Background and the purpose of the study
Various compounds from natural and synthetic origins containing the 1,3-diarylpropenone structure have been reported to produce a variety of biological activities like anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, vascular muscle relaxant, etc. A systematic analysis of the structural features responsible for anti-inflammatory activity and a possible mode of their actions were proposed to be evaluated by synthesizing a set of compounds, screening them for anti-inflammatory activity and developing a QSAR model.
Two types of 1,3-diarylpropenone derivatives were synthesized employing the Claisen-Schmidt condensation. These compounds were then screened for their in vivo anti- inflammatory activity by the carrageenin induced rat paw edema method and also for in vitro cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition activity using a colorimetric kit for COX (ovine) inhibitor screening assay. These derivatives and their anti-inflammatory activity data were employed for QSAR analysis on Vlife MDS 3.5 software. The molecules were divided into training and test sets based on observed activity and QSAR models were generated for the training set and validated. The activity of the molecules of the test set was predicted according to the QSAR equation fit. Possible correlation between observed anti-inflammatory activity and in vitro cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition was also studied.
Results and conclusion
Insignificant difference between the observed and predicted biological activity revealed that the selected electronic, steric and lipophilic parameters have a significant correlation (r2=0.85) with anti-inflammatory activity of the selected class of compounds. On the basis of results it may be suggested that the 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones framework is an attractive template for structural optimization to achieve better potency of anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, the relatively low correlation between anti-inflammatory activity and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition indicates that other modes of actions may also be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the tested compounds.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common form of dementia accounting for about 50-60% of the overall cases of dementia among persons over 65 years of age. Low acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in hippocampus and cortex areas of the brain is one of the main reasons for this disease. In recent years, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors like donepezil with prevention of acetylcholine hydrolysis can enhance the duration of action of acetylcholine in synaptic cleft and improve the dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Design, synthesis and assessment of anticholinesterase activity of 2-(2-(4-Benzylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione derivatives showed prepared compounds can function as potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Among 12 synthesized derivatives, compound 4a with ortho chlorine moiety as electron withdrawing group exhibited the highest potency in these series (IC50 = 0.91 ± 0.045 μM) compared to donepezil (IC50 = 0.14 ± 0.03 μM). The results of the enzyme inhibition test (Ellman test) showed that electron withdrawing groups like Cl, F and NO2 can render the best effect at position ortho and para of the phenyl ring. But compound 4g with methoxy group at position 3(meta) afforded a favorable potency (IC50 = 5.5 ± 0.7 μM). Furthermore, docking study confirmed a same binding mode like donepezil for compound 4a.
Synthesized compounds 4a-4l could be proposed as potential anticholinesterase agents.
Background and the purpose of the studyHelicobacter pylori is recognized as the main cause of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers and classified as class 1 carcinogen pathogen. Different 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives bearing 5-nitroaryl moiety have been shown considerable anti- H. pylori activity. In attempt to find new and potent derivatives of described scaffold, a new series of 1-(substituted benzyl)-4-(5-(5-nitroaryl-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)piperazine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against three metronidazole-resistant isolates of H. pylori using paper disk diffusion bioassay test.
The title compounds were prepared through the reaction of 1-(5-(5-nitroaryl-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) piperazine 5a-b and substituted benzyl chloride in DMF. The inhibitory activity of the new derivatives 6a-q against three metronidazole-resistant isolates of H. pylori was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and compared with the commercially available standard drug metronidazole.
The results of SAR study indicated that the potency and anti-H. pylori activity profile of synthesized derivatives is mainly attributed to the substituted nitroaryl moiety at the C-5 position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring. Most of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives bearing 5-nitrofuran moiety at C-5 position of central thiadiazole ring, demonstrated more promising anti-H. pylori than the 5-nitrothiophen counterpart.
The most potent nitrofuran derivative containing 3-methoxybenzyl piperazine pendant at the C-2 position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring (compound 6i), demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori potential at studied concentrations 100-25 mug/disk (IZD > 20 mm) against all studied metronidazole- resistant isolates of H. pylori.
The biotransformation of steroids by fungal biocatalysts has been recognized for many years. There are numerous fungi of the genus Aspergillus which have been shown to transform different steroid substances. The possibility of using filamentous fungi Aspergillus brasiliensis cells in the biotransformation of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, was evaluated.Methods
The fungal strain was inoculated into the transformation medium which supplemented with androstadienedione as a substrate and fermentation continued for 5 days. The metabolites were extracted and isolated by thin layer chromatography. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated using 1H-NMR, broadband decoupled 13C-NMR, EI Mass and IR spectroscopies.ResultsThe fermentation yielded one reduced product: 17ß-hydroxyandrosta-1, 4-dien-3-one and two hydroxylated metabolites: 11¿-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione and 12ß-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione.Conclusions
The results obtained in this study show that A. brasiliendsis could be considered as a biocatalyst for producing important derivatives from androstadienedione.
Background and the purpose of the study
Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major problem worldwide in chemotherapy of infection disease. This study was designed to assess the enhancing effects of a new group of dihydropyridine-3,5dicarboxamides, in combination with cloxacillin with distinctly different mechanisms of action against MRSAs.
Material and methods
Dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxamides with 2-methylsulfonylimidazole at 4 position 6a-k were synthesized by the reaction of corresponding aldehyde 5 with different N-aryl acetoacetamides 3 in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. Agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial and potentiating activity of different synthetic compounds in the presence and absence of cloxacillin to evaluate their activity as modulators of multidrugresistant (MDR).
Results and major conclusion
The antibacterial effect of cloxacillin was enhanced by compounds 6g and 6h against cloxacillin-resistant strains (MRSA1 and MRSA2). The potentiation was found 1 2 to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Compound 6g at concentration of 1000 µg/disc, caused a 329 percent potentiation of the activity of cloxacillin against MRSA1.
Background and the purpose of the study
Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin.
The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527).
The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a) pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b) aspartate rich motif (DDXXD), c) active site final lid and d) active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated.
The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.
BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, have anti-inflammatory effects, modulate smooth muscle proliferation, and inhibit smooth muscle migration. This study was designed to determine whether exogenous EETs have any effect on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of carcinoma cell as well as the possible signaling pathways of EETs in this regulation.
The effects of EETs on the proliferation and anti-apoptosis of human carcinoma cells were measured by MTT assay and flowcytometric analysis, and the regulation of PPARγ, epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-Kinase/AKT pathways was investigated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis.
Results of this study suggested that 14, 15-EET may activate the expression of PPARγ in Tca-8113 cells. 14,15-EET may stimulate cell proliferation, and increase the percentage of cells during S-G2-M phase in Tca-8113 cells significantly. The levels of EGFR, ERK, and PI3 kinase/AKT proteins were significantly induced by treatment of 14, 15-EET and 14,15-EET/AUDA, but no significant changes were observed by addition of GW9662.
These findings suggest that exogenous 14,15-EET has potent inhibitory effect on proliferation, and could induce apoptosis in Tca-8113 cell, and these changes are related to the expression of PPARγ, the activation of EGFR, ERK, and PI3 kinase/AKT proteins.
Background and the purpose of the study
Modified androsterone derivatives are class of steroidal compounds with potential anticancer properties. Various steroidal derivatives containing substitution at position 16 have shown diversified pharmacological activities. In the present study, a new series of cytotoxic 16-(substituted benzylidene) derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were synthesized and evaluated against three different cancer cell lines.
The cytotoxic 16-(substituted benzylidene) derivatives of DHEA were synthesized via aldol condensation of DHEA with corresponding benzaldehyde derivatives. The cytotoxic activity of synthesized derivatives was evaluated against three different cancer cells including KB, T47D and SK-N-MC cell lines by MTT reduction colorimetric assay.
The results indicated that 16-(substituted benzylidene) derivatives of DHEA could be served as a potent anti-cancer agent. The 3-cholro benzylidene derivatives of DHEA was the most potent synthesized derivative especially against KB and T47D cell lines (IC50 values were 0.6 and 1.7 μM; respectively).
The cytotoxic potential of novel benzylidene derivatives of DHEA is mainly attributed to the position and nature of the substituted group on the benzylidene pendant.
Comparison of long-term clinical results of two different pharmaceutical formulations used in corneal cross-linking (CXL) in keratoconus patients.Methods
Sixty eyes of 60 keratoconus patients underwent CXL in two groups. We used riboflavin preparations from Sina Darou, Iran in group A, and Streuli Pharma, Switzerland in group B. Here we made inter-group comparison of changes in vision, refraction, Pentacam indices, corneal biomechanical indices, and endothelial cell count (ECC) 18 months after CXL.ResultsSince four patients were lost to follow-up, 56 eyes (28 eyes in each group) were compared. Mean improvement in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.31¿±¿0.65 LogMAR (P¿=¿0.014) in group A and 0.24¿±¿0.62 LogMAR (P¿=¿0.082) in group B. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained quite unchanged in both groups (P¿=¿0.774). Mean spherical refractive error reduced by 0.45¿±¿1.15 diopter (D) (P¿=¿0.041) in group A and 0.27¿±¿1.73 D (P¿=¿0.458) in group B (P¿=¿0.655). Cylinder error and spherical equivalent had a similar trend without any change. Max-K (P¿=¿0.006) and mean-K (P¿=¿0.044) decreased significantly more in group A compared to group B. The reduction in CCT was significantly more in group A than group B (P¿=¿0.004). Q-value was quite unchanged in both groups (P¿=¿0.704). The inter-group difference in CH reduction was borderline significant statistically (P¿=¿0.057). Changes in corneal resistance factor and endothelial cell count were not significantly different between two groups (P¿=¿0.117 and P¿=¿0.229).Conclusion
Clinical results of CXL with the domestic preparation of riboflavin are similar to that achieved with the Swiss made product in some aspects, and it is the preferred brand in some other aspects. This study will continue to report longer follow-up results.Trial registration IRCT201212034333N2.
So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations.
This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997--2010). This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy.
Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced.
The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements.
A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives from the reaction of barbituric acid, malononitrile and various aromatic aldehydes using SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanocatalyst is reported.
Reactions proceed with high efficiency under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives were tested against Jack bean urease using phenol red method. Three compounds of 4a, 4d and 4l were not active in urease inhibition test, but compound 4a displayed slight urease activation properties. Compounds 4b, 4k, 4f, 4e, 4j, 4g and 4c with hydrophobic substitutes on phenyl ring, showed good inhibitory activity (19.45-279.14 μM).
The compounds with electron donating group and higher hydrophobic interaction with active site of enzyme prevents hydrolysis of substrate. Electron withdrawing groups such as nitro at different position and meta-methoxy reduced urease inhibitory activity. Substitution of both hydrogen of barbituric acid with methyl group will convert inhibitor to activator.
Structural modifications of thiazolidinediones at 3rd and 5th position have exhibited significant biological activities. In view of the facts, and based on in silico studies carried out on thiazolidine-2,4-diones as HIV-1- RT inhibitors, a novel series of 2,4-thiazolidinedione analogs have been designed and synthesized.Methods
Title compounds were prepared by the reported method. Conformations of the structures were assigned on the basis of results of different spectral data. The assay of HIV-1 RT was done as reported by Silprasit et al. Antimicrobial activity was determined by two fold serial dilution method. Docking study was performed for the highest active compounds by using Glide 5.0.ResultsThe newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 24 showed significant HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity with 73% of inhibition with an IC50 value of 1.31 ¿M. Compound 10 showed highest activity against all the bacterial strains.A molecular modeling study was carried out in order to investigate the possible interactions of the highest active compounds 24, 10 and 4 with the non nucleoside inhibitory binding pocket(NNIBP) of RT, active site of GlcN-6-P synthase and cytochrome P450 14-¿-sterol demethylase from Candida albicans (Candida P450DM) as the target receptors respectively using the Extra Precision (XP) mode of Glide software.ConclusionA series of novel substituted 2-(5-benzylidene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-N-(phenyl)propanamides (4¿31) have been synthesized and evaluated for their HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the compounds have shown significant activity. Molecular docking studies showed very good interaction.
None of the current pleurodesing agents fulfil all the criteria for best pleural sclerosant. Therefore, the search for the ideal agent for chemical pleurodesis still continues. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of erythromycin, tetracycline, Aerosil™ 200 (hydrophilic fumed amorphous silica), and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 in producing pleurodesis in rats. In the present study, talc was not used as a pleurodesing agent due to an unavailability of its sterile and pure form in Iran.
Overall, 75 adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomized to 5 treatment groups. Each group received an intrapleural injection via 5 Fr Silastic tubes of one of the following sterile agents: 35mg/kg erythromycin in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg tetracycline in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg Aerosil™ 200 in 2ml of saline, erythromycin (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline) plus Aerosil™ 200 (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline), or 2 ml of saline as a control. The animals were euthanized and necropsied 30 days after injection. The pleurae were assessed for macroscopic and microscopic evidence of surrounding inflammation and fibrosis.
The median macroscopic score in the Aerosil™ 200 group was significantly higher than that in the erythromycin group (P < 0.005). The median microscopic score in the erythromycin group was significantly lower than that in the Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 groups (P < 0.005). Furthermore, maximum and minimum pleural fibrosis was observed in the erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin groups, respectively (P < 0.05).
This study suggests that Aerosil™ 200 with or without erythromycin may be more potent pleurodesis agent than erythromycin and tetracycline.
Acute poisonings particularly through pesticides have become a major public health concern in Albania during the last decade.FindingsThe number of fatalities due to aluminum phosphide intoxications was more than doubled during a five year-period from 2009 to 2013, and a cluster of suicides perpetrated with Phostoxin was registered. Several factors are accountable for such a phenomenon, including the fact that aluminum phosphide agents are freely available in the Albanian market, their price is extremely low and they are sold without any legal restriction. The mass media unfortunately warranted an emulating effect to dramatic intoxications, which gained by such means the notoriety of a secure lethal weapon.Conclusions
Our experience with more than three hundred intoxications with aluminum phosphide agents in the last five years, showed that a considerable delay from the moment of exposure (mainly through ingestion) to specialized medical help seeking, created a considerable obstacle for a successful treatment of cases, and eventually for the survival of patients. The lack of a specific antidote adds further challenges to all these exposures. The need for public health policies aiming at prevention, awareness, and possibly the substitution of Phostoxin or other aluminum phosphide pesticides with less dangerous agents is formulated.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Different studies have shown that entrapment of antibiotics into liposomes could increase their anti-Pseudomonas activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare ticarcillin loaded-nanoliposomes with variable surface charges and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248).
Ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Ticarcillin encapsulation efficacies for different formulations were measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ticarcillin nanoliposomal forms against strain ATCC 29248 were determined by broth dilution method. The killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exposed to various concentrations of ticarcillin in free and nanoliposomal forms were analyzed. Ultimately, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of nanoliposomes in burned mice skin infected with strain ATCC 29248 was investigated.
The encapsulation efficacies for ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were significantly higher (76% ± 0.17) than those of neutral (55% ± 0.14) and anionic (43% ± 0.14) nanoliposomes. The MIC of free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of ticarcillin against ATCC 29248 were to 24, 3, 6 and 48 mg/L, respectively. The killing rates of ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of free and other drug formulations. Treatment by ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 60 and 20% survival rates, respectively.
Our data suggested that cationic ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes because of high effectiveness would be a good choice to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.
BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Solubility of pharmaceuticals is still a challenging subject and solubilization using cosolvents is the most common technique used in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was reporting and modeling the experimental molar solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ-HCl) in binary and ternary mixtures of ethanol (EtOH), N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethylene glycols (PEGs) 200, 400, 600 and water along with the density of saturated solutions at 298.2 °K.
To provide a computational method, the Jouyban-Acree model was fitted to the solubilities of the binary solvents, and solubilities of the ternary solvents were back-calculated by employing the solubility data in mono-solvents. In the next step, the ternary interaction terms were added to the model and the prediction overall mean percentage deviation (MPD) of the ternary data was reduced. Also a previously proposed version of the model was used to predict the solubility of PGZ-HCl in binary and ternary mixtures employing the experimental solubility data in mono-solvents.
The overall MPD of the model for fitting the binary data and predicted data of ternary solvents were 2.0 % and 50.5 %, respectively. The overall MPD of the predicted solubilities in ternary solvents using the ternary interaction terms in the model was 34.2 %, and by using the proposed version of the Jouyban-Acree model for binary and ternary data the overall correlation and prediction errors were 18.0 and 15.0 %, respectively.
The solubility of PGZ-HCl was increased by addition of EtOH, NMP, PEGs 200, 400 and 600 to aqueous solutions. The reported data extended the available solubility data of pharmaceuticals which are crucial in formulation of liquid dosage forms. The constants of the Jouyban-Acree model using the generated data are also reported which provides the possibility of solubility prediction in other solvent mixtures and temperatures.
Coumarins are an important class of widely distributed heterocyclic natural products exhibiting a broad pharmacological profile. In this work, a new series of coumarins bearing substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzothiazines were described as potential analgesic agents. The clinical use of NSAIDs as traditional analgesics is associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal lesions and nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the discovery of new safer drugs represents a challenging goal for such a research area.
The target compounds 3-(3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b] [1,4]thiazin-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-ones 2a-u were synthesized and characterized by spectral data. The antinociceptive properties of target compounds were determined by formalin-induced test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice.
Among the tested compounds, compound 2u bearing 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)- moiety on benzothiazine ring and 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenacyloxy- group on the 7 position of coumarin nucleus showed better profile of antinocecieption in both models. It was more effective than mefenamic acid during the late phase of formalin-induced test as well as in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.
Considering the significant antinoceciptive action of phenacyloxycoumarin derivatives, compound 2u prototype might be further used as model to obtain new more potent analgesic drugs.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the 11th leading cancer by incidence worldwide. Surgery and radiotherapy have been the major treatment for patients with HNSCC while chemotherapy has become an important treatment option for locally advanced HNSCC. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HNSCC impelled the development of targeted therapeutic agents. The development and combinations of targeted therapies in different cellular pathways may be needed to fulfill the unmet needs of current HNSCC chemotherapy.
A series of N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazoles were synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity were evaluated against human cancer cell lines, Caki, A549, AMC-HN1, AMC-HN3, AMC-HN4, AMC-HN6, and SNU449. The cellular selectivity of compound was obtained by the modification of substituent at N5-aryl group of 3,5-diaminoindazole. Compound 9a and 9b showed more than 7-fold selectivity for AMC-HN4 and AMC-HN3, respectively.
N3-acyl-N5-aryl-3,5-diaminoindazole analogues can be used as hits in the development of anticancer drug for HNSCC.
BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Technetium-99m is the major radionuclide used in the world and mainly is provided by fission product. However extensive research has been conducted on the use of accelerators for production of (99m)Tc. This investigation reports the production of (99m)Tc radioisotope using cyclotrons and the preparation, quality control and biodistribution studies of four major Tc-radiopharmaceuticals.
The high purity molybdenum natural target (130 mg/cm(2)) was irradiated in a Cyclone 30 accelerator using 160 µA of 25 MeV proton beam energy for 1000 µA-h. After dissolution, the technetium radionuclides were extracted using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) followed by preparation of Tc-MIBI, Tc-DTPA, Tc-DMSA and Tc-phytate as radiopharmaceutical samples.
The results of quality controls and animal biodistribution studies showed successful production of Tc radionuclides (including (99m)Tc) in the bombarded target and subsequent labelling of the kit with Tc.
The developed high power Mo target if constructed using enriched (100)Mo, could be a practical method for large-scale production of (99m)Tc and promising as an alternative to fission product (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators for local applications near cyclotron facilities.
Background and the purpose of the study
Functional constipation is prevalent in children. Recently polyethylene glycol has been introduced as an effective and safe drug to treat chronic constipation. There are only a few clinical trials on comparison of PEG and liquid paraffin in childhood constipation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of PEG 3350 solution and liquid paraffin in the treatment of children with functional constipation in Sari Toba clinic during the period of 2008–2009.
Children with a history of functional constipation were subjects of this study. One hundred and sixty children of 2–12 years old with functional constipation were randomized in two PEG and paraffin treatment groups. Patients received either 1.0–1.5 g/kg/day PEG 3350 or 1.0–1.5 ml/kg/day liquid paraffin for 4 months. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by stool and encopresis frequency/week and overall treatment success rate was compared in two groups.
Results and major conclusion
Compared with the baseline, defecation frequency/ week increased significantly and encopresis frequency meaningfully decreased in two groups during the period of the study. Patients using PEG 3350 had more success rate (mean: 95.3%±3.7) compared with the patients in paraffin group (mean: 87.2%±7.1) (p=0.087). Administration of PEG 3350 were associated with less adverse events than liquid paraffin. In conclusion in treatment of pediatric functional constipation, regarding clinical efficacy and safety, PEG 3350 were at least as effective as liquid paraffin and but less adverse drug events.
BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: MEN1 is an important tumor suppressor gene that encodes a nuclear protein called menin. Recent data suggest that interactions between menin and other proteins have important roles in control of the cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, estrogen receptor (ER), an important prognostic factor is differentially expressed in breast cancer cells. In this study the MEN1 gene and protein expression in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines with different ER status following exposure to adriamycin (ADR) was investigated.
Cytotoxicity of ADR on these cell lines was determined using MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels were analyzed in tested cell lines using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays, respectively.
ADR cytotoxicity was highest on MDA-MB-468 and lowest on MCF7 cells. MEN1 mRNA showed significant decrease after ADR exposure only in the MDA-MB-468 cell line. Menin protein expression was higher in MDA-MB-468 and lower in MCF7 cells.
Differential molecular responses to adriamycin were observed in cancer cell lines. Molecular data also suggest that MEN1 as a new biomarker can be used in combination with current biomarkers for prediction of response to chemotherapy.
A series of 2-amino-4-aryl-4H-benzo[h or f]chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of Src kinase and cell proliferation in breast carcinoma (BT-20) cell lines.
The one-pot, three-component reaction of α or β-naphthol, malonitrile and an aromatic aldehyde in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate was afforded the corresponding 2-amino-4-aryl-4H-benzo[h or f]chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives, All target compounds were evaluated for inhibition of Src kinase and cell proliferation in breast carcinoma (BT-20) cell lines.
Among all tested compounds, unsubstituted 4-phenyl analog 4a showed Src kinas inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 28.1 μM and was the most potent compound in this series. In general, the compounds were moderately active against BT-20. 3-Nitro-phenyl 4e and 3-pyridinyl 4h derivatives inhibited the cell proliferation of BT-20 cells by 33% and 31.5%, respectively, and found to be more potent compared to doxorubicin (25% inhibition of cell growth).
The data indicate that 4-aryl-4H-naphthopyrans scaffold has the potential to be optimized further for designing more potent Src kinase inhibitors and/or anticancer lead compounds.