Cytokine

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1096-0023
Publications
Article
Compare the effects on inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) and immunologic (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD11b(+), CD16(+)/56(+) T cells and total lymphocyte concentration) variables of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, 4% modified fluid gelatin, or crystalloid when used as volume replacement fluids for acute normovolemic hemodilution (a blood conservation technique) in coronary artery bypass graft patients. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomized to receive Isolyte S® (Group ISO), 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Group HES) or 4% modified gelatin solution (Group GEL) for acute normovolemic hemodilution. Blood samples were taken immediately after induction of anaesthesia (T0), and 2h (T1), 12h (T2), 24h (T3), and 48h (T4) after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were determined with commercially available ELISA kits. CD3(+) (mature T cells), CD4(+) (T helper cells), CD8(+) (suppressor cytotoxic T cells), CD16(+)/56(+) (natural killer lymphocytes), and CD11b(+) (Mac-1, adhesion receptor) levels were measured using flow-cytometry reagents. The CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio was calculated. Between-group comparisons showed significantly higher levels of TNF-α at T1 (2h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass) in Group HES compared to Group ISO (p=0.003). IL-8 was significantly lower in Group HES than Group GEL at T1 (p=0.0005). IL-10 was significantly higher in Group HES than in Group GEL at T1 (p=0.0001). The CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio in Group ISO was significantly lower than that in Group HES at T2 (p=0.003). CD11b(+) levels in Group HES were also higher than those in Group GEL and group ISO at T2, but not significantly. CD16/56(+) levels in Group HES were higher than those in Group GEL at T2 (p<0.003). No excessive hemorrhage occurred in any patient. Mediastinal drainage during the first 24h after surgery in Group HES (347±207mL) was not significantly different from that of Group GEL (272±177mL) or Group ISO (247±109) (p>0.05). Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 reduced pro-inflammatory responses and increased anti-inflammatory responses to a greater degree than gelatin solution and isolyte S®. The use of hydroxyethyl starch, compared to gelatin solution and isolyte S®, resulted in less decrease in the CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio, suggesting less immunosuppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Autoantibodies against a variety of growth factors and cytokines are present in preparations of pooled normal human IgG, such as IVIg. The present study demonstrated that healthy Danish blood donors produced high concentrations of anti-IL-10 IgG antibodies that bound IL-10 with extremely high avidity. The antibodies were of IgG class, polyclonally derived and acted as competitive IL-10 inhibitors in vitro, substantially inhibiting cellular IL-10 receptor binding and neutralizing IL-10 activity in vitro. The antibodies failed to bind viral forms of IL-10 or other members of the human IL-10 family (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28A, IL-28B, IL-29). The production of anti-IL-10 antibodies was stable from months to years, and high positive donors were likely to acquire a state of IL-10 deficiency in the circulation during this period. Anti-IL-10 antibodies were readily measurable even in highly diluted plasma samples, providing the explanation for the fact that relatively low antibody activity can be detected in normal human pooled IgG, derived from the plasma of over 1000 blood donors.
 
Article
Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1994-01 has been reported to bind to the human type II Interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor and in so doing block IL-1 binding in vitro and certain IL-1 mediated responses in vivo. While this antibody binds to a type II IL-1 receptor positive cell line, it can be shown that it does not bind to the type II IL-1 receptor. By direct expression cloning, we have identified two gene products, both of which are required for binding of this antibody. The two proteins are the alpha and beta subunits of the MHC class II antigen HLA-DR.
 
Article
The mechanism responsible for the decrease in vitamin D status (i.e., plasma or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration) during inflammatory stress is unknown in humans. Interferon (IFN)-γ is an inflammatory cytokine that regulates vitamin D metabolism in isolated immune cells, but data suggesting this regulation exists in vivo is lacking. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to associate circulating IFN-γ perturbations with 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) alterations during inflammatory stress in young adults recovering from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Plasma 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)D and IFN-γ concentrations were measured in fasting blood draw samples obtained from twelve-male patients pre-surgery and 90-m, 3-d and 7-d post-surgery. 25(OH)D decreased significantly (p<0.05) after surgery, and strikingly, tended to inversely correlate (r=-0.32, p=0.058) with IFN-γ changes from pre- to post- (i.e., 90-m, 3-d, and 7-d) surgery. Additionally, 1,25(OH)D (r=0.37, p<0.05) and the 1,25(OH)D-to-25(OH)D ratio (r=0.52, p<0.05) changes from pre- to post- (i.e., 90-m, 3-d, and 7-d) surgery correlated with those of IFN-γ. These are the first reported in vivo findings suggesting that the 25(OH)D decrease and conversion to 1,25(OH)D increase with increasing IFN-γ in the circulation. We conclude that IFN-γ contributes to the decrease in vitamin D and the conversion of vitamin D to its active hormonal form in the circulation during inflammatory insult in humans.
 
Article
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), produced by the antigen presenting cells. In the present study we examined the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on the production of these cytokines, as well as superoxide generation by freshly isolated mononuclear cells and partially purified monocytes. The immediate precursor of 1,25(OH)2D3, 25-OH D3, and the synthetic analogue MC 903 ('Calcipotriol') were examined in parallel. 1,25-(OH)2D3 dose-dependently inhibited the production of IL-alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes, without affecting superoxide production. MC 903 had comparable effects while 25-OH D3 was ineffective. The inhibition caused by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was not abolished by supraoptimal concentrations of LPS or indomethacin. 1,25-(OH)2D3 had similar effects on secreted and cell-associated IL-alpha. Nuclear run-off analysis indicated that inhibition of these cytokines was not caused by impaired production of mRNA. Taken together, the study demonstrates a vitamin D-induced inhibitory effect of LPS-driven monokine production, which is most likely a vitamin D-receptor mediated phenomenon exerted at a post-transcriptional, presecretory level. Impaired monokine production may be of importance in 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte functions in vitro.
 
Article
We have studied the effects of rhTGF-beta2, dexamethanosome (dex) and 1,25(OH)2D3 on human bone marrow stromal (HBMS) cells in long-term culture. A fraction on HBMS expressed type I collagen (Col I) and osteopontin, and transient treatment (48 h) with dex increased the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive cells. Treatment with rhTGF-beta2 inhibited DNA synthesis and attenuated the stimulatory effect of dex on cell growth at 3-4 weeks of culture. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited DNA synthesis at 1-4 weeks, and dex partially blocked the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on cell growth. rhTGF-beta2 and dex increased Col I synthesis at 1 week of culture. Both dex and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased ALP activity and mRNA levels independently, and when combined they had an additive or synergistic effect, whereas rhTGF-beta2 antagonized the stimulatory effect of dex on ALP activity. In addition, dex attenuated the increased osteocalcin expression induced by 1,25(OH)2D3. These results show that rhTGF-beta2, dex and 1,25(OH)2D3 have distinct effects and modulate the action of each other on human marrow stromal cell proliferation and differentiation at different time points during the culture.
 
Article
We studied the immunomodulatory effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on single cell expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokines in T cell subsets of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients (n=22) and normal healthy subjects (n=22). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-7)M) for 48 h. T cell subsets positive for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were enumerated by flow cytometry and the culture supernatants were assayed for both the cytokines using ELISA. In both NHS and PTB patients, a significantly reduced percentage of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expressing CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells were observed in cultures stimulated with live MTB and treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to cultures without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (NHS; CD3+ IFN-gamma+: p<0.0001; CD3+TNF-alpha+: p=0.0292 and PTB; CD3+ IFN-gamma+: p=0.0292; CD3+ TNF-alpha+: p=0.0028). The levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in the culture supernatants of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treated cultures were also found to be significantly decreased in both groups (NHS; IFN-gamma: p=0.0001; TNF-alpha: p<0.0001) and (PTB; IFN-gamma: p<0.0001; TNF-alpha: p<0.0001). A positive correlation was observed between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expressing CD3+CD8+ T cells in MTB stimulated cultures treated with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in NHS (p=0.0001; p=0.001, respectively) and PTB patients (p=0.002; p=0.005, respectively). The present study revealed the suppressive effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on single cell expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha by CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells in pulmonary tuberculosis. This suppressive effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on proinflammatory and Th1 cytokine positive cells might have a role in reducing inflammation at the site of infection.
 
Article
This short paper describes the rationale being applied in the United Kingdom to the problem of treating latent TB infection in persons requiring anti-TNF-alpha treatment. This will largely have to be done by an individual risk/benefit analysis based on the risks of developing disease from national epidemiology compared with the risks of significant hepatotoxicity from treatment of latent infection.
 
Article
Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Differences in site of tumor implantation result in differences in tumor growth, metastasis, as well as response to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that tumor-induced angiogenic growth factor production into the plasma will also be influenced by site of tumor implantation. We evaluated the site-dependent production of angiogenic growth factors in the plasma of tumor bearing animals at two different sites of implantation. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated in nude mice bearing A2780, SKOV-3, or OVCAR-3 human ovarian tumors, as well as Panc-1, AsPC-1, or BxPC-3 human pancreatic tumors grown as subcutaneous (SC) xenografts or in the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity. Plasma VEGF and bFGF levels produced by two ovarian tumor lines and two pancreatic tumor lines were substantially higher when the tumors were implanted in the IP cavity than in the SC space. These studies indicated that the site of tumor implantation was an important determinant in the production of plasma VEGF and bFGF levels. As more and more anti-angiogenic agents are developed, the need for appropriate animal models becomes apparent. These results suggest the demand for an appropriate model for the in vivo evaluation of anti-angiogenesis.
 
Article
Recent studies have implicated leptin as a "stress" hormone and highlighted its association with increases in inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein and cortisol. In order to investigate the exact temporal leptin response to stress we undertook a detailed longitudinal study of circulating leptin concentrations during the well defined surgical injury of cholecystectomy. Circulating concentrations of cortisol, free fatty acids, leptin and C-reactive protein were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h from the start of surgery in nine patients. There was a significant correlation between baseline concentrations of leptin and BMI (r=0. 893, P<0.001). Over the 72 h from the start of surgery there were significant (P<0.05) increases in the concentrations of all analytes (peak median concentrations); cortisol (6 h), free fatty acids (9 h), leptin (18 h) and C-reactive protein (48 h). Interestingly the timing of the leptin peak at approximately 18 h after an acute inflammatory stimulus is exactly the same as previously reported for interleukin 6. These data support the suggestion that the relationship between cortisol and leptin mirrors that of cortisol and another cytokine, interleukin 6, i.e. stimulatory in acute and suppressive in chronic situations. They also imply a physiological role for leptin in acute injury.
 
Flow chart of patients' selection in the GenPSS project (GenPSS, Genetic Predisposition to Severe Sepsis). 
Multivariable logistic regression model for detecting the incident effect of the TNF(À308) and IL10(À819) SNPs on the outcome of critical illnesses. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; VAP, ventilator associated pneumonia; RRT, renal replacement therapy; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; DVT, deep venous thrombosis. GI; gastrointestinal, TNF(À308), SNP at position À308 nucleotides 5 0 of the first exon of tumor necrosis factor; IL10(À819), SNP at position À819 nucleotides before the first exon of IL-10. Diamonds to the right of the vertical line indicate an increased risk of death from critical illnesses in patients carrying each covariate. The diamonds represent the odds ratios from the logistic regression analyses. Horizontal lines through the diamonds represent 95% confidence intervals (CIs). 
Ventilator free days of the critically ill in genotype categories of the six single nucleotide polymorphisms VFD, ventilator free day; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; TNF(À308), SNP at position À308 nucleotides 5 0 of the first exon of tumor necrosis factor; LTA(+252), SNP at position 252 site of lymphotoxin-a; IL1B(À511), SNP at position À511 nucleotides 5 0 of the first exon of interleukin-1b; IL6(À174), SNP at position À174 nucleotides before the first exon of IL-6; IL10(À819), SNP at position À819 nucleotides before the first exon of IL-10, CD14(À159), SNP at position À159 nucleotides before the first exon of CD14. Y-axes for all graphs show the ventilator free days of the critically ill in each genotype category. The TNF(À308)ÃAA homozygote showed the shortest ventilator free days of 5.6 (2.0) (mean (SE)) among the 18 genotypes evaluated (P = 0.050 with recessive model of the correlation/trend test; AA v (GG + GA), see Appendix 3). 
Kaplan-Meier analysis of 28-day ventilator duration of the critically ill by TNF(À308) genotype (AA v non-AA). TNF(À308), SNP at position À308 nucleotides 5 0 of the first exon of tumor necrosis factor. Statistical significance was assessed using the Cox regression analysis, censored cases; ventilator removal because of decease. 
Article
Management of sepsis in critically ill patients remains difficult and requires prolonged intensive care. Genetic testing has been proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for adverse outcome of critical illnesses. Therefore, we wished to determine the influence of heredity on predisposition to poor outcome and on duration of ventilator support of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A study was conducted from July 2001 to December 2005 in heterogeneous population of patients from 12 US ICUs represented by the Genetic Predisposition to Severe Sepsis (GenPSS) archive. In 1057 Caucasian critically ill patients with SAPS II probability of survival of >0.2 in the US, six functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to inflammatory cytokines and innate immunity (rs1800629, rs16944, rs1800795, rs1800871, rs2569190, and rs909253) were evaluated in terms of mortality and ventilator free days. The AA homozygote of TNF(-308) (rs1800629) was most over-represented in the deceased patient group (P=0.015 with recessive model). The carriage of the TNF(-308)*AA genotype showed significantly higher odds ratio of 2.67(1.29-5.55) (P=0.008) after adjustment with the covariates. However, the presence of 1, 2, or 3 acute organ dysfunctions was larger prognostic factors for the adverse outcome (OR(95%CI)=2.98(2.00-4.45), 4.01(2.07-7.77), or 19.95(4.99-79.72), P<0.001 for all). Kaplan-Mayer plot on ventilator duration of TNF(-308)*AA patient significantly diverged from that of TNF(-308)*(GG+GA) ((AA v GG+GA), Adjusted HR(95%CI)=2.53(1.11-5.79) with Cox regression, P=0.028). TNF(-308)*AA is significantly associated with susceptibility to adverse outcome and to longer ventilator duration. Therefore, heredity likely affects both predisposition to ICU prognosis as well as the resource utilization.
 
Article
Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin 10 (IL 10) gene -1082 A/G (rsl800896) polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between this variant and the T2DM risk by meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched from January 1, 1989 to February 17, 2012, as well as hand searching of the references of identified articles were performed. All the statistical tests were performed using Stata 11.0. Seven case-control studies were identified, covering a total of 1879 T2DM cases and 2371 controls. The results showed evidence of significant association between IL 10 gene -1082 A/G polymorphism and T2DM risk (for G/G+G/A vs. A/A: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.05-1.40, p=0.010, p=0.040 after Bonferroni testing). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was found between IL 10 gene -1082 A/G polymorphism and T2DM risk in Europeans. In summary, results from this meta-analysis provide evidence that IL 10 gene -1082 G allele is associated with increased risk of T2DM.
 
Article
Within the past few years there has been increasing evidence that the genetic variation in the genes coding pro- and anti-inflammatory markers may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including stroke. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-1082 G/A, promoter polymorphism (rs1800896) with ischemic stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. In this study 480 ischemic stroke patients and 470 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. The ischemic stroke patients were classified according to TOAST classification. The region of interest in the IL-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction with the use of allele specific oligonucleotide primers flanking the polymorphic region. Association between genotypes and stroke was examined by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square analysis. Significant difference was observed between the patients and healthy controls, in genotypic distribution as well as allelic frequency (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis with forward stepwise selection using the potential confounders (sex, age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and alcoholism) and IL-10 gene variant revealed that -1082 G/A polymorphism in the promoter region of IL-10 gene is significantly [adjusted OR=2.26; 95% C.I. (1.24-4.15), p<0.001] associated with ischemic stroke in the South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. We found significant association of this polymorphism with stroke of undetermined etiology (p<0.001). Moreover, hypertensive and diabetic individuals bearing A allele of IL-10 gene in high frequency were found to be more predisposed to stroke.
 
Article
A large number of studies have shown that the -1082A/G polymorphism (rs1800896) in the Interleukin-10 gene (IL-10) is implicated in the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between the -1082A/G polymorphism in the IL-10 gene and the RA risk by meta-analysis. A total of 1480 cases and 1413 controls in 10 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the G allele carriers (GG+GA) had a 25% decreased risk of RA, when compared with the homozygote AA (odds ratio (OR)=0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.93). In the analysis in Europeans, significant decreased risks were associated with the G allele carriers (OR=0.73 and 95% CI: 0.57-0.93 for GG+GA vs. AA). The results from this meta-analysis provide evidence for the association between the IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism and the risk of RA. To further evaluate gene×gene and gene×environment interactions between the polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene and RA risk, more studies with large groups of patients are required.
 
Article
A large number of studies have shown that the interleukin-10 (IL-10)-1082A/G polymorphism is implicated in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the results are inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the association between -1082A/G polymorphism in the IL-10 gene and IBD susceptibility. A total number of 18 case-control studies including 17,585 subjects were identified. No association was found between -1082A/G polymorphism and ulcerative colitis (UC) susceptibility. However, increased risk of Crohn's disease (CD) was associated with -1082A/G polymorphism in the dominant genetic model (GG+GA vs. AA: OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.46, P=0.028) and the heterozygote comparison (GA vs. AA: OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.55, P=0.015). The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence for the association between IL-10-1082A/G polymorphism and susceptibility of CD. Due to several limitations in the present study, well-designed epidemiological studies with large sample size among different ethnicities should be performed in the future.
 
Article
Exposure of fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to 5 nM interleukin 11 (IL-11) resulted in an increase (1.9+/-0.5 fold) in the protein content for the heterotrimeric G protein Galpha(i2). This G protein has been suggested to be involved in the control of the insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. Conversely, IL-11 had no effect on the content of three other G proteins, involved in insulin action. The alteration in Galpha(i2) protein corresponds to and provides a molecular rationale for our previously described IL-11 induced increase in plasma membrane glucose transporter content and increased rate of glucose transport. In addition, treatment with the cytokine altered the protein content of several transcription factors, C/EBPalpha and CHOP-10 decreased while PPARgamma and C/EBPbeta increased. These changes in transcription factor content are consistent with an alteration of phenotype with the cells reverting to an earlier stage of the differentiation process in response to IL-11.
 
Article
Recombinant human interleukin 11 (rhIL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine with immunomodulatory activity on both T cells and macrophages. The effects of rhIL-11 in a murine model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response have been studied. The CHS response is a T cell-mediated response directed against chemically modified self-proteins following epidermal exposure to haptens. CHS is generated in two phases. The sensitization phase involves dermal dendritic cell recognition of haptenized proteins and antigen presentation. The effector phase involves T cell recognition and activation. In mice sensitized with oxazolone, CHS was induced by secondary challenge to the right ear and measured by ear swelling 24 h later. rhIL-11 significantly suppressed CHS as measured by ear swelling and tissue myeloperoxidase activity when injected subcutaneously for 5 days from the day of sensitization or when administered only on the day before and the day of challenge, but was not effective when administered prior to or on the day of sensitization. These results indicate that subcutaneously administered rhIL-11 may modulate the effector phase of CHS. Administration of rhIL-11 as an oral gavage prior to sensitization also reduced CHS. However oral administration of rhIL-11 after sensitization had no effect. These results suggest that orally and subcutaneously administered rhIL-11 may act through different mechanisms to affect CHS.
 
Article
The development of embryos, trophoblast and decidua of IL-11-treated rats were examined in vivo, while ectoplacental cones (EPC) were studied in vitro. Female Wistar rats were injected daily with buffer (C), 1 mg/kg IL-11 (HD) daily or 30 microgram/kg (LD) IL-11 twice a week. On day 9 of pregnancy, embryonic tissue volume was reduced in IL-11-treated animals, but EPC volume was elevated, compared to controls. Mitotic indices were reduced in embryos (P<0.05 for LD, P<0.001 for HD) and in EPCs of both groups. Pycnotic indices were elevated in LD (NS) and HD (P<0.05) embryos, but decreased in EPCs of the LD group (P<0.01). Morphological abnormalities were observed in decidua, embryo and trophoblast. In HD, EPC attachment was impaired after 1 day culture but proliferation was stimulated after 5 days. Defective decidualization in IL-11 treated rats may therefore result in abnormal development of embryo and trophoblast.
 
Article
Ulcerative mucositis is a painful, debilitating and dose-limiting toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. Current treatment is largely palliative and no adequate preventive treatment exists. Recently, we reported that recombinant human(rh) interleukin 11 (IL-11) favourably modified the course of mucositis following a single stomatotoxic regimen of 5-fluorouracil in hamsters. Although potentially beneficial, the clinically relevant issue of mucositis and myelosuppression during multicourse chemotherapy treatment was not addressed. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of rhIL-11 on two consecutive courses of mucositis and myelosuppression in hamsters. Ulcerative mucositis was induced using a standardized protocol consisting of 5-fluorouracil (60 mg/kg) on days 1 and 2 followed by superficial irritation of the buccal mucosa on day 4. Animals treated with 100 microg of rhIL-11 for 12 consecutive days following each regimen of chemotherapy experienced a reduction in the incidence, severity, and duration of mucositis, a reduction in weight loss, and less morbidity and mortality relative to control animals. Bone marrow cellularity and function was not adversely affected by rhIL-11 treatment. The present study is consistent with the potential use of rhIL-11 treating patients at risk of developing ulcerative mucositis while undergoing intensive multicourse chemotherapy treatment.
 
Article
To evaluate the role of interleukin-11 (IL-11) in acute mBSA/IL-1-induced inflammatory arthritis. IL-11 was administered via intra-articular (IA) injection into knee joints of C57BL/6 mice and joint histology was assessed. The mitogenic response to IL-11 was measured in wild-type (WT) synovial fibroblasts. IL-1 was used as a comparator in both the studies. The severity of acute methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA)/IL-1 arthritis was determined in WT and IL-11 receptor null (IL-11Ra1-/-) mice. In parallel experiments, a neutralising antibody to IL-11 was administered to WT mice throughout this model. IA injections of IL-11 resulted in mild-to-moderate joint inflammation which was less than that due to IA IL-1. IL-11 had a dose-dependent mitogenic effect on WT synovial fibroblasts (P<0.01). mBSA/IL-1 acute arthritis was reduced in IL-11Ra1-/- versus WT mice (histological arthritis score: 10.1+/-0.5 versus 12.8+/-0.7, respectively; P=0.01). Administration of an IL-11 neutralising antibody to WT mice reduced mBSA/IL-1 acute arthritis scores compared to control antibody (10.6+/-0.7 versus 13.3+/-0.6, respectively; P=0.02). These data demonstrate that endogenous IL-11 exerts relatively mild but consistent pro-inflammatory effects in acute inflammatory arthritis.
 
Article
We studied the production of interleukin (IL)-11 and IL-8, two cytokines known to affect erythropoiesis, in polycythemia vera (PV). In vivo, IL-11 was detected more frequently in serum and bone marrow (BM) plasma of PV patients than in controls (healthy donors and patients with idiopathic erythrocytosis (IE)). In addition, serum IL-11 levels of PV patients were higher than those of controls. IL-8 was elevated in serum of both PV and IE patients (respective median levels: 38.6 and 242pg/ml, vs 4.4pg/ml for healthy donors). BM plasma IL-8 levels of PV patients (508pg/ml) were significantly higher than those of IE patients (120pg/ml). In vitro, bone marrow (BM) stromal cells (BMSC) of PV patients produced significantly more IL-11 (x6.4) and IL-8 (x8.3) than BMSC of healthy donors or IE patients. In conclusion, both IL-11 and IL-8 are overproduced in PV, apparently by BMSC; IL-8 is also overproduced in IE, by cells other than BMSC.
 
Article
Impaired hematopoietic growth factor production is a hypothetical contributing factor to the development of acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The serum levels of most hematopoietic cytokines in SAA patients are elevated. To measure interleukin-11 levels in newly diagnosed SAA children and attempt to correlate levels with disease severity and response to therapy. Following enrollment into a clinical study but prior to treatment, serum samples were obtained from 11 newly diagnosed children with acquired SAA. These samples were collected between May 2000 and September 2002. IL-11 levels were quantified utilizing an ELISA technique. Ten of the 11 patients had low or normal levels of IL-11 (<85 pg/mL) and one had an elevated level of 409 pg/mL (normal range 15-200 pg/mL). The production of IL-11 does not increase in response to thrombocytopenia in most children with SAA. The significance of this laboratory observation is not clear at this time. Further studies are warranted to determine what, if any, role this plays in the development of this disorder and if the administration of recombinant human IL-11 might be beneficial in the treatment of acquired SAA.
 
Article
The murine CC chemokine C10, a macrophage chemoattractant, has been shown to have an unusually restricted expression pattern in cultured cells (LPS non-responsive, IL-4 inducible). Its occurrence in vivo has not been characterized. Here the authors employ immunocytochemistry to demonstrate that C10 is expressed in inflammatory macrophages during irritant peritonitis. In addition, C10 was found to be a constitutive component of eosinophils. Peritoneal inflammation led to the accumulation of sufficient C10 (> 10 nM) to permit detection in exudate fluid. This accumulation did not begin until 24h after challenge, and was sustained through at least day 10 of the inflammation. In contrast, MIP-1alpha gene expression was earlier and transient. These kinetic features are consistent with earlier in vitro findings, suggesting that C10 is not a "first-wave" chemokine and may play a role related to chronic stages of host defence reactions.
 
IL-11 activates STAT3 and ERK 1/2 in cultured cardiomyocytes. (a) Cells were stimulated with IL-11 (20 ng/ml) for the indicated time. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with anti-phospho-STAT3 or anti-phospho-ERK 1/2 antibody. The membranes were reprobed with anti-STAT3 or anti-ERK 1/2 antibody. LIF (1000 U/ml) was used for the positive control. Four independent experiments were performed, and representative data were shown. (b) Quantitative analyses of the time course of the phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERKs. Data are presented as means ± SE from 4 independent assays. (c) Cells were stimulated with various concentrations of IL-11 for 15 min. Cell lysates were immunoblotted with anti-STAT3 and STAT3 antibodies. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was estimated. Note that IL-11 phosphorylated STAT3 in a dosedependent manner. Data are presented as means ± SE from 4 independent assays.
STAT3 and ERK 1/2 are activated by IL-11 in cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with IL-11 (20 ng/ml) for the indicated time. LIF (1000 U/ml) was used for the positive control. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted with anti-phospho-STAT3 or anti-phosphoERK 1/2 antibody. The membrane was reprobed with anti-STAT3 or anti-ERK 1/2 antibody. Three independent assays were performed, and representative data were shown.
IL-11 induces the translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 into nuclei in cultured cardiomyocytes. (a) Cultured cardiomyocytes were stimulated with IL-11 (20 ng/ml) for 15 min and stained with antisarcomeric a-actinin and anti-phospho-STAT3 antibodies. Bar, 40 lm. Note that the staining of phospho-STAT3 is enhanced and concentrated in nuclei of sarcomeric a-actinin-positive cardiomyocytes in response to IL11. (b) Cardiac myocytes were stimulated with Il-11 for 15 min. Cytosolic (C) and nuclear (N) fractions were prepared, as described in Section 2. Immunoblot analysis was performed for STAT3 protein. STAT3 band intensity in nuclear fraction was increased by IL-11 stimulation.
IL-11 induces the cell elongation in cultured cardiomyocytes. Cultured cardiac myocytes were stimulated with control vehicle (cont), IL-11 (20 ng/ ml) or LIF (1000 U/ml) for 24 h. Cells were stained with anti-sarcomeric a-actinin antibody. (a) Representative immunofluorescent microscopic images. Bar, 40 lm. (b) Cell surface areas were measured. Data are shown as means ± SE. (c) Cell length of long axis or short axis was measured. Data are shown as means ± SE. The cell number observed for morphological analysis is as follows; n = 151 for control, 187 for IL-11, 227 for LIF. * p < 0.05 versus control. Experiments were repeated three times with similar results.  
IL-11 suppressed the apoptotic cell death induced by H 2 O 2 through STAT3. (a) IL-11 prevented cardiomyocytes from apoptotic cell death induced by H 2 O 2 . Cardiomyocytes were pretreated with IL-11 (20 ng/ml) for 3 h and exposed to H 2 O 2 for 24 h. Apoptotic cells were detected by staining with annexin V and Hoechst 33342. Representative images were shown. Arrowheads show the annexin V-positive, apoptotic cells. Bar, 40 lm. (b) Quantification of the apoptotic cell death was performed. Cells were transfected with adenovirus vector expressing dnSTAT3 (dn) or b-galactosidase (b), a control vector. Cells were exposed to H 2 O 2 with or without pretreatment of IL-11. In order to examine the effects of the inhibition of ERK, cells were preincubated with 10 lM U0126, a MEK 1/2 inhibitor. Data were shown as means ± SD. * p < 0.05 by ANOVA (Fisher's test). NS, not significant.  
Article
Interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines, which share glycoprotein 130 (gp130) as a signal-transducing receptor component, play important roles in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. IL-11, a member of IL-6 family cytokines, is expressed in cardiac myocytes, though it remains to be elucidated how IL-11 functions in the hearts. In the present study, first, we showed that IL-11 administration reduced the ischemia/reperfusion injury in the hearts. IL-11 receptor alpha was expressed in cardiomyocytes. IL-11 treatment rapidly activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in cardiac myocytes. IL-11 stimulation resulted in the translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 into nuclei. Immunofluorescence microscopic analyses revealed that IL-11 treatment led to the cell elongation, as is the case with other cardiotrophic members of IL-6 family, such as leukemia inhibitory factor. Finally we showed that IL-11 treatment conferred the resistance to cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide, which was abrogated by adenoviral transfer of dominant negative STAT3, but not by the inhibition of ERK1/2 with U0126. These findings indicate that IL-11 mediates cytoprotective signals in cardiomyocytes, proposing that IL-11 has the potential to exhibit cardioprotection as a novel biological function.
 
Article
To direct the synthesis and secretion of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) in chicken HD11 cells, a plasmid targeting the c-lysozyme gene has been constructed which contains the mature cytokine cDNA in frame with the lysozyme leader sequence. The upregulation of rhIL-11 mediated by LPS proves the knock-in of hIL-11 cDNA in the lysozyme gene. The bioactivity of the expressed protein is demonstrated and quantified with the hIL-11 dependent 7TD1 and B9 cell lines. The electrophoretic mobility, receptor binding properties and growth promoting effect of the chicken-derived cytokine are identical to those of a rhIL-11 expressed in Escherichia coli. These results describe the secretion of a biologically active rhIL-11 expressed by an avian cellular machinery.
 
Article
Thrombocytopenia is one of the main clinical findings of dengue. In this work we examined the levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) and interleukin-11 (IL-11), two of the most potent regulators of platelet production, in serum from 28 patients with dengue fever (DF). Patients with DF had increased levels of TPO, compared with healthy individuals (p<0.005). Patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n=7), the more severe form of dengue, had higher TPO levels than patients with DF (p<0.001). Serum TPO levels and platelet counts were inversely correlated in both DF and DHF patients. IL-11 was detectable in neither DF nor DHF patients. Our results demonstrate that thrombocytopenia in dengue disease is associated with changes in the serum levels of TPO, but not IL-11, suggesting that this cytokine could be a potential early clinical marker of the severity of dengue disease.
 
Article
The issue of whether interleukin-11 (IL-11) contributes to bone loss during states of estrogen deficiency has not been previously determined. We therefore randomized ovariectomized (OVX) mice to once daily interperitoneal injections of either sheep anti-murine IL-11 Ab or normal sheep IgG (NSIgG) for 21 days, and then determined the effects on bone using bone histomorphometry. Here we report that treatment of OVX mice with anti-IL-11 Ab significantly increases both trabecular width and cancellous bone volume. Osteoblast activity, as measured by the percentage of trabecular surface covered by osteoid and rates of bone formation, were also significantly increased following treatment with anti-IL-11 Ab. In contrast, treatment of OVX mice with anti-IL-11 Ab significantly decreased both osteoclast number and activity. Ex-vivo assays of osteoclast formation and activity confirmed the histomorphometric data. Thus, bone marrow cells isolated from anti-IL-11 Ab treated OVX mice formed fewer osteoclasts and resorbed less bone in culture than did marrow cells isolated from either untreated or NSIgG-treated OVX mice. Based on these results we conclude that IL-11 contributes to the bone loss which is observed during states of estrogen deficiency.
 
Article
Interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines are multifunctional proteins involved in cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial protection. Recent studies, performed on animal models, report the production of these cytokines by heart. The aim of this study was to analyse the capacity of myocytes and fibroblasts isolated from human atrium to secrete IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), IL-11, oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the soluble receptor subunits sIL-6R and sgp130 during primary culture. We detected LIF, IL-11, sgp130 and a large amount of IL-6, but not OSM, CT-1, CNTF nor IL-6R in these culture supernatants. Both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are able to spontaneously produce IL-6. The increase of IL-6 production all along the culture period appears to be the consequence of fibroblast proliferation and gp130 stimulation. This is the first demonstration that human cardiac cells are able to secrete IL-6, but also LIF and IL-11 in vitro. These cytokines could be involved in an autocrine and/or a paracrine networks regulating myocardial cyto-protection, hypertrophy and fibrosis.
 
Article
5-azacytidine (AZA) yields hematologic improvement in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Ineffective hemopoiesis in MDS produce the paradox of high intramedullary cellularity with peripheral cytopenias. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-11 regulate hemopoiesis and LIF, OSM, and IL-6 also inhibit the proliferation of myeloid leukemic cell lines through the signal-transducing subunit gp130. These IL-6-type cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cell culture supernatants (SN) obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) and monocyte-depleted MNC of patients with refractory anemia (RA; n=12) and healthy individuals (n=10). AZA down-regulated OSM, IL-6, and IL-11 release by MNC of patients but not by MNC from healthy individuals. Patient's SN had significantly lower concentrations of LIF, OSM, and IL-11 than SN of normal subjects. When monocyte-depleted MNC of patients were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin a significant increment in OSM levels was observed. In contrast, monocyte depletion in healthy subjects did not cause any significant change in OSM values. We conclude that: (a) AZA inhibits the release of OSM, IL-6, and IL-11 exclusively in RA-diseased MNC, (b) Patient's MNC release subnormal amounts of LIF, OSM, and IL-11, and (c) RA-derived monocytes probably down-regulate OSM release by phytohemagglutinin-activated MNC.
 
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Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inflammatory activity is mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandin E2(PGE2). In osteoarthritis (OA), other cytokines are believed to play a role by interacting with TNF-α. Using OA synovial fibroblasts, we investigated the effects of interleukin 8 (IL-8), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and IL-11 on the level of TNF-α-induced PGE2, and their impact on the TNF-α-induced cellular signalling cascades including the TNF-receptor (TNF-R), soluble TNF-R (TNF-sR), cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and the transcription factors NF-κB, C/EBP, CREB and AP-1.
 
Article
Interferons (IFNs) are a family of cytokines that have many biological functions in the cell, including regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, immunomodulation, and viral replication by inducing a set of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). Based on their structure and biological activities IFNs are subdivided into two groups: type I IFNs, which includes IFN-alpha and IFN-beta and type II IFNs, represented by IFN-gamma. The aim of this work was to investigate whether integrin alpha 11 (ITGA-11), a novel collagen-binding integrin, is responsive to type I IFN treatment. Our findings indicated that type I IFNs were able to induce the ITGA-11 mRNA levels in T98G cells. Increased levels of ITGA-11 protein were also observed in IFN-treated cells. The in vivo induction of ITGA-11 was detected in spleen and lungs of IFN-treated BALB/c mice. T98G cells infected with Murine encephalomyocarditis virus showed increased levels of ITGA-11 mRNA and protein. We observed that the ITGA-11 promoter has binding sites for transcriptional factors regulated by IFNs and the double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR). Therefore we investigated the role of PKR in the induction of ITGA-11 by using a PKR deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (MEFs). PKR(-/-) MEFs treated with IFN did not show increased levels of ITGA-11 protein nor mRNA although that could be promptly detected in wild type MEFs. Taken together our data suggest that ITGA-11 is a new interferon stimulated gene.
 
Article
Short, nonlethal ischemic episodes administered to hearts directly after ischemic events (ischemic postconditioning, IPost) have an advantage over ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The endogenous cytochrome P450 2J3/11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (CYP2J3/11,12-EET) is upregulated by IPost, but not IPC, in the rat heart. The CYP epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulphonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH) reduces the cardioprotective effects of IPost, but not IPC. We proposed that upregulation of CYP2J3/11,12-EET during IPost induces cardioprotection by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis and that multiple apoptotic signals, including changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, mitochondrial cytochrome c leakage, caspase-3 levels, and levels of protective kinases such as Bcl-2 and Bax, are involved in the process. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes underwent 3-h hypoxia followed by 2-, 5-, or 6-h reoxygenation (H/R) or three cycles of 5-min reoxygenation followed by 5-min hypoxia before 90-min reoxygenation (HPost); or were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CYP2J3 for 48h before H/R; or were treated with MS-PPOH for 10min before HPost. For HPost alone, pcDNA3.1-CYP2J3 transfection attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis to 68.4% (p<0.05) of that with H/R. pcDNA3.1-CYP2J3 transfection significantly decreased MMP and inhibited mPTP opening induced by H/R, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome c leakage, cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax expression. MS-PPOH abolished this effect. Therefore, upregulation of CYP2J3/11,12-EET during HPost is involved in cardioprotection by inhibiting apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway, and the apoptosis-suppressive effect may have important clinical implications during HPost.
 
Article
A recombinant human GM-CSF-EPO hybrid protein named MEN 11300 was administered biweekly for a total of 6 weeks to rhesus monkeys in order to evaluate its pharmacokinetic behaviour, tolerability and immunogenicity. In this primate species a strong antibody response was induced which neutralized the in vitro biological activity of human EPO while no antibody response could be detected against human GM-CSF. A severe drop in reticulocyte counts at approximately 2 weeks after initiation of treatment was followed by a dramatic decrease in the number of erythrocytes. No effects were observed on GM-CSF-dependent hematopoietic lineages and the clinical chemistry analyses did not reveal signs of general toxicity. Reticulocyte and erythrocyte counts started to recover 3-4 weeks after discontinuation of treatment in concert with a decline in anti-EPO antibody titres. Nevertheless, cell numbers remained below basal levels up to 50 days after the last MEN 11300 administration. Haematological impairment indicates that the administration to non-human primate of human EPO fused to human GM-CSF, induces neutralizing autoantibodies to the self EPO. Present data do not allow prediction of the immunogenic potential of the fusion protein in humans and a dose-escalating phase I study should be addressed to investigate the safety of the product.
 
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Histoplasma capsulatum is a prevalent fungal pathogen in the United States, infecting approximately 500,000 individuals each year. Host protection requires an intact cell-mediated immune response. In this review, we will discuss how cytokines and chemokines influence protective immunity in H. capsulatum infection.
 
Article
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine with effects on several hematopoietic and other normal cells, is also important for the growth and survival of tumor cells such as murine plasmacytomas and human myelomas. Exploiting the 11A3 hybridoma cell line for its IL-6 requirement to proliferate in vitro, we used subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) to identify genes whose expression is stimulated and/or repressed in response to IL-6. Northern blot analysis of 100 arbitrarily picked subtracted cDNA clones revealed that expression of 11 mRNAs were IL-6-modulated. Among these, eight were genes known to encode a variety of proteins such as enzymes (PCK, MTDNI), structural proteins (Tropoelastin), transcriptional regulators (BRG1) and proteins involved in cell division control (Cyclin A, OAZi) or cell signaling (PIX, TOPK/PBK). The recently identified MAPKK-like protein kinase TOPK/PBK gene represents a likely candidate IL-6 target gene as suggested by its significant up-regulated expression in hybridoma cells induced to grow by a brief IL-6 pulse. The diversity of growth-related genes identified in this study further emphasizes the central role of IL-6 in the regulation of myeloma cell expansion in addition to its previously demonstrated role in the inhibition of apoptosis.
 
Article
Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays important roles in vertebrate limb development, lung branching morphogenesis, and epidermis regeneration. The receptor (FGFR2b) binding specificity is an essential element in regulating the diverse functions of FGF10. Analyzing the FGF10:FGFR2b complex we found that Thr-114 in beta4 of FGF10 could form specific interactions with D3 of FGFR2b. To investigate the role of Thr-114 played on functions of FGF10, two mutants of FGF10 were constructed, named TA (Thr-114-->Ala) and TR (Thr-114-->Arg), respectively. The biological activity assays showed that the receptor-binding affinity, the stimulating growth effect on rat tracheal epithelium (RTE) cells, and the inducing ability in receptor phosphorylation of both mutants were decreased, which were consistent with the interaction analysis of the TA:FGFR2b and TR:FGFR2b complexes. These results suggested that Thr-114 is a crucial functional residue for FGF10, and mutating Thr-114 to Ala or Arg would lead to great decrease in receptor-binding affinity and biological activity of FGF10.
 
Article
The antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects of type I interferons (IFNs) are well documented, however, few studies have been published concerning differences in the antitumor effects of IFN-alpha and beta. In the present study, differences in antitumor effect, including the antiproliferative effect, cell cycle change, apoptosis, and the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) were examined by flow cytometry between IFN-alpha and beta on three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2, Huh7 and JHH4). The antiproliferative effect of both IFNs on the HCC cell lines was time- and dose-dependent, and IFN-beta was significantly stronger than IFN-alpha. The cell cycle effect by both IFNs was an S-phase accumulation, with IFN-beta having a tendency to increase the S-phase ratio more strongly than IFN-alpha, especially in Huh7. Apoptosis marker expression, Fas antigen and intracellular active caspase-3, was increased after the addition of IFNs, especially of IFN-beta. The expression of human leukocyte antigen-class I molecules, ISG-encoded protein, was increased after the addition of IFNs, especially of IFN-beta. These data suggest that IFN-beta has a greater antitumor effect than IFN-alpha on HCC of a very early stage in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
 
Article
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays an essential role in cell-mediated immunity. It is known to induce T cell apoptosis in in vivo systems such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, the role of IL-12 in T cell apoptosis in the absence of antigenic stimulation has not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to investigate whether IL-12, in the absence of an antigen, is able to induce T cell apoptosis, and also, which signalling pathways utilized by IL-12 are involved in this process. Our data clearly showed that IL-12 in the absence of an antigen induces apoptosis in T cells. Flow cytometry and ELISA showed FasL up-regulation and increased IFN-gamma synthesis in IL-12 treated T cells, while Fas and TNF-R1 showed little change. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that IL-12 was able to up-regulate TNF-alpha and FasL mRNA expression. Furthermore, IL-12 induced apoptosis was associated with caspase-3, caspase-2, caspase-7, DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) and Fas associated death domain (FADD) whereas TNF receptor associated death domain (TRADD) and receptor interacting protein (RIP) were not. Inhibition of Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) was able to suppress IL-12 induced T cell apoptosis. Anti-FasL antibody was able to block IL-12 induced T cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that IL-12 is able to induce T cell apoptosis in the absence of an antigen. In addition, the present data suggest that this process is FasL mediated and caspase-3 dependent. Furthermore, JAK was shown to be involved in this process. These results may have significant implications in the understanding of IL-12 mediated T cell apoptosis.
 
Article
Pretransplant treatment of recipients with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, 250 microg/kg/day s.c. for 5 days) facilitates heart allograft acceptance in tacrolimus-treated rat recipients. We examined effectiveness of transfusion of in vivo rhG-CSF-treated blood since rhG-CSF induces immunoregulatory cells in human blood. DA heart grafts were transplanted into tacrolimus (2 mg/kg i.m. on day 0)-treated Lewis recipients. Although graft survival prolongation by blood transfusion on day 0 from rhG-CSF-treated syngeneic Lewis was comparable to that in directly rhG-CSF-pretreated recipients (p = 0.22), transfusion of rhG-CSF-treated allogeneic DA blood was much more effective (p = 0.0016). Intragraft cytokine mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction at 24 h after transplantation. IL-12p35 expression was downregulated by both treatments. Notably, IL-12p40 was upregulated by rhG-CSF-treated DA blood transfusion but downregulated by transfusion of rhG-CSF-treated isogeneic blood. Differential expression of IL-12 subunits was associated with facilitation of graft acceptance by rhG-CSF-treated donor blood transfusion.
 
Article
IL-12 and IL-18 are cytokines which are mainly secreted by endothelial cells and monocytes including dendritic cells. The well-known effects of IL-12 and IL-18 in the protection against bacteria and virus infection as well as tumor development are associated with their characteristics in synergistically driving the development of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and inducing IFN-γ production. In this study, we compared the knockout effects of IL-12 and/or IL-18 genes on phenotypes and functional capabilities of dendritic cells (DCs) including their ability to polarize naive CD4(+) T cells. The expression levels of surface molecules such as MHC II, CD80, CD86 and ICOSL, and endocytic capacity were not significantly differences between DCs of wild type (WT) mice and double knockout (DKO) mice of IL-12p40 and IL-18. Additionally, DCs lacking IL-12p40 and/or IL-18 genes were equivalently efficient in inducing T cell proliferation, compared with the WT-DCs. Interestingly, IL-10 production significantly decreased in DKO-DCs, while production of other inflammation-related cytokines were unaffected in WT-DCs and DKO-DCs. Importantly, IL-12p40(-/-)-DCs and DKO-DCs severely impaired the ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells. IL-18(-/-)-DCs also moderately decreased IL-17 production and IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T cells when co-cultured with CD4(+) T cells, demonstrating the involvement of IL-18 in driving IL-17 differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest the principal contribution of IL-12p40 in inducing Th1 and Th17 polarization, regardless of similar surface phenotypes of DCs.
 
Article
Over-production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and under-production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) are associated with autoimmunity, whereas the opposite is associated with overwhelming infections. The influence of iron deficiency, a public health problem for children on in vivo secretion of these cytokines has not been previously investigated. To determine whether iron deficiency alters serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12 in mice. Cytokine levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay in iron-deficient (ID), control (C), pair-fed (PF), and iron replete C57BL/6 mice for 3 (R3) and 14 (R14) days (n = 24-28, 12 R14). Iron deficiency was associated with > or = 50% reduction in hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver iron stores, and thymus weight (p < 0.05). Iron repletion improved these measurements. While iron deficiency significantly reduced IL-12p40 (64%) and IFN-gamma (66%) levels, underfeeding reduced those of IL-10 (48%) (p < 0.05). Iron repletion improved cytokine concentrations to PF levels. Thymus atrophy observed in 16 ID and 19 R3 mice, had no effect on IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma, whereas it further decreased IL-10 levels by 72% (p < 0.05). Cytokine levels positively correlated with indicators of iron status, body and thymus weights (r < or = 0.688, p < 0.05). Data suggest that iron deficiency alters the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, a change that may affect innate and cell-mediated immunity, and risk of autoimmune disorders.
 
Article
The proper balance between IL-12p40-related cytokines controls the appearance of normal and pathological Th1 immune responses. In this study, we examined the inducible IL-12p40, IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 mRNA expression and protein production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and purified monocytes, isolated from healthy donors. We investigated how JNK and p38 MAPKs inhibitors influenced IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-23 production. The cytokines' quantity determination was performed by ELISA. qRT-PCR was performed for mRNA transcripts detection. All stimuli tested induced higher level of IL-12p40 and IL-12p19 mRNAs. LPS was the strongest inducer of IL-12p40 mRNA, whereas C3bgp stimulated the highest expression of IL-23p19 mRNA in human monocytes. IL-12p40 and IL-23 protein production observed was increased in the highest level after C3bgp stimulation. The inhibition of both JNK and p38 augmented IL-12p40 production. The inhibition of p38 MAPK downregulated IL-23 production and upregulated IL-12p40 production in stimulated monocytes and PBMC. These results provide evidence that in human monocytes and PBMC p38 MAP kinase activation has an opposite effect on the IL-12p40 and IL-23 expression.
 
Article
IL-12p70 is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted by dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages. It plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity by inducing proliferation of T cell and natural killer cells, and enhancing their cytotoxic activity. In adaptive immune response, it acts on naive T cells to differentiate into Th1-type cells. It is composed of two subunits, p35 and p40. The latter can be secreted in the form of monodimer or heterodimer, which is also referred as IL-12p80. Recently IL-12p70 has been proven to locally provoke nociceptive effect in naïve rats. This study investigated pain response following systemic administration of IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 homodimer in chronic neuropathic pain model, induced by chronic constriction injury. The doses tested were IL-12p40 homodimer or IL12p70 at 15, 150 and 1500ng/kg, respectively. Pain was assessed at 1, 4, 7 and 24h after injection, in the form of tactile allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. The side effect of sensory motor disability was measured by rotarod performance. By all behavioral measures, IL-12p70 of any dosage, at any time point, had no significant effect on tactile allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. A high dose of IL-12p40 homodimer induced significant analgesic effect by the measure of hind paw tactile allodynia from 1h to 4h after injection. Medium and low doses of IL-12p40 homodimer exerted their analgesic effect 4h post injection. Mechanical hyperalgesia, following high and medium doses of IL-12p40 administration, was significantly reduced at 4h after application. Also, no significant sensory motor dysfunction was detected for all dosage for both homodimers. These findings suggest that systemic application of IL-12p40 homodimer induces time-dependent analgesia to mechanical stimulation in rats exposed to neuropathic pain.
 
Article
Interleukin 12 (IL-12), a central cytokine acting on T and natural killer (NK) cells, directs proliferation of activated T lymphocytes towards a Th1 phenotype. The heterodimeric molecule IL-12p70, equates with IL-12 biological activity, while IL-12p40 may antagonize IL-12 and inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in vitro. This study characterizes age-related changes in serum total IL-12, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 relating them with CD3(+), NK and related subsets from subjects, aged 30-96 years. Total IL-12, IL-12p40 and the IL-12p40/IL-12p70 ratio, but not IL-12p70, increased significantly with age (P<0.0001). Increases in total IL-12 and IL-12p40 were negatively associated with CD3(+)(P=0.003, P=0.002), CD3(+)CD4(+)(P=0.004, P=0.003), CD3(+)CD8(+)(P=0.04;P=0. 04) and CD4(+)45RA(+)(P=0.0003;P=0.0007) subsets, respectively. Conversely, increases in IL-12p40 showed a non-significant trend for association with increases in NK(P=0.07) and a related CD8(+low)CD57(+)(P=0.07) subset. These findings may have important implications for understanding the functional activity of IL-12 and its p40 and p70 subunits in vivo and with respect to T-or NK-cell activation in aging.
 
Article
HLA class I and class II associations were examined in relation to measles virus-specific cytokine responses in 339 healthy children who had received two doses of live attenuated measles vaccine. Multivariate linear regression modeling analysis revealed suggestions of associations between the expression of DPA1*0201 (p=0.03) and DPA1*0202 (p=0.09) alleles and interleukin-2 (IL-2) cytokine production (global p-value 0.06). Importantly, cytokine production and DQB1 allele associations (global p-value 0.04) revealed that the alleles with the strongest association with IL-10 secretion were DQB1*0302 (p=0.02), DQB1*0303 (p=0.07) and DQB1*0502 (p=0.06). Measles-specific IL-10 secretion associations approached significance with DRB1 and DQA1 loci (both global p-values 0.08). Specifically, suggestive associations were found between DRB1*0701 (p=0.07), DRB1*1103 (p=0.06), DRB1*1302 (p=0.08), DRB1*1303 (p=0.06), DQA1*0101 (p=0.08), and DQA1*0201 (p=0.04) alleles and measles-induced IL-10 secretion. Further, suggestive association was observed between specific DQA1*0505 (p=0.002) alleles and measles-specific IL-12p40 secretion (global p-value 0.09) indicating that cytokine responses to measles antigens are predominantly influenced by HLA class II genes. We found no associations between any of the alleles of HLA A, B, and Cw loci and cytokine secretion. These novel findings suggest that HLA class II genes may influence the level of cytokine production in the adaptive immune responses to measles vaccine.
 
Article
Th17 cells are critical in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease. The polarized development of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells is dependent on counterregulatory effects on each other. Whereas IFN-gamma inhibits Th17 development, the effect of IL-17 in human Th1 development is not known. We report a novel negative regulatory role of IL-17 on IL-12R beta 2 expression associated with reduced IL-12 responsiveness. IL-17 decreased IL-12-induced IFN-gamma expression in PBMC and developing Th1 cells, associated with a selective reduction in IL-12R beta 2, and not IL-23R, IL-12R beta 1 or T-bet. Counterregulatory effects of human Th17 on Th1 lineage cytokines may contribute to lineage divergence. In autoimmune disease, IL-17 may reinforce its own developmental programme by reducing IL-12 responsiveness, thus limiting inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma on Th17 development.
 
Article
The Th2 cytokine IL-13 plays a key role in allergy, by regulating IgE, airway hyper secretion, eosinophils and mast cells. In this study, we aimed to identify novel transcription factors (TFs) that potentially regulated IL-13. We analyzed Th2 polarized naïve T cells from four different blood donors with gene expression microarrays to find clusters of genes that were correlated or anti-correlated with IL13. These clusters were further filtered, by selecting genes that were functionally related. In these clusters, we identified three transcription factors (TFs) that were predicted to regulate the expression of IL13, namely CEBPB, E2F6 and AHR. siRNA mediated knockdowns of these TFs in naïve polarized T cells showed significant increases of IL13, following knockdown of CEBPB and E2F6, but not AHR. This suggested an inhibitory role of CEBPB and E2F6 in the regulation of IL13 and allergy. This was supported by analysis of E2F6, but not CEBPB, in allergen-challenged CD4+ T cells from six allergic patients and six healthy controls, which showed decreased expression of E2F6 in patients. In summary, our findings indicate an inhibitory role of E2F6 in the regulation of IL-13 and allergy. The analytical approach may be generally applicable to elucidate the complex regulatory patterns in Th2 cell polarization and allergy.
 
Top-cited authors
Cem Gabay
  • University of Geneva
Thomas Forsthuber
  • University of Texas at San Antonio
Sarah Gaffen
  • University of Pittsburgh
Itay Raphael
  • University of Pittsburgh
Todd Eagar
  • Houston Methodist Hospital