Cyberpsychology

Online ISSN: 1802-7962
Publications
Exergames, which are video games that require gross motor activity, are popular activities that produce energy expenditure. Seventy-four low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents were randomly assigned to a 30-minute condition: 1) solitary Wii tennis exergame play against virtual peers; 2) social Wii tennis exergame play against a real peer; or 3) control group with sedentary computer activity. Adolescents were tested for caloric expenditure after exposure to treatment conditions as well as on a tennis court using Actical accelerometers. Adolescents who played the social exergame against a peer expended significantly more energy than those who played alone. Both exergame groups expended more energy than the control group. Adolescents who played the social exergame also expended comparable calories to actual tennis court play during a simulated lesson. Exergames, then, could promote physical activity, thereby becoming a tool to combat the obesity crisis that is affecting many youth.
 
This audience research case study focuses on the Israeli 14 th Tank Brigade veterans, who were involved in the 1973 Yom Kippur War horrific battles against the Egyptians in the Sinai Desert. In 2007, this offline traumatised remembrance community constructed an online commemorative and historical website to advance their unrelenting struggle on public recognition in the Israeli national collective memory and military history. The theoretical framework combines diverse perspectives: the Yom Kippur War and its consequences on Israeli society; theories of generations and media generations, war and trauma, war and remembrance; and Israel's collective memory and culture of remembrance. An integrated methodology offline and online was conducted: multi-sited and multimodal "Thick Description" ethnography and netnography; critical discourse analysis and semiotics of texts and artifacts; and in-depth interviews with veterans and historians. Findings are constructed on three levels: first - analysis of veterans' interrelations with common Israeli culture of memory, and their active participation as a "remembrance community" in creating cultural artifacts offline and online; second - interpretation of Israeli cultural codes in battlefield "actuality", even under the most traumatic conditions; and third - the universal state level, analysis of the deep conflict impelling the remembrance community to write the Yom Kippur War battles also as history in their cybersite, thus attaining public recognition. This case study demonstrates the war veterans' ability of "Breaking the Silence", empowering their traumatised community by bridging the "generation gap" of their "actual" "media generation", by merging their comradeship and high cultural capital, towards official affirmation within Israeli military history.
 
Social media, and particularly posting ‘selfies’ have become fully incorporated into young people’s lives. Research indicates that posting selfies may impact upon self esteem and that feedback in the form of ‘likes’ may change how young people feel about themselves. To date, however, most research has been cross sectional or qualitative limiting conclusions about causality. Further, it has taken place in non naturalistic environments, with no longer term follow up and limited outcome variables. This experimental study explored the impact of posting selfies and receiving feedback (‘likes’) on Instagram on broader aspects of the psychological well-being of young people. Participants (n = 59) aged 16-25 were randomly allocated to one of three conditions for a 7-day intervention (no selfie-posting; posting selfies without feedback; posting selfies with feedback) and completed measures at baseline, after the intervention and at one week follow up. ‘Likes’ were delivered through an app. The intervention had no impact on self-esteem or mood. Posting no selfies resulted in a greater improvement in appearance satisfaction over the study compared to posting selfies (regardless of feedback). In contrast, posting selfies with feedback resulted in a greater improvement in face satisfaction during the intervention although this dropped back to baseline by follow up. To conclude the impact of selfies may vary depending upon which outcome variable is measured and when.
 
The aim of this study was to explore the degree of correspondence between sexual behaviour in the real world and that on the internet, among seventeen year old Czechs. The adolescents, 237 girls and 225 boys, completed a computer-administered questionnaire which examined sexual behaviour offline and sexual activities on the Internet. Individuals who reported any offline sexual experience tended to engage in online sexual activities more often than those who did not. The use of the Internet for sexual purposes was similar for those who had experienced kissing and/or petting, it then increased, being similar for those who had experienced oral sex and/or sexual intercourse. Findings suggest that the relationship between the gradual extension of sexual experience offline and the gradual extension of using the Internet for sexual purposes is rather weak. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
COVID-19-Related Social Isolation Attenuates the Positive Main Effect of Asynchronous Sexting Frequency.
Negative Binomial Regression Predicting Sexting-Related Privacy Management (Step 1).
During the global COVID-19 pandemic, many people were physically separated from their romantic or sexual partners and added sexting to their sexual repertoire. Sexting involves the exchange of sensitive data and thus necessitates personal and interpersonal privacy management strategies such as information control and privacy boundary communication. This study investigates the psychological predictors of sexting-related privacy management. In an online survey with 494 young adults, we tested demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of sexting-related privacy management. Negative binomial regressions revealed that age, gender, and asynchronous sexting frequency positively predicted sexting-related privacy management. COVID-19-related social isolation moderated the positive effect of asynchronous sexting frequency: Asynchronous sexting frequency had a positive effect on sexting-related privacy management only in individuals with low or mean COVID-19-related social isolation. For those who perceived high COVID-19-related social isolation, asynchronous sexting frequency had no positive effect. This suggests that in a context of social isolation, even frequent sexters are willing to sacrifice their privacy. Relationship status, privacy concerns, rejection sensitivity, and synchronous sexting frequency were not related to sexting-related privacy management. The results highlight the various effects of COVID-19-related social isolation.
 
Demographic Characteristics of the Participants (N = 312).
During the COVID-19 period, the use of social network sites (SNSs) has been reported to increase. The present study aimed to explore whether, on balance, their use serves the well-being of university students positively as a source of social capital and entertainment, or negatively as a source of information about the COVID-19 pandemic. It focused on a sample of 339 university students, a group which is known to have a high risk of well-being problems. Students completed the demographic information form, the use of SNSs form, and the World Health Organization Well-Being Index. The use of SNSs form included items on SNS use in terms of daily duration, usage patterns (active and passive use) and reasons with regard to social capital (bridging and bonding social capital) and entertainment, and the perceived change in these quantitative and qualitative aspects of SNS use compared to the pre-COVID period. It also measured the level of exposure to COVID-19 related information on SNSs. It was found that the increase in the duration of SNS use predicted the well-being score negatively whereas the increase in active use and use for bonding social capital related reasons predicted it positively. These findings suggest that the quantity and the quality of SNS use are differently related to the well-being of university students. The active use of SNSs, particularly for the purpose of connecting with the close networks might constitute protective factors for student well-being in the case of health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Results of the Three-Way Interaction Models Predicting Mental Health.
Social media fulfil emerging adults’ self-presentation needs, and young people often selectively present positive self-portrayals on social media (i.e., exciting social life, successful professional life, and being happy). Yet, being exposed to the positive self-portrays of others can sometimes relate to mental health pressures. In exceptional times of social deprivation (e.g., the COVID-19 pandemic), such relations may differ. This cross-sectional study among 415 emerging adults (Mage = 24.27, SD = 3.19; Women = 64.10%) examined the interrelations between exposure to the positive self-portrayals of others on social media and mental health during an intense COVID-19 lockdown period. The study revealed that exposure to such content related to lower levels of mental health. No support emerged for the moderating role of experiencing negative life events, specifically the experience with COVID-19 illnesses in one’s environment, or a three-way interaction with such experience and gender. These results provide evidence to suggest that specific social circumstances may lead exposure to positive self-portrayals on social media to relate to lower mental health. Specifying such circumstances can help the field to move away from the current inconsistent findings concerning social media/mental health relations.
 
Flowchart of Participants.
Isolation (vs. Control) x Social Presence on Loneliness (H3).
Quarantine (vs. Control) x Social Presence on Loneliness (H3).
Multiple Regression Results for Loneliness.
An online survey examined if and how aspects of mediated communication were associated with less loneliness while in isolation and quarantine for COVID-19. A national sample of 490 US participants who were either in isolation, quarantine, or in neither, answered questions regarding their use of mediated communication, the people with whom they communicated, perceived social presence, active and passive social media use, and perceived loneliness. SPSS software was used to run a multivariate regression model to test these potential moderators using a Hochberg (1988) correction for familywise error. For people in isolation and quarantine, relative to neither, the more they used mediated communication with a high degree of social presence, such as voice calls and video calls, the more loneliness they reported. The data also indicate that for those who are not in quarantine or isolation in a pandemic, using mediated communication with a high degree of social presence is related to less loneliness.
 
This article explores how far the media technologies, contents and habits experienced in the years of youth contribute to the shaping of collective identities, which are shared by all the members of a generation. On the basis of two sets of empirical research developed in Italy and Portugal according to a life-story approach, it compares the self accounts and media memories of two generations of audiences living their youth in the 1950's, 1960's and 1970s. The relevance of national and international media systems as a part of the "structure of opportunity" that contributes to the forming of generational identities was identified as framed by other structural constraints on political, socioeconomic, educational and cultural levels. In each country, attitudes toward technological innovation and media domestication lived in their years of youth also affected the first contact of people belonging to these generations with ICTs and new media in the 1980s and 1990s.
 
The main aim of this paper is to illustrate Francesco Fattorello's theory (the "Social Technique of Information" written in the '50s) in order to provide scholars in the Communication field with a model of communication that is an appropriate answer to the needs of today's democratic societies. Despite the fact that Fattorello had been a member of the founding group of the International Association of Media and Communication Research IAMCR/AIERI in Paris, 1957, today his work is not known at an international level, especially in the Anglo-Saxon academia. This is due to the fact that when Fattorello’s theory was developed, it was not taken into consideration because of the dominance of the Frankfurt School theorizations that individualized in mass communication a process that determined people's behaviors. Sixty years ago it was not easy for scholars and those employed in industry to accept Fattorello's idea of an audience who had equal dignity to the promoting subject, because s/he had the same thinking abilities. Instead of accepting the idea that the media industry enterprises imposed values, behaviors and patterns that served to maintain domination, Fattorello focused on audiences as active participants, as the pivot of the process of communication. We will see that the diagrammatic formula in which Fattorello's model is expressed looks very similar to something with which we are very familiar; that is the Web communication paradigm. Fattorello's model, which is significantly different than some of the current mainstream theoretical approaches to media and communication, is compared to dominant mass communication models (from the earliest models to contemporary dominant paradigms) to further enrich the debate. Finally, we believe that Fattorello's model can shed light on other models of mass communication.
 
This article examines the relationship between online political expression and offline forms of political participation in the context of the 2013 Czech Parliamentary elections. It draws on the rapidly growing but still very much inconclusive empirical evidence concerning the use of new media and social network sites in particular for electoral mobilization and social activism, and their impact on more traditional forms of civic and political engagement. The theoretical framework of the paper is inspired by the competing perspectives on the role of social media for democratic participation and civic engagement, the mobilization vs. normalization thesis, as well as by the popular concepts of clicktivism or slacktivism (Morozov, 2009), denouncing online activism for allegedly not being complemented by offline actions and having little or no impact on real-life political processes. With the intention to empirically contribute to these discussions, this study uses data from a cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the Czech adult population (N=1,653) which was conducted directly following the 2013 Parliamentary elections. The study was driven by the main research question: Is there a link between online political expression during the election campaign and traditional forms of political participation among Czech Facebook users? Furthermore, the analysis examined the relationship between online political participation and a declared political interest, electoral participation and political news consumption. The results obtained from an ordinal logistic regression analysis confirm the existence of a significant positive relationship between the respondents’ level of campaign engagement on Facebook and their political interest, political information seeking as well as traditional (mainly offline) participation activities, including voting. FOR FULL TEXT: http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2014100102
 
Fake News About United Right Politicians.
Fake News "President Duda Kneels Before Jarosław Kaczyński."
Fake Graphic Positing Pedophilia as a Sexual Orientation in the LGBT Community.
Fake News About a Tinder Traveler Alert Warning Being Issued for Poland.
Fake News About Forest Fires in Siberia.
The paper presents a qualitative study of fake news on Polish-language internet media that seeks to arrive at their thematic classification in order to identify areas particularly vulnerable to disinformation in Poland. Fake news examples from 2019 were selected using popular Polish fact-checking sites (N = 192) and subjected to textual analysis and coding procedure to establish the thematic categories and specific topics most often encountered in this type of disinformation, with the following thematic categories identified in the process: political and economic; social; gossip/rumour; extreme; pseudo-scientific; worldview; historical; and commercial. The study culminates in a critical interpretation of results and discussion of the phenomenon in its Polish and international contexts. Among discussed conclusions is the dominance of content related to the government, Catholic Church, and LGBT issues in the Polish context, as well as the longevity of health-based fake news, especially anti-vaccination content, that points to the global impact of fake news and calls for action to prevent its spread.
 
Past research found that messages in popular television promote fame as a top value, while social media allow anyone to reach broad audiences (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011; Uhls & Greenfield, 2012). During a sensitive developmental phase, preteens are the largest users of media, consuming over seven-and-a-half hours a day, seven days a week, outside of school. A nationwide survey in the United States asked 315 youth (M = 12 years; range: 9 -15 years) about their media habits as well as their aspirations for the future. Participants’ answers about their future goals clustered around two factors, representing individualistic, self-focused and collectivistic, other-focused aspirations. Fame, image, money and status were items in the former; helping others in need, helping family, and living near family were items in the latter. Watching television and using a social networking site each predicted self-focused aspirations, above and beyond the influence of control variables of age and maternal education, while the two media activities together predicted a larger portion of the variance than either alone. Collectivistic, other-focused aspirations were associated with nontechnology activities, most of which had an important social component. The implication is that individualistic, self-focused aspirations are related to 21st century media, whereas more collectivistic, other-focused aspirations are related to nontechnology activities, particularly those with a social component. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
Ghosting is a slang term associated with ceasing mediated communication to dissolve a romantic relationship. The phenomenon is discussed in popular culture and scientific inquiry in relation to digital communication technologies and mobile dating, but little is known about ghosting in other relationship types and the role of specific affordances. This study investigated personal experiences of ghosting with an abductive approach to consider alternative frameworks which may enhance our understanding of ghosting. We collected 23 episodic interviews with Italians aged 21 to 34 and analyzed data with a qualitative abductive approach. Findings suggest that ghosting takes place in different relationship types, though its detection and effects may differ, and that digital affordances of visibility like awareness cues, informing about others’ availability, play a central role in detection of ghosting. We propose that theories of ostracism provide a useful framework to understand the dynamic of ghosting across relational contexts, complementing existing literature.
 
Sexting - that is, the private exchange of self-produced sexual images via cell phone or the internet - has been widely discussed in public and academic discourses as a new high-risk behavior among youths (especially girls) that should be prevented through better education about the various and severe risks it poses. This paper summarizes existing data on sexting prevalence (17 studies), which reveal that sexting is much more common among adults than among youths, with increasing prevalence among adolescents as they grow older. The paper then looks at the current state of sexting research by reviewing all 50 sexting papers in the PsycINFO and PubMed databases published between 2009 and 2013 regarding their coverage of the risks and/or opportunities associated with sexting. Most of the papers (79%) address adolescent sexting as risky behavior and link it to sexual objectification and violence, to risky sexual behavior, and to negative consequences like bullying by peers and criminal prosecution under child pornography laws. In opposition to this deviance discourse, a normalcy discourse is appearing in the literature that interprets sexting as normal intimate communication within romantic and sexual relationships, both among adults and adolescents who are exploring and growing into adult relationships. Next, the paper analyzes the sexting risk prevention messages of 10 online educational campaigns. Such campaigns typically rely on scare scenarios, emphasize the risk of bullying and criminal prosecution, engage in female victim blaming, and recommend complete abstinence from sexting. The paper closes by questioning the abstinence approach in sexting education, and makes suggestions on how to move towards an evidence-based approach to sexting risk prevention that acknowledges both adolescents' vulnerability and sexual agency. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. http://www.nicola-doering.de/publications/#journals
 
The present study investigates whether a personality variable (Locus of Control) and motivational factors rooted in Uses & Gratifications theory (the desire for virtual community, beautiful websites, maintaining interpersonal relations, and the desire for diversion & entertainment) predict Internet abuse at work in the form of shopping, searching for information unrelated to work, and communicating with friends. Data were analyzed for 320 participants, all of whom were employed and had access to computers at work. Results indicate that external Locus of Control predicts all three forms of Internet abuse. The desire to use the Internet for diversion and entertainment purposes predicts only online shopping and searching for non-work-related information. Results suggest that factors predicting some forms of Internet abuse may not predict other forms of Internet abuse. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
This study examined how emotional distress mediated the relationship between cyber dating abuse and self-esteem. Participants were 155 undergraduate students (105 females; 50 males) ranging from 17 to 25 years old (M = 19.38, SD = 1.65) with dating experience and a minimum relationship duration of 3 months. Self-report assessments of cyber dating abuse, self-esteem, and emotional distress from the relationship were completed. Mediation analysis using multiple regressions revealed a full mediation model. Cyber dating abuse predicted lowered self-esteem and greater emotional distress. However, when emotional distress was entered as a predictor of self-esteem, cyber dating abuse became non-significant, indicating full mediation. Early-onset of dating was also a risk factor for cyber dating abuse and emotional distress. Few gender differences were evident. These findings add to the growing body of evidence on the negative effects of cyber dating abuse and suggest that distressing emotional reactions may underlie the deleterious consequences of this form of abuse.
 
Cyber Dating Abuse (CDA) has been identified as a prevalent and negative experience for youth, which highlights the need to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of this phenomenon. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to determine the factors associated with youth CDA perpetration and victimization, identifying which of the factors present the strongest risk and protective effects. We identified 16 studies and 17 independent samples, including a total sample of 12,760 adolescents and young adults. Results showed that individual and intimate relation factors were related to both CDA perpetration and victimization, and peer factors were significantly associated with CDA perpetration; individual sociodemographic factors were unrelated to CDA. Findings from this meta-analysis provide valuable evidence to develop CDA prevention and intervention strategies.
 
This article reports the results of a qualitative study which aimed to investigate the role of internet memes in facilitating supportive discussions among women on an online platform concerning narcissistic abuse. Narcissistic abuse is an under-recognised form of abuse underpinning experiences of domestic abuse and intimate partner violence. The study focuses upon women’s communication through the use of Facebook memes. Studying these and their associated content/posts is important for examining narcissistic abuse experiences because memes have been identified as immediate conveyors of meaning, and associated posts and comments provide rich data that can generate new findings pertinent to abuse and support experiences. A total of 4 public Facebook pages concerning narcissistic abuse were used to analyse 100 memes and their attached comments/posts, which ranged from 15 to 175 per meme with an arithmetic mean of 39.4. Employing a feminist relational discourse analysis (FRDA) framework, the data were categorised in terms of thematic frames and dominant discourses of victim-survivors. The analysis identified how community-specific Facebook pages assisted help-seeking discussions and expressions of distress. It also suggested that memes function as speech acts to discursively shape online conversations related to experiences of narcissistic abuse. As immediate conveyors of meaning, memes facilitated emotional expression to provide psychosocial support and a form of feminist activism to those who experienced feelings of isolation and marginalisation within broader political, psychological, and social contexts.
 
The Proposed Serial Mediation Model.
Because problematic smartphone use (PSU) is rising among adolescents, it is vital to analyze the potential causes and psychosocial consequences affecting this target population. Current theoretical frameworks suggest that specific personal core characteristics might predispose individuals to experience increases in this problematic behavior over time. Additionally, PSU has been conceptualized as a maladaptive coping mechanism to manage negative emotions. The present study aimed at analyzing a personal resource, critical thinking disposition, and a potential negative consequence, reduced academic engagement, and the underlying role of perceived stress and PSU in this association among Spanish adolescents. The sample consisted of 688 adolescents (54% females, 46% males) aged 12 to 18 years from Southern Spain. Participants completed self-report questionnaires to assess critical thinking disposition (VIA-Youth), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), PSU (Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version), and academic engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Students). We analyzed a serial mediation model using PROCESS (SPSS), in which critical thinking disposition was the independent variable, perceived stress and PSU were the first and second mediators, respectively, and academic engagement was the outcome variable. Our results indicated that lower critical thinking disposition was linked to increased perceived stress, which was associated with higher PSU, resulting in decreased academic engagement. These findings provide empirical support for the pathways model of PSU, the maladaptive coping theories, and the I-PACE model of behavioral addictions. Furthermore, we discuss our results highlighting the important implication of training adolescents to think critically regarding their smartphone usage to reduce their stress levels, to avoid using smartphones as a coping strategy, and hence, to improve their student's attitudes toward school.
 
The high editorial rejection rate means that half of the manuscripts were not of sufficient quality to go into the review process. We would like to decrease this number, and so we decided to list the typical reasons of editorial rejects below along with our recommendations for authors for lowering the chance of editorial rejection: The manuscript does not fit into our journal’s scope. Check the Submission page carefully to see what articles we publish, and also browse through a few issues to obtain a better picture. The manuscript does not follow APA style guidelines. Check the newest Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Please follow the structure of articles recommended by APA. The manuscript is not a scientific article. We do not publish essays and if the authors are submitting a theoretical review, they should again follow the APA style. It is a frequent mistake that the authors simply write “what they think” and the manuscript lacks scientific argumentation for their perspectives. The authors’ ideas can be great and even ground breaking, but we are a scientific journal and publish only scientific articles based on the APA style. The manuscript does not bring a substantial contribution to the current state of knowledge, but instead only reproduces already known results and/or relations. Read more relevant articles in your area of research. Your literature review must be strong. The manuscript does not provide sufficient information for proper evaluation: typically missing information about measures and their psychometric properties, or missing information about statistical analysis, or about the sample. Check statistical books to see what has to be reported and again follow the APA manual and recommendations. The sample used in the study is not an appropriate sample for planned analyses and does not allow the drawing of the authors’ conclusions made in the manuscript. Typically, the sample is too small, too narrow, or self-selected and not appropriate for relevant conclusions. Check carefully that your data allow you to analyze what you want the way you want to do it. Otherwise collect more data or change the analysis plan. The manuscript has not been proofread. The language of your manuscript is important and must be 100% correct. The manuscript does not provide sufficient rationale for the study. Explicitly justify and explain why your research is needed and who (and how) benefits from the results.
 
This study is among the first to compare the social media content of these two online communities related to body image: The pro-anorexic community and the fat acceptance community. I used a content analysis of 800 Instagram posts and compared how both communities conveyed their social identities and provided social support. I found that fat acceptance members identified with their community through hashtags related to positivity and self-love, while pro-anorexics identified with their community through posts related to “thinspiration” and negativity. Members of the fat acceptance community distinguished against outsiders by attempting to reframe beauty, while members of the pro-anorexic community distinguished against outsiders by arguing with recovered anorexics. Lastly, both communities provided support by complimenting users’ appearances and providing informational resources on how to maintain one’s body image. Members of the pro-anorexic community also circulated network support by promoting the weight-loss buddy system of “ana buddies.” I propose for future researchers to triangulate these findings with interviews and ethnographic studies to further understand community values. This knowledge provides useful insight into the way in which stigmatized communities use technology to maintain their social identities and enhance their support.
 
Internet access at home by disability status in EU27 countries (Eurobarometer 2012). 
Results of the Multilevel Logistical Regression.
Access to the Internet has become a sine qua non-of everyday life. It also offers new routes to economic and social inclusion for disabled people. Research on the digital divide shows that social factors affect Internet access but disability status is often overlooked. This paper assesses the extent to which disability makes a difference and how it interacts with other social effects to produce distinctive forms of digital exclusion. The analysis uses survey data from 27 European countries to explore and model, statistically, the interactions between Internet access, disability status, age, gender, education, household financial situation and household composition. Multilevel analysis confirms that socio-demographic factors can explain much variance in outcomes but there is a distinctive disability effect. In particular, the adverse effects of financial constraint, aging and living alone are exacerbated among disabled people. New policies to strengthen e-accessibility, arising from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and from the European Union, are important but cannot ignore those who are still excluded from the online revolution. Disabled people are over-represented in this group. The evidence suggests that both accessible technologies and appropriate supportive relationships are needed to address this.
 
Much is written about the benefits of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) but many accounts report problematic interactions and less than desirable outcomes for attempts at CSCL. A theoretical approach is presented that is grounded in a social identity perspective of groups and seeks to promote and support successful collaborations. Using this approach, along with examples from laboratory and field studies, key concepts such as cohesion, participation, accountability and group norms are addressed and contrasted with more traditional approaches. It is suggested that design features that 'collectivise' rather than 'personalise' CSCL can promote psychological issues that are crucial for successful collaborations (i.e. group cohesion, accountability to the group, and increased participation), and norms for success can be developed through intergroup comparisons. The theoretical approach is also presented as a platform from which further investigations and predictions can be made. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
Using video recounts from revenge porn victims, this study explores whether levels of victim blaming differs for the sharing of self- and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos. Building on previous work which has demonstrated victim blame for both self- and stealth generated images in occurrences of revenge porn (Zvi & Schechory-Bitton, 2020), the reported study presents an original and ecologically valid methodological approach whereby 342 (76 male, 266 female) participants (Mage = 39.27, SD = 11.70) from the UK watched videoed accounts of real experiences of falling victim to revenge porn, rather than using text based, often fictional, vignettes to attribute blame which dominate studies in this area. All data was collected in 2019. The results demonstrated that significantly more blame was assigned to victims when participants were indirectly rather than directly asked who was to blame for the occurrence of revenge porn, supporting the notion of an unconscious processing bias in attributing blame. More blame was also assigned to those victims who themselves generated the material compared to when it had been acquired without their awareness by a perpetrator, suggesting the cognitive bias to be in line with a just world hypothesis. Male participants were more likely to blame a victim than were female participants, although sex of victim and mode of shared sexually-explicit material (video or image) did not appear to affect levels of victim-blame. Findings are considered in terms of extant research and the need for future work in the area of victim blame and revenge pornography.
 
Forest Graph of Average Weighted Effect Size of Social Identification on Participation to Collective Action and the Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals.
Summary of the Moderators on the Relationships Between Social Identification and Participation to Collective Action.
Since the digitally-mediated large-scale protests took place all over the world, the role of social identities in collective actions has become the center of academic attention. Some scholars have claimed that interpersonal or individual reasons have become more important than collective identifications in participating digitally-mediated collective actions. To answer the question that whether social identification has lost its centrality in collective actions in the Internet age, we conducted a meta-analysis of 46 studies (N = 18,242) which examined digitally-mediated collective actions across the world reported between January 2011 and January 2020. We focused on the relationship between social identification and collective action, and the possible moderator effects of group type to be identified (emergent vs. pre-existing group), participation type (actual behavior vs. intention), and WEIRDness of the sample. The analyses showed a moderate to strong relationship between social identification and participation in digitally-mediated collective actions, while group type was the only significant moderator. Accordingly, the relationship between identification with emergent groups and collective action participation was much stronger compared to the relationship between identification with pre-existing groups and collective action participation. We discussed the theoretical implications of the results emphasized the basic dynamics of collective actions.
 
A captured image of The Hunter (Avalanche Studios, 2009).
Number of Responses Coded into Each Category.
Action identification theory (Vallacher & Wegner, 2012) posits that individuals become open to new meanings of actions when the actions are represented in their minds as concrete details (i.e., understanding actions as concrete identities), rather than abstract meanings (i.e., understanding actions as abstract identities). Based on this, we predicted that video game interactivity renders players susceptible to new ideas of actions performed in a video game, by causing them to conceive the actions as concrete details. In a 2 (medium type: interactive vs. non-interactive) x 2 (meaning of hunting: beneficial vs. harmful) between-subjects experiment (N = 111), participants played or watched a hunting simulation game, then expressed their agreement on a news article reporting either the benefit or harm of hunting. The interactivity group, compared to the non-interactivity group, described their game experience as concrete actions, indicating that they construed actions as concrete identities. Further, these concrete identities led to greater agreement with the news article regardless whether benefit or harm of hunting was reported. These results suggest an indirect effect of interactivity on participants’ susceptibility to a new idea. Implications for using the mental representation approach in media-effect studies were discussed.
 
We argue that the often-used critique of social media activism as merely a ‘feel-good’ mechanism can be countered by conceptualizing social media activism as a necessary type of collective action (i.e., consensus mobilization), incorporating theory on the benefits of positive feelings for activism, and by examining how power may affect these relationships. Women from two different samples (MTurk and university) were randomly assigned to recall a high- versus low-power experience, view real-world events of sexism, and then complete questionnaires assessing endorsement of social media activism, positive affect, and collective action intentions. A dual moderated mediation analyses at the second stage of mediation showed equivalency across two samples, at which point the single moderated mediation model was tested on the combined sample. The model was significant, such that among those in the high-power condition, endorsing social media activism was associated with greater positive affect, which in turn predicted greater collective action intentions. Among those in the low-power condition, however, this indirect effect was not significant. This study provides counter-evidence to the ‘slacktivism’ critique, contributes to theories of collective action, power and their integration, and identifies a possible intervention to enhance the effectiveness of social media activism.
 
Articles Included in the Systematic Review.
Cyberbullying is an incipient phenomenon which occurs by means of digital devices, in virtual environments, which often overlaps with traditional bullying. Research reveals the relevant role played by bystanders in stopping bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of this work is to identify those factors which encourage or hamper the mobilisation of young bystanders under 20 years of age in instances of cyberbullying, through a systematic literature review spanning 2005 to 2016 in the databases Web of Science Core Collection and SciELO Citation Index. A total of 19 articles were analysed. We identified two types of factors. Firstly, there are contextual factors, which refer to the relationships at play, the interactions and the environment, and are grouped into the following categories: friendship, social environment, bystander effect, incident severity, action of other bystanders, request for assistance, evaluation of the situation, knowledge of effective strategies, characteristics of virtual environments, and fear of retaliation. Secondly, there are personal factors, referring to individual traits, categorised into: empathy, moral disengagement, self-efficacy, behavioural determinants, previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying, and demographic and socio-economic data. Of particular influence seem to be the factors of friendship and social context, as well as empathy, moral disengagement and self-efficacy. To formulate practical recommendations to guide the development of educational programmes aimed at preventing cyberbullying using the bystander approach, further evidence is needed in relation to all factors, although certain general directions can be discerned even at this early stage. This is a new and exciting field of research which carries the hope of eradicating bullying in all its forms.
 
This paper examines how children aged 11-16 in three European countries (Italy, UK and Spain) develop and present their online identities, and their interactions with peers. It focuses on young people’s engagement with the construction of an online identity on social media through pictures, and explores how peer-mediated conventions of self-presentation are appropriated, legitimated, or resisted in pre-teens’ and teenagers’ discourses. In doing so, we draw on Goffman’s (1959) work on the presentation of self and “impression management” to frame our analysis. Mobile communication and social network sites serve an important role in the process of self-presentation and emancipation, providing “full-time” access to peers and peer culture. Our findings suggest that there are gender differences and the presence of sexual double standards in peer normative discourses. Girls are positioned as being more subjected to peer mediation and pressure. Boys blame girls for posing sexy in photos, and negatively sanction this behaviour as being aimed at increasing one’s popularity online or as an indicator of “a certain type of girl.” However, girls who post provocative photos chose to conform to a sexualised stereotype as a means of being socially accepted by peers. Moreover, they identify with the pressure to always look “perfect” in their online pictures. While cross-national variations do exist, this sexual double standard is observed in all three countries. These insights into current behaviours could be further developed to determine policy guidance for supporting young people as they learn to manage image laden social media. © 2008 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
The Total and Direct Effect of Family Communication and Psychological Needs.
The Indirect Effect of Family Communication on Internet Addiction via Psychological Needs.
The prevalence of internet addiction in Iranian adolescents has been an increasing matter with a rising trend mostly in females. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of satisfying basic psychological needs in the relationship between family communication patterns and internet addiction among female high school students in Iran. For this purpose, 250 second-grade female students of Yasouj high schools were selected with a multi-stage cluster random sampling method and asked to answer Revised Family Communication Patterns, Psychological Basic Needs Satisfaction, and Internet Addiction questionnaires. The results showed that family communication patterns were related to basic psychological needs. In addition, greater psychological needs satisfaction was connected with low levels of internet addiction. The direct effect of family communication patterns on internet addiction was not significant. The indirect influence of family communication patterns on internet addiction through basic psychological needs was of significance. Thus, basic psychological needs mediated the relationship between family communication patterns and internet addiction.
 
Hierarchical Regression Predicting SNS Addiction with Demographics and Personality Factors.
A considerable amount of literature has widely discussed the issue in regard to the prediction of social networking sites (SNS) addiction with personality traits. One of the existing issues is the small effect sizes that showed that the traits outlined by the Five-Factor model are lacking the required specificity to predict specific behaviours such as SNS addiction. In light of this issue, the present research attempted to predict SNS addiction with the Dark Triad traits that have been linked to impulsivity that is central to the development of SNS addiction. In this study, a sample of 204 (Male = 77, 38%; Female = 124, 60%; Not mentioned = 3, 2%; Mage = 22.94, SDage = 3.43) university students in Malaysia completed the Big Five Inventory, the Short Dark Triad, and the adapted Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. Results indicated that SNS addiction was significantly predicted by the measured psychopathy of the Dark Triad. In predicting SNS addiction, the inclusion of the Dark Triad traits contributed significant amount of variance after controlling the Five-Factor model. Finally, the implications of the results were discussed in this manuscript.
 
In this study, we examined the links between Internet addiction, engagement in online erotica (including pornography usage and usage of sex-based Internet chat sites), and engagement in risky online sexual behaviors, in this case, sending sexually-explicit pictures to those known only online (i.e., sexting) and expecting to engage in offline sex with those known only online. In our sample of 276 U.S. adults, men engaged in most of these online sexual activities significantly more than women, but women were just as likely as men to send sexually-explicit pictures to online chat partners, and they were also just as likely as men to demonstrate signs of internet addiction. More importantly, using pornography and sex site usage were sequential mediators in the relationship between Internet addiction and engagement in risky online sexual activities. Moreover, whereas pornography viewing alone was not a predictor of risky online sexual activities, when the behavior escalated to engaging in Internet sex chat sites it did predict engagement in sexting or expectations of offline sex with those known only online. Based on these findings, we suggest that although these behaviors might be considered under one umbrella of online sexual activity, it might be useful from an intervention and treatment standpoint to target specific online sexual activities (e.g., sex site usage). © 2007-2016 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
The results of confirmatory factor analysis of E-SAPS18 performed on half of the sample. Confirmatory factor analysis balanced by gender. Parameter estimation method: maximum likelihood. N = 340. Fit indices: χ 2 = 269, df = 125, p < .001. RMSEA = .058 (95% CI: .049 and .068), CFI = .93, and SRMR = .056. Both the factor names (f1 to f5) and corresponding items (e1 to e18) can be found in Table 2. 
The aim of this paper is to develop a shorter version of the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale based on previous works (e.g., Ching et al., 2015; Kwon, Lee, et al., 2013; Rozgonjuk, Rosenvald, & Täht, 2016). Seven hundred and sixty-seven people participated in the study (Mage = 26.10 ± 6.73 years; 22% male), for which they completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale (E-SAS-33; Rozgonjuk, Rosenvald, & Täht, 2016), the Estonian Internet Addiction Test (E-IAT; based on Young, 1998), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; Kwon, Lee, et al., 2013). Exploratory factor analysis (maximum likelihood with geomin rotation) and confirmatory factor analysis (parameter estimation: Maximum likelihood), an internal-consistency test, t- tests for mean comparisons, correlation analysis and experts’ opinions were used to shorten the E-SAS-33 and validate a new version of the scale. The results of the analyses showed that the 18-item test with five subscales (“tolerance”, “positive anticipation”, “cyberspace-oriented relationships”, “withdrawal”, and “physical symptoms”) has sound psychometric properties and that the content of the subscales is similar to the original. Among the results, statistically significant differences in E-SAPS18 scores were found in gender, age, level of education, smartphone main use and self-reported addiction. Furthermore, correlates suggest that smartphone addiction, social media use, and Internet addiction might share a similar underlying mechanism.
 
Social media addiction as a function of test time and group (Study 2).
Mean and standard deviation of Time 1andTime2's test scores of key variables
This research examined the relations of social media addiction to college students' mental health and academic performance, investigated the role of self-esteem as a mediator for the relations, and further tested the effectiveness of an intervention in reducing social media addiction and its potential adverse outcomes. In Study 1, we used a survey method with a sample of college students (N = 232) and found that social media addiction was negatively associated with the students' mental health and academic performance and that the relation between social media addiction and mental health was mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, we developed and tested a two-stage self-help intervention program. We recruited a sample of college students (N = 38) who met criteria for social media addiction to receive the intervention. Results showed that the intervention was effective in reducing the students’ social media addiction and improving their mental health and academic efficiency. The current studies yielded original findings that contribute to the empirical database on social media addiction and that have important theoretical and practical implications.
 
There is current debate as to whether excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) constitutes an addiction. The aim of the following two studies was to investigate two markers of behavioural addiction, cue-reactivity and impulsivity, in a sample of MMORPG users. Study 1 employed a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm that required identification and recall of MMORPG or neutral words. Eighteen MMORPG users identified as addicted using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire had significantly better recall of MMORPG words compared to neutral words whereas 19 highly engaged and 20 non-MMORPG users showed no differences. These findings are consistent with previous behavioural addiction research. Study 2 explored evidence for trait impulsivity and disinhibition using a continuous performance task and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. Twenty-three regular MMORPG users and 21 non-gamers did not differ in levels of impulsivity but MMORPG users exhibited significantly lower disinhibition. Significant relationships were found between addiction and both overall impulsivity and the non-planning factor of impulsivity, but not between addiction and the attentional or motor factors of impulsivity. Implications for research conceptualising excessive MMORPG use as a behavioural addiction and methods of identification are discussed.
 
Evolution of the Study Variables Over Time.
Mediating Role of the Motives for Using Social Networks Between Social Networks Frequency of Use and Social Networks Addiction.
Mediating Role of the Social Networks Frequency of Use Between Motives for Using Social Networks and Social Networks Addiction.
Results of the Exploratory Factor Analyses.
Correlations, Means and Standard Deviations of All the Study Variables.
The lockdown situation caused by COVID-19 has increased the use of social networks, which could, in turn, increase social networks addiction. This research consists of two integrated studies aimed at (1) developing and validating the Social Networks Motives Scale (SN-MotiveS) and (2) examining the relationships between the frequency of use of social networks and the motives for why individuals use social networks with social networks addiction, as well as the evolution of these variables over time before (through a retrospective assessment), during, and after lockdown. During lockdown, an online questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 482 participants (Study 1). After lockdown, 114 participants from Study 1 completed a second online questionnaire, forming a longitudinal study (Study 2). Study 1 showed a robust fit for the multifactorial structure of the SN-MotiveS with four factors (socialization, escapism, prosocial behavior, and self-presentation), supporting the external validity of the scale, and the expected correlation patterns were found with social networks frequency of use, abuse, and addiction. Study 2 showed that all the motives increased during lockdown except for self-presentation, whereas after lockdown only prosocial behavior and employment (added in Study 2) decreased significantly. Moreover, the self-presentation and escapism motives acted as mediators in the relationship between social networks frequency of use and social networks addiction. This research provides a reliable instrument to measure the motives for using social networks both during a pandemic and in normal times. In addition, it highlights the importance of paying special attention to escapism motives for predicting social networks addiction in periods of lockdown.
 
Parental mediation of technology use is proposed to protect against the risk of cyber victimization and the associated negative consequences. Although the buffering effects of parental mediation of technology use are currently being investigated, little attention has focused on whether parental mediation protects against the depression, anxiety, and loneliness associated with cyber victimization among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The present study focused on this gap in the literature by investigating the buffering effect of parental mediation on the associations between cyber victimization and depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Participants were 128 6th through 8th graders from the Midwestern United States (ages range from 11-16 years old; 89% male), and they completed questionnaires on their perceptions of parental mediation of technology use, cyber victimization, face-to-face victimization, depression, loneliness, and anxiety. After controlling for face-to-face victimization, the findings revealed that high levels of perceived parental technology mediation made the relationship between cyber victimization and depression more negative, while lower levels of perceived parental technology mediation made the association more positive. These patterns were not found for anxiety or loneliness.
 
Cyber-victimization has become a serious concern facing adolescents in the digital age. Given the differences and similarities between cyber-victimization and in-person victimization, research needs to examine whether prior understanding of coping with in-person victimization applies to coping with cyber-victimization. The purpose of this study was to compare the use and effectiveness of coping strategies in both in-person and cyber-victimization contexts in a sample of adolescents (N = 321; 11-15 years old) in the United States. Results indicated that adolescents tend to use more strategies overall to cope with in-person victimization than cyber-victimization, and female adolescents used more distraction and social support from friends than male adolescents. Adolescents also used problem solving, social support from friends and family/adults, and distraction more frequently than distancing and retaliation; when problem solving was used, adolescents felt positive about the outcome, regardless of victimization type. The use of retaliation was negatively associated with coping efficacy for both situations. Further, social support from friends and social support from family/adults were associated with coping efficacy for cyber-victimization. Our findings can be used to inform interventionists about which strategies adolescents perceive work best to cope with cyber-victimization.
 
Search Keywords for the Systematic Review. Region/Countries Cyberbullying-related Terms Age group/Population
Cyberbullying amongst adolescents is a rapidly growing and alarming global phenomenon that can significantly harm their well-being. Studying cyberbullying in East Asia is especially important, where peer pressure based on collectivistic ideals and rigid cultural scripts for social interactions remain strong. Furthermore, the countries represented in this review are amongst the top globally for internet usage, suggesting that adolescents in East Asia are likely to be excessive users of social media communication and be more exposed to various forms of cyberbullying. This systematic review summarizes findings from peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on cyberbullying amongst adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 in East Asian countries (N = 21). SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant work published between 2008 and 2020. Search strategies involved using keywords related to cyberbullying, adolescents, East Asia, and the name of each country represented in the region (China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan). Key factors associated with cyberbullying specific to adolescents in this region are identified and discussed in this review, such as gender socialization patterns and literacy with digital media communication, emphasis on academic achievement and school factors, urban-rural digital divide, relationship with parents and teachers, and collectivistic values. The present review highlights the need to pay further attention to the sociocultural context in future cyberbullying research and calls for more context-specific cyberbullying prevention programs and awareness initiatives.
 
Over the course of the last seven years, the average weekly screen-time of youth has dramatically increased. The present study was designed to better understand how young people utilise multiple types of information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives and how these preferences may be associated with key aspects of their development. To this end, the present study was designed to explore whether specific profiles of technology usage would be associated with key characteristics of identity and behaviour. To identify groups of adolescents who share similar technology use habits, a sample of 933 adolescents reported on their time spent interacting with various digital communication devices and associated platforms. Utilizing a latent profile analysis, four distinct profiles of technology use preferences emerged. Then, a series of linear regressions were calculated to investigate the degree to which class membership predicted indicators of identity and problem behaviours. The findings suggest that important concepts of both identity and behaviour are associated with individual ICT usage preferences. Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of the data, it is suggested that the impact of clusters of communication technology use on adolescent development should be investigated with longitudinal data.
 
Whilst there is an emerging literature concerning social comparisons on social networking sites (SNSs), very little is known about the extent to which such behaviours inform adolescent identity. Drawing upon the three-factor model of identity development (Crocetti, Rubini & Meeus, 2008), this study seeks to determine the relationship between Instagram comparisons of ability and opinion and three identity processes: commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. 177 British adolescents responded to a paper survey (Mage = 15.45; Female, 54.8%) between December 2018 and February 2019. Instagram social comparisons of ability were positively associated with commitment and in-depth exploration, whilst their relationship with reconsideration of commitment was moderated by gender. In contrast, Instagram social comparisons of opinion were positively related with in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment. Findings suggest that although both forms of social comparison behaviour may evoke adolescents to explore their identity, Instagram social comparisons of ability may have less maladaptive identity implications for adolescent males.
 
Dance exergaming, which involves playing an interactive video game that requires the player to make upper and lower body movements by dancing to music, may provide a social physical activity experience that positively impacts psychosocial health. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to examine the effects of group-based dance exergaming on adolescent girls’ psychosocial health including enjoyment, subjective health, perceived peer support, and health-related quality of life. Forty-one adolescents with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to a 12-week dance exergaming intervention or to a control group. Peer support, subjective health, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and intervention participants rated enjoyment after each exergaming session. Repeated measures analysis of covariance models controlling for age and baseline body mass index were used to examine condition differences. Results indicated that subjective health improved in the exergaming condition more than control (p = .02). Ratings of peer conflict after the intervention were significantly different by condition (p = .01), with peer conflict stabilizing in the exergaming group and worsening in the control group. There was no difference by condition for HRQOL. Enjoyment remained high throughout the intervention. In summary, group exergaming improved subjective health, stabilized peer conflict, and provided an enjoyable physical activity experience for overweight adolescent girls.
 
Given that adolescents continuously interact with the user interface of a social networking site, it might be a strategic place to address privacy-related issues. This study investigates whether and how privacy control features embedded in Facebook’s user interface could serve as a cue to influence adolescents in their critical processing and perceived persuasiveness of targeted advertisements. To test this, an experimental study among 178 adolescents aged 14-16 years was conducted. Results reveal that increasing privacy control salience by means of user interface elements leads to more critical processing of targeted advertising; at the same time, when adolescents perceive a higher privacy control, they also evaluate a targeted ad as more effective, convincing and reliable (i.e., increase in perceived persuasiveness). The study further identifies two underlying mechanisms by which these effects operate: perceived control and self-efficacy. Based on these findings, theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed to optimize advertising campaigns on social networking sites in a responsible and privacy-protective way.
 
Variable Means (and Standard Errors) by Different Victim Profiles.
Significant overlap exists between traditional victimization and peer cyber-victimization. Yet, they can also be somewhat differentiated. Adopting person-centered approaches, studies showed that multiple classes of peer victimization are distinguishable. In particular, this study analyzed the differences in Internet use, Internet motives and behavior and ethical media use of adolescents who are victimized only (or mainly) online (i.e., “cyber-victims”), their peers who are victimized at school (“traditional victims”), students who are frequently victimized both offline and online (“dual victims”), and students who are not victimized. A sample of 1377 Italian adolescents (49.5% females, age M = 16.13, SD = 1.27) completed self-report questionnaires of traditional and peer cyber-victimization and a variety of Internet-related measures. Latent profile analysis yielded four distinct groups: non-victims (79.6% of the sample), traditional victims (9.2%), cyber-victims (9.1%), and dual victims (2.1%). Among the four groups, dual victims, that is, adolescents who are frequently victimized both at school and online, showed the most problematic use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Dual victims and cyber-victims also reported to engage more frequently than the other groups in a variety of Internet activities (e.g., role-playing games and visiting adult sites). Traditional victims reported more coping and conformity motives for using Internet compared to non-victims and, in the latter case, also to cyber-victims. The current findings may help to better understand the link between traditional victimization and peer cyber-victimization with adolescent’s use of information and communication technologies and may inform prevention and educational programs about positive use of new technologies among adolescents.
 
The present study examines adolescents’ experiences with, and perspectives about, parental regulation of internet-based peer socialization including cyber aggression. Adolescents (N = 110) were surveyed about technology use, electronic device ownership, and the extent to which parents place restrictions on, and/or monitor, their cyber behavior. Adolescents were also asked about their experiences with parental regulation of cyber aggression, and these responses were compared to experiences with other forms of aggressive behavior (relational and overt). Perceptions of legitimacy of parental authority were also compared for online and offline aggression, and for acts typically considered to be within the personal domain. Adolescents believed their online behavior to be primarily unrestricted by parents. Parental regulation of cyber aggression was less prevalent than parental regulation of overt aggression, but greater than parental regulation of relational aggression. Adolescents believed regulation of cyber aggression to be more acceptable than regulation of relational aggression and personal domain behavior. © 2007-2015 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
 
The Hypothesized Theoretical Model.
Descriptive Statistics of the Study Variables and Gender/Grade Differences.
Moderated Mediating Effects of Witnessing IPV on Cyberbullying Perpetration Through Self-Control Conditional on PPC.
Grade and Sex Differences in the Model.
Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with adolescents’ externalizing behavior problems such as bullying and aggression, but its association with cyberbullying perpetration remains unclear. Given the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration, this study aims to examine the relationship between witnessing IPV and cyberbullying perpetration, and also to explore whether self-control mediates, and parental psychological control (PPC) moderates the association. 1,670 primary and junior high school students (aged from 10 to 15 years, 53.7% boys) in China participated in the questionnaire survey in May, 2017. The results showed that witnessing IPV positively predicted cyberbullying perpetration significantly when sex and grade were controlled. Self-control partially mediated the relationship between witnessing IPV and cyberbullying perpetration, while PPC moderated the relation between witnessing IPV and cyberbullying perpetration. Specifically, the effect of IPV on cyberbullying perpetration was stronger when PPC was high compared to when PPC was low. Multi-group analysis showed that the effect of witnessing IPV on cyberbullying perpetration was stronger in boys than in girls and the mediation effect of self-control was stronger among junior high school students than among primary schools. The implications for intervention of cyberbullying perpetration are discussed.
 
Structural model predicting changes in civic identity. Model fit: χ 2 201 = 501.01, CFI = .93, TLI = .92, RMSEA = .04, WRMR = 1.33. Effects of academic school track (β =-.01; p>.05) and female gender (β = .22; p<.01) on civic identity at T2 were controlled. Standardized coefficients are presented. * p<.05. ** p<.01. 
Structural model predicting changes in political self-efficacy. Model fit: χ 2 245 = 562.57, CFI = .93, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .04, WRMR = 1.25. Effects of academic school track (β = .05; p>.05) and female gender (β =-.01; p>.05) on political self-efficacy at T2 were controlled. Standardized coefficients are presented. * p<.05. ** p<.01. 
Structural model predicting changes in acceptance of non-conventional activism. Model fit: χ 2 201 = 428.93, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, WRMR = 1.21. Effects of academic school track (β =-.07; p>.05) and female gender (β =-.03; p>.05) on acceptance at T2 were controlled. Standardized coefficients are presented. * p<.05. ** p<.01. 
Structural model predicting changes in authoritarianism. Model fit: χ 2 201 = 413.15, CFI = .95, TLI = .95, RMSEA = .04, WRMR = 1.18. Effects of academic school track (β =-.12; p<.01) and female gender (β =-.02; p>.05) on authoritarianism at T2 were controlled. Standardized coefficients are presented. * p<.05. ** p<.01. 
This study focuses on the role of online civic participation in the civic development of adolescents. We build on the assumption that online civic participation differs from more traditional offline civic participation in several key characteristics, namely lacking proximity to other actors, possible disconnection between civic actions and their outcomes, and a reduced hierarchy within the online environment. Considering these specifics, the study examined the longitudinal effect of online participation on the development of civic identity, political self-efficacy, and attitudes toward social authorities. Concurrently, we contrasted the impact of online participation with the impact of offline civic participation. Data from a survey-based two-wave panel study conducted in Spring 2014 and Autumn 2015 in the Czech Republic were utilized. The sample comprised 768 adolescents (aged 14-17 in T1; 54% females). The results showed that online participation predicted increased challenging attitudes towards social authorities, while offline participation had the opposite effect. Furthermore, online participation had no effect on political self-efficacy or civic development, but offline participation positively predicted civic identity. The findings are discussed with regard to the specific benefits and limits of online civic participation.
 
Top-cited authors
Andra Siibak
  • University of Tartu
Nicola Döring
  • Technische Universität Ilmenau
Michel Walrave
  • University of Antwerp
Wannes Heirman
  • AP University College
Qi Wang
  • Cornell University