The purpose of this evaluation is to determine student perceptions of caring for underserved patients. Doctor of Pharmacy candidates participating in an experiential rotation at a community health center were assigned to write a semistructured reflection paper upon rotation completion. Retrospective review of the reflections was done to identify common themes and provide insight into students' perceptions of caring for the underserved. Six main themes were identified. Students expressed positive changes in their perceptions toward underserved patients and prior negative misconceptions diminished as a result of rotation completion. A clinical rotation that focused on improving care of underserved patients positively impacted student learning, provided new perspectives, and dispelled prior misconceptions. Experiential rotations involving the care of underserved patients should be emphasized to foster future pharmacists' roles in the reduction of health care disparities and addressing unmet needs in high-poverty communities.
ObjectivesTo evaluate the implementation of motivational interviewing in the required Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum by assessing student knowledge of motivational interviewing, ability to use motivational interviewing skills, and perceptions regarding motivational interviewing.MethodsMotivational interviewing was longitudinally incorporated into the curriculum at the University of Cincinnati James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy. Motivational interviewing was threaded through four courses in the curriculum during the first three years of pharmacy school.ResultsStudent knowledge was assessed by administration of a quiz, and the ability to use motivational interviewing was assessed during a role-play simulation with a faculty preceptor. The average score on the quiz was 50%. Student performance on the role-play counseling that incorporated motivational interviewing techniques was evaluated on a 30-point scale. The mean score improved each year: 21.9 (± 4.4) in 2008, 24.4 (± 3.4) in 2009, and 25.8 (± 3.6) in 2010 (2008–09, p < 0.001; 2009–10, p = 0.011). Students in the 2009 cohort were asked to complete a survey that assessed their confidence and perceptions with regard to communication skills and motivational interviewing, in particular. Seventy percent of students were confident or very confident in their understanding of the key principles of motivational interviewing.ConclusionIncorporating motivational interviewing throughout the core curriculum of an entry level PharmD program provided opportunities for students to learn about motivational interviewing and practice this skill as their therapeutic knowledge grew. Formative assessment provided feedback to assist students in improving their health behavior change counseling.
ObjectiveIntroductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) became part of accreditation standards for schools of pharmacy in 2004. However, a novel practice experience program that places students in the community visiting patients began at Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy in 1997. This article will describe the structure and success of our IPPE program.MethodsThis IPPE is a longitudinal program that spans the first three professional years and focuses on patient care in residential settings. Student pharmacists and faculty collaborate in managing a patient caseload. During patient visits, student pharmacists conduct interviews and assessments that are then presented at weekly team meetings. Faculty members provide supervision and guidance to students during these meetings. Students document patient interactions in an electronic record. Teams meet to discuss patient status and explore patient care issues. Student pharmacists, faculty mentors and the IPPE coordinator make interventions on behalf of the patient if needed.ResultsOver the past four academic years, almost 97% of students have received grades of either satisfactory or excels. Student pharmacists' success in the course has been high and positive student feedback has been expressed through course evaluations and student focus groups.ConclusionThis IPPE program is part of the culture of Harrison School of Pharmacy and provides student pharmacists with relevant, real-life pharmacy care responsibilities. The program teaches communication, patient and drug therapy assessment, health care issues, and promotes professional socialization. The program's design is a unique method for providing introductory pharmacy practice experiences.
To implement a structured, longitudinal introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) that provided real practice experiences, increased students' understanding of clinical pharmacy, and addressed accreditation standards.MethodsA quasi-experimental design was used. Students completed a month-long IPPE structured around an established advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) with participation in activities based on learner level. Matched surveys of students' attitudes and perceptions before and after the IPPE were compared. Students' attitudes and perceptions on this IPPE approach were also compared with a traditional shadowing approach (controls).ResultsThirty students completed the IPPE. After completion, students had increased confidence in skills practiced during the IPPE and improved understanding of the pharmacist's role compared with responses before completion and control student responses.Conclusion
This innovative IPPE approach represents an efficient way to provide patient care experiences to IPPE students in accordance with accreditation standards. Because IPPE activities were layered on established APPE activities, this model could be adapted to other clinical settings that provide APPEs.
This study evaluated perceptions regarding the effectiveness of Top 200 drug information exercises in a pharmaceutical care lab (PCL) curriculum. Questionnaires were distributed online via Qualtrics™ to fourth-year (PY4) students and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) preceptors. The PY4 questionnaire inquired about perceptions of usefulness of current exercises and possible areas of future focus. The preceptor questionnaire inquired about preparedness of students for APPE rotations. Response rates for student and preceptor questionnaires were 43.7% (n = 72) and 15.1% (n = 128), respectively. Overall, 93% of students felt current exercises were helpful in learning the material, and 86% felt prepared at the start of APPEs with regard to Top 200 drug information. Of the practitioners that precept for multiple schools, 40% (35/88) felt students were better prepared in this area, as compared to students from other institutions. Information from this study identified strengths and weaknesses of the current process. Areas of future focus could include dosing information and major drug interactions.
To describe the unique teaching format of a Top 200 Medication Course, evaluate student performance, and describe student perceptions of the course.Methods
Seventy one first year students enrolled in a required Top 200 Medication Course were asked to complete an electronic survey assessing the student's perception of the active learning format of the class. In particular team work, workload, and testing methods were evaluated.ResultsDirect and indirect assessments indicated that students achieved the outcomes of the course. Student perceptions were assessed via an intra-semester and end of year survey with positive results.Conclusions
The active learning techniques were viewed favorably by students in a Top 200 Medication Course. Further study of these techniques in a Top 200 Medication Course should occur in order to maximize their benefits.
To assess the effect of a yearlong postgraduate teaching certificate program (TCP) on self-perceived teaching abilities.
Participants characterized perceived teaching abilities on a 5-point Likert scale upon entry and completion of the TCP using a 29-item teaching self-assessment instrument (1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = barely acceptable, 4 = good, and 5 = very good). Four teaching-related domains were assessed: delivery of content, assessment of student learning, providing student feedback, and modeling the profession. Pre- and post-program self-assessment scores were compared using paired t-tests.
During five program years, 81 participants completed teaching self-assessments upon entry and completion of the one-year program. Overall, teaching abilities increased significantly during the program (3.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001). Each domain score also increased significantly (p < 0.001): delivery (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 4.4 ± 0.3), assessment (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4), feedback (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5), and modeling (3.9 ± 0.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.3).
Participation in the TCP results improved self-perceived teaching abilities across all program objectives over the program year, thus validating the program design and content. Such development is beneficial given the increasing expectation for pharmacists to act as effective educators.
To measure health care professional students’ attitudes toward international experiential learning and the role of pharmacists on an interprofessional international experience (IIE).
An electronic survey instrument was distributed to all health professional students from the Midwestern University Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, Pharmacy, Dental Medicine, Optometry, and Podiatric Medicine participating in an IIE to Guatemala between 2010 and 2013.
Of the 64 participants, 49 (77%) responded to the survey. Overall, students’ ratings of their ability to learn curricular outcomes improved. The most improvement was seen with student’s sense of civic and social responsibility, students with intermediate Spanish-speaking ability (p = 0.03), with female students (p = 0.06), and students who initially felt the experience would not change their values/beliefs (p = 0.06). Interdisciplinary collaboration was rated the most valuable aspect of the experience (79%). Pharmacists were deemed to be accessible educators (61%) and are an important part of the interprofessional team (42%).
IIEs expand interprofessional collaboration between students, improve student’s sense of civic and social responsibility, and promote an optimal environment for education and professional development.
A set of full-motion videos utilizing two-dimensional images and representations of three-dimensional chemical structures was made using a software suite, the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE). The videos highlight the drug’s structure–activity relationship (SAR) and their corresponding receptor interactions. The full-motion video set was created for use as a supplemental teaching aid for a medicinal chemistry course. The literature describes using full-motion videos in undergraduate courses, such as organic chemistry and biochemistry; however, there is no demonstration of movies being employed in pharmacy chemistry-based courses such as medicinal chemistry. Anecdotal feedback and unsolicited student comments on teaching evaluations from pharmacy students directly indicated increased student understanding and comfort with the course content. Student feedback has motivated the authors to develop a future study to purposefully assess if there is a benefit to using the videos in comparison to static 2D diagrams as a supplement to the medicinal chemistry lectures.
Persons facing substance abuse and addiction are ubiquitous in all areas of pharmacy practice. Some colleges of pharmacy (COP) do not report didactic coursework in substance abuse. An off-site elective was developed to offer students an experience in immersion learning on this topic. The elective objectives were (1) to facilitate professional pharmacy student development by challenging student perceptions of people regarding addiction and substance abuse concerns and (2) to elicit input on the course structure and activities to improve entry-level pharmacist preparation. Participation in the second goal was optional.Methods
Eleven pharmacy students participated. Surveys and on-site student reports were evaluated for common themes of student learning and substance abuse knowledge. This project maintained participant anonymity and was approved by the University's institutional review board.ResultsThe most common self-reported experience was recognizing addiction as a disease. Secondly, students reported increased knowledge in the following areas: healthcare provider risk, disease prevention, and treatment options for impaired healthcare professionals. Students included personal reflections on the entire experience, assigned personal goals for service delivery, considered this education essential for adequate pharmacist preparation, self-reported changes in knowledge and understanding of substance abuse and addiction following completion of the elective, reported the experience would influence their practice as pharmacists, and opined more students should have access to this educational experience.Conclusion
Pilot study data supported substance abuse education inclusion in core curricula. COPs are encouraged to use published curriculum guidelines as a road map for development.
A 24-month longitudinal academic learning experience as part of a combined postgraduate year one and postgraduate year two (PGY1/PGY2) pharmacotherapy residencies to prepare residents for an academic career is described.
A longitudinal academic learning experience was developed to provide an opportunity for residents to gain valuable experience in teaching, scholarly activity, professional service, and leadership development activities in addition to learning the process of integrating these activities into their daily responsibilities. Teaching experiences include didactic lectures, small-group facilitation, precepting, and course coordination. Residents participate in college and institution committees and are encouraged to become active in professional service through local, regional, and national pharmacy organizations. Peer-review, as well as manuscript development and submission, is also a focus of this experience. Finally, leadership skills are nurtured through readings, discussions, and faculty interviews. The 24-month longitudinal nature of this experience enables repetition and incorporation of feedback to further hone their academic abilities.
Through the longitudinal academic learning experience, residents are given the opportunity to learn and practice skills vital to success in a clinical faculty position. Benefits of this program extend beyond the residents to preceptors and the institution.
To determine faculty experiences with and perceptions of academic dishonesty and if there are inconsistencies in interpretation and handling of such violations.
Faculty members within two departments at a college of pharmacy were surveyed to collect their experiences with and perceptions of academic dishonesty. These faculty were also asked to interpret and respond to potential violations via hypothetical case scenarios.
Of the 46 faculty members who participated in the survey, 75% reported having never experienced an Honor Code violation. Most respondents agreed that it is the responsibility of the faculty member to address every alleged Honor Code violation (95.3%), and that violations should be handled consistently (97.7%). Few respondents (34.9%) indicated that they have had adequate mentoring and training in handling situations of academic dishonesty. Most faculty respondents identified each hypothetical scenario as an Honor Code violation, but reported a variety of methods to manage these potential violations.
Faculty at one college of pharmacy, reported minimal academic dishonesty experience, but have congruent beliefs on what honor code violations are and how they should be handled. However, methods chosen for managing hypothetical and real violations varied widely. A uniform process for managing violations should be considered to reduce academic dishonesty in pharmacy education.
The objective of this study was to evaluate student pharmacist experience and academic performance in the first offering of a drug information and literature evaluation course utilizing a blended learning approach.
An anonymous online survey, course grades, and evaluations were compared with the traditional offering (composed of live lectures and occasional recitations).
The blended learning strategy doubled the time spent in recitation; 96% of students reported them as “helpful.” Students preferred viewing lectures online and viewed most lectures on time. Students reported that online lectures in this course provided an equal educational value compared with “live” lectures. Compared to the traditional course, there was no difference in examination scores or course evaluations. Course grades and student perception of achieving course objectives were improved with the blended learning course.
The blended learning strategy allowed for an increase in active learning sessions, higher course grades, and improvement in components of the course evaluations.
To compare student academic performance from live and synchronous case-based active learning sessions between a satellite and main campus. The secondary objective was to evaluate student perception of instructional delivery methods.
Students were taught infectious diseases through patient cases delivered either synchronously to both campuses or live at each campus. Student performance was assessed by examination grades. Student perception of content delivery methods was evaluated using a survey.
Students performed better on examinations that pertained to content that were delivered live. The average examination grade for live and synchronous course material was 72.2% and 62.2%, respectively. In the main campus, 81.5% of students preferred live lectures. In the satellite campus, 66.7% of students preferred synchronous education. Overall, students agreed that synchronous cases helped them prepare for graded assessments.
Both campuses differed in their preference of instructional delivery methods. Though there was a higher examination score with the live cases, this could be due to the nature of the disease states tested and the small number of synchronously taught cases. Further evaluation of these delivery methods need to be done to confirm these results and to better utilize resources as multi-campus universities continue to grow.
Objective and setting
The purpose of this paper is to outline how a residency preceptor development program was designed and implemented within a mixed academic-community medical center.
Two preceptor development tracks were implemented, one for experienced preceptors (EP) and one for preceptors in training (PIT). In order to precept pharmacy residents, all new preceptors are required to participate in an orientation program and develop a site description. Annually, all preceptors complete a self-assessment worksheet. The residency program director (RPD) reviews them with each preceptor individually, as well as learner and peer evaluations, preceptor goals and qualifications, and areas for improvements. A preceptor development plan is agreed upon by both the RPD and preceptor and continues to be reviewed annually. Preceptors who do not meet the criteria to function as an independent preceptor are designated as PITs. Each PIT is assigned a mentor who co-precepts and regularly meets with the PIT throughout the one-year training period to assist with evaluations and provide feedback on precepting. Preceptors meet monthly as a group and the RPD or an EP shares a “Preceptor Pearl” with the group. Preceptors may also be asked to share a recent preceptor-related “Lessons Learned.” These two topics enable preceptors to learn what challenges other preceptors have faced and allow them to feel more supported and involved in the development program.
A two-track preceptor development program can identify the needs of and provide precepting support to both experienced preceptors and preceptors in training.
The purpose of this report is to describe the development of a team-taught academic-focused advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). This APPE was developed as a way to expose students to academic pharmacy while accommodating increasing faculty APPE student teaching loads. The academic-focused APPE integrated weekly live didactic seminars with an online learning component. Using synchronous distance learning technology, the academic-focused APPE was simultaneously delivered between two separate education campuses. A total of thirteen students and eight faculty participated during the first offering (Fall 2011) of this six-week academic-focused APPE. Surveys were administered to both the students and faculty at the completion of the APPE. Both students and faculty rated many of the specific assignments and activities favorably and perceived the rotation favorably overall. The combination of a shared pharmacy practice faculty workload and a positive learning experience for the students demonstrates that this team-taught approach is an effective means of offering an academic-focused APPE rotation.
To compare depression, anxiety, and academic achievement in a pilot study of two cohorts of first year doctor of pharmacy students in an accelerated curriculum, one receiving the majority of class content via synchronized distance education, the other via traditional delivery (TD).Methods
Depression and anxiety were measured using Beck Depression Inventory-II and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 surveys at the beginning and end of students' fall and spring trimesters and at the end of the summer trimester. Academic achievement was measured by final course averages across the curriculum.ResultsDepression, anxiety, and academic achievement were not significantly different between synchronized distance education and TD cohorts. Depression scores for all students significantly increased during each trimester and over the academic year.Conclusions
No significant differences in depression, anxiety, or academic success were found between synchronized distance education and TD students. All students experienced significant increases in depression over time, regardless of mode of instruction.
To outline a student-led academic honor code initiative and the impact student leadership and involvement had in the overall development, implementation, and acceptance of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy Academic Honor Code and Integrity Policy (AHCIP).
The AHCIP was developed between January 2010 and April 2011. A survey was conducted in the spring of 2010 to assess student and faculty views on academic dishonesty. Key stakeholders were then provided additional opportunities for feedback through focus groups and regularly scheduled meetings. Multiple versions of the AHCIP were drafted, and the policy was approved by students, faculty, and the administration in April 2011. Implementation followed in August 2011.
As a result of a highly transparent and collaborative process, a successful and sustained implementation of a student-developed AHCIP occurred at St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Data on AHCIP reports are recorded each semester for continued evaluation. At the end of the first semester (Fall 2011), 23 potential violations were reported and evaluated by a judicial panel; 14 were found to be violations, while nine were considered not to be violations. At the end of the following semester (Spring 2012), four reports were received and reviewed by the judicial panel, and three were considered to be violations of the AHCIP.
A student-led initiative with emphasis on transparency and engagement from key stakeholders can lead to successful implementation and college-wide acceptance of an academic honor code at a professional school.
The typical pharmacy school provides limited opportunities for focused pediatric pharmacotherapy discussions. This finding served as the impetus for development of an elective course on pediatric pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this study was to describe course design and evaluate students’ self-assessment of learning outcome achievement in a pediatric pharmacotherapy course. Methods: Thirty second-year pharmacy students were enrolled in a 10-week pediatric pharmacotherapy elective course. This course integrated numerous teaching strategies and provided several opportunities for formative and summative feedback. Students completed a pre- and post-course survey consisting of 20 items. Pre- and post- course surveys were compared to evaluate changes in student self-assessments of learning achievement following this course. Results: Twenty-nine and 27 students responded to the pre- and post-course survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in post-survey results for all items that examined students’ self-assessment of competency in course learning outcomes (p < 0.036). Conclusions: Following completion of a pediatric pharmacotherapy course, significant improvements were observed in students’ self-assessment of learning outcome achievement. The course design appeared to have facilitated these improvements. Since this course was an elective offering, additional means of educating pharmacy students on the care of pediatric patients may need to be considered.
To assess the effectiveness of four hospital-based, faculty-facilitated, Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPEs) at meeting instructional objectives related to the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) standards.
A pre-test and a post-test were administered to students to assess their acquisition of basic institutional pharmacy knowledge and perceptions of their ability and interest in hospital pharmacy practice. The test included demographic, open-ended, and multiple-choice questions designed to assess objectives in line with ACPE standards. Students’ pre-test and post-test scores were compared using paired t-tests. Differences in test scores and perceptions were assessed based on year and work experience.
Analysis of 88 students from year one and 84 students in year two showed significant improvement in test scores from pre-test to the post-test in year one (71.4% vs. 77.0%, p < 0.01) and year two (68.4% vs. 81.7%, p < 0.001). In year one, students with prior hospital experience (30%) scored significantly higher on the pre-test but not the post-test. In year two, no difference in scores was observed for students with prior hospital experience (23.8%) compared to those without. Students reported improved confidence in their knowledge of hospital pharmacy practice at the conclusion of IPPE (p < 0.001 in both years). Students’ likelihood of pursuing a career in hospital pharmacy did not change after institutional IPPE (p = 0.184 in year one, p = 0.075 in year two).
The institutional IPPE program was successful at improving students’ knowledge in basic hospital pharmacy practice. Institutional IPPE improved students’ confidence but did not change their perceived career path.