Published by Cureus, Inc.

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Granulocyte Infiltration and Expression of the Pro-angiogenic Bv8 Protein in Experimental EL4 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Tumors
  • Article

January 2013


89 Reads



Giovanna Tosato
Although Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-targeted therapies have shown efficacy in the treatment of certain advanced cancers, benefits to patients have been modest, which is attributed to tumor resistance to VEGF neutralization. Recent efforts to identify new targets to inhibit tumor angiogenesis have identified Bv8 (prokineticin 2), a myeloid cell-derived protein that promotes endothelial cell growth and tumor angiogenesis, but many mechanistic aspects of the pro-tumorigenic function of Bv8 are unclear. Here we demonstrate that CD11b+, Ly6C+, Ly6G+ granulocytes are the predominant cell source of Bv8 expression in bone marrow, spleen and in tumor tissues. Using granulocyte-deficient Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1)-null mutant mice and normal littermates, we found that EL4 lymphoma tumors grow significantly larger in the granulocyte and Bv8-deficient mutant mice in comparison to the normal mice that display abundant tumor-associated granulocytes and Bv8 expression. Conversely, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) tumors grew to a significantly greater size in the normal mice in comparison to the Gfi1-null mice, but normal granulocyte tumor infiltration was modest. Quantitative analysis of tissue vascularization showed that EL4 and LLC-1 tumors from normal and Gfi1-mutant mice are similarly vascularized. These results confirm the critical contribution of the tumor microenvironment in determining the rate of tumor progression independently of tumor angiogenesis, and reveal some of the complexities of granulocyte and Bv8 functions in modulating tumor growth.

Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Match: A Survey of the 2011-2012 Applicant Pool
  • Article
  • Full-text available

November 2014


363 Reads

Anupama S.Q. Kathiresan







Neuroradiologic Applications in the Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease and the Potential Implications of Brain Imaging in Forensic Psychiatry

April 2014


28 Reads

The field of radiology has undergone a dramatic change in the last decade due to the innovations manifesting from domains, such as electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and computer sciences. The capability of a radiologist to gain deep insight into the working mechanisms of the brain at the anatomical and physiological level is unprecedented. Molecular and biochemical pathways undetected hitherto are now imaged consistently to provide a refined diagnosis and more reliable therapeutic plan. Although the milestones in radiology influence and propel the progress of a variety of medical domains, neuropsychiatry benefits from these technological improvements in a tangible, concrete, and translational manner. The manner and reasons, by which a brain may begin to develop abnormal functions, remains elusive. However, biomedical imaging has provided clinicians and scientists alike the ability to gain a deeper insight into fundamental substrates of the workings of the brain. Consequently, the biomedical community addressing the mental health community is now better equipped to diagnose and treat these patients. Herein, we aim to review clinical findings of brain imaging techniques in a specific subset of psychiatric disease states. Of particular interest is to examine the hypothetical implications of these discoveries in forensic psychiatry.

Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Pediatric Cancer Patients

June 2013


289 Reads

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPNs) are an increasingly common neuropathic and pain syndrome in adult and pediatric cancer patients and survivors [1-69]. However, symptoms associated with CIPNs are often undiagnosed, under-assessed, and communications problems between clinicians, family members, and patients have been observed [70-73]. Less is known about the prevalence and impact of CIPNs on pediatric cancer populations [70-71]. This article aims to provide a brief understanding of CIPNs in pediatric populations, and to review the evidence for both its prevention and treatment.

FIGURE 1: Conjunctival hyperemia evaluation method. A: Conjunctival hyperemia score of 2.33 on a frontal image at 30 min in a 36-year-old male induced by omidenepag isopropyl. B: Conjunctival vessel occupancy (percent coverage). Percent coverage was 19.1% (according to the analysis software) at the same time point.
FIGURE 3: Correlation between the degree of conjunctival hyperemia in eyes administered with omidenepag isopropyl and ripasudil. A: Conjunctival hyperemia score revealing a weak positive correlation (rs=0.344, P=0.055) (N=32). B: Percent coverage revealing a moderately positive correlation (r=0.510, P=0.003) (N=30).
Evaluation of Patterns and Correlations of the Degree of Conjunctival Hyperemia Induced by Omidenepag Isopropyl 0.002% and Ripasudil 0.4%

September 2020


43 Reads

Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of conjunctival hyperemia induced by omidenepag isopropyl 0.002% and ripasudil 0.4%, and its correlation with the degree of hyperemia. Subjects and methods: We previously reported the time course of conjunctival hyperemia induced by administering one drop of omidenepag isopropyl to one eye and one drop of ripasudil to the other eye in 34 healthy subjects (mean age: 29.7 years; 22 females, 12 males). We assessed the degree of hyperemia by slit-lamp photography of the frontal and temporal conjunctiva 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min after the administration of one drop of omidenepag isopropyl and ripasudil. The data were used to compare the frontal photographs before and at the peak of hyperemia according to the clinical hyperemia score (0-3) and classify the pattern of developing hyperemia due to both drugs. We also examined the correlation between the degree of hyperemia by comparing the images captured at the peak of hyperemia in both groups, using clinical hyperemia score and "percent coverage" of conjunctival hyperemia by using an automated hyperemia analysis software program; this program provides the pixel coverage of the conjunctival vessels in the region of interest. Results: There were significant differences in the developmental pattern of hyperemia between omidenepag isopropyl-administered and ripasudil-administered eyes (P<0.001, χ2 test), with dilation of large blood vessels only (N=2 vs. 1, respectively), small blood vessels only (N=17 vs. 5), both large and small blood vessels (N=8 vs. 27), and no change (N=6 vs. 0). The degree of hyperemia between the two groups was positively correlated with the hyperemia score (rs=0.344, P=0.055) in the frontal conjunctival photographs and the percent coverage of conjunctival blood vessels (r=0.510, P=0.003) in the temporal conjunctival photographs. Conclusions: The pattern of conjunctival hyperemia induced by omidenepag isopropyl predominantly involved small blood vessels, whereas that of ripasudil involved both large and small blood vessels. The eyes that were hyperemic with omidenepag isopropyl also tended to be hyperemic with ripasudil.

FIGURE 1: The water bath used to conduct the three-point bending test with a constant temperature of about 37 centigrade degrees.
Evaluating the Elemental Composition, Transformation Behavior, Crystalline Structure, and Mechanical Properties of Three 0.016-Inch by 0.022-Inch Nickel-Titanium Archwires: An In Vitro Study

July 2022


67 Reads

Background Nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires are considered the most attractive wires during the first stage of orthodontic treatment because of their unique properties throughout several generations. This study aimed to evaluate three different NiTi wires in terms of their elemental composition, transformation behavior, crystalline structure, and mechanical properties. Materials and methods The study used three different groups of NiTi archwires with dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022-inch (American Orthodontics®, Sheboygan, WI, USA). The first group included six superelastic NiTi archwires (NT3-SE®), with normal force and a stable structure that was not affected by temperature changes. The second group included six heat-activated NiTi archwires activated at 25°C (Thermal Ti-D®), with moderate force and a sensitive structure to thermal changes, especially at room temperature. The third group included six heat-activated NiTi archwires activated at 35°C (Thermal Ti-Lite®), with light force and a sensitive structure to thermal changes, especially at body temperature. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was performed to determine wire element composition, whereas differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to determine the austenite finish temperature (Af). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to identify the crystalline structure at room temperature, and a three-point bending test was carried out under constant temperature (37°C) with respect to the instructions of ISO15841/DIS to evaluate the mechanical properties of these wires. Results The XRF analysis revealed that the superelastic NiTi archwires (NT3-SE) were composed of NiTi and chrome, whereas the heat-activated wires (Thermal Ti-D and Thermal Ti-Lite) were composed of NiTi and copper. The DSC showed the Af was at +16.84°C for the superelastic type (NT3-SE), +23°C for the heat-activated at 25°C (Thermal Ti-D), and +33.99°C for the heat-activated at 35°C (Thermal Ti-Lite). The XRD analysis identified the crystalline structure at room temperature for the superelastic type (NT3-SE) as austenite, while for thermal types (Thermal Ti-D and Thermal Ti-Lite) were a compound structure of austenite and martensite phase. Finally, the bending test showed that the highest forces were delivered from the superelastic type (NT3-SE), followed by heat-activated at 25°C (Thermal Ti-D), while the lowest forces were delivered from heat-activated at 35°C (Thermal Ti-Lite). There was no significant difference between the superelastic type (NT3-SE) and thermally activated type at 25°C (Thermal Ti-D), while there was a significant difference between the two previous types and the thermally activated type at 35°C (Thermal Ti-Lite) for all studied unloading points. Conclusions The thermal types of archwires (Thermal Ti-D and Thermal Ti-Lite) had lower unloading values in comparison with the superelastic type (NT3-SE). The elemental composition was different between the superelastic wires and the thermal ones. The superelastic wires were also different from the other two types in terms of crystalline structure. The three types of archwires had an activation degree located in the range of oral cavity variations.

FIGURE 5: MRV MRV in the coronal view demonstrates near complete occlusion of the entire venous system.  
A Series of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thromboses Treated with Intra-Arterial tPA infused over Ten Hours with a 0.027-inch Catheter and Literature Review

June 2016


53 Reads

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) can have devastating results, with mortality reported in 44% of cases. No randomized trials exist in order to define what qualifies as failure of conservative therapy, and there is no specific intervention to date which is considered safe and effective. Case series suggest that thrombolysis infusion is safer than thrombectomy, but methods of administration, dose, and duration of therapy tend to vary widely. We present three consecutive CVST patients treated with heparin who suffered both clinical and radiographic deterioration, and went on to have endovascular therapy. Each patient was successfully recanalized by placing a 0.027-inch microcatheter at the proximal portion of the thrombus and infusing 20 mg of alteplase dissolved in 1 liter of normal saline infused at 100 ml per hour for an infusion of 2 mg of alteplase per hour for ten hours.

Topical Treatment of Eyebrow Hypotrichosis with Bimatoprost 0.03% Solution: Case Report and Literature Review

May 2018


602 Reads

The eyebrows frame the upper margin of the orbit and are an essential feature of the facial landscape. Eyebrow hypotrichosis, also known as madarosis, is characterized by a lack of growth or loss of eyebrow hair. Eyebrow loss can have cosmetic, functional, and social consequences. Eyebrow hypotrichosis can be idiopathic or related to an underlying condition. Bimatoprost 0.03% solution is a prostamide F2α analog indicated for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension that has also demonstrated efficacy for hair growth; indeed, it is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis. A 60-year-old woman with eyebrow hypotrichosis is described who achieved excellent and sustained growth of her eyebrows with continual daily application of bimatoprost 0.03% solution. We discuss the therapeutic mechanisms of bimatoprost 0.03% solution in hair growth, review other potential modalities for treating eyebrow hypotrichosis, and summarize the findings of investigators who have utilized bimatoprost in the treatment of eyebrow hypotrichosis.

Comparison of intraocular pressure (mmHg) between difluprednate and prednisolone groups.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Difluprednate 0.05% Versus Prednisolone Acetate 1% in Controlling Inflammation and Macular Oedema Following Phacoemulsification: An Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Study

April 2021


16 Reads

Background: Topical corticosteroids have been the cornerstone in the management of postoperative inflammation following cataract surgery. Due to potential side effects of the older topical steroids like prednisolone acetate and dexamethasone or betamethasone, newer potent steroids preparation like difluprednate, loteprednol or fluorometholone are now being used at lesser dose and frequency to control inflammation. There is scanty literature on the efficacy of these drugs in preventing inflammation and macular oedema in the Indian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% against prednisolone 1% eye drops for control of inflammation following phacoemulsification. The adverse effects of both drugs were also evaluated in this retrospective study. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 181 patients operated for age-related cataracts by a single surgeon at a tertiary referral eye hospital between December 2018 and March 2019. Patients received either difluprednate 0.05% emulsion (n=90 eyes) or prednisolone acetate 1% (n=91 eyes) after phacoemulsification with the same brand intraocular lens (IOL) and same phaco machine. The topical medication was initiated one day postoperatively and continued for six weeks in tapering dosage. Pain score (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber (AC) cell grading, corneal oedema, central retinal thickness, subclinical cystoid macular oedema (SCME), intraocular pressures (IOP) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were examined after one week and six weeks of cataract extraction. Results: There was no statistically significant difference observed with regards to pain score (no pain in any patients after six weeks), conjunctival hyperemia (no hyperemia in any patients after six weeks), AC inflammation (no reaction in any patients), central retinal thickness (234.44 ± 35.75µ vs. 234.8 ± 34.99µ, p-value 0.946), SCME (16.67% vs. 13.19%, p-value 0.511), IOP (16.8 vs. 15.47 mmHg, p-value 0.101) and BCVA (BCVA 6/6 in 57.7% vs. 70.32%, p-value >0.05) between both groups. The mean change in IOP in both the groups at one week (0 ± 4.4 vs. 1.87 ± 3.54, p-value 0.0007) and six weeks (-0.01 ± 5.53 vs. 1.88 ± 4.01, p-value 0.004) was significant. Conclusion: Both the groups were equivalent with regards to their therapeutic efficacy in controlling postoperative inflammation and restoration of vision following phacoemulsification.

Table 5 ).
Erythema score index
Healing index
Comparison of healing score from the first visit to the fourth visit within the group
Comparative Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy and Topical Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1% in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Subjects

June 2022


41 Reads

Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), sometimes known as canker sores, is an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by an inflammatory process. Triamcinolone and low-level laser therapy for recurrent aphthous ulcers were studied in this research, which evaluated their clinical efficacy. Methodology Among 60 subjects, 54 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria with an age range between 16 and 46 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, the control group who received four times daily topical application of triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% and the test group who underwent a single application of low-level laser therapy on three alternate days. Evaluations were done on day 1, day 3, day 5, and day 10. Data obtained on oral-health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) using the OHR-QoL questionnaire were used as baseline data. Clinical parameters like pain score were assessed using a visual analog scale, ulcer size using UNC-15 probe, and erythema and healing score were evaluated using erythema and healing scale. Result According to the OHR-QoL data, there was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of test and control subjects. We found that pain and ulcer size reduced considerably (p=0.007) from the first day to the third day (p=0.000), and then dropped significantly again (p=0.000) on days 3-10 (p=0.000). On days 3 and 5, the test group showed significant reductions in pain and erythema (p=0.13), as well as an improvement in ulcer healing when compared to the control group. On days 3 and 5, the size of the ulcers decreased similarly in the control and test groups. On the 10th day, patients in both groups had less discomfort, erythema, and ulcer size, as well as improved healing of the ulcer. Conclusion Pain and erythema reduction and ulcer healing improvement were significantly higher in subjects in the test group as compared to those in the control group by day 3. The reduction in ulcer size was comparable to the control group on days 3 and 5, while the complete reduction in ulcer size was seen in both groups by day 10.

Real-World Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of Cetosomal Minoxidil 5% Alone and a Fixed Drug Combination of Cetosomal Minoxidil 5% With Finasteride 0.1% in the Management of Androgenetic Alopecia (Inbilt Study)
  • New
  • Article

July 2023


35 Reads

Introduction Topical minoxidil 5% is a widely used medication in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) but is usually associated with adverse events (AE) such as scalp irritation, dryness, and itching. This prompted the development of nonalcoholic solutions, and cetosomal minoxidil was the most recent one. Methods Retrospective multicenter data analysis was conducted at 66 centers across India for adult AGA patients. Patients treated with either cetosomal minoxidil 5% alone (Group I) or a fixed drug combination of cetosomal minoxidil 5% and finasteride 0.1% (Group II) were analyzed for the effectiveness and safety of either formulation. The Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and Patient Global Assessment (PtGA) were used to assess each treatment's effectiveness. Safety was reported by records of AE and a product tolerability assessment with subjective cosmetic acceptability as recorded by physicians. Results Of the 261 patients, 132 were in Group I, and 129 were in Group II. At 16 weeks, in PGA, mild to moderate improvement was noted in 48% and 32% of patients in Groups I and II, respectively, whereas significant to excellent improvement was seen in 52% and 68% of patients in Groups I and II, respectively. Similar results were noted for PtGA. In Group I, 64% of patients rated the product's tolerability as excellent, and 69% reported the same in Group II. Meanwhile, 64% of patients in Group I and 74% in Group II rated the product as excellent in subjective cosmetic acceptability. Conclusions From real-world analysis, cetosomal-based minoxidil solutions were found to be effective and tolerable in AGA and could serve as therapeutic alternatives to alcoholic formulations for AGA management.

Comparison of the Rate of Posterior Capsule Opacification Following Combined Treatment With Topical Dexamethasone 0.1% Plus Ketorolac 0.5% Eye Drops Versus Dexamethasone 0.1% Alone: A Two-Year, Randomized Clinical Investigation

April 2023


19 Reads

Background and aim The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in animals decreases the incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) following cataract surgery. We evaluated the rate of PCO in patients with cataract surgery and foldable “in the bag” posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation treated with combined dexamethasone 0.1% plus ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% versus dexamethasone 0.1% alone. Materials and methods A total of 114 eyes of 101 patients underwent uneventful corneal small-incision phacoemulsification with primary implantation of a foldable acrylic PC-IOL (AcrySof®, Alcon, Fort Worth, USA). Postoperatively for four weeks, group 1 eyes were treated with dexamethasone 0.1% plus ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% ophthalmic solutions four times daily for each whereas group 2 eyes were treated with dexamethasone 0.1% alone. Other regiments were the same for each group. Patients were evaluated between one- and four-year following surgery. The frequency and timing of severe PCO following surgery that needed Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were recorded and evaluated. Results The mean (SEM) age of group 1 (n = 54) and group 2 (n = 60) at operation was similar (62.8 ± 2.2 vs. 60.6 ± 1.7 years, respectively). Eighty-eight patients had unilateral cataract and 13 cases had bilateral disease. Overall, the mean follow-up duration was 24.7 months postoperatively (range, 15-48). Clinically significant PCO that finally needed Nd:YAG laser application developed in two eyes (3.7%) in group 1 and in four eyes (6.6%) in group 2, and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean month at capsulotomy was 26.5 in group 1 and 24.3 months in group 2 eyes (p>0.05). Conclusions Topical instillation of ketorolac ophthalmic solution in the immediate period after phacoemulsification and PC-IOL implantation did not seem to influence the incidence of PCO formation two years after cataract surgery.

FIGURE 1: Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis test of the ASA score of the patients and their respective duration of analgesia in hours on the Yaxis.
FIGURE 2: Scatter plots depicting age versus duration of pain relief (left) and BMI versus duration of pain relief (right).
Comparison of diabetes status and nerve block type with duration of analgesia.
Retrospective Analysis of 0.25% Bupivacaine for Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular and Supraclavicular Nerve Blocks in an Ambulatory Surgery Center

July 2022


51 Reads

Bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.5% (5 mg/mL) is commonly utilized for analgesia in brachial plexus blocks. We suggest that ultrasound-guided 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL) bupivacaine can be utilized for effective postoperative analgesia to reduce the effective dose. A total of 126 patients underwent ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks with 0.25% bupivacaine. The mean duration of analgesia was 21.95 (σ = 3.93) hours with no complications. Patients that received an infraclavicular block (22.56 σ = 4.02) had a significant increase in analgesia compared to supraclavicular blocks (21.09, σ = 3.69) (p = 0.04). These results suggest that further research is warranted for ultrasound-guided 0.25% bupivacaine in brachial plexus nerve blocks.

A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine to Accentuate the Perioperative Analgesia of Caudal 0.25% Isobaric Levobupivacaine in Pediatric Infraumbilical Surgeries

August 2022


11 Reads

Background Caudal block is an efficient way to offer perioperative analgesia for painful sub-umbilical interventions. It enables early ambulation and periprocedural hemodynamic stability. These are important advantages over general anesthesia, notably in preterm babies and in children with cardiopulmonary comorbidities. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine and clonidine to accentuate the perioperative analgesia of 0.25% isobaric levobupivacaine in pediatric caudal anesthesia. Methodology A prospective double-blind randomized control study was conducted on 60 patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I, between the ages of one to six undergoing infraumbilical abdominal surgery under caudal anesthesia in the Department of Anaesthesia, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner. Patients were randomly allocated to the following three groups of 20 each: group L, 1 mL/kg of levobupivacaine 0.25%; group LD, 1 mL/kg of levobupivacaine 0.25% with 0.5 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine; and group LC, 1 mL/kg of levobupivacaine 0.25% with 0.5 µg/kg of clonidine. Intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded for 24 hours. Patients’ pain scores, sedation scores, and Bromage scores were recorded. In our study, the main observation was the duration of analgesia and the total analgesic requirement for 24 hours. Results There was a significant difference in the duration of analgesia among the three groups (p < 0.001). Group LC had the highest duration of analgesia of 492.00 (50.01) minutes, followed by group LD 486.00 (54.71) minutes, and the lowest in group L 291.00 (40.25) minutes. There was a significant difference between the three groups in terms of the total dose of analgesics in 24 hours (p < 0.001), with the median total dose of analgesics being the highest in Group L. Three groups differed significantly in terms of motor block, which was limited to up to 180 minutes in groups LC and LD with no residual motor block. Conclusions The addition of α2 agonists such as clonidine or dexmedetomidine at a dose of 0.5 µg/kg as an adjuvant to caudal levobupivacaine (0.25%) at 1 mL/kg significantly prolongs the duration of opioid-free analgesia in children undergoing infraumbilical abdominal surgeries without prolonging the motor blockade and any side effects. Moreover, dexmedetomidine does not offer a significant advantage over clonidine regarding the analgesia duration.

FIGURE 2: Multichannel film dosimetry with single scan method of gamma analysis with 2% DD/2 mm distance to agreement (DTA). (A) Isodose comparison of film and treatment planning system (TPS) dose plane. Bold and light isodose lines represent film and TPS maps, respectively. (B) Gamma evaluation map of red channel for 2% /2 mm. (C) 20-pixel averaged profile lines across the comparison map for three channels.
FIGURE 3: Gamma passing rates of red, green and blue channels. (A) Merged plot of 2% DD / 2 mm DTA and 3% DD / 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) gamma evaluation criteria of passing rates. (B) Gamma passing rates of red, green and blue channels for 2% / 2 mm. (C) Gamma passing rates of red, green and blue channels for 3% / 3 mm.
Multichannel Film Dosimetry for Quality Assurance of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Plans Under 0.35 T Magnetic Field

March 2020


178 Reads

Purpose To evaluate the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) results of the multichannel film dosimetry analysis with single scan method by using Gafchromic™ EBT3 (Ashland Inc., Covington, KY, USA) film under 0.35 T magnetic field. Methods Between September 2018 and June 2019, 70 patients were treated with ViewRay MRIdian® (ViewRay Inc., Mountain View, CA) linear accelerator (Linac). Film dosimetry QA plans were generated for all IMRT treatments. Multichannel film dosimetry for red, green and blue (RGB) channels were compared with treatment planning system (TPS) dose maps by gamma evaluation analysis. Results The mean gamma passing rates of RGB channels are 97.3% ± 2.26%, 96.0% ± 3.27% and 96.2% ± 3.14% for gamma evaluation with 2% DD/2 mm distance to agreement (DTA), respectively. Moreover, the mean gamma passing rates of RGB channels are 99.7% ± 0.41%, 99.6% ± 0.59% and 99.5% ± 0.67% for gamma evaluation with 3% DD/3 mm DTA, respectively. Conclusion The patient specific QA using Gafchromic™ EBT3 film with multichannel film dosimetry seems to be a suitable tool to implement for MR-guided IMRT treatments under 0.35 T magnetic field. Multichannel film dosimetry with Gafchromic™ EBT3 is a consistent QA tool for gamma evaluation of the treatment plans even with 2% DD/2 mm DTA under 0.35 T magnetic field presence.

Comparison of the Effects of Ringer’s Lactate and 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 on Blood Loss and Need for Blood Transfusion After Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Cardiac Surgery

June 2021


15 Reads

Background Infusion of crystalloids fluid replacement therapy tends to cause a greater expansion of intravascular volume. However, colloids can affect blood coagulation leading to greater blood loss and transfusion requirements. This study compared the intraoperative and postoperative blood loss with Ringer’s lactate (RL) versus 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 as infusion fluid during cardiac surgery. Methods Eighty adult male and female patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to receive either RL or 6% HES 130/0.4 20 ml/kg during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OP-CABG) surgery. Intraoperative blood loss and 24 hours postoperative chest tube drainage were the primary outcomes. Simultaneously, blood transfusions, thromboelastometry variables, total fluid requirement, renal function, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were assessed. Results The intraoperative blood loss was similar (p > 0.05) with HES (716 ml) and RL (658 ml). Postoperative chest tube drainage was higher (p < 0.05) with HES (513 ml) as against RL (449 ml). The total fluid requirement was higher in the RL group. Alteration of thromboelastometry variables, renal function, and ICU stay was comparable between the two groups. Postoperative chest tube drainage was less with the use of RL during cardiac surgery. A lesser total fluid requirement in the HES group did not lead to any improvement in renal function and the length of ICU stay. Conclusions Crystalloids (RL) provide similar outcomes to HES and can be used as substitutes to colloids during cardiac surgery. However, further large-scale multicenter studies with varied indications can be suggested to substantiate the equivalence of crystalloids to colloids in perioperative management.

Assessment of various parameters for bupivacaine and articaine groups.
A Comparative Evaluation of Anesthetic Effectiveness of 4% Articaine vs 0.5% Bupivacaine for Lower Molar Tooth Extraction

December 2022


21 Reads

Background: Safe and efficient pain control is essential for today's dental practice. This randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 0.5% bupivacaine with 4% articaine in lower molar tooth extraction. Methods: One hundred subjects were classified into two groups, with 50 samples for each. Group A participants were managed with 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and group B participants with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for mandibular first and second molar extraction. Criteria such as onset and duration of anesthesia, pain throughout the procedure, pain during injection, and pain after the procedure were evaluated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) and heart rate (per minute)were evaluated for all participants. Results: There was a faster onset (53.2 vs 83.1 s) and lesser duration of action (216.6 vs 298.4 min) with articaine (group B) compared to bupivacaine (group A). Thirty-eight (76.0%) participants in group A and 44 (88.0%) participants in group B did not require re-anesthesia, whereas 12 (24%) participants in group A and six (12%) participants in group B required one-time re-anesthesia and it was insignificant. Conclusion: Articaine has a faster onset but a relatively lower duration of action and requires statistically insignificant but lower re-anesthesia. As a result, articaine anesthesia can be efficiently recommended in oral surgical techniques.

Characteristics of sensory and motor block
Nalbuphine as an Intrathecal Adjuvant to 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Two Different Doses for Postoperative Analgesia After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Control Study

May 2022


19 Reads

Introduction: Adding adjuvant drugs to intrathecal local anesthetics improves the quality and duration of the sensory blockade and prolongs postoperative analgesia. Intrathecal opioids are synergistic with local anesthetics, thereby intensifying the sensory block without increasing the sympathetic block. This study was designed to comparatively evaluate the two different dosages of nalbuphine as intrathecal adjuvants on subarachnoid block (SAB) characteristics of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Methods: A randomized, triple arm study was conducted on 60 adult female patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, aged 30-60 years, scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy under SAB. Patients were randomized into three groups: group I received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, group II received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1.6 mg of nalbuphine, and group III received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 2.4 mg of nalbuphine. The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia, while secondary outcomes included onset, duration of sensory and motor block, maximum cephalic extension, and two dermatome segment regressions. Results: The onset time of the sensory block was 3.2 ± 1.0 minutes, 3.5 ± 1.6 minutes, and 3.1 ± 1.1 minutes in groups I, II, and III, respectively. The onset time of the motor block was 8.5 ± 1.0 minutes, 8.5 ± 1.1 minutes, and 8.2 ± 1.1 minutes in groups I, II, and III, respectively. The onset of sensory and motor blocks was comparable among the three groups with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The total duration of analgesia was 117.8 ± 23.3 minutes, 166.8 ± 27.8 minutes, and 181.8 ± 25.9 minutes in groups I, II, and III, respectively, with a statistically significant difference. Few incidences of manageable hypotension, but no incidences of bradycardia or respiratory insufficiency, occurred. Five patients of the control group shivered, which was managed well by tramadol 50 mg and ondansetron 4 mg. No patient suffered from pruritus, sedation, respiratory depression, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusion: The study concluded that intrathecal nalbuphine in a 1.6 mg dose is an effective adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for SAB. It potentiated the SAB characteristics and enhanced the duration of analgesia with no effect on respiration. Nalbuphine in a dose of 2.4 mg did not offer any added advantage.

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Association of Nadir Prostate-specific Antigen >0.5 ng/mL after Dose-escalated External Beam Radiation with Prostate Cancer-specific Endpoints

June 2018


60 Reads

Objective Prior studies have suggested that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir of 0.5 ng/mL is an important surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. This study analyzed our well-followed patient cohort to assess whether this endpoint was associated with differences in prostate cancer-specific endpoints in patients receiving dose-escalated radiation. Methods Patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer (≥T2b, or prostate-specific antigen >10 ng/mL, or Gleason score ≥7) who were treated with external beam radiation to a minimum dose of 7560 cGy +/- androgen deprivation between 2003 and 2011 were identified. Biochemical control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between those who achieved a nadir PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL with those who did not via Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression was performed on all endpoints to assess their impact on OS. Results There were 367 patients identified with a median follow-up of 99.5 months. Two hundred five patients (55.9%) received androgen deprivation for a median of 24 months (range 1-81 months). Most patients (n = 308, 83.9%) achieved a nadir PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL, which was associated with improvement across all endpoints at 10 years. This included biochemical control (68.0% versus 24.0%, p < 0.001), DMFS (89.6% versus 80.8%, p = 0.019), PCSS (91.1% versus 85.7%, p = 0.01), and OS (55.7% versus 45.8%, p = 0.048). On multivariable analysis, nadir PSA >0.5 ng/mL remained strongly associated with worse outcomes across all endpoints. Conclusions Achievement of nadir PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL after completion of dose-escalated radiation therapy was associated with improvement of all prostate cancer endpoints.

FIGURE 1: Ultrasound probe position and image for anterior suprascapular nerve block ScA: subclavian artery, Blue arrow: anterior division of upper trunk, Green arrow: posterior division of upper trunk, Red arrow: suprascapular nerve
FIGURE 4: Postoperative 0-24 hour activity pain scores according to local anesthetic volumes (mean values ± SD) aNRS: activity pain score. Means/medians shown with the same letter (such as a and b) are the same (p>0.05), while those with different letters are statistically different (p<0.05).
FIGURE 5: Postoperative 0-24 hour resting pain scores according to local anesthetic volumes (mean values ± SD) iNRS: resting pain score. Means/medians shown with the same letter (such as a and b) are the same (p>0.05), while those with different letters are statistically different (p<0.05).
FIGURE 6: Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis rates according to local anesthetic volumes (mean values %) HDP: hemi-diaphragmatic paralysis. Means/medians shown with the same letter (such as a,b) are the same (p>0.05), while those with different letters are statistically different (p<0.05).
The Minimum Effective Analgesic Volume of 0.5% Bupivacaine for Ultrasound-Guided Anterior Suprascapular Nerve Block

November 2022


65 Reads

Objective The interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBB) constitutes the gold standard for analgesia after shoulder procedures. Ipsilateral phrenic nerve block remains the most common adverse effect after ISBB. Alternative nerve blocks are performed in shoulder surgery in order to prevent hemi-diaphragmatic paralysis (HDP). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the minimum effective local anesthetic volume of 0.5% bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia with an anterior suprascapular nerve block (ASSB). The secondary aim was to investigate diaphragm functions with the local anesthetic doses used while conducting effective volume research. Method This prospective observational study was conducted at the American Hospital of Istanbul, Turkey, from March to July 2022. The initial injected volume of 0.5% bupivacaine was 10 ml. Our clinical experience indicates that this yields a complete sensory block of the anterior suprascapular nerve. In accordance with the up-and-down method, the volume of 0.5% bupivacaine used for a particular patient was determined by the outcome of the preceding block, which represented block success. In case of effective ASSB being achieved, the volume of 0.5% bupivacaine to be administered to the next patient was lowered by 1 ml. In case of block failure, however, the volume of 0.5% bupivacaine to be applied in the subsequent case was increased by 1 ml. Ipsilateral hemi-diaphragmatic movement measurements were taken before (baseline) and 30 minutes after the block. General anesthesia was induced 60 minutes after the completion of the block performance by means of a standardized protocol. Results Sixty-seven patients were included in the study. The ED50 and ED95 calculated for anterior suprascapular nerve block using probit transformation and logistic regression analysis were 2.646 (95% CI, 0.877-2.890) and 3.043 ml (95% CI, 2.771-4.065), respectively. When complete paralysis was defined as 75% or above, partial paralysis as 25-50%, and no paralysis as 25% or less, volumes of 6 ml or lower appeared to cause no paralysis for the anterior suprascapular nerve block. Conclusion We, therefore, recommend using a volume of 6 ml or less in order to achieve diaphragm-sparing features for anterior suprascapular nerve blocks.

Comparison of mean intraoperative pulse rate between groups
Comparison of Intraoperative blood pressure between groups
Comparison of postoperative blood pressure between groups
Intrathecal Use of Isobaric Levobupivacaine 0.5% Versus Isobaric Ropivacaine 0.75% for Lower Abdominal and Lower Limb Surgeries

May 2020


69 Reads

Background This study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of 3-ml 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine versus 3-ml 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine in patients undergoing elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. Methods We allocated 60 patients into two groups (n=30 each) to receive either a spinal block of 3-ml 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (group L) or 3-ml 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine (group R). Haemodynamic parameters were measured intraoperatively till the end of surgery and postoperatively for two hours. The onset and duration of sensory block and motor block were recorded. Adverse events were also recorded. The student’s unpaired t-test was used for comparing the continuous variables. Results The mean age in group L was 37.83 ±16.51 years and the mean age in group R was 38.50 ±12.97 years. The mean onset of sensory block in group L (6.97 ±1.82 mins) was significantly faster than in group R (8.47 ±2.55 mins), p<0.05. Similarly, so was the mean onset of motor block in group L (10.27 ±1.92 mins) versus group R (12.93 ±2.55 mins), p<0.05. The mean duration of sensory block in group L (147.63 ±27.53 mins) was significantly longer than in group R (97.40 ±12.38 mins), p<0.05, as was the mean duration of motor block in group L (207.33 ±22.27 mins) versus group R (146.60 ±21.22 mins), p<0.05. In group L, 13.3% of patients had complications, with hypotension being the most common (6.7%); in group R, 40% had complications, of which bradycardia was the most common (13.3%). Conclusion There was an earlier onset of sensory and motor block and prolonged duration of sensory and motor block with intrathecal administration of 3-ml 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine as compared to 3-ml 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine. Haemodynamic parameters were more stable with levobupivacaine than ropivacaine. Adverse effects were more common with ropivacaine.

The Comparative Evaluation of the Anesthetic Efficacy of 4% Articaine With 1:100,000 Adrenaline and 0.75% Ropivacaine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in the Extraction of Impacted Lower Third Molar

September 2022


16 Reads

Introduction Postoperative pain management is a major concern in lower third molar surgery. Various local anesthetic agents are studied for the same. Articaine and ropivacaine are recently studied for pain control intra- and postoperatively in minor oral surgical procedure. However, there is sparse literature that compares these two agents. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline and 0.75% ropivacaine for inferior alveolar nerve block in lower impacted third molar surgery. Materials and method A prospective, randomized controlled, split-mouth, double-blind study was performed. A total of 60 healthy patients requiring extraction of lower impacted third molar with similar difficulty index were included in the study. Patients were administered 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline and 0.75% ropivacaine on either side by random allocation. The procedure was performed at an interval of 14 days. Parameters assessed were time of onset of anesthesia, profoundness of anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), duration of soft tissue anesthesia, duration of postoperative analgesia, and postoperative symptom severity (PoSSe) scale. Results The time of onset of articaine was faster (69.20 + 20.13 seconds) compared to ropivacaine (104.06 + 17.66 seconds). No significant difference was observed in hemodynamic parameters. There was significant difference in duration of soft tissue anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and PoSSe scale between the two groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of the study, 0.75% ropivacaine was effective in providing prolonged soft tissue anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and better PoSSe scale with hemodynamic stability compared to 4% articaine.

FIGURE 1: Logistic regression dose-response curve to estimate MEAV50 and MEAV90.
Type of surgical procedures performed. ORIF, open reduction and internal fixation.
Minimum Effective Volume of 0.75% Ropivacaine for Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

December 2020


50 Reads

Background Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block provides direct visualization of nerve and reduces the complications associated with classical landmark guided technique, by reducing the dosage of local anesthetic drugs. This study aims to determine the minimum effective volume (MEAV) of 0.75% ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Methodology A total of 23 patients of age group 18-75 years belonging to ASA grade 1, 2, and 3 were selected based on inclusion criteria. The MEAV was determined by using Dixons & Massey Step-up and Step-down method. The initial volume was selected as 15 mL based on previous studies. Depending on block success or failure, 1 mL of the drug was decreased or increased. Block was assessed in terms of motor and sensory components. The study was aborted after attaining five cases of block failure, followed by five cases of a successful block. Results The MEAV to be given for a successful block in 50% of patients (MEAV50) was 8.62 mL (95%CI 3.54-9.89). The MEAV to be given for a successful block in 90% of patients (MEAV 90) was 11.82 mL (95% CI 9.9-75.7). Conclusion Ultrasound guidance reduces the dosage of local anesthetic drugs to be used and provides surgical anesthesia without any complications or adverse effects.

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