Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

Published by American Psychological Association

Online ISSN: 1939-0106


Print ISSN: 1099-9809


A Qualitative Study of Adaptation Experiences of 1.5Generation Asian Americans
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  • Full-text available

May 2003


2,143 Reads


Bradley R. Brenner



Penelope A. Asay
Adaptation experiences of 1.5-generation Asian American college students (N = 10) were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Results indicated 4 domains of adaptation experiences: preimmigration experiences, acculturation and enculturation experiences, intercultural relationships, and support systems. Participants reported that English proficiency played a significant role in their initial adjustment. Currently, most of the participants reported feeling identified with both the U.S. and Asian cultures. Some participants reported having experienced racism in the past. Many participants noted that they currently have no difficulty establishing friendships with culturally different persons. Participants reported currently feeling most close to friends of a similar background and that they usually seek support from friends, family, and religious organizations, but not from a psychologist or counselor.

Coping Responses of Asian, Black, and Latino/Latina New York City Residents Following the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks Against the United States

November 2005


82 Reads

Madonna G. Constantine


Vanessa L. Alleyne


Leon D. Caldwell




This study examined mechanisms for coping with adversity in a sample of 24 Asian, Black, and Latino/Latina residents of New York City following the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), the authors identified 7 broad coping domains used by the participants: (a) sought additional information about the WTC tragedy, (b) expressed a range of emotions, (c) sought or gave support, (d) engaged in religious or spiritual activities, (e) avoidance, (f) forbearance, and (g) used indigenous healing techniques. Although there were similarities across racial or cultural groups and genders with regard to the coping responses used, there also were unique coping strategies by racial or cultural background and gender.

Asian American Families' Collectivistic Coping Strategies in Response to 9/11

January 2006


1,648 Reads

Our study investigated the use of individualistic and collectivistic coping strategies among Asian American family members of victims of the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on September 11th, 2001. Interviews were conducted with 11 Asian Americans who had lost a member of their family in the WTC attacks. Using the Discovery-Oriented Research analysis (Mahrer, 1988), results indicated that Asian Americans utilized the following collectivistic coping methods to deal with their losses: individualistic coping, familial coping, intracultural coping, relational universality, forbearance, fatalism/ spirituality, and indigenous healing methods. Additionally, our research found that cultural stigmata, privacy issues, and lack of culturally responsive counselors were factors in participants not utilizing available mental health services. Implications for culturally appropriate services, counseling, and research are discussed.

Chinese immigrant mothers of adolescents: Self-perceptions of acculturation effects on parenting. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 127-140
Immigrant families in the United States experience many adjustments, including the challenge of parenting in a new context. The relationship between self-perceptions of parenting behavior and mothers' perceived acculturation levels for themselves and their children was examined in 95 Chinese immigrant mothers. Data showed that mothers perceived their children as more acculturated than themselves, mothers reported a great need to learn more about how their children are growing up today, a larger perceived acculturation gap was associated with more parenting difficulties, and several factors contributed to perceptions of a more favorable parenting experience. Culturally responsive methodologies used in the translation and administration of measures, and specific modifications made to develop the Chinese version of the Parent Success Indicator, are discussed.

Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: A study of families from Vietnam. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(2), 143-150
In immigrant families, culture brokering (CB) refers to the ways in which children and adolescents serve as mediator between their family and aspects of the new culture. This study focused on the debate in the literature about whether CB implies "role reversal" in the family and "adultification" of the adolescent or whether CB is better understood as simply one of the many ways that immigrant children contribute to family functioning. Results indicated a mixed picture with respect to this debate. Greater amounts of adolescent CB were indeed related to higher adolescent reports of family conflict, but also to greater family adaptability. In addition, the amount of CB was unrelated to family satisfaction and family cohesion. Secondary questions centered on the relationship of CB to adolescent and parent demographic and acculturation variables. Here, CB was related to parent acculturation patterns but not those of adolescents. Implications for future research on the CB role are discussed.

Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation in Mexican immigrants. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 134-151
This study examined the relationship among acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation in a sample of Mexican immigrants. Also examined were variables that predict depression and suicidal ideation. Multiple regression analyses revealed that acculturative stress significantly predicted depression and suicidal ideation and that family support, social support, religiosity, agreement with the decision to migrate, and expectations for the future were significant predictors of depression and suicidal ideation. The overall findings suggest that adult Mexican immigrants who experience elevated levels of acculturative stress may be at risk for experiencing critical levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The findings highlight the importance of using culturally relevant clinical methods when assessing and treating the depressed and potentially suicidal acculturating individual.

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Sense of Belonging, Sense of Exclusion, and Racial and Ethnic Identities in Korean Transracial Adoptees (vol 16, pg 179, 2010)

October 2010


387 Reads

Reports an error in "Sense of belonging, sense of exclusion, and racial and ethnic identities in Korean transracial adoptees" by Grace S. Kim, Karen L. Suyemoto and Castellano B. Turner (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2010[Apr], Vol 16[2], 179-190). Figure one and two were printed with missing information. Please see the erratum for the correct figures. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-07475-010.) Although many Korean transracial adoptees (KTAs) have White European American (WEA) family members, their racial features place them in the minority group. Thus, they navigate the meanings of race and culture from two reference groups: the majority WEA group and the Korean American group. This study explored the processes through which perceptions of group meanings and sense of belonging and exclusion related to the development of racial and ethnic identities. Fourteen adult KTAs in the Northeast participated in interviews analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results indicated that KTAs' racial and ethnic identities were coconstructed in relation to experiences of belonging and exclusion with their families and both WEA and Korean American groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

FIGURE 1 Scree Plot for the BSI-18 items (n 100) and Longman et al's upper 95th percentiles. 
TABLE 2 2 2 MANOVA (Gender by Language) with DEP, ANX, and SOM as Dependent Variables (n 100) 
A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18

April 2006


6,225 Reads

The Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18: Derogatis, 2000) is an abbreviated version of the nine dimension, 53-item BSI (Derogatis, 1993) which is a shortened form of the 90-item Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis, 1994). Criticism focused on factor structure (cf. Boulet & Boss, 1991; Ruipérez, Ibáñez, Lorente, Moro, & Ortet, 2001) and the two older versions' poor discriminant validity suggest the scales' usefulness is limited to global scores only. Using principal component analysis, the authors explore the three-dimension factor structure of the BSI - 18 with the understudied population of Central American immigrants to the U.S. (N = 100). Results suggest one underlying factor best used in aggregate as a general screening for overall levels of psychological distress. Cultural differences are discussed.

The Role of Acculturation in the Career Adjustment of Asian American Workers: A Test of Leong and Chou's (1994) Formulations

August 2001


230 Reads

F.T.L. Leong and E.L. Chou (1994) provided a theoretical model for understanding the acculturation process among Asian Americans and applied that model to predicting the potential career adjustment problems encountered by Asians in the United States. Several of the hypotheses proposed by Leong and Chou were empirically tested in 2 separate studies. In Study 1, acculturation (R.M. Suinn, K. Rickard-Figueroa, S. Lew, & P. Vigil, 1987) was found to be positively related to job satisfaction (A.H. Brayfield & H.F. Rothe, 1951) and negatively related to occupational stress and strain (S. H. Osipow & A.R. Spokane, 1981) in a sample of 39 Asian American employees from 2 major companies who attended career development workshops. In Study 2, acculturation was found to be positively related to supervisors' performance ratings in a different sample of 27 Asian American employees. These preliminary data suggest that acculturation plays an important role in the career development of Asian Americans. The theoretical, research, and counseling implications of the findings are discussed.

Hovey JD, Magaña CG. Psychosocial predictors of anxiety among immigrant Mexican migrant farmworkers: implications for prevention and treatment. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2002;8(3):274-89
This study examined predictors of anxiety symptomatology among immigrant Mexican migrant farmworkers in the Midwest. Its purposes were to assess the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, to examine the relationship between acculturative stress and anxiety, and to determine the variables that best predict anxiety. Heightened levels were found for overall anxiety and in the cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety. Elevated acculturative stress, low self-esteem, ineffective social support, lack of control and choice in living a migrant farmworker lifestyle, low religiosity, and high education were significantly related to high anxiety. Findings suggest that migrant farmworkers who experience elevated acculturative stress are susceptible to the development of anxiety-related disorders and highlight the importance of establishing prevention and treatment services for migrant farmworkers.

An Introduction To The 2011 National Multicultural Conference & Summit Keynote Addresses

July 2011


49 Reads

This article provides and introduction to the 2011 National Multicultural Conference & Summit Keynote Addresses. The authors explain that they chose to focus on the tension and possibilities within multicultural psychology at the seventh biennial National Multicultural Conference & Summit (NMCS), which was held on January 27-28, 2011, at The Westin-Seattle Hotel. During the 2-day conference, nearly 900 attendees engaged with one another and heard from experts in the field as we focused on the theme, "Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science & Practice in the Public Interest. Two key sets of presentations are highlighted.

TABLE 1 Demographic Characteristics of the Participants 
Cross-Ethnic Equivalence of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist–21 in European American, African American, and Latino College Students

August 2000


325 Reads

To determine if the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21 demonstrates equivalent validity across different ethnic groups, the authors tested the factor structure of the instrument with a sample of European American (n = 514), African American (n = 154), and Latino (n = 229) college students using confirmatory factor analysis with tests of invariance across groups. For the most part, a 3-factor model with Performance, General, and Somatic factors fit equally well for all 3 racial/ethnic groups. Differences involved only a few items in terms of either the strength of a factor loading or an error term. The results generally support the validity of the use of the instrument for measurement of distress in these different racial/ethnic groups.

Review of The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (2nd ed).

April 2011


2,861 Reads

Reviews the book, The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (2nd ed.) by Bernard E. Whitley Jr. and Mary E. Kite (2010). Prejudice and discrimination continues to be a crucial and compelling topic in the field of psychology. The ever-changing nature of prejudice necessitates constant revision and updates. The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (2nd ed.) by Bernard Whitley Jr. and Mary Kite provides an up-to-date, accessible, well-organized, and enjoyable undergraduate text on the psychology of prejudice and discrimination. The use of current examples that beautifully demonstrate issues of racism and prejudice were incorporated throughout the book. Although most texts on prejudice and discrimination concentrate on the Black-White dichotomy, Bernard and Kite skillfully incorporate prejudice toward other ethnic and racial groups such as Middle Easterners. For future editions of this book, the reviewers offer several suggestions and additions to the presented information. First, it may be helpful to include some illustrations to provide visual portrayals of prejudice. Second, a discussion of the concept of colorblindness may add another dimension to the development of prejudice in children (chapter 8). Third, not surprisingly, combining gender and sexuality in one chapter and age, ability, and appearance in another chapter may obscure some of the nuances of these different types of prejudices. Whitley and Kite have created an accessible, engaging, and comprehensive undergraduate textbook on prejudice and discrimination. Their inclusion of contemporary and diverse examples of prejudice increases relevance and brings the topic to life for readers. It is clear that the authors have had considerable experience teaching undergraduate students because it comes across in how they structured and wrote their book. The text is well written and includes relevant work within and outside of the field of psychology.

TABLE 1 Means, Standard Deviations, and Cronbach's Alphas for the MEIM, WHOQOL-Brief, and IRRS-B 
Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 366-377

December 2002


6,032 Reads

This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample.

Self-efficacy and HIV-related risk behaviors among multiethnic adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 42-56

February 2000


53 Reads

A cross-sectional correlational design was used to investigate (a) self-efficacy and risk behaviors related to HIV; (b) the comparative predictiveness of self-efficacy and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding sexual activity and substance use; and (c) possible risk profiles for HIV among adolescents. High school students (N = 427), ranging in age from 12 to 20 years and attending Family Life Education classes in Alameda, California, volunteered to complete a self-administered questionnaire, resulting in a 73% response rate. Ethnic representation included African American, Chinese, Filipino, other Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino, and European American. Over half of this sample of teens were sexually active by the age of 14, with sexually active teens and substance-using teens scoring higher on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HIV-related behaviors. Ethnicity consistently appeared more significant in predicting these risk behaviors than gender, self-efficacy, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. The predominance of ethnicity as the predictor for these HIV risk behaviors indicates that theoretical models for behavior change must include a dimension of culture, diversity, and ethnic identity.

Sociocultural predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes and behavior among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 420-432
Sociocultural variables of acculturation, enculturation, cultural congruity, and perceived social support were used as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes and behaviors among 162 Mexican American college students. Multivariate multiple regression analyses indicated that higher cultural congruity, lower perceived social support from family, and higher perceived social support from significant others were significant predictors of positive help-seeking attitudes. In addition, higher acculturation into the dominant society, lower perceived social support from family, and lower perceived social support from friends were significantly predictive of greater help-seeking behavior. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Culture and Validity of the Symptom Checklist–90–Revised and Profile of Mood States in a New Zealand Student Sample
New Zealand students' performance was examined on assessments of psychopathology and mood as compared to normative data from the United States. New Zealand university students (N = 137) completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Profile of Mood States (POMS). Mean performances differed significantly from normative data for each SCL-90-R scale. No significant differences were found for the POMS scales. Within the sample, European (n = 82), Maori (n = 24), and Asian (n = 24) participants differed significantly on SCL-90-R obsessive-compulsive, phobic anxiety, and anxiety scales and POMS scales of tension and confusion. Implications for assessment of New Zealand samples are discussed.

Figure 1. Standardized coefficients and factor correlations for the confirmatory factor analysis model. This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Figure 2. Standardized coefficients and squared multiple correlations for the structural model.
Development and Validation of the African American Women's Shifting Scale (AAWSS)

April 2015


956 Reads

The purpose of this research was to develop and validate an instrument to measure shifting or self-altering strategies among African American women. A 13-item instrument was developed to measure aspects of shifting phenomena based on the empirical literature, feedback from focus groups, and cultural experts. The initial validation study, using principal axis analysis, was conducted with a national sample of 318 African American women. A second independent national sample of 190 African American women provided data for a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the inventory was composed of the following 3 factors: Strong Black Woman, Awareness of Shifting Behavior, and Sensitivity to the Perceptions of Blacks. A structural model was developed based on the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process (MAIP) framework that allowed for the exploration of the shifting construct. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

TABLE 2 Descriptive Information for the AMAS-ZABB 
TABLE 3 Differences in AMAS-ZABB Scales Among the College Sample Dependent on Place of Birth 
TABLE 6 (continued) 
The Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale: Empirical Validation With Two Latino/Latina Samples

May 2003


3,409 Reads

Two studies were conducted to develop and examine internal consistencies and validate the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale. Study 1 participants were 156 Latino/Latina college students. Findings indicated good internal reliabilities for all 3 subscales. Adequate concurrent validity was established with length of residence in the United States. The scale also showed adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Study 2 participants were 90 Latino/Latina community members. The subscales were also reliable and showed adequate concurrent validity with length of residence in the United States. Convergent and discriminant validity were also adequate. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses of the combined samples (N = 246). Three separate factors emerged: cultural identity, language competence, and cultural competence.

Navigating the Cultural Transition Alone: Psychosocial Adjustment of Korean Early Study Abroad Students

October 2013


342 Reads

Precollege study abroad in English-speaking countries is an increasingly popular educational strategy among Asian families. We used grounded theory method to construct a model of cultural adjustment process for unaccompanied minors based the retrospective narratives of 10 (8 male) South Korean adolescents who came to the United States, unaccompanied by parents, to attend middle schools or high schools. We found that unaccompanied minors' cultural adjustment progressed from their predeparture ambivalence to initial sense of vulnerability to an eventual sense of reengagement. Unaccompanied minor students' pervasive sense of vulnerability upon arrival was heightened not only by their lack of English fluency but also their reluctance to seek the support of parents in Korea and of local Korean peers. This study has implications for educators and counselors in secondary schools who work with international students who are unaccompanied minors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Childhood Sexual Abuse in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results From Three Qualitative Studies

October 2008


513 Reads

This report describes the high prevalence and context of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) across 3 independent qualitative studies. Semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted with 87 Black MSM across 3 cities (Rochester, NY, n = 28; Lexington, KY /Atlanta, GA, n = 30; and Atlanta, GA, n = 29). A combined CSA prevalence of 32% (28/87) was found among the 3 samples, despite variation in geographic location, mean age, and sexual identification. Common themes emerging across the 3 samples included prolonged and repeated abuse by a close male relative; blaming of same-sex desire on CSA; and descriptions of adverse mental health reactions to CSA. Implications of CSA and its potential influence on the mental health and risky sexual behavior among Black MSM are discussed.

Do Therapist Cultural Characteristics Influence the Outcome of Substance Abuse Treatment for Spanish-Speaking Adults?

April 2010


91 Reads

This secondary data analysis of the Clinical Trials Network's Motivational Enhancement Therapy effectiveness trial with Spanish-speaking substance users examined whether the degree of birthplace and acculturation similarities between clients and therapists, as well as the therapists' own level of acculturation and birthplace were related to the clients' participation in treatment and level of substance use during outpatient substance use treatment. Sixteen therapists and their 235 clients from the larger effectiveness trial were included in the analyses for this study. Results of the multilevel regression models for client participation in substance use treatment and client days of substance use, taking into account within and between therapist cultural characteristics, revealed that birthplace match and acculturation similarity between each therapist and his or her clients did not predict client outcomes. Instead, therapists' birthplace and level of acculturation independently predicted days of substance use, but not treatment participation for monolingual Spanish-speaking clients. These findings are discussed in the context of the results of the main effectiveness trial and of psychotherapy research with ethnic minority populations, in particular Hispanic minorities.

Cultural Accommodation of Group Substance Abuse Treatment for Latino Adolescents: Results of an RCT

January 2015


134 Reads

Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Abuse, Mastery, and Health Among Lesbian, Bisexual, and Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native Women
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women.

Racial Discrimination, Gender Discrimination, and Substance Abuse Among Latina/os Nationwide

January 2014


296 Reads

This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

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