Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Published by Taylor & Francis
Online ISSN: 1549-7852
Print ISSN: 1040-8398
Publications
Many naturally occurring isothiocyanates (ITCs) show highly promising chemopreventive activities. Humans are commonly exposed to these compounds through the consumption of cruciferous vegetables which are the main source of dietary ITCs. Dietary ITCs may play an important role in cancer prevention and in the well-recognized cancer preventive activities of cruciferous vegetables. A generic analytical method, namely the 1,2-benzenedithiol-based cyclocondensation assay, was previously developed for quantitation of ITCs and their in vivo metabolites. This method has been widely used and has contributed greatly to research on chemoprevention by ITCs. In this article, the discovery and development of the cyclocondensation assay are recapitulated, and its sensitivity and specificity as well as its advantages and limitations are scrutinized. Moreover, detailed discussion is also provided to show how this assay has been used to advance our understanding of the cancer chemopreventive potential and the mechanism of action of ITCs.
 
The importance of environmental protection has been recently upgraded due to the continuously increasing environmental pollution load. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), wellknown as ISO 14040, has been repeatedly shown to be a useful and powerful tool for assessing the environmental performance of industrial processes, both in the European and American continents as well as in many Asian countries (such as Japan and China). To the best of our knowledge, almost no information is provided in relation to LCA implementation in Africa apart from an article related to Egypt. Although food industries are not considered to be among the most heavily polluting ones, for some like olive oil, wine, dairy, and meat processing, their impact on the environment is a heavy burden. The introduction of LCA aimed at identifying both inputs and outputs to find out which are the most detrimental to the environment in terms of water/energy consumption and solid/liquid and gas releases. In this review, a thorough coverage of literature was made in an attempt to compare the implementation of LCA to a variety of products of both plant and animal origin. It was concluded that there is a high number of subsystems suggested for the same product, thereby, occasionally leading to confusion. An idea toward solving the problem is to proceed to some sort of standardization by means of several generic case studies of LCA implementation, similarly to what had happened in the case of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, and other countries.
 
Biometrical measurements of sea urchin during months
We determined the monthly percentage values of biochemical components in paracentrotus lividus, for a 6-month period, and evaluated the findings in relation to seasonal fluctuations in water temperature and weather. Our study is the first to present a long-term biochemical profile of p. lividus in Turkey. They contained an average varied between 78.36 and 80.93 7% for moisture, 1.5 and 1.7% for ash, 2.37 and 4.27% for lipid, 9.26 and 11.75% for protein, and 1.95 and 2.53% for carbohydrate. Significant seasonal differences in sea urchin weight were noted between the winter and the summer months. Biometrical height measurements were done according to four criteria: total height, main height, diameter, and width. Weight measurements were done according to two criteria: living weight and weight of the roe. Also chemical composition analyses have been done in the parallel time periods of measurements. As a result of this study it has been determined that the spawning period of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is in the time period between February and July. Amino acid contents of the Paracentrotus lividus were also determined.
 
Micronutrient deficiency especially the iron deficiency is the bane of our lives, affecting all strata of society. Unfortunately, the women during pregnancy, adolescence, and children are under this curse particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is one of the biggest reasons of complications during pregnancy and malnourished children under five years of age. Maternal death, still-births, and underweight births are most common consequences of iron deficiency and these outbreaks as iron-deficiency anemia in Pakistan. Disastrous nature of iron deficiency requires an urgent call to eradicate it. Hence, the solution should not be frail comparing with the huge economic loss and other incompatibilities. Flour fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification, and especially maternal education are possible solutions for combating this micronutrient deficiency.
 
This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 μg/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency.
 
Sucrose consumption is a controversial issue. Part of the difficulty arises because of inadequate knowledge about the actual consumption of populations, as well as individuals within a population. Data on the sucrose content of foods are lacking. This review presents information published in the 1970s on these topics as well as current research and thinking about possible relationships of sucrose consumption to dental caries, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and other disease conditions. Current attitudes toward recommendations concerning sugar consumption in the U.S. Dietary Goals are examined, as are data on the use of sugar as a fortification vehicle.
 
This report of the proceedings of a workshop on monosodium glutamate (MSG) represents the output of an exchange of scientific information, discussed and debated, by a group of experts representing a variety of disciplines. Experts in the areas of food science, potential adverse reactions to foods, pharmacology, neuroscience, biochemistry, nutrition, pediatrics, and anatomy reviewed the current scientific literature relative to the safe use of MSG in foods. These proceedings supplement the extensive literature compiled by various prestigious international expert committees since the flavor-enhancing properties of MSG were identified around the turn of the century,
 
Many countries set quantitative targets for added sugars, justifying this by expressing concern about the likely impact of sugar on weight control, dental health, diet quality, or metabolic syndrome. This review considers whether current intakes of sugar are harmful to health, and analyses recent literature using a systematic approach to collate, rank, and evaluate published studies from 1995-2006. Results from high quality obesity studies did not suggest a positive association between body mass index and sugar intake. Some studies, specifically on sweetened beverages, highlighted a potential concern in relation to obesity risk, although these were limited by important methodological issues. Diet adequacy appeared to be achieved across sugar intakes of 6 to 20% energy, depending on subject age. Studies on metabolic syndrome reported no adverse effects of sugar in the long-term, even at intakes of 40-50% energy. The evidence for colorectal cancer suggested an association with sugar, but this appeared to have been confounded by energy intake and glycemic load. There was no credible evidence linking sugar with attention-deficit, dementia, or depression. Regarding dental caries, combinations of sugar amount/frequency, fluoride exposure, and food adhesiveness were more reliable predictors of caries risk than the amount of sugar alone. Overall, the available evidence did not support a single quantitative sugar guideline covering all health issues.
 
2,5-Diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs) have been found to occur in a wide range of food and beverages, and display an array of chemesthetic effects (bitter, astringent, metallic, umami) that can contribute to the taste of a variety of foods. These smallest cyclic peptides also occur as natural products and have been found to display a variety of bioactivities from antibacterial, antifungal to anthroprotective effects and have the potential to be used in the development of new functional foods. An overview of the synthesis of these small chiral molecules and their molecular properties is presented. The occurrence, taste and bioactivity of all simple naturally occurring 2,5-DKPs to date have been reviewed and those found in food from yeasts, fungi and bacteria that have been used in food preparation or contamination, as well as metabolites of sweeteners and antibiotics added to food are also reviewed.
 
In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of < or = 25% of energy from added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars. We combined data from NHANES with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) and calculated individual added sugars intake as percent of total energy then classified individuals into 8 added sugars percent energy categories, calculated usual intake with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method, and compared intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Nutrients at most risk for inadequacy based on the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) were vitamins E, A, C, and magnesium. Nutrient intake was less with each 5% increase in added sugars intake above 5-10%. Thirteen percent of the population had added sugars intake > 25%. The mean g-eq added sugars intake of 83.1 g-eq/day and added sugars food sources were comparable to the mid-1990s. Higher added sugars intakes were associated with higher proportions of individuals with nutrient intakes below the EAR, but the overall high calorie and the low quality of the U.S. diet remained the predominant issue. With over 80% of the population at risk for select nutrient inadequacy, guidance may need to focus on targeted healthful diet communication to reach the highest risk demographic groups for specific life stage nutrient inadequacies.
 
Cyclodextrins are tasteless, odorless, non-digestible, non-caloric, non-cariogenic saccharides, which reduce the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. They have low glycemic index and decrease the glycemic index of the food. They are either non- or only partly digestible by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal tract and fermented by the gut microflora. Based on these properties, cyclodextrins are dietary fibers useful for controlling the body weight and blood lipid profile. They are prebiotics, improve the intestinal microflora by selective proliferation of bifidobacteria. These antiobesity and anti-diabetic effects make them bioactive food supplements and nutraceuticals. In this review, these features are evaluated for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins, which are the cyclodextrin variants approved by authorities for food applications. The mechanisms behind these effects are reviewed together with the applications as solubilizers, stabilizers of dietary lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids and other nutraceuticals. The recent applications of cyclodextrins for reducing unwanted components, such as trans-fats, allergens, mycotoxins, acrylamides, bitter compounds, as well as in smart active packaging of foods are also overviewed.
 
Quality control is an important aspect of food production and processing from the point of view of providing foods of acceptable nutritional value, and for providing safety of products. Several characteristics such as size, shape, density, maturity, moisture content, oil content, flavor, firmness, tenderness, color, defects, blemishes, etc., are routinely used in the quality control of agricultural and biological food products. Until recently, most analytical techniques used in quality control required isolation of the food component of interest. The original properties of the product are, therefore, destroyed during sample preparation and analysis. Oftentimes, such analyses are expensive, time consuming, and require sophisticated instrumentation, and hence are not suited for "on-line" quality control of food products. Recent progress in the development of instrumentation utilizing the optical properties of food products has provided several nondestructive techniques for quality evaluation. Most optical methods of nondestructive nature make use of the characteristic absorption spectra of components of interest. Such methods are highly sensitive, rapid, and reproducible, and have been successively used in routine "on-line" quality control of a large number of samples. In this article, theoretical considerations in the development of nondestructive analytical techniques based on the optical properties of several agricultural and biological products are briefly reviewed. A major emphasis is placed on quality control methods that are particularly useful in maturity and/or ripeness evaluation of food products, the detection of external and internal defects, and the subsequent development of automatic sorting machines for on-line measurement of quality.
 
ISO 22000 is the new standard bound to replace HACCP on issues related to food safety. Although several companies, especially the big ones, have either implemented or are on the point of implementing ISO 22000, there are many others which are rather timid and/or reluctant to implement it. The main reason behind that is the lack of information and the fear that the new standard is too demanding in terms of bureaucratic work. This paper aims at making a comparative presentation of how the two systems can be applied to a small smoked salmon producing company thereby facilitating the emergence of the differences. The main difference is that in ISO 22000 systems like Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Hygiene Practice are prerequisites thus leading to lower number of CCPs. In this case study for example, the number of CCPs dropped from eight (8) in HACCP to four (4) in ISO 22000. Furthermore, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis was applied to the smoked trout manufacturing process in an attempt to calculate quantitatively the Risk Priority Number (RPN) and to find out whether it can be effectively correlated to ISO 22000 and/or HACCP. RPN was found to be higher than 130 for eight steps, in close agreement with HACCP, thereby indicating that corrective actions will have to be undertaken.
 
The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model was applied for risk assessment of salmon manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the salmon industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (salmon processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points were identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram). In this work, a comparison of ISO 22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over salmon processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Fish receiving, casing/marking, blood removal, evisceration, filet-making cooling/freezing, and distribution were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (252, 240, 210, 210, 210, 210, 200 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. After the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out resulting in substantially lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO 22000 system of a salmon processing industry is anticipated to prove advantageous to industrialists, state food inspectors, and consumers.
 
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) has been applied for the risk assessment of snails manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snails industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (snails processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over snails processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Sterilization of tins, bioaccumulation of heavy metals, packaging of shells and poisonous mushrooms, were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (280, 240, 147, 144, respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a snails processing industry is considered imperative.
 
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals (R) during metabolism is a necessary and normal process that ideally is compensated for by an elaborate endogenous antioxidant system. However, due to many environmental, lifestyle, and pathological situations, excess radicals can accumulate, resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases that account for a major portion of deaths today. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or prevent oxidative stress. This article examines the process of oxidative stress and the pathways by which it relates to many chronic diseases. We also discuss the role that endogenous and exogenous antioxidants may play in controlling oxidation and review the evidence of their roles in preventing disease.
 
The classic definitions of inulin and oligofructose are constructively criticized. It is observed that inulin cannot unequivocally be described as a polydisperse 1-kestose-based (GFn) beta (2-->1) linear fructan chain, but that inulin always contains small amounts of Fm and branched molecules. This review article describes the presence of inulin and oligofructose in common foodstuffs. Historical data on human consumption add an extra dimension. Modern analytical techniques (HPLC, LGC, HPAEC-PAD) are used to check the variety of data mentioned in the literature throughout the past century. Methods to determine inulin and oligofructose in natural foodstuffs (cereals, fruit, and vegetables) are optimized and used to determine the loss of inulin during storage and during preparation of the food. These findings allow quantification of the amount of inulin and oligofructose in the average daily western diet. The daily per capita intake is estimated to range from 1 to 10 g, depending on geographic, demographic, and other related parameters (age, sex, season, etc.). Inulin and oligofructose are not measured by classic methods of dietary fiber analysis and consequently are often not mentioned in food tables. Their significant contribution (1 to 10 g/d/per capita) to the dietary fiber fraction (recommended at 25 g/d/per capita) is not taken into account in any nutritional recommendations. In view of this, inulin and oligofructose deserve more attention, both in food composition tables and in diet or nutrition studies.
 
Color plays a major role in the overall acceptability of food products. It is considered one of man's basic experiences that a particular foodstuff has to be of a distinct color in order to be edible. The color of a seafood is the first characteristic noted by the consumer and is directly related to the subsequent acceptance or rejection of it. Carotenoids contribute to the yellow, orange, and red colors of the skin, shell, or exoskeleton of aquatic animals. Indeed, they are the most widespread pigments found in nature, as they occur in bacteria, yeasts, mold, all green plants, and many animals, and therefore various functions have been attributed to them. From anthropocentric consideration, the most significant aspect of carotenoids is the color they impart to our food and environment. In animals, the carotenoids are also associated with reproductive organs and hence the hatching success and survival of alevins.
 
Many works have appeared in various scientifically reputable journals and publications worldwide that seem to have made potential or satisfactory contribution to our knowledge on the functions and utilization of gelatin--an important source of animal protein. Irrespective of these worldwide publications, room still exists for more work to be done to fully understand the utilization, chemical, biological, physical and functional properties of gelatin. Chemical and enzymatic modifications as well as biological studies should be undertaken with accuracy to be able to extend the utilization of gelatin in food and pharmaceuticals.
 
Nitrogenous material in foodstuffs consists in (1) protein (s.s.) and free amino acids, the former being protein-bound amino acids (which contain the nitrogen) and non-nitrogenous groups in protein (the prosthetic groups) and (2) various nitrogenous compounds other than amino acids. The percent of nitrogen in protein amino acids (Ratio R1) varies depending on the specific composition of amino acids, because amino acids differ in terms of their nitrogen content. The percentage of nitrogen in other nitrogenous compounds varies according to the nature of these compounds. "Protein" can be understood as either bulk nitrogen, irrespective of the nature of the nitrogenous compounds ("crude protein"), or as the amount of protein from a biochemical viewpoint (protein-bound amino acids plus prosthetic groups), or as the amount of amino acids (the most nutritionally relevant, although other nitrogenous compounds can affect the nitrogen balance). Therefore, in foodstuffs, translating the total amount of nitrogen into an amount of "protein," such as amino acids, cannot be achieved using a single factor (e.g. 6.25) because the specific factor varies according to (1) the proportion of each component ( I, II, and III) and (2) the R1 and R2 ratio. Notwithstanding this complexity, we propose a compendium of specific factors that are based on a more realistic view than those adopted by Jones, which could interestingly be used to convert nitrogen into "protein" (as amino acids) in various foodstuffs. 
Conversion factors calculated from amino acid analysis
Specific usual conversion factors, as proposed by Jones 1
Average conversion factors for the main classes of protein sources 1
The protein content in foodstuffs is estimated by multiplying the determined nitrogen content by a nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. Jones' factors for a series of foodstuffs, including 6.25 as the standard, default conversion factor, have now been used for 75 years. This review provides a brief history of these factors and their underlying paradigm, with an insight into what is meant by "protein." We also review other compelling data on specific conversion factors which may have been overlooked. On the one hand, when 6.25 is used irrespective of the foodstuff, "protein" is simply nitrogen expressed using a different unit and says little about protein (s.s.). On the other hand, conversion factors specific to foodstuffs, such as those provided by Jones, are scientifically flawed. However, the nitrogen:protein ratio does vary according to the foodstuff considered. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, it would be reasonable not to apply current specific factors any longer, but they have continued to be used because scientists fear opening the Pandora's box. But because conversion factors are critical to enabling the simple conversion of determined nitrogen values into protein values and thus accurately evaluating the quantity and the quality of protein in foodstuffs, we propose a set of specific conversion factors for different foodstuffs, together with a default conversion factor (5.6). This would be far more accurate and scientifically sound, and preferable when specifically expressing nitrogen as protein. These factors are of particular importance when "protein" basically means "amino acids," this being the principal nutritional viewpoint.
 
Functional protein–protein interaction between obesity candidate genes in the adipose tissue of high-fat diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Each circle represents one gene in the data set. There are 25 genes in this subcomponent of the protein interaction. Circles with solid lines denote proteins in the one-depth condition (pink box), where circles with dotted lines denote proteins in the two-depth condition. The circles colored pink, yellow, and green denote obesity candidate genes, core obesity candidate gene, and the genes linking between nondirected obesity candidate genes in the one-depth condition, respectively. Arrows indicate up- or downregulation of gene expression upon HFD consumption. Acaca, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase; Adipoq, adiponectin; Cat, catalase; Ctsd, cathepsin D; Cebp α , CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha; Ccl2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; Cfd, complement factor D; Fabp4, fatty acid binding protein 4; Fasn, fatty acid synthase; G6pd2, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 2; Slc2a4, glucose transporter 4; Gpd1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1; Hmgcs1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1; Il6, interleukin 6; Lep, leptin; Lpl, lipoprotein lipase; Pparg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1; Scd1, stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1; Srebf1, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1; Sod1, superoxide dismutase 1; Tnfa, tumor necrosis factor alpha; Ucp1, uncoupling protein 1; Ucp2, uncoupling protein 2. (Color figure available online.) 
The schematic diagram of gene expression and regulation in the adipose tissue of obese mice. The expression of genes and the effect of gene expression is color coded. Red color: upregulation. Blue color: downregulation. (Color figure available online.) 
Worldwide obesity and related comorbidities are increasing, but identifying new therapeutic targets remains a challenge. A plethora of microarray studies in diet-induced obesity models has provided large datasets of obesity associated genes. In this review, we describe an approach to examine the underlying molecular network regulating obesity, and we discuss interactions between obesity candidate genes. We conducted network analysis on functional protein-protein interactions associated with 25 obesity candidate genes identified in a literature-driven approach based on published microarray studies of diet-induced obesity. The obesity candidate genes were closely associated with lipid metabolism and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg) appeared to be a core obesity gene, and obesity candidate genes were highly interconnected, suggesting a coordinately regulated molecular network in adipose tissue. In conclusion, the current network analysis approach may help elucidate the underlying molecular network regulating obesity and identify anti-obesity targets for therapeutic intervention.
 
Cadmium is one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants and is able to induce severe injury because it is poorly excreted, accumulating in various organs. This common pollutant is responsible for serious damage in lung, brain, testis, kidney, liver, blood system and bone. Food compounds, such as flavonoids, represent the most abundant polyphenols in human dietary and comprise thousands of substances, which are freely available as high-dose dietary supplements. The mechanism of action of these ones consists in free radical scavenging and metal sequestration. The interaction of metal ions with flavonoids leads to chelation formation and the using of these natural compounds is better than the synthetic ones due to their lower toxic effects. The aim of this review is to describe the role of some food compounds, focusing flavonoids for modulating noxious biological activities induced by cadmium exposure.
 
The alcoholic beverage absinthe is recently experiencing a revival after a yearlong prohibition. This review article provides information on all aspects of this bitter spirit and its major components, especially wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), which contains the toxic monoterpene thujone. Over 100 references on historic and current literature are provided. The topics comprise the history of the alcoholic drink starting from its invention in the eighteenth century. Historical and modern recipes are discussed in the context of different quality categories and possibilities to reduce the content of thujone are given. The analytical techniques used to verify compliance with the maximum limit of thujone as well as further possibilities for quality control of absinthe are discussed. The toxicology of absinthe is reviewed with regard to the cause of a syndrome called "absinthism," which was described after chronic abuse of the spirit in the nineteenth century. Finally, a food regulatory and food chemical evaluation is provided and minimum requirements for absinthe are suggested. Absinthe should have a recognizable wormwood flavor and after dilution with water the characteristic clouding should arise (louche-effect). Products, which are advertized as being of premium grade should be made by distillation, should have an alcoholic strength of at least 45%vol, and should not contain artificial dye.
 
Iron deficiency is a major world health problem, that is, to a great extent, caused by poor iron absorption from the diet. Several dietary factors can influence this absorption. Absorption enhancing factors are ascorbic acid and meat, fish and poultry; inhibiting factors are plant components in vegetables, tea and coffee (e.g., polyphenols, phytates), and calcium. After identifying these factors their individual impact on iron absorption is described. Specific attention was paid to the effects of tea on iron absorption. We propose a calculation model that predicts iron absorption from a meal. Using this model we calculated the iron absorption from daily menus with varying amounts of enhancers and inhibitors. From these calculations we conclude that the presence of sufficient amounts of iron absorption enhancers (ascorbic acid, meat, fish, poultry, as present in most industrialized countries) overcomes inhibition of iron absorption from even large amounts of tea. In individuals with low intakes of heme iron, low intakes of enhancing factors and/or high intakes of inhibitors, iron absorption may be an issue. Depletion of iron stores enhances iron absorption, but this effect is not adequate to compensate for the inhibition of iron absorption in such an inadequate dietary situation. For subjects at risk of iron deficiency, the following recommendations are made. Increase heme-iron intake (this form of dietary iron present in meat fish and poultry is hardly influenced by other dietary factors with respect to its absorption); increase meal-time ascorbic acid intake; fortify foods with iron. Recommendations with respect to tea consumption (when in a critical group) include: consume tea between meals instead of during the meal; simultaneously consume ascorbic acid and/or meat, fish and poultry.
 
Consumption of hot chips is a convenience food in most countries. Unfortunately, these are high in fat and contribute to fat-related diseases in societies with a high fat consumption. There is substantial scope through best-practice deep-frying techniques for producing lower fat, high-quality chips. From a review of the literature, the main factors associated with a lower-fat content of chips are thick (>12 mm), straight cut chips; cryogenic freezing methods; low moisture content of potatoes (specific gravity >1.1); frying fat: chip volume ratio of 6:1; frying at optimal temperature (180 to 185 degrees C) during cooking and turning the temperature down (approximately 140 degrees C) and covering the vats during slack periods; vigorously shaking the basket and hanging it over the deep fryer to drain after frying; maintaining the quality of the frying fat by regularly skimming the cracklings, filtering the fat, and topping up the fryer with fresh fat; keeping the fat turnover <5 days; regular cleaning of frying equipment. It is important that all deep frying operators are adequately trained in these techniques. It is also important that the frying medium is low in saturated and trans fatty acids (<20%) because of their effects on blood lipids and low in linolenic acid (<3%) because it is readily degraded. The widespread implementation of best-practice deep-frying would reduce fat content of hot chips and thus lower overall fat consumption.
 
Milkfat is a remarkable source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive lipids for mammals. The composition and content of lipids in milkfat vary widely among mammalian species. Milkfat is not only a source of bioactive lipid components, it also serves as an important delivery medium for nutrients, including the fat-soluble vitamins. Bioactive lipids in milk include triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phospholipids. Beneficial activities of milk lipids include anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppression properties. The major mammalian milk that is consumed by humans as a food commodity is that from bovine whose milkfat composition is distinct due to their diet and the presence of a rumen. As a result of these factors bovine milkfat is lower in polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher in saturated fatty acids than human milk, and the consequences of these differences are still being researched. The physical properties of bovine milkfat that result from its composition including its plasticity, make it a highly desirable commodity (butter) and food ingredient. Among the 12 major milk fatty acids, only three (lauric, myristic, and palmitic) have been associated with raising total cholesterol levels in plasma, but their individual effects are variable-both towards raising low-density lipoproteins and raising the level of beneficial high-density lipoproteins. The cholesterol-modifying response of individuals to consuming saturated fats is also variable, and therefore the composition, functions and biological properties of milkfat will need to be re-evaluated as the food marketplace moves increasingly towards more personalized diets.
 
Flavonoid content in onions given in mmol/kg fresh weight
Human studies with onion supplementation as a source of quercetin (Q)
The question as to how far the development of chronic diseases in humans depends on diet still remains open. Simultaneously, epidemiological studies suggest the consumption of a flavonoids rich diet might decrease the risk of degenerative changes and certain diseases. The intake of this group of compounds as to quality and quantity depends on dietary habits and a widespread presence of quercetin in the diet makes this compound one of the key factors. Onion, one of the richest and most common quercetin sources, was particularly often studied in different aspects. Quercetin is present in onion mainly as glycosides, of which the distribution within the onion bulb changes in onion processing, and biological activities attracted a lot of attention. Especially antioxidative activity demonstrated in vitro was initially associated with most of the beneficial effects of quercetin on the human body. However, after ingestion quercetin undergoes extensive metabolism and microbial action resulting in its altered or degraded structure; therefore, most of the effects shown in in vitro experiments with the pure compound cannot be directly extrapolated to in vivo systems. Yet, this does not mean that quercetin simultaneously loses its positive impact on consumer health. Even after being metabolized it may still affect the redox balance by inducing antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes or compounds which may be involved in sustaining homeostasis.
 
Current and proposed strategies to produce fine wines in a short ageing period
Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.
 
The question of nutritional quality has arisen in the International Community over the last few years along with other important issues such as population aging, multipopulation societies, and political conflicts. The nutritional issue is questioned both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is well known that the planet faces enormous problems with food that is available. Nowadays 20% of the population consumes approximately 80% of the produced energy and natural resources. During the last 15 years, a series of food scares and crises (BSE, dioxin, foot and mouth disease, bird flu) have seriously undermined public confidence in food producers and operators and their capacity to produce safe food. As a result, food safety has become a top priority of the European legislative authorities. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) is the new food safety concern which despite the intense reactions from Non Governmental Organizations and consumer organizations have entered our lives with inadequate legislative measures to protect consumers from their consumption. The GMO issue will be the issue for discussion in the long run not only for the European Community but also for the international community as far as scientific, economical, political, ideological, ethical, and human issues are concerned. These issues are discussed in this paper along with a case of study of GM fish.
 
Recommended irradiation doses for the quarantine treatment of fresh fruits (IAEA, 2002) 
Effect of ionizing radiations on the microbial load of fresh fruits 
Effect of ionizing radiations on the quality attributes and shelf-life of fresh fruits 
Development of knowledge-based food preservation techniques have been a major focus of researchers in providing safe and nutritious food. Food irradiation is one of the most thoroughly investigated food preservation techniques, which has been shown to be effective and safe through extensive research. This process involves exposing food to ionizing radiations in order to destroy microorganisms or insects that might be present on and/or in the food. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the enzymatic activity and improvement of functional properties in food have also been well established. In the present review, the potential of food irradiation technology to address major problems, such as short shelf-life, high initial microbial loads, insect pest management (quarantine treatment) in supply chain, and safe consumption of fresh fruits was described. With improved hygienic quality, other uses, such as delayed ripening and enhanced physical appearance by irradiation were also discussed. Available data showed that the irradiation of fruits at the optimum dose can be a safe and cost-effective method, resulting in enhanced shelf-life and hygienic quality with the least amount of compromise on the various nutritional attributes, whereas the consumer acceptance of irradiated fruits is a matter of providing the proper scientific information.
 
Food safety is a global health concern. For the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety, detection of food borne pathogen is of utmost importance at all levels of food production chain. For several decades a lot of research has been targeted at development of rapid methodology as reducing the time needed to complete pathogen detection tests has been a primary goal for food microbiologists. With the result, food microbiology laboratories now have a wide array of detection methods and automated technologies like enzyme immunoassay, PCR, and microarrays which can cut test times considerably. Nucleic acid amplification strategies and advances in amplicon detection methodoloies have been key factors in the progress of molecular microbiology. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. In this article, we describe the conventional methods, as well as recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification and quantification, with a major emphasis on molecular detection methods.
 
Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are currently of great scientific interest due to their beneficial health properties. The group of bioactive peptides most studied up until now are the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) peptides, which, when administered orally, seem to possess the capacity to lower blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The various techniques of separation, identification, and classification of bioactive peptides obtained from milk and milk products, permit the selection of molecules with the highest level of health benefits to be used as a functional ingredient in the production of milk products with blood pressure-lowering effects such as Evolus((R)) or Calpis((R)). This review focuses on the major research in the areas of isolation, identification, and application of bioactive peptides with ACEI activity in milk proteins, paying special attention to in vitro, in animal model systems, and in clinical studies of hypertensive patients.
 
The Food Guide Pyramid illustrates USDA's food guide developed to help people follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Unlike earlier food guides, the new food guide specifies foods for a total diet; that is, it addresses both concerns about adequacy and moderation. The food guide recommends increased intakes of the vegetable, fruit, and grain groups with special emphasis on dark-green leafy vegetables, legumes, and whole-grain products. These foods are important sources of several vitamins and minerals, complex carbohydrates, and dietary fiber, and they are generally low in fat. Analyses of expected nutrient levels provided by the food guide diet patterns indicate that the nutrient contribution of whole-grain products is particularly important for diets at lower calorie levels. In these diets, it is recommended that at least half the number of servings in the grain group be whole-grain products. In all diets, it is recommended that several servings of whole-grain products be included each day. Average intakes of vegetables, fruits, and grain products are less than recommended. The pyramid graphic has been especially helpful in emphasizing to the public the importance of increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grain products for a healthful diet.
 
As is well known, pasteurization treatments are not sufficient for destroying heat resistance of spore forming microorganisms, which are prevented from germination and growing by pH reducing. So, the acidification process becomes one of the most important pre-treatments for the canning industry. It is commonly applied before pasteurization treatment with the purpose of inhibiting spore germination and for reducing heat resistance of the microorganism, thereby allowing to reduce the time or temperature values of the heat treatment. With the aim to reduce the pH of vegetables several techniques are available but their application is not easy to plan. Often, industries define operative conditions only on the basis of empirical experience, thus increasing the risk of microbial growth or imparting an unpleasant sour taste. With the aim of highlighting the correct plan and management of acidification treatments to reach safety without degrading quality of canned fruit and vegetables, the topics that are reviewed and discussed are the effects of low pH on heat resistance of the most important microorganisms, acidification techniques and significant process variables, the effect of low pH on sensorial properties, and future trends.
 
L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic, short chain gram positive microorganism with rod morphology having its bacteriocins belonging to class II a. Several bacteriocins of L. acidophilus have been isolated and characterized. These are structurally similar, but their molecular weight varies as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technical properties, i.e., thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range along with strong inhibitory actions against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria make them an important class of biopreservatives. L. acidophilus can be added as an adjunct in many food fermentation processes contributing to unique taste, flavor, and texture. It also preserves the products by producing lactic acid and bacteriocins. A lot of new information regarding the bacteriocins of L. acidophilus has emerged during the last few years. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of bacteriocins production, their characteristics, and their antimicrobial action along with their application.
 
Parallels and similarities in chemical and functional damage to proteins by ionizing and UV radiations and oxidizing lipids have been recognized for some time. However, only recently have oxidizing lipids been shown directly by electron spin resonance to be radiomimetic also in their capacity for protein free radical production. Free radicals play a key role in the transformation of energy to molecular and cellular damage. It is thus of critical importance to elucidate the general mechanisms of free radical formation and reactions in proteins in order to understand protein involvement in various pathological conditions and in food deterioration. Accordingly, this review is a detailed comparison of gamma radiation, UV radiation, and lipid oxidation for what is presently known concerning (1) the specific modes of energy deposition and free radical formation, (2) the free radicals formed in proteins and amino acids, and (3) the typical damage correlating with these radicals.
 
Presently alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most widely used vegetarian LC3PUFA, but only marginal amounts are converted into eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); both of which are strongly related to human health. Currently, fish oils represent the most prominent dietary sources of EPA and DHA; however, these are unsuitable for vegetarians. Alternative sources include flaxseed, echium, walnut, and algal oil but their conversion to EPA and DHA must be considered. The present systematic review sets out to collate information from intervention studies examining the bioavailability of alternative vegetarian long chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) sources. Ten key papers published over the last 10 years were identified with seven intervention studies reporting that ALA from nut and seed oils was not converted to DHA at all. Three studies showed that ingestion of micro-algae oil led to significant increases in blood erythrocyte and plasma DHA. Further work is now needed to identify optimal doses of alternative vegetarian LC3PUFAs and how these can be integrated within daily diets. The potential role of algal oils appears to be particularly promising and an area in which further research is warranted.
 
α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) is a whey protein that has been extensively studied for its folding properties and its ability to bind several cations. An interesting property of α-LA is its ability to interact with fatty acids, although this interaction requires the previous unfolding of the protein by removing the Ca(2+) bound. The main function of α-LA is to participate in lactose biosynthesis. However, other biological functions have been attributed to the protein in the last decade. It has been reported that a particular form of human and bovine apo-α-LA induces apoptosis in tumoral and immature cells though spares healthy differentiated cells. The conversion of α-LA to the active apoptotic form requires the unfolding of the protein and the binding of specific fatty acids, mainly unsaturated C18 fatty acids in the cis-conformation. Likewise, it has been shown that a folding variant of α-LA and also some peptidic fragments have a bactericidal activity. The proposed functions for α-LA open new perspectives for its use as a potential ingredient to be added in functional foods or in nutraceutical products. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the subject of the interaction of α-LA with fatty acids, and the consequences of this interaction on its bioactivity.
 
Parallels and similarities in chemical and functional damage to proteins by ionizing and uv radiations and oxidizing lipids have been recognized for some time. However, only recently have oxidizing lipids been shown directly by electron spin resonance to be radiomimetic also in their capacity for protein free radical production. Free radicals play a key role in the transformation of energy to molecular and cellular damage. It is thus of critical importance to elucidate the general mechanisms of free radical formation and reactions in proteins in order to understand protein involvement in various pathological conditions and in food deterioration. Accordingly, this review is a detailed comparison of gamma-radiation, UV radiation, and lipid oxidation for what is presently known concerning (1) the specific modes of energy deposition and free radical formation, (2) the free radicals formed in proteins and amino acids, and (3) the typical damage correlating with these radicals.
 
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are almost unanimously recognized for their health benefits, while only limited evidence of any health benefit is currently available specifically for the main precursor of these fatty acids, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, both the n-3 LC-PUFA and the short-chain C₁₈ PUFA (i.e., ALA) are commonly referred to as "omega-3" fatty acids, and it is difficult for consumers to recognize this difference. A current gap of many food labelling legislations worldwide allow products containing only ALA and without n-3 LC-PUFA to be marketed as "omega-3 source" and this misleading information can negatively impact the ability of consumers to choose more healthy diets. Within the context of the documented nutritional and health promoting roles of omega-3 fatty acids, we briefly review the different metabolic fates of dietary ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA. We also review food sources rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, some characteristics of LC-PUFA and current industry and regulatory trends. A further objective is to present a case for regulatory bodies to clearly distinguish food products containing only ALA from foods containing n-3 LC-PUFA. Such information, when available, would then avoid misleading information and empower consumers to make a more informed choice in their food purchasing behavior.
 
Research concerning the benefits derived from dietary polyphenols, a significant class within the family of phytonutrients, has increased considerably in the last decade. Prior to the late 90's, the nutritional spotlight focused on the antioxidant capabilities of carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. More recently, however, research has emerged in strong support of the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols and their role in the prevention and/or treatment of certain cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation. Polyphenols are categorized according to the nature of their carbon skeleton, ranging from basic phenolic molecules to highly complex compounds, such as flavonoids, the most common and widely studied of all phenolic compounds. The most prevalent phenolic acids include ellagic acid, gallic acid, tannic acid, and capsaicin.
 
The plant genus Cuphea (family Lythraceae) promises to provide a new source of industrially and nutritionally important medium-chain fatty acids, especially of lauric acid now supplied exclusively by coconut and palm kernel oils from foreign sources. The seed lipids of Cuphea were first discovered in the 1960s to contain high percentages of several medium-chain fatty acids, including caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acid. Research is still in the early stages, but it is intensifying toward the goal of developing the genus into a new temperate climate crop for production of specialty oils. Given the diversity of Cuphea seed lipid composition and the wide ecological and distributional range of the genus, it may be possible to tailor crops to produce selected fatty acids on demand under a variety of growing conditions. Cuphea comprises about 260 species, most native to the New World tropics. Its morphology, classification, chromosome numbers, distribution, ecology, and folk uses are presented. Seed structure is described and seed lipid composition for 73 species is summarized. Problems in domestication and agronomic progress are reviewed. Knowledge of the biosynthetic mechanism controlling the lipids produced by Cuphea remains very limited. Future research in this area, and particularly successful employment of gene transfer techniques, may allow genes controlling the mechanism to be transferred to an already established seed oil producer such as rapeseed. Presently, both traditional plant breeding techniques and newer biotechnological methods are directed toward Cuphea oilseed development.
 
A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important for consumer acceptance of PUFA-fortified foods. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition for the following free supplemental files: Additional text, tables, and figures.].
 
Phenolics are widespread dietary antioxidants. Among these, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) received considerable attention for their wide distribution and part of human diet with potential biological effects. CGAs (71 compounds), being esters of derivatives of cinnamic acids with quinic acid are widely distributed in plant materials. Coffee is among the highest found in plants, ranging from 4 to 14%. Besides, these are reported in plant foods such as apples, pears, carrot, tomato, sweet potato, Phyllostachys edulis, oilseeds, Prunus domestica L, cherries, and eggplant. The traditional Chinese medicinal plants such as flowers and buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb and the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies contained CGAs as bioactive compound. These play an important role in the formation of roasted coffee flavor and have a marked influence on coffee cup quality. CGAs are considered as main precursors of coffee flavor and pigments. Recent technological advancements in the separation and purification of CGAs such as molecular-imprinted polymer technique; microwave-assisted extraction; pH gradient counter current chromatography has also been described. The consumption of coffee correlated to several health benefits such as reducing the risk of human chronic diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease owing to its antioxidant potential.
 
Evidence for the effectiveness of the enrichment of food products with n-3 fatty acids by inclusion of either plant- or fish-derived materials in the diets of chickens, turkeys, ostriches, cows, pigs, and goats has been reviewed. Both linseed oil/meal and fish products can increase the levels of total n-3 fatty acids in animal products, including milk, eggs, meat, and deli products. The extent of this increase in n-3 fatty acid contents seems to be dependent on the nature of diet supplementation. Encapsulation of linseed oil may result in higher milk cow ALA contents, as compared to unprotected linseed oil. Available literature indicates that the levels of EPA and DHA in food products may be increased more, if the animals' diet was supplemented with fish products rather than linseed products. However, organoleptic properties of food products may be compromised. This pitfall may be reduced by the addition of antioxidants and/or application of micro-encapsulation. Generation of transgenic animals and plants has shown very promising results. Thus far, transgenic pigs and mice have been successfully generated. These animals have a low ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids in their tissues and milk. The advantages and disadvantages of the above-mentioned methods have been discussed. The evidence for health-promoting effects of such enriched food products has been included.
 
Parallels and similarities in chemical and functional damage to proteins by ionizing and UV radiations and oxidizing lipids have been recognized for some time. However, only recently have oxidizing lipids been shown directly by electron spin resonance to be radiomimetic also in their capacity for protein free radical production. Free radicals play a key role in the transformation of energy to molecular and cellular damage. It is thus of critical importance to elucidate the general mechanisms of free radical formation and reactions in proteins in order to understand protein involvement in various pathological conditions and in food deterioration. Accordingly, this review is a detailed comparison of gamma radiation, UV radiation, and lipid oxidation for what is presently known concerning (1) the specific modes of energy deposition and free radical formation, (2) the free radicals formed in proteins and amino acids, and (3) the typical damage correlating with these radicals.
 
Epidemiological findings -correlation between TFA intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.
Fatty acid distribution in erythrocytes of populations with high and no dairy fat intake.
The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10 which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk.
 
Isothermal acrylamide formation in foods and asparagine-glucose model systems has ubiquitous features. On a time scale of about 60 min, at temperatures in the approximate range of 120-160 degrees C, the acrylamide concentration-time curve has a characteristic sigmoid shape whose asymptotic level and steepness increases with temperature while the time that corresponds to the inflection point decreases. In the approximate range of 160-200 degrees C, the curve has a clear peak, whose onset, height, width and degree of asymmetry depend on the system's composition and temperature. The synthesis-degradation of acrylamide in model systems has been recently described by traditional kinetic models. They account for the intermediate stages of the process and the fate of reactants involved at different levels of scrutiny. The resulting models have 2-6 rate constants, accounting for both the generation and elimination of the acrylamide. Their temperature dependence has been assumed to obey the Arrhenius equation, i.e., each step in the reaction was considered as having a fixed energy of activation. A proposed alternative is constructing the concentration curve by superimposing a Fermian decay term on a logistic growth function. The resulting model, which is not unique, has five parameters: a hypothetical uninterrupted generation-level, two steepness parameters; of the concentration climbs and fall and two time characteristics; of the acrylamide synthesis and elimination. According to this model, peak concentration is observed only when the two time constants are comparable. The peak's shape and height are determined by the gap between the two time constants and the relative magnitudes of the two "rate" parameters. The concept can be extended to create models of non-isothermal acrylamide formation. The basic assumption, which is yet to be verified experimentally, is that the momentary rate of the acrylamide synthesis or degradation is the isothermal rate at the momentary temperature, at a time that corresponds to its momentary concentration. The theoretical capabilities of a model of this kind are demonstrated with computer simulations. If the described model is correct, then by controlling temperature history, it is possible to reduce the acrylamide while still accomplishing much of the desirable effects of a heat process.
 
Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide new scientific knowledge that will help to clarify whether or not there is a risk to human health from the consumption of foods containing low amounts of acrylamide.
 
Top-cited authors
David Julian Mcclements
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Da-Wen Sun
  • University College Dublin
Jianbo Xiao
  • University of Vigo
Eric A Decker
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Muhammad Tauseef Sultan
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University