Criminology and Criminal Justice

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1748-8966
Publications
Recent legislative powers and sanctions relevant to tackling crime and disorder in the night-time economy in England and Wales 
Article
This article considers recent policing and regulatory responses to the night-time economy in England and Wales. Drawing upon the findings of a broader two-year qualitative investigation of local and national developments in alcohol policy, it identifies a dramatic acceleration of statutory activity, with 12 new or revised powers, and several more in prospect, introduced by the Labour Government within its first decade in office. Interview data and documentary sources are used to explore the degree to which the introduction of such powers, often accompanied by forceful rhetoric and high profile police action, has translated into a sustained expansion of control. Many of the new powers are spatially directed, as well as being focused upon the actions of distinct individuals or businesses, yet the willingness and capacity to apply powers to offending individuals in comparison to businesses is often variable and asymmetrical. The practice of negotiating order in the night-time economy is riddled with tensions and ambiguities that reflect the ad hoc nature and rapid escalation of the regulatory architecture. Night-time urban security governance is understood as the outcome of subtle organizational and interpersonal power-plays. Social orders, normative schemas and apportionments of blame thus arise as a byproduct of patterned (structural) relations.
 
Article
For the most part the 2003 Criminal Justice Act, which came into effect in England and Wales in April 2005, was accepted by the probation service with relatively little opposition. Given the enormity of its impact acquiescence to this degree of change ought to come as something of a surprise. The 2003 Act changed fundamentally the nature of community supervision, it brought to an end the traditional range of non-custodial penalties and replaced them with a single community order to which sentencers could add any of 12 possible requirements. This article considers the impact of the 2003 legislation on one particular offender group – drug misusers. Drug misusing offenders have the potential to pose serious difficulties for probation officers; the habitual nature of drug addiction and a tendency towards an irregular lifestyle make drug misusers particularly susceptible to breach. Under the new legislation courts have significantly fewer options available to them when responding to incidents of offender non-compliance. This article argues that many of the provisions of the 2003 Act together with developments elsewhere in the UK are likely to have impacted disproportionately on those groups whose lifestyles are chaotic and whose routines are incompatible with the terms and conditions of modern day probation practice. It concludes that greater flexibility towards non-compliance, supported by regular and consistent judicial review, would encourage improved rates of compliance and retention in treatment and improved outcomes for offenders.
 
Article
The Licensing Act 2003, coming into force in November 2005 in England and Wales, abolished set licensing hours for pubs and clubs. The aim was to liberalize a rigid system while reducing the problems of drinking and disorder associated with a standard closing time. This article summarizes the results of an evaluation funded by the Home Office. Despite widespread concern that the legislation would lead to `24-hour drinking' and an increase in associated problems, the experience of the first year shows very little change. The scale of change in licensing hours was variable but modest: while the majority of pubs extended their hours, most of these extensions were short. Thus the average national increase in opening hours was small. Alcohol consumption showed a slight fall. There was no obvious impact on violent crime and disorder, according to a range of measures, including crime statistics, victim surveys and medical statistics. These results are not particularly consistent with findings in other jurisdictions which have relaxed controls over opening hours of pubs and clubs.
 
Article
Neighbourhood policing, a contemporary form of community policing developed in the United Kingdom (UK), has sought to increase public participation in policing and to develop processes through which residents work in co-production with partners and other state agencies to tackle problems. The aim has been to create mechanisms through which residents can hold the police service to account in dealing with the problems that matter to them. Drawing on interviews with neighbourhood policing officers, this article examines the operation of these processes in practice. We focus on the nature of resident participation in neighbourhood policing; the extent to which police officers organize their priorities around those of residents who participate; and the ways in which officers work with other state agencies and residents themselves to tackle certain problems. Ultimately, this article questions the notions of accountability embedded in neighbourhood policing and whether the neighbourhood policing approach offers an effective mechanism for holding officers to account by residents.
 
Article
By focusing on one young man’s self-presentations in a secure care unit for young offenders in Denmark, this article explores how his contradictory and incoherent self-presentations can be analysed as meaningful. Drawing on Stephen Lyng’s theory of high-risk edgework and Loïc Wacquant’s theory of advanced marginalization, it is argued that this young man’s engagement in youth crime cannot be fully understood by focusing only on the criminal experience itself. Also, specific social and symbolic relations must be integrated into the analysis to understand his engagement in crime. The article argues that although edgework theory is compelling, it needs further development if it is to capture the full complexity of young people’s motivation for crime.
 
Article
The aim of this article is to problematize a recent crime prevention initiative of the Australian Federal Government. Through an exploration of the relationship between `audience' and `text', it is argued that the object of the program was not — indeed could not be — crime nor its prevention but rather the production of an aesthetic of transgression and victimhood. Techniques for achieving this aesthetic are discussed as is the relationship between criminology and the kinds of texts that often underpin crime prevention strategies.
 
Article
Technology plays an increasing role in policing and other aspects of the criminal justice process. This article will briefly outline the notion of a criminal justice ‘techno-fix’ as a potential attempt by criminal justice agencies to use technology as a source of legitimacy. It will then go on to explore a range of alternate scenarios focusing on the possibility that increasing use of technologies in general, and surveillance technologies in particular (both in terms of formal surveillance by criminal justice agencies and informal surveillance of these agencies by sections of the general public) may actually contribute to challenges to the legitimacy of criminal justice agencies, in part because of deeply embedded but unrealistic cultural assumptions about the capabilities of technology.
 
Article
This article provides a discussion of human agency, conceptualized as a transformative aspect of desistance from crime. It is argued here that existing conceptualizations of agency are vague or underexplored, and that a framework based upon the work of Emirbayer and Mische (1998) offers a more comprehensive overview of the manner in which individuals approach desistance. This follows other recent work (for example, Paternoster and Bushway, 2009), in arguing that desistance involves the envisioning of an alternative future identity, and that this is one aspect of agency in the desistance process. However, it is argued here that the deployment of such agency is conditioned by social context and that this delimits the range of future possibilities available. This is illustrated with two cases as examples from recent research in this area.
 
Article
Drawing upon semi-ethnographic research, this article explores desistance in process among serious offenders residing in democratic therapeutic communities. It is argued that offender rehabilitation in therapeutic communities involves a process of purposive and agentic reconstruction of identity and narrative reframing, so that a ‘new’ and ‘better’ person emerges whose attitudes and behaviours cohere with long-term desistance from crime. This is possible because the prison-based therapeutic community, with its commitment to a radically ‘different’ culture and mode of rehabilitation, socially enables, produces and reinforces the emergence of someone ‘different’. The article therefore develops existing understandings of change in forensic therapeutic communities, and reaffirms theories of desistance which emphasize the importance of pro-social changes to the offender’s personal identity and self-narrative.
 
Canada-US homicide 2007 Source: Li (2008); United States Department of Justice (2008).
US Manufacture and export of firearms for civilians, 2006
Article
Gun violence in North American is the subject of much speculation and debate, often based on limited or incomplete empirical evidence. We summarize the regulatory frameworks in Mexico, the United States and Canada, and provide statistics on gun misuse in these countries. Based on our analysis of publicly available information on sources of crime guns, we conclude that while the United States is a major supplier of illegal handguns to Canada and illegal firearms of all types to Mexico, quantifying the extent of its role, particularly in Mexico, is difficult because of data limitations. Still more difficult is to project the consequences of an effective crackdown by US authorities. If the illicit supply from the USA dried up, the criminal gangs could turn to a variety of other sources that already appear to be playing some role. A complete analysis of these issues must await more complete disclosure by the authorities of data on gun sources and trafficking investigations.
 
Article
While imprisonment is often referred to in Englis-speaking countries as ‘doing time’, in Venezuela this phrase is never used; people speak of ‘discharging the sentence’. This linguistic difference is a useful starting point for a reflection on cultural differences in the character of penal control. In this article, we examine the administration of sentence remissions in a Venezuelan prison during the six years following the enactment of the Sentence Remission Law (1993). Contrary to the active role envisioned by that law, penal bureaucracy assumed a passive role, converting remissions into a claims system for prisoners. Such claims were linked inefficiently to opportunities for early or full release, leading some offenders to spend more time than necessary in prison. Nonstandardized procedures for factoring remissions into the proportion of time served, together with frequent errors in date computation, also injected a random element into the flow of time. Time served in prison was therefore jointly determined by the offender's abilities as a claimant and by the random operation and errors of the penal timekeeping system. Remissions set the stage for a game of chance that is antithetical to the regularity, predictability and immutability that supposedly characterize penal sanctions.
 
Article
Early intervention prevention programmes form a significant element in the UK's complex and sometimes contradictory youth justice system. This article focuses on one such national programme in England, the Children's Fund, which has combined a broad aim of tackling children's social exclusion with a specific objective of reducing youth crime and anti-social behaviour, influenced by the Youth Justice Board's risk factors paradigm. In order to understand how these aims have been pursued in practice, the article discusses findings from a `Theory of Change' evaluation of a range of preventative initiatives developed through a single Children's Fund programme located in a large English city. The article discusses the implications of this kind of programme for the development of socially inclusive interventions with children and young people thought to be `at risk' of involvement in crime and anti-social behaviour, but also draws attention to uncertainties and tensions in the relationship between risk-based crime prevention interventions and initiatives addressing broader aspects of young people's social exclusion. The advantages of the Theory of Change approach to the evaluation of complex initiatives are also briefly considered.
 
Article
The virtues claimed for restorative justice include its emotional engagement with crime and the opportunities afforded to participants by its discursive character. Yet these issues are rarely explored from a perspective that is attentive to gendered or other asymmetrical forms of social relations. This article explores key issues that remain under-developed in the restorative justice literature from a feminist perspective, taking domestic violence as a focus. Central to this analysis are questions of victims' interests and safety, expectations about the victim's role and the appeal to apology and forgiveness in much of the restorative justice literature. It is argued that the challenge of taking gendered harms seriously may require an approach that differs from common restorative justice practices such as the development of hybrid models that draw from both conventional criminal justice and restorative justice.
 
Article
Findings from the Home Office funded evaluation of the Pilot Youth Offending Teams, whose work preceded the full introduction of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, will be considered in this article. More specifically, the article analyses data from the evaluation of the introduction of the final warning. It is argued that academics’ criticisms of the final warning have been premature. A notion of social action has been absent from their critiques. They have failed to make a distinction between law and policy as they are written and law and policy in action. Final warning provisions have been refracted through the assumptions of the police and of youth justice workers, whose working cultures differ from the assumptions of the Act and Home Office guidance.
 
Article
This article considers the application of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a research methodology in the field of probation research. Although AI has previously been used in prisons research it has not to date been applied to research on probation. In this article we describe why and how AI was applied in an exploratory study of ‘quality’ in probation practice. The article includes some reflections from us as researchers and from the participants in our study (staff in three English Probation Trusts). It is argued not only that AI served our project well (in terms of furnishing us with a wealth of relevant, good quality data) but also that our choice of methodology rendered visible aspects of contemporary probation culture which, we believe, would have remained hidden had we not chosen to explore quality through an ‘appreciative’ lens. It is further argued that in organizations experiencing challenging times, an appreciative stance has ethical as well as instrumental advantages. There are, thus, both instrumental and normative rationales for recommending AI as a suitable approach in probation research.
 
Article
This article considers the role and influence of black and Asian professional associations in the criminal justice services, five years on from the pivotal Lawrence Inquiry (1999) and its assertion that ‘institutional racism’ was endemic in the British police service. Drawing on interviews with Chairpersons of seven professional associations, and a small case study of the Association of Black Probation Officers, the article explores their internal supportive function in assisting members who have experienced various forms of occupational racism. A tentative proposal is made for black and Asian professional associations to develop their external focus to utilize members’ life skills and cultural knowledge to challenge the institutional dynamics of racism within the criminal justice services, and to engage more directly with local black and Asian communities. Such work can be conceptually framed by conceiving of ethnicity as a resource.
 
Area map of New Lodge 
Descriptive statistics for variables used in the analysis.
Multinomial regression model with 'policing is changing in a positive way' as the dependent variable and 'positive change' responses as the reference group
Article
Drawing upon original survey research this article seeks to identify the generative processes that influence perceptions of the police in the context of an inner-city neighbourhood in Northern Ireland that has been affected by increases in crime and disorder in the aftermath of the peace process. Conceptually we draw upon recent research from England and Wales that outlines confidence in the police in terms of instrumental and expressive dimensions. We apply this framework and consider whether it provides a useful template for understanding the post- conflict dynamics of police–community relations in our study area. Contrary to much received wisdom our analysis suggests that instrumental concerns about crime and illegal activity are a more influential predictor of attitudes to the police than expressive concerns with disorder and anti-social behaviour. Consequently our discussion points to the variance in local and national survey data and questions the degree to which the latter can usefully inform our understanding of trends and developments in discrete micro-spaces. Our conclusion outlines the potential policy implications for state policing practice in deprived urban spaces.
 
Article
Although criminologists in the US and Europe continue to explore issues of immigration, race, and ethnicity in the context of crime, they have yet to examine the detention of asylum seekers. Still, this is a social phenomenon that requires serious consideration since in many instances such policies and practices violate international standards for the protection of refugees. This work takes a critical look at the detention of persons fleeing persecution by situating it an expanding culture of control stoked by the criminology of the other. The article offers evidence of a steady increase in the reliance on detention of asylum seekers in the US, UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Indications of a conservative shift in criminological thought affecting crime—and asylum—policy are addressed alongside concerns for human rights in a post-September 11 world.
 
Styles of policing.  
Article
This article draws on a study of differential treatment of young people in the youth justice system to present a typology of styles of policing that contrasts procedural justice with adversarial policing. It considers the factors that can trap police in adversarial styles of policing and offers suggestions about how best to move towards policing grounded on principles of procedural justice. It argues that ideas about procedural justice may be able to gain more traction in times of austerity, given that changing policing style does not necessarily incur significant costs.
 
Article
Problems of recurring corruption have stimulated major reforms in policing in many countries in the last 30 years. Considerable advances have been made in recruitment, training, complaints investigations and external oversight of conduct. However, continuing problems have prompted a search for more effective forms of misconduct prevention. This article examines the situation in Australia in relation to the emerging and controversial anti-corruption strategy of integrity testing. The study is concerned with `integrity tests' that simulate misconduct opportunities for serving officers not pre-employment screening tests. The eight police agencies in Australia were asked to supply information on planned or implemented testing programmes as well as information on policy perspectives and debates. Only three jurisdictions were identified as conducting targeted testing. The success of these programmes in identifying misconduct suggests this may be an essential anti-corruption device and leaves a question mark over the adequacy of accountability in jurisdictions without this capacity. Two other agencies were planning to introduce targeted testing. While some agencies had given serious consideration to random integrity testing, legal, ethical and practical concerns have meant that no programmes have been introduced except for drug and alcohol testing. The latter also appears to be a useful tool to improve police conduct. The article concludes with a theoretical review of the possible benefits of randomized testing as a form of behavioural audit. Yes Yes
 
Article
The thesis of the 'risk society' has become enormously influential as an explanation of the spread of risk as a way of governing diverse institutions and areas of life. While some criminologists have used it to analyse changes in criminal justice, this chapter argues that such a framework tells us very little about how, why and with what implications the mobilisation of risk in different jurisdictions varies significantly. Likewise, while neo-liberal politics is widely regarded as shaping risk in criminal justice, neo-liberalism has become itself a highly diverse politics. It is articulated with social democrats, neo-conservatives and others - producing very different criminal justice polices. Analysis of how risk is applied to criminal justice needs to take into account the specificities of local situations with regard both to risk and to neo-liberalism as 'master' explanations in contemporary criminology.
 
Article
The State of Victoria pioneered the late-modern 'rediscovery' of community-based crime prevention in Australia when it implemented a Good Neighbourhood Programme in 1988. Loosely based on France's so-called Bonnernaison scheme, Good Neighbourhood was the first of a succession of strategies. The article summarizes the history of crime prevention in Victoria from 1988 to the present, and documents the strengths and weaknesses of each programme implemented. It argues that crime prevention and community safety has been a chameleon movement, capable of accommodating itself to a wide range of political and administrative regimes. Academic criminologists should give greater recognition to the expressive and political dimensions of community safety and crime prevention. Assessments that focus purely on whether initiatives have worked in a technical sense, or that strive simply to locate crime prevention and community safety within broader theories about power and governance, fail to understand key aspects of the Victorian experience.
 
Article
Violence against teachers is seen as a growing problem by both professional bodies and the media. However, this account fails to acknowledge differing views about what actually constitutes violence and how those that experience violence comprehend it. Drawing on literature on workplace violence and fear of crime, this article seeks to identify how we can begin to understand better violence against teachers. Furthermore, by examining secondary school teachers’ own narratives in depth, it is identified that a number of factors influence the meanings that they attach to their own experiences of workplace violence. This includes their professional identity, feelings about their pupils and their role as a teacher, their own sense of vulnerability, levels of experience and general feelings about schools and young people today.
 
Article
This article compares the enactment of Football Banning Order legislation in Scotland to that in England and Wales. Football Banning Orders evolved in England and Wales through the 1990s into a particular form of hybrid legislation, culminating in the Football (Disorder) Act of 2000. The legislation was not introduced into Scotland until the Police, Public Order and Criminal Justice (Scotland) Bill in 2006. By 2010, it appeared that orders were being under-utilized in Scotland. This raised questions as to whether there was less need for orders within the context of Scottish football, whether the legislation was either being poorly implemented or if imposing orders was being actively resisted. In focusing primarily on the utilization of the legislation by police on the ground, this article questions whether the football or policing contexts are markedly different in the two jurisdictions. We argue that one of the dominant explanations for the comparatively low use of orders in Scotland relates not to the content or interpretation of the particular legislation involved, but to broader differences in how criminal justice legislation is typically enacted.
 
Article
Crime prevention standards in housing have for a long time been limited to target hardening, and in that respect European Norms were developed as guidelines for ‘burglar resistant’ doors, windows and shutters (EN1630). Recent developments include a set of supplementary crime prevention standards in the building sector, which are not limited to technical products but focus on the layout and management of urban environments and their impact on public safety. This article focuses on the problem of systematic Europe-wide implementation of crime prevention standards in urban planning. The attempt to implement common guidelines for design-led crime prevention through the development of a European Norm has failed. In this article I will first introduce the system of standardization and then examine the particular European Standard for Crime Prevention by Urban Planning and Building Design (CEN/TR14383). Instead of a harmonious application of that standard in Europe, a variety of policies have been negotiated, including national standardization, consulting schemes and liaison systems based on rewards. Moreover the standard has been re-interpreted in some jurisdictions as ‘gender mainstreaming’, and it has been adopted by police to organize national training for local governments. I will present and compare examples from Denmark, the UK, the Netherlands, Austria and Poland to show the divergent ways of interpretation and practical implementation of guidelines in design-led crime prevention.
 
Article
The paper explores debates around the increasing role of the third sector in the delivery of mainstream criminal justice services, in the context of a broader ‘marketization’ of public services and a growing private sector presence. It is illustrated by brief discussions of the advent of police and crime commissioners, competitive commissioning of probation services, and the spread of payment by results. It is argued that, while superficially attractive, such developments are unproven in terms of effectiveness, raise questions about principles of justice, and contain risks for all parties concerned. It is therefore unwise to plunge much further down this route without careful piloting, evaluation and assessment of possible negative consequences.
 
Article
In British politics, it is clear that the idea of the ‘Big Society’ encompasses many aspects of state activity and civil society, including the work of constabularies. Implications of ideas related to the Big Society implemented in police policy and practice, particularly in the area of police race relations, are considered in this article. No matter what changes that may take place, they will be mediated by the police occupational culture, which itself might be changed by Big Society ideas and concurrent, significant cuts to police budgets. The article begins with a consideration of whether we adequately understand how police organizations change. Janet Chan’s use of Bourdieu’s ideas on the relationship between ‘field’ and ‘habitus’ is criticized. In light of this discussion, the article considers aspects of police race relations. In particular, the implications of ‘seeing like a citizen’ and ‘participative policing’, Big Society ideas identified by Martin Innes, are discussed.
 
Article
The Border Project was a 36-lesson course developed by Mexican and US teachers to build support for a culture of lawfulness and further the rule of law. The conclusion of the project's evaluation was, simply put, that the students learned the lessons taught. While the impact on their attitudes and behaviors was more mixed, participation did appear to strengthen overall belief in rules among some groups of San Diego students and the sense of interpersonal competency among students in Tijuana. These positive findings were reinforced by an increased awareness among students in both settings of the importance of self-esteem in resisting bad behavior, the difficulties encountered in rejecting criminal associations and the gradual erosion that often leads individuals into crime and corruption. In addition, the legal reasoning skills of Tijuana students appeared to have been enhanced as a result of their participation in the project. Self-reported behavior, however, was unchanged.
 
Article
Over the past four decades the police service strength in England and Wales grew by nearly a third. This was at a time when the population grew by just 10 per cent. This sustained period of growth came to an end with the 2010 spending review which called for a 20 per cent cut in government funding of the police. In this paper the expansion of the state police is examined, expansion that is all the more remarkable coming at a time of increased competition and – from the mid-1990s onwards – falling levels of recorded crime. But not only did the number of police officers increase, so too their roles and responsibilities, reflective of Simon’s (2007) governing through crime meta-narrative and symptomatic of the criminalization of social policy – or more specifically the ‘policification’ (cf. Kemshall and Maguire, 2001). In this context it is argued that enforced contraction could be a positive opportunity to reappraise what the state police ought to be doing. The policing task is conceptualized as being either wide policing or narrow policing. Examples are given where narrowing may be both possible and beneficial. It is acknowledged that other agencies are facing similar cuts and may not be able pick up tasks left by the police. However, it is argued there are tangible benefits of having a state police that is more focused.
 
IMPACT OF PROJECTS ON BURGLARY: comparison of results derived by the 'Midlands Consortium' and the 'Kodz/Pease' methods of estimation. 
Article
This article is about the use of evidence from evaluation research undertaken on, and as part of, the Home Office Reducing Burglary Initiative. More generally, it is a case study about the uses and status of ‘scientific’ evidence in politics. The article reports methods and findings regarding burglary reduction projects evaluated by the ‘Midlands Consortium’ of academic researchers. These are compared with interpretations derived from re-analysis of the data presented in reports published by the Home Office. Specifically, it illustrates what might happen when responsibility for validating policy - that is, for establishing ‘what works’ - is placed in the hands of (social) science, but the evidence produced is not, apparently, congenial to the particular ‘network of governance’ that is responsible for the policy. The outcome for evidence-based policy making in these circumstances is that scientific discourse and method itself falls victim to policy pressures and values. The concerns of this article are placed in the context of Ulrich Beck’s (1992) discussion of ‘reflexive scientization’ in the governance of risk society.
 
Driving style in response to speed cameras by gender and age: Two
b) below shows the proportions of the different driver types in the 2003 survey divided by gender and age group.
Article
Automated speed cameras in England and Wales have become a very common means of enforcement of speed limit breaches in most police force areas, but they are not without controversy despite the majority of public opinion behind them. Research in the mid-1990s showed that drivers responded to speed cameras in one of several key ways, and the typology of responses produced was linked with drivers’ characteristics. Now that women comprise more than 4 out of 10 licensed drivers in England and Wales, it is timely to revisit the earlier research by considering the gender characteristics of the driver typology, and this paper contrasts the results longitudinally with those obtained from a 2003 survey that inter alia explored similar issues. The implications for road safety of the behavioural and attitudinal differences noted by gender (and age) are discussed, especially in the context of risk-based control policies and the term ‘drivers’. This latter aspect is achieved by way of a brief analysis of national newspaper articles.
 
Article
Canada has undergone intensive public debate concerning firearms over the past two decades, much of which has concerned the effectiveness of gun control legislation. Since about 2005 public discourse has focused increasingly on an upsurge in gun-crime perpetrated by street-level criminals. The article examines the projection of these concerns within the Canadian mass media and through official statistics. It shows that gun control legislation appears to have had a positive effect on gun-related crime in Canada, but that a residuum of gun-crime has remained. Evidence suggests that a process of pistolization is ongoing in some places, but that it is not a dominant strain. The article also looks at some examples of grassroots resistance to pistolization in Canada in some communities that are worst affected by street-level gun crime.
 
Article
In criminological and sociological studies of illegal drugs, the thesis of normalization suggests that when a drug goes from being a marginal to a widespread phenomenon, theoretical and methodological approaches that rely on subculture theory fall short. This article argues that normalization theory fails to recognize the existence of a distinct cannabis culture because it has a traditional understanding of subcultures as ‘groups of people’. The article suggests that a definition of subculture as a collection of rituals, stories and symbols is better for understanding contemporary subcultures and especially the cultural aspects of cannabis use. The conclusion is that although many use cannabis, it still signals opposition and cultural difference. A subcultural theoretical framework is thus crucial to understand illegal drug use. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 100 cannabis users in Norway.
 
Article
The New Zealand youth justice system emerged as a ‘new paradigm’ in the early 1990s. This model of reintegration, restorativeness, diversion and family empowerment has been highly influential worldwide. The New Zealand system has remained stable and non-punitive in the context of a volatile and punitive adult criminal justice system and the ‘punitive turn’ in the youth justice systems of similar jurisdictions. Significant reforms have been made through amending legislation in 2010. Here, three significant conceptual shifts underpinning the recent reforms are discussed. It is suggested that the New Zealand youth justice system is ‘playing catch-up’ both with the adult system, and with comparable jurisdictions. Nevertheless, those factors which allowed the youth justice system to remain non-punitive up to now may act to mitigate the potentially harsh effects of the legislative changes.
 
Article
This article examines criminal justice policy in the Netherlands from 1994 until 2002. These so-called purple years, in reference to the labour-liberal coalition government in office were characterized by falling crime rates and a hugely expanding criminal justice state at the expense of traditional Dutch reductionist penal policy. The emergence of a Dutch-style crime complex requires scrutiny in light of Downes’s emphasis on Dutch post-war tolerance towards lawbreakers. I conclude that tolerance no longer is a driving force in penal matters but it continues to inform the governance of areas of ambiguous morality such as euthanasia and prostitution. The beneficiaries of the new tolerance are no longer offenders but rather those making certain life choices or preferring certain lifestyles. This article looks at causes and effects of these changes in the nature of criminal justice governance in the Netherlands.
 
Article
This research examines how the media report on sentences given to those who commit serious crimes against children and how this impacts on public knowledge and attitudes. Three months of press and television coverage were analysed in order to establish the editorial lines that are taken in different sections of the media and how they are promoted by selective reporting of sentencing. Results indicate that a small number of very high profile crimes account for a significant proportion of reporting in this area and often, particularly in the tabloid press, important information regarding sentencing rationale is sidelined in favour of moral condemnation and criticism of the judiciary. Polling data indicate that public attitudes are highly critical of sentencing but also confused about the meaning of tariffs. The article concludes by discussing what can be done to promote a more informed public debate over penal policy in this area.
 
Article
Trafficking of women for marriage is recognized as a modern-day slave trade, although it has a long history in China. The reasons for its resurgence in China include, but are not limited to, patriarchal values, state-tolerated sex discrimination, vulnerability of women and the transformation of socio-economic situations. Accordingly, the task of eradicating the trafficking in women involves combating feudal and patriarchal assumptions about male dominance and male supremacy; building up the confidence and dignity of the gender of female; systematic governmental and international support of issues of importance to women; restructuring legal systems where they are still imperfect; adjusting economic systems so that women are never exploited economically; strengthening fundamental and higher education of women; regulating objectifying and pornographic media images of women; and developing ways in which men and women can relate without either dependency or dominance. The author examines and evaluates both the strengths and weaknesses of the current criminal justice policy of the Chinese government against trafficking practices. She then argues that the existing policy against trafficking is insufficient and ineffective and needs to be reformed in a number of aspects as suggested. In this article, the author takes a multi-disciplinary approach, including historical, cultural, economic, ideological, sociological and legal study.
 
Article
How do communities control crime, and what does this tell us about the problem of negotiating order at the local level? This article will draw on empirical research in two US cities to illustrate how social controls at the local level are negotiated between citizens and law enforcement, and how different structures of this arrangement arise because of contrasting contexts and different institutional imperatives. The article will showcase the evolving role of the citizen as a partner in negotiated order and will speculate as to the future role of community members in the co-production of safety.
 
Article
The distributed nature of the Internet requires that security issues be addressed through collaborative efforts within and across various sets of public and private actors. Drawing on nodal governance theory, this article explores one aspect of the role that the general public can and does play in the field of cyber-security: civilian policing of the Internet. In particular, we examine the motives and actions of regular citizens, who use their computer skills to identify, track and collect information on the activities of suspected criminal offenders. Whereas some groups use such information to engage in vigilante acts, the groups that we study work cooperatively with police, collecting information to pass onto criminal justice agencies. We suggest that these collectives and their members are a potentially useful, if under-valued, component of cyber-security networks.
 
Article
The dangers of doing fieldwork have received little consideration within the criminological literature. This article examines the author's experiences over the last five years studying policing and security in Colombia. It reflects upon a number of issues relating to the personal safety of the researcher and to the ongoing viability of doing field-based research in such an environment. The project `survival' skills of adaptability and methodological pluralism are contextualized and argued. The importance of local supports and acknowledging personal limits is also stressed. The need for criminology to look to anthropology and other field-oriented disciplines is suggested if criminology's quest for relevance in a globalizing world is to be successful.
 
Overview of convergences in subjects of and motivations for enquiries in both pilots 
No. of enquiries resulting in applications per area against population figures by area 
Article
In 2009 a sex offender public disclosure scheme was piloted in England and Scotland based upon political and policy assumptions about the public’s likely take-up of such a scheme. However, the pilots found lower than anticipated public use of the scheme. By drawing on the notions of instrumental and symbolic efficacy this article explores the potential implications of the current rate of take-up. Is the instrumental efficacy of the scheme, that is, its role in providing advice and information to the public about sex offenders mitigated by low take-up? Does the scheme offer symbolic reassurance to the public about sex offender management and how might this be affected by current take-up rates? The public response to disclosure is also examined through the lens of recent risk communication research, in particular Health Promotion models that critique a simplistic ‘hypodermic’ approach to risk communication. Finally, the symbolic efficacy of public disclosure is examined with specific reference to Jackson and Gray’s (2010) ‘functional fear’.
 
Article
Community safety has often been studied from an institutional perspective as an important adaptation to late modernity, or from a practice perspective as a set of professional activities that are of especial interest because they are developed across institutional boundaries, through partnerships. This article will introduce Wenger’s communities of practice perspective in order to demonstrate how both of these strands of research need to be understood together. Drawing upon an empirical study of the development and working of community safety partnerships in Scotland it will explore the ways in which professional identities and practices around the concept of community safety have been negotiated through practitioners’ participation in emergent communities of practice that need to be understood within the particular institutional, social and political contexts that frame them. It will be argued that to understand practice as ‘situated’ in Wenger’s terms is to acknowledge the dynamic and mutually constitutive relations that connect institutions and lived experience. Such an analysis suggests that there is much transformative potential in partnerships, and that theorizing on broad national and international trajectories of transformation needs to be tested through the study of locally negotiated practice.
 
Article
Members of `terrestrial' communities are migrating in ever-increasing numbers to a new `Third Space' that manifests outside traditional geographical physical boundaries. This online space consists of purely social relations where interaction and community are performed at-a-distance. The diversifying populations of these virtual villages, towns and cities now constitute very real communities. Online non-gaming spaces such as Ebay, Active Worlds and Secondlife, for example, deliberately utilize the discourse of community in an attempt to instil a sense of communal space and shared responsibility among their members. While the majority subscribe to the rhetoric of `netizenship' others find alternative means to participate online. The avocations of these few have resulted in the endemic deviance/crime problem that exists online. As a result, online communities have developed their own distinct history of control and regulation. This article explores the ways that online social spaces maintain orderly `communities'. It contrasts `proximal' (online) forms of governing online behaviour, such as online reputation management systems, `virtual' police services and vigilante groups that employ `online shaming', with `distal' (offline) forms such as offline policing and criminal justice processes. The central theme of the article is a critical account of how these, often contradicting, nodes of governance interact.
 
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The 2006 Co-ordinated Prostitution Strategy recommended local ‘needs’-based responses to target street sex work, and to this end consultation with members of the wider community – an approach that has also been more recently recommended by the current Coalition government in 2011. This article draws on empirical data collated over two years in the city of Cardiff, Wales. It focuses on Partnerships and Communities Together (PACT) meetings as a primary pathway for police/public consultation, and highlights how despite a lack of community representation at PACT, street sex work can become a community priority to be addressed with a punitive response. However, a public opinion survey carried out with 205 Cardiff residents suggests the wider community are more tolerant and very concerned about the safety of street workers. In conclusion we suggest that PACT priorities can misinterpret and misrepresent the views and opinions of the community.
 
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Rural villages are often portrayed as problem-free, idyllic environments characterized by neighbourliness and cultural homogeneity. Drawing upon the growing body of research into issues of rural racism, this article challenges these prevailing notions by highlighting some of the problems associated with the increasing ethnic diversity of rural populations. The article begins by addressing the symbolic importance given to the English countryside by many of its white inhabitants, and assesses how this is related to romanticized feelings of national identity, `localism' and narrow invocations of village `communities'. It is argued that village space is not neutral but is instead racialized and contested, and that it is feelings of insecurity among white rural populations, exacerbated by the presence of a markedly different `other', that results in the marginalization of minority ethnic groups from mainstream community activities. It is also suggested that these groups are often subjected to racist victimization, which can go unrecognized by local agencies. This clearly has implications for policing diversity in the rural, and the article explores ways in which the public police (and other rural agencies) could begin to develop a more nuanced understanding of the diversification of rural space and the `othering' of outsider populations.
 
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It is difficult to ignore the growing salience of the new governance of crime and disorder in many late modern societies. To date there has been limited empirical exploration of the practices and experiences of these new local actors and institutions. This article aims to correct this neglect in the criminological literature by its exploration of the knowledge and skills base and habitus of one of the new partnership experts, the community safety manager (CSM). In particular, the article involves an engagement with recent research findings from Britain together with the more abstract conceptual tools opened up by current debates in critical social and political theory. It begins with a brief history of the community safety occupation during which the key features of the ‘profession’ are explored. Next, the thesis of a hegemonic risk management governmental logic in the field of community safety is critically examined. By exploring specific sites and contexts of community safety ‘work’, doubt is cast on totalizing narratives of neo-liberal transformation currently popular in criminology and sociology. Finally, the possible futures of community safety and crime and disorder reduction when viewed from the contemporary experiences of CSMs are considered.
 
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'Community' continues to be at the heart of political and policy discourses surrounding policing, security and community safety. While recognizing that there are powerful retrogressive and repressive elements to such contemporary debates, it is argued here that this is an unstable and contestable policy terrain and that there are opportunities to develop notions of community that offer more progressive possibilities. This article examines policy developments relating to Neighbourhood Policing and Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships in Britain to explore these issues. The latter developments emphasize that community engagement and co-production are centrally important. However, it is clear that there are dangers that already identified tensions will persist. The need to meet performance targets will continue to detract from community-oriented work, unless the two coincide. Additionally cultural and institutional factors are likely to prove inimical to efforts to respond effectively to community needs. None of this ought to be taken as an argument in favour of jettisoning the idea of community, but it does mean that the participation of publics needs to be couched in broad, inclusive and often conflictual terms and understood that such efforts offer only limited guarantees in terms of establishing progressive agendas for community safety and neighbourhood policing.
 
Article
‘Justice in the Community’ in The Netherlands promotes the cooperation between criminal justice and other organizations. It increases the visibility of the Public Prosecution to other partners and has an important symbolic function for citizens in multi-problem urban areas, which the state has not left alone with their problems. The scheme also promotes the use of more integrated and extra-judicial reactions to crime and, by using a range of mediation methods, more attention is paid to the position of victims of crime. ‘Justice in the Community’ creates more rapid interventions and settlements of criminal cases. However, there is no evidence that ‘Justice in the Community’ results in a higher levels of ‘objective and subjective safety’ in the neighbourhoods concerned. Some fundamental issues with regard to ‘Justice in the Community’ are discussed, for example, the blurring of boundaries between organizations and their responsibilities, the legitimation of the exchange of information between the participating organizations and the question to what extent the introduction of ‘Justice in the Community’ should be understood as the symptom of a process of juridification.
 
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This paper considers the rise of third sector agencies as key criminal justice providers within the context of the marketization of probation and other crime management responses. We posit that the ‘rehabilitation revolution’ has significant implications for the voluntary and community sector in particular and criminal justice provision in general. Pointing towards incremental colonization of the third sector by criminal justice concerns, we trace the creeping discourse of economic risk, exemplified by the commodification of provision, increased contractualization of services and the application of cost–benefit measures. We argue that government policy is being driven by a behavioural economics of risk that attempts to ‘nudge’ the sector in discrete directions through the use of incentivization, market competition and steers toward entrepreneurship. In such a context, the position of marginal groups with high needs but potentially poorer outcomes may be perilous, consigning high risk and ‘at-risk’ groups to further exclusion.
 
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
 
Top-cited authors
Peter Traynor
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
Phil Hadfield
  • www.philhadfield.co.uk
Stuart Lister
  • University of Leeds
G. Abel
  • University of Otago
Heather Douglas
  • University of Melbourne