Criminal Justice and Behavior

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 0093-8548
Results of a Simple Slope Analysis Showing the Relationship (R 2 ) of Childhood Physical Abuse Scores to Self-Reported IPV Perpetration at Low, Medium, and High Levels of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Lifestyle Facet 
Intercorrelations Among Primary Study Variables 
Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with higher levels of impulsive-irresponsible (i.e., Lifestyle) traits of psychopathy, childhood physical abuse was associated with later perpetration of IPV. Findings have implications for the propensity toward IPV perpetration among individuals who have experienced childhood physical abuse.
This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors.
Sample Mean and Select Individual Growth-Curve Trajectories for Interpersonal Callousness Across Adolescence 
Latent IC Trajectories Across Adolescence Predicting AP and Internalizing Problems in Young Adulthood 
Final Model Predicting IC Trajectories With the Intercept Centered at Time 1 (Top) and Then Recentered at Time 7 (Bottom) 
The current study examined the relation between interpersonal callousness trajectories during adolescence (ages 14 to 18) and characteristics of antisocial personality and internalizing problems in young adulthood (age 26), using a community sample of 506 boys. The influence of several parent and peer factors on callousness trajectories during adolescence was also explored. Although the mean interpersonal callousness trajectory for the entire sample was relatively flat, there was substantial individual variability in both the initial status and rate of change of interpersonal callousness over time. Trajectories of interpersonal callousness were associated with higher levels of antisocial personality features in early adulthood but were unrelated to adult internalizing problems. Conduct problems and parent-child communication difficulties were the best predictors of elevated levels of interpersonal callousness throughout adolescence. However, none of the parenting and peer factors examined predicted substantive changes in interpersonal callousness over time.
Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants' ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed.
This study examines moderators of the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale and psychopathy assessed at age 24 using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Data from more than 250 participants of the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used. Thirteen potential moderators were examined, including demographics (i.e., race, family structure, family socioeconomic status [SES], and neighborhood SES), parenting factors (physical punishment, inconsistent discipline, lax supervision, and positive parenting), peer delinquency, own delinquency, and other individual differences (i.e., verbal IQ, behavioral impulsivity, and cognitive impulsivity). Moderators were examined for the total psychopathy score at age 24 as well as for each of the four PCL:SV facets. After relaxing the criterion for statistical significance, 8 out of a possible 65 interactions were statistically significant. Implications of the present findings and future directions are discussed.
Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.
There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed.
The use of screening and assessment tools to gauge substance abuse disorders and the risk for recidivism are two widely recommended practices. A national survey of adult prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies was conducted to examine the practices used to place offenders in appropriate treatment services. Study findings indicate that 58.2% of the surveyed respondents report the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool, and that 34.2% use an actuarial risk tool. The provision of higher intensity treatment programs, the use of standardized risk tools, and the provision of more community referral services were all independently associated with the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool. Because practices vary considerably, agencies desiring to improve correctional programming should consider different dissemination, implementation, and technology transfer strategies.
There is evidence that the classification of "psychopath" captures a heterogeneous group of offenders. Although several studies have provided evidence for two distinct psychopath subtypes, these studies have inadequately addressed potentially important ethnic differences. A recent taxonomic study found evidence for primary and secondary psychopath subgroups in a sample of European American offenders (Swogger & Kosson, 2007). The present study used cluster analysis to attempt to replicate those findings in a sample of African American offenders. Results confirm the presence of primary and secondary subtypes in African Americans. However, differences between the clusters obtained in the present and previous studies suggest that caution is warranted in generalizing offender taxonomies across ethnicity.
This study of 550 jail inmates (379 male and 171 female) held on felony charges examines the reliability and validity of the Test of Self Conscious Affect -Socially Deviant Version (TOSCA-SD; Hanson & Tangney, 1996) as a measure of offenders' proneness to shame and proneness to guilt. Discriminant validity (e.g., vis-à-vis self-esteem, negative affect, social desirability/impression management) and convergent validity (e.g., vis-à-vis correlations with empathy, externalization of blame, anger, psychological symptoms, and substance use problems) was supported, paralleling results from community samples. Further, proneness to shame and guilt were differentially related to widely used risk measures from the field of criminal justice (e.g., criminal history, psychopathy, violence risk, antisocial personality). Guilt-proneness appears to be a protective factor, whereas there was no evidence that shame-proneness serves an inhibitory function. Subsequent analyses indicate these findings generalize quite well across gender and race. Implications for intervention and sentencing practices are discussed.
Final structural path model 
This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and problem behaviors were examined using structural equation modeling. Monitoring was negatively related to all problem behaviors. However, type of maltreatment was related to specific problem behaviors. The effects of family substance abuse and family criminal involvement on outcomes were mediated by monitoring and maltreatment. The study underscores the need to provide family-focused and trauma-related interventions for juvenile offenders.
Relation of Criminogenic Cognitions to Criminal Justice Variables, Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms, and Psychopathy 
Relation of Criminogenic Cognitions to Aggression, Violence Risk, Violence Potential, and Domestic Violence 
Relation of Criminogenic Cognitions to Moral Emotions, Self-Esteem, Self-Control, and Community Connectedness 
Criminogenic Cognitions Upon Incarceration Predicting Subsequent Jail Behavior 
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Criminogenic Cognitions 
Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed.
Follow-Up Logistic Regression Models of Offending and Engagement 
This study examined the community reentry process among 413 serious adolescent offenders released from juvenile court commitments in two metropolitan areas. Data are provided about postrelease court supervision and community-based services (CBSs) during the first 6 months in the community as well as indicators of antisocial activity, formal system involvement, school attendance, and employment. Findings indicate that a far greater proportion of offenders reported receiving supervision than CBSs, but when utilized, the frequency of CBS use was high, and intensive services reduced the odds of formal system involvement. In addition, court supervision increased the likelihood of positive adjustment during community reentry. These results held after controlling for social context variables, including peer deviance, parental monitoring, and contact with caring adults.
Three standardized screening instruments-the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GSS), the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Modified (MINI-M), and the Mental Health Screening Form (MHSF)-were compared to two shorter instruments, the 6-item Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument for Mental Disorders (CODSI-MD) and the 3-item CODSI for Severe Mental Disorders (CODSI-SMD) for use with offenders in prison substance-abuse treatment programs. Results showed that the CODSI screening instruments were comparable to the longer instruments in overall accuracy and that all of the instruments performed reasonably well. The CODSI instruments showed sufficient value to justify their use in prison substance-abuse treatment programs and to warrant validation testing in other criminal justice populations and settings.
Sociodemographic Characteristics by Study Group 
Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-risk youth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-risk youth.
This article examines some extra-research variables inherent in conducting community-based research with child molesters and other sex offenders. These include such issues as informed consent with court-referred participants, confidentiality when interagency collaboration is necessary, and duty to take proper care. Methods for establishing the scientific credibility of the project, responding to client grievances, dealing with client crises, and protecting staff and the surrounding community also are addressed. Adopting procedures similar to those described here could be an important step in ensuring the viability of other socially sensitive research projects.
Graduation rates in drug courts average 50% to 70%, but it is unclear what proportion of graduates responded to the drug court services and what proportion might not have had serious drug problems upon entry. This study cluster-analyzed urine drug screen results during the first 14 weeks of treatment on 284 participants from three misdemeanor drug courts. A four-cluster solution (R(2) > .75) produced distinct subgroups characterized by (1) consistently drug-negative urine specimens (34% of the sample), (2) consistently drug-positive specimens (21%), (3) consistently missed urine specimens (26%), and (4) urine specimens that began as drug-positive but became progressively drug-negative over time (19%). These data suggest that approximately one-third of the participants might not have had serious drug problems upon entry. Approximately one-fifth appeared to respond to drug court services, and nearly one-half continued to exhibit problems after 14 weeks. Implications for adaptive programming in drug courts are discussed.
Psychopathy is an important construct in offender classification. Although several studies have suggested that there are two distinct subtypes of psychopaths, these studies have considerable limitations, including reliance on self-report measures, a failure to adequately address heterogeneity within the construct of psychopathy, and predictor-criterion contamination. A recent taxonomic study identified four subgroups of offenders, including primary and secondary psychopaths. We used cluster analysis to replicate and extend those findings to: 1) an independent sample; and 2) a PCL-R factor model that reduces predictor-criterion contamination. Additionally, we validated initial results using a novel clustering method. Results show that psychopathy subtypes are replicable across methods. Moreover, comparisons on other variables provide external validation of the subtypes consistent with prior theoretical conceptualizations.
Mean PCL-C Total Scores at Test and Retest by Modality Assignment Note. PCL-C = Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; CAI = computeradministered interviewing; OAI = orally administered interviewing. 
ROC Curve for the CAI-PCL-C to the CAPS Diagnosis of PTSD Note. ROC = receiver operating characteristics; CAI = computer-administered interviewing; PCL-C = Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; CAPS = ClinicianAdministered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder. 
ROC Curve for the OAI-PCL-C to the CAPS Diagnosis of PTSD Note. ROC = receiver operating characteristics; OAI = orally administered interviewing; PCL-C = Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; CAPS = ClinicianAdministered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder. 
Trauma exposure is overrepresented in incarcerated male populations and is linked to psychiatric morbidity, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered interviewing (CAI) versus orally administered interviewing (OAI) to screen for PTSD among incarcerated men. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 592 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared with OAI, CAI produced equally reliable screening information on PTSD symptoms, with test-retest intraclass correlations for the PTSD Checklist (PCL) total score ranging from .774 to .817, and the Clinician-Administered PTSD scale and PCL scores were significantly correlated for OAI and CAI. These findings indicate that data on PTSD symptoms can be reliably and validly obtained from CAI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for PTSD, and those at risk can be identified for treatment.
Principal Components Analysis for Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors 
Intercorrelations Among Study Variables 
Several clinical descriptions of psychopathy suggest a link to risk taking; however the empirical basis for this association is not well established. Moreover, it is not clear whether any association between psychopathy and risk taking is specific to psychopathy or reflects shared variance with other externalizing disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder, alcohol use disorders, and drug use disorders. In the present study we aimed to clarify relationships between psychopathy and risky behavior among male county jail inmates using both self-reports of real-world risky behaviors and performance on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a behavioral measure of risk taking. Findings suggest that associations between externalizing disorders and self-reported risk taking largely reflect shared mechanisms. However, psychopathy appears to account for unique variance in self-reported irresponsible and criminal risk taking beyond that associated with other externalizing disorders. By contrast, none of the disorders were associated with risk taking behavior on the BART, potentially indicating limited clinical utility for the BART in differentiating members of adult offender populations.
Researchers interested in longitudinal patterns of criminal offending have paid close attention to several dimensions of criminal careers. Although it might be expected that several dimensions are strongly linked to one another, research has not explored their joint distribution. The study uses trajectory-based methodology to examine the joint relation between offending variety and offending frequency in a large sample of serious offenders from adolescence to early adulthood and also tests how several risk factors relate to the joint covariation between variety and frequency. Results indicate strong concordance between low and high rate variety and frequency trajectories but a more modest concordance among moderate rate variety and frequency trajectories. Criminal history, individual, parent, and peer characteristics predict differences in concordance between variety and frequency trajectories. Theoretical implications and directions for further research are outlined.
This study examined benefits of methadone maintenance among prerelease prison inmates. Incarcerated males with preincarceration heroin dependence (n = 197) were randomly assigned to (a) group educational counseling (counseling only); (b) counseling, with opportunity to begin methadone maintenance on release (counseling + transfer); or (c) counseling and methadone maintenance in prison, with opportunity to continue methadone maintenance on release (counseling + methadone). At 90-day follow-up, counseling + methadone participants were significantly more likely than counseling-only and counseling + transfer participants to attend drug treatment (p = .0001) and less likely to be reincarcerated (p = .019). Counseling + methadone and counseling + transfer participants were significantly less likely (all ps < .05) to report heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal involvement than counseling-only participants. Follow-up is needed to determine whether these findings hold over a longer period.
Thirty-seven inmates who had previously volunteered for phase I drug testing and 33 who had not were interviewed by a psychologist to obtain demographic and motivational data. Each inmate completed a standard psychopathology inventory (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), the Similarities and Picture Arrangement subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, a test of normal personality variables (the Edwards Personality Scale), and Christie's Machiavellianism Scale. The data supported the conclusions that (1) inmates are in general free enough from psychopathology to be able to make rational choices about participating in medical research as long as preliminary screening for individuals with severely disordered thinking is carried out, (2) verbal communication skills of inmates appear to be well enough developed to allow them to give an informed consent, (3) while there are personality differences between volunteers and nonvolunteers, these appear to relate most directly to the fact that, without screening, impulsive, manipulative individuals with disordered thought processes are over-represented among volunteers for medical research.
Replies to P. Pollard's (see record 1995-29668-001) critique of R. Bachman's (see record 1994-02217-001) study of the effect of rape reforms on rape reporting. Issues regarding the validity and interpretation of Bachman's National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data are discussed. Bachman concludes that while the NCVS data clearly reveal a change in rape reporting behavior, the extent to which the victim–offender relationship affects reporting behavior must continue to be investigated with other data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the effectiveness of a program that emphasized teaching the participants behaviors characteristic of persons with high achievement motivation. A control group received the same 24-hr series of films, discussions, and games but without emphasizing the achievement element. Ss were 42 residents of a women's reformatory. The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), the Work Performance Report (WPR), and the Mehrabian Achievement Scale for Women (MASW) were used as pre- and posttest evaluation measures. No significant differences in pre- to posttest scores on any of the 3 measures were found in either of the 2 groups, although there was a significant difference between posttest EPPS Achievement Scale scores of the 2 groups. The hypothesis that EPPS and MASW scores would be significantly correlated was not supported. Performance of experimental Ss increased after training as assessed by WPR posttest scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Miller-Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was developed to provide clinicians with a reliable and valid screen for malingered mental illness. Previous studies have demonstrated the development and initial validation of the M-FAST. The current analyses extend the M-FAST generalizability across literacy status and race and compare predictive utility with clinical opinion. Study 1 includes a sample of 280 forensic male psychiatric patients, 5 psychiatrists, and 8 psychologists. The psychiatric participants were administered the SIRS, M-FAST item pool, M Test, and MMPI-2. Study 2 includes an independent sample of 50 male forensic psychiatric participants and the 13 mental health professionals. Results provide evidence of generalizability of the M-FAST across literacy and racial groups. Results also indicate that the M-FAST produced higher classification accuracy than the M Test and clinical opinion, significantly reducing the number of false negatives at the screening stage of malingering assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Background Characteristics of Intent-to-Treat and No-Treatment Control Groups
Outcomes at 24 Months: Reincarceration (N=263)
Days Until Reincarceration at 12 and 24 Months Post Release
This article is drawn from an ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the Amity prison therapeutic community (TC) and aftercare program for substance abusers located in San Diego, California. Data collection consisted of face-to-face interviews and reviews of criminal justice records on a sample of 715 male inmates. Ss were randomly assigned to the prison TC intent-to-treat group and no-treatment control group from a waiting list of inmates who had volunteered for substance abuse treatment in the Amity program. Reductions in reincarceration rates of more than 40% at 12 mo and more than 50% at 24 mo after release from prison were found for the group that completed prison TC plus aftercare. These improvements remained significant after controlling for client characteristics that have been identified as predictors of recidivism. The findings support the efficacy of prison TC plus aftercare in reducing reincarceration rates among inmates treated for substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Recent research has demonstrated that antisocial attitudes and antisocial associates are among the better predictors of antisocial behavior. This study tests the predictive validity of the Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA) in a sample of adult male offenders. The MCAA comprises two parts: Part A is a quantified self-report measure of criminal friends, and Part B contains four attitude scales: Violence, Entitlement, Antisocial Intent, and Associates. The MCAA scales showed predictive validity for the outcomes of general and violent recidivism. In addition, the MCAA significantly improved the prediction of violent recidivism over an actuarial risk assessment instrument alone. Discussion centers on the contribution that antisocial attitudes and associates make to risk assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews 4 principles of classification for rehabilitation: risk, need, responsivity, and professional override in the context of basic research and theory in the psychology of criminal conduct. Risk, need, and responsivity considerations in the psychology of criminal conduct may better reflect knowledge and opinion regarding discretionary services for purposes of rehabilitation than does the discounting of knowledge so characteristic of major portions of mainstream criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the offender classification system developed by E. I. Megargee and M. J. Bohn (1979), which is based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) typology, and a level of supervision inventory (LSI) to determine their relative efficacy in identifying 134 male incarcerated offenders (aged 16–57 yrs) from a maximum-security setting. Classifications by the 2 systems were compared with respect to incremental validity and predictive accuracy for (1) halfway house outcome (HHO) and (2) postprogram incarceration. Analyses revealed no significant differences with respect to HHO and reincarceration between low- and high-risk Ss as classified by the MMPI. Significant differences were found between low- and high-risk Ss classified by the LSI system. Additional analyses revealed that only a small proportion of the variance in HHO could be accounted for by the Megargee MMPI-based system when delineating "predator" and "nonpredator" offender types. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A sample of 40 female and 40 male inmates at a Federal correctional institution in the southwestern US were examined at the beginning of their prison confinement and 4 mo later for their reactions to incarceration. The questionnaire asked Ss to provide demographic data, evaluate their surroundings, and describe their coping mechanisms. Results show that evaluative reactions of males and females to the prison became more negative over the 4-mo period and blood pressure dropped. Measures of housing evaluation, problems with the prison environment, and coping styles did not change. The study supports the 2-component model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Confession evidence is powerful but flawed, often in nonintuitive ways. Contradicting widely held beliefs, research reviewed in this article suggests the following: Despite special training in how to conduct interviews, police cannot distinguish better than the layperson whether suspects are lying or telling the truth. Suspects in custody routinely waive their self-protective rights to silence and to counsel--especially if they are innocent. Certain legal but deceptive interrogation tactics increase the risk that innocents will confess to crimes they did not commit. Judges and juries are easily fooled, unable to distinguish between true and false confessions. Appellate courts cannot be expected to reasonably determine whether the error of admitting a coerced confession at trial was harmless or prejudicial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Notes that during the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on correctional agencies to attract and keep quality staff. Raising worker job satisfaction is seen as a fundamental way of decreasing turnover. There has been a considerable amount of research in the area of the possible causes of correctional staff job satisfaction and, to a lesser extent, the possible consequences of job satisfaction. However, due to the numerous studies, some with conflicting results, it is difficult to understand clearly the factors associated with job satisfaction. A review of the literature is presented to provide a better understanding of correctional staff job satisfaction. Based on this review, correctional administrators are urged to concentrate more on improving the work environment rather than focusing on correctional staff characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reports on 3 specialized Swedish prisons, an educational facility, a therapeutic community, and a "prison factor"; assesses the social and political context in which these prisons developed; and provides some contrasts with the California and Swedish correctional systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted, over a 3-yr period, a comparison of individual-level data on 379 cases involving 181 mentally disordered defendants with aggregate data on criminal sanctions for all defendants in a single jurisdiction. Findings indicate that compared with the general population of defendants, mentally disordered defendants received more severe criminal sanctions and were often subjected to both punishment and mental health treatment ordered on the authority of the criminal court. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses parallels between Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon (1941) and E. Kübler-Ross's (1969) stages of death. It is suggested that Kübler-Ross's model applies to more than just death from illness, since the same defense mechanisms may be necessary for coping with death due to sources outside the individual's control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A criminal complainant's decision to prosecute has long been recognized as an important aspect of criminal justice case processing. Much of the literature regards this decision as a simple expression of a victim's volition. On the basis of interviews with detectives, prosecutors, and a victims' advocate and quantitative analyses (based on a sample of police files), it was concluded that police officers have a substantial influence on a complainant's decision to prosecute. The study also assessed evidence for three explanations for officials influencing complainants' decisions: feminist conflict theory, Black's “behavior of law” hypotheses, and the need to efficiently allocate scarce resources. It was found that the need to efficiently allocate resources best explained the data.
Examines the validity of polygraphy from the perspective of psychophysiology, which employs physiological measures to study and differentiate psychological processes. The focus is on the version practiced currently by most members of the American Polygraph Association, the "control question technique" (CQT). A brief consideration of some critical terms is followed by a description of CQT polygraphy, and then by a review of the literature. It is concluded that as a scientific tool, CQT polygraphy is of questionable validity, although it is probably a better-than-chance detector of guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Differences on the MMPI for a total of 64 elopers and 30 non-elopers from a mentally ill offender population were analyzed and a sign approach was developed. Using 4 signs with unitary weights, correct prediction of elopement was made for 67 and 62% of the 2 samples of elopers and incorrectly predicted elopement for 23% of controls. If a prediction of elopement is made, it is correct 85% of the time. Implications of MMPI differences for the psychological status of elopers are described. The utility of such prediction and cautions in terms of the patient's right to a least restrictive alternative are discussed. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Because the term stalking has been applied to such a diverse range of behaviors, individuals, and situations, it has proven quite difficult to define and understand. As legislative efforts to criminalize stalking have proliferated throughout the United States and other developed countries, these definitional and conceptual problems have resulted in gaps and ambiguities in both the language and enforcement of these laws. Attempts to develop effective legal and clinical interventions, as well as provide services for stalking victims, have been hindered by the confusion regarding who engages in stalking and why this behavior occurs. Empirical research on stalking has also suffered from the lack of a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon as researchers rely on varying definitions, ad hoc measurement instruments, and different conceptualizations, thus hindering systematic growth in our knowledge of the topic. This special issue was designed to showcase emerging lines of inquiry that hold promise for providing a solid base of empiricism to support legal and clinical stalking interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the case records of 501 sex offenders. In addition, a subgroup of 109 sex offenders were evaluated to determine the relationship of various personality characteristics to the types of offenses committed. Ss were grouped according to whether the law classified them under the criminal code (CC; i.e., when the court determined that no specialized treatment was needed) or as "sexually deviated" (SD; i.e., when the court found the offense to be a product of sexual psychopathology and recommended psychiatric treatment). Compared with CCs, SDs in general showed histories of long-term personality disturbances and significant difficulties in many areas of interpersonal functioning; they appeared to be more interested in evoking a positive response from their victims rather than gaining sexual gratification. CCs tended to be more aggressive toward their victims than SDs and were less interested in their victims' responses toward them. Suggestions for treatment of sex offenders are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study sought to determine whether self-harm incidents classified as manipulative would also be classified as low suicidal intent and low risk to life. Seventy-four prisoners (aged 18–55 yrs) who had self-harmed were interviewed within 3 days of the incident. Measures were obtained of the degree of suicidal intent (Suicide Intent Scale), the degree to which the incident posed a risk to life (assessed by medical staff), and the principal motive for self-harming (open-ended question). The data did not support the notion that manipulators and suicide attempters are mutually exclusive groups, Only 6 of the 18 participants who reported manipulative motives displayed low suicidal intent, and 3 of the 18 enacted self-harm that posed at least a moderate risk to life. Prison staff cannot assume that prisoners who appear manipulative or report manipulative motives were not suicidal at the time of self-harming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Data collected from the case records of 67 self-mutilating prisoners (mean age 30 yrs; 47 were White) and a random sample of 68 prisoners (mean age 31 yrs; 23 were White) were utilized to compare the 2 groups on 15 variables. Three-quarters of the incidents took place in isolation cells or prison psychiatric units and were the result of self-inflicted cuts. Discriminant analysis indicated that self-mutilators were more likely to be White, have wrist or forearm scars on admission, and have attempted suicide while in prison. However, scars were much more predictive among Whites than among Blacks. Mutilators were also convicted of more felonies, had more severe disciplinary actions taken against them in prison, and had been charged with more assaults while incarcerated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Changes in the population of female prisoners at a local reformatory over a 20-year period were investigated by comparing demographic, educational, and personality characteristics of women admitted to the reformatory in 1960, 1970, and 1980. Although the data suggested an increase in more violent crimes over time, comparable differences on other variables were largely absent. Women admitted to the reformatory in 1980 did not differ from women admitted in 1960 in age, educational level, mental ability, or MMPI scores. Women admitted in 1970 did obtain higher achievement scores, but it was concluded that the characteristics of this prison population had remained relatively stable, thus increasing confidence in the relevance and usefulness of earlier research in developing a model of female criminality.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the juvenile justice intervention literature for the statistical consideration given the impact that age, as a marker of neuropsychosocial development, may have on delinquency outcomes. A systematic review of 117 studies published between 1996 and 2009 was conducted to assess the methods by which curvilinear and moderating effects of age were included in the analysis of delinquency outcomes. Ninety-one percent of studies may have underestimated intervention effects through the misspecification of the effect of age on delinquency outcomes. Of the 10 studies that did test for curvilinear and interaction effects, 80% had findings consistent with neuropsychosocial theories of age on delinquency. To account for age effects on delinquency, the regular use of multiple age groups in analysis may increase both the precision with which intervention effects are measured and the identification of specific age groups with whom individual interventions are most effective.
Clinicians are often asked to assess the likelihood that an adolescent who has committed a sexual offense will reoffend. However, there is limited research on the predictive validity of available assessment tools. To help address this gap, this study examined the ability of the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR), the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), and the Static-99 to predict reoffending in a sample of 193 adolescents. Youth were followed for an average of 7.24 years after discharge from a residential sex offender treatment program. Although none of the instruments significantly predicted detected cases of sexual reoffending, ERASOR’s structured professional judgments nearly reached significance (p = .069). Both the YLS/CMI and the PCL:YV predicted nonsexual violence, any violence, and any offending; however, the YLS/CMI demonstrated incremental validity over the PCL:YV. Although the Static-99 has considerable support with adult sex offenders, it did not predict sexual or general reoffending in the present sample of adolescents.
Logistic Regression Model Predicting Absconding Within the Construction Sample (n 525) 
Absconding refers to the active or passive avoidance of contact with correctional supervisory agencies by offenders. Absconders are problematic because their whereabouts are unknown and their threat to the public is elevated. The aim of this study was to construct and validate an actuarial instrument designed to assess risk for absconding among juvenile parolees that accounts for gendered differences. The data were gathered from 1,063 juveniles released from the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections into community settings in 2008 and 2009. Juveniles were randomly subdivided into construction and validation samples to assess the validity of the instrument. Twelve risk factors were identified to construct the instrument, three of which were found to operate differently for male and female juveniles. Upon application to the validation sample, the instrument correctly classified 70% of juvenile parolees, and a corresponding r value of .37 was observed. The author discusses the substantive and practical implications for assessing absconding risk and modeling gender differences when supervising offenders in community settings.
Delineation of the biological substrates of violence in substance abusers would be valuable in developing therapeutic interventions for substance abusers who tend to be refractory to conventional treatments. Substance abusers with chronically violent behavior show more severity and poorer prognosis of their substance abuse disorder and more criminal activity. Violence may share many of the same underlying mechanisms as substance abuse, given the comorbidity and commonalities in behavioral dimensions, including childhood and personality disorders with biological underpinnings. Neuropsychological dysfunction consistently characterizes both drug abuse and violence and may contribute to traits often cited as precursors to both, for example, impulsivity, poor decision-making ability, disinhibition, and inability to assess consequences. Deficits in executive cognitive functioning subserved specifically by the prefrontal cortex are implicated in substance abusers with violent behavior.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether offenders’ history of hard drug use and hard drug use at the time of the crime affect case outcomes for offenders in three federal district courts. We focus on three outcomes—whether the offender was in pretrial detention prior to adjudication, whether the offender received a downward departure for providing substantial assistance, and the length of the sentence imposed on offenders who were sentenced to prison—and we hypothesize that the offender’s history of drug use and drug use at the time of the crime will have varying effects on the three outcomes. Our results reveal that use of illegal drugs had multifaceted, but not illogical, effects.
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James Bonta
Vernon L Quinsey
  • Queen's University
J. Stephen Wormith
  • University of Saskatchewan
R. Karl Hanson
  • Carleton University
Robert Hare
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver