Crime Law and Social Change

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Online ISSN: 1573-0751
Print ISSN: 0925-4994
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Major food fraud scandals of the last decade have created awareness of the need to strengthen companies’ ability to combat fraud within their own organizations and across their supply chains. The scandals compelled food companies and the food industry as a whole to take action and to protect companies and industries against the threat of food fraud. Stakeholders expect food companies to act proactively to mitigate food fraud risks. Certification schemes expect food producers to consider food fraud and to undertake food fraud vulnerability assessments and prepare control plans to mitigate fraud risks. This paper examines how vulnerability for food fraud on company level and supply chain level can be assessed using criminological theory. First, the paper discusses how such theory can be applied for assessing motivations and opportunities for internal and external actors to commit food fraud and assessing existing control measures to mitigate these vulnerabilities. Second, the paper discusses the SSAFE-tool in which these elements have been used in a survey for assessing food fraud vulnerability of companies in food supply chains. Third, the paper evaluates the results of the application of the SSAFE-tool to several food supply chain and tiers, including milk, spices, extra olive oil, organic foods and the food service industry.
 
The article exposes and analyzes the potentialities and limits of the activities of public defenders who work in Brazilian criminal sentence enforcement courts. It is the result of a work of systematization of different research experiences carried out in recent years: an ethnographic research with the Public Defender's Office of São Paulo and a documentary research on criminal sentence enforcement proceedings in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After making some general considerations about the role of public legal assistance in the Brazilian criminal justice system, the article explores the role of public defenders in some key moments of a sentence enforcement process: in the elaboration of a request of benefit; in the inspection of procedural records; in the monitoring of the processing time of the court; and, finally, in the defense at administrative processes of disciplinary infractions. In all those situations it is possible to perceive the aporetic or paradoxical character of the public defenders’ operations. On the one hand, their intervention in sentence enforcement proceedings appears to be absolutely essential, triggering the rights and benefits that make the prison population flow through the prisons in Brazil. On the other hand, public defenders appear as agents that are absolutely powerless, if not entirely useless, because they are incapable of making the justice system observe, in due course, the most ordinary subjective rights of a convict.
 
Number of P2P firms yearly (Source: WDZJ)
P2P-lending-related criminal charges by year (Top 10) (Source: PKU Law). Case data were retrieved using the key terms “P2P” and “Online Lending” with case type “Criminal Case” from PKU Law
White-collar criminality continues to be a significant issue in countries with differing levels of economic development. This paper provides a comparative analysis of white-collar crime and crises through an examination of the recent peer-to-peer (P2P) online lending crash in China. It considers criminological findings from major United States crises in light of China’s P2P online lending market failure through the lens of white-collar crime theory and research. The findings show that fraud was a main contributor to the P2P online lending crash and that various structural factors facilitated financial crimes that caused the collapse of the P2P online lending market. This study indicates that, similar to the U.S. experience, crime-facilitative environments allowed for endemic fraud in China’s online lending industry. It suggests that a primarily reactive approach to financial crime is less effective than a proactive system of compliance that includes more comprehensive and transparent financial regulation and law enforcement.
 
Enforcement measures for intellectual property rights (IPR) are essential to the harmonisation of the international system and can be achieved by unifying national legal frameworks and minimum standards of protection. The Member States party to international intellectual property (IP) agreements and conventions must abide by the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, to achieve more relatable national enforcement procedures. This article examines the national legislatures of Jordan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) regarding civil/commercial litigation procedures, and their relation to a criminal law enforcement approach to IP enforcement. In particular, this work considers whether this approach achieves its goal of protecting IPRs and providing legal and economic stability within the IP system. Thus, the application of criminal enforcement measures by courts was examined to understand both the need for criminalisation and whether there may be a negative impact on IPR infringement deterrence, should the courts fail to implement criminal measures. The examination shows that imprisonment as a means of criminal enforcement for IPR infringements is not the preferred method of deterrence in the legal systems of the UAE and Jordan, as the courts impose fines instead. In addition, civil/ commercial litigation is more effective in the legal systems under scrutiny due to non-effective criminal procedures and a lack of social awareness concerning the value of criminal enforcement of IPR infringements.
 
Enforcement measures for intellectual property rights (IPR) are essential to the harmonisation of the international system and can be achieved by unifying national legal frameworks and minimum standards of protection. The Member States party to international intellectual property (IP) agreements and conventions must abide by the World Trade Organisation’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, to achieve more relatable national enforcement procedures. This article examines the national legislatures of Jordan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) regarding civil/commercial litigation procedures, and their relation to a criminal law enforcement approach to IP enforcement. In particular, this work considers whether this approach achieves its goal of protecting IPRs and providing legal and economic stability within the IP system. Thus, the application of criminal enforcement measures by courts was examined to understand both the need for criminalisation and whether there may be a negative impact on IPR infringement deterrence, should the courts fail to implement criminal measures. The examination shows that imprisonment as a means of criminal enforcement for IPR infringements is not the preferred method of deterrence in the legal systems of the UAE and Jordan, as the courts impose fines instead. In addition, civil/ commercial litigation is more effective in the legal systems under scrutiny due to non-effective criminal procedures and a lack of social awareness concerning the value of criminal enforcement of IPR infringements.
 
Maps of FHTM spread throughout United States
Group based trajectory model of county quarterly pyramid scheme uptake
Group membership geographically located. Note: Counties displayed as ‘No Data’ are missing countylevel, quarterly unemployment data for at least one quarter, resulting in their removal from the model
Community-level vulnerability to pyramid scheme fraud may be affected by place-based sources of strain and opportunity. Using national victim data from a pyramid scheme fraud case from 2000–2013, this research explores pyramid scheme adoption with group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). GBTM is used to look for distinct trajectories of pyramid scheme join rates and to explore the effect of strain, as measured by a county’s Social Vulnerability Index and unemployment rate, and opportunity or protection, as measured by a series of social capital variables, on the group trajectories. Findings suggest that county-level strain, including the county’s Social Vulnerability Index and unemployment rate are related to pyramid scheme victimization, especially early adoption. We also find that social capital variables – which can, in theory, reduce strain or increase opportunity – have a nuanced relationship with fraud victimization. While our findings are drawn from a single pyramid scheme, they point to the potential to analyze case data to inform preventative and monitoring strategies appropriate to local-level characteristics.
 
Channels through Which Corruption Affects Performance
While some studies argue that a low level of corruption in the public sector is positively associated with a high level of firm performance, few studies investigate the impact of corruption on public organizations’ performance. Does corruption decrease performance in government agencies? Using the integrity assessment dataset and the government performance evaluation dataset, this study investigates 42 central public organizations in South Korea from 2014 to 2018. This study employs a probit model, a random-effects model, and time-lagged regression to capture the impacts of corruption. The findings show that a low level of corruption within public organizations is positively associated with a high-performance level under certain conditions. This outcome shows that fighting corruption might contribute to improved organizational performance in public organizations.
 
The five domains of the RCF Model by the WHO
The implemention of the RCF model to competency-based education and training for rehabilitators
The competency-based education log frame for rehabilitators
Selection of competent personnel is critical to in terrorism rehabilitation efforts. Elucidating the characteristics of effective rehabilitation staff and determining personal and professional competencies has however been neglected. This study seeks to systematically identify competencies needed for staffs working with terrorism offenders in Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews with Indonesian counterterrorism experts, practitioners, and professionals were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Findings suggest four general/core and forty specific competencies are helpful for rehabilitation therapists and other staff working with ideology-based terrorist offenders. The findings may be used by service providers responsible for the design and implementation of deradicalization and terrorism offender rehabilitation.
 
Age of the victims ranked by nationality
This paper presents the results of a research on the representations of femicide in the judicial field, in Italy. The use of the term femicide is analysed through the lens of the normative process, examining its social meanings and questioning its political and economic anchoring using the “juridical field” model (Bourdieu 1986). The essay is based on a wide theoretical framework. It starts by highlighting the problems evoked by the term ‘femicide’ (Corradi, et al. 2016; Radford and Russell 1992); its declension in criminal law and jurisprudence through its coding in specific types of offence (Merli 2015). The topics of power and imbalance between the sexes (Goffman 1977) are analysed by presenting their juridical definitions and those found in penal codes (Casanova 2016; Cavina 2011; Feci and Schettini 2017). This perspective helps framing considerations about the results of the empirical research based on quantitative data taken from 93 verdicts of ‘femicide’ sentences which involved foreign or migrant victims (chosen from a corpus of 370 issued in Italy between 2010 and 2016) and qualitative aspects: gathered through expert interviews and the tales of violence against women in a verdicts’ judgemental sample of murders of foreign women. The study confirms the way in which narrations produced in the “judicial field” – despite the “distortions” affecting them (Dubé 2012; Gusfield 1968) – prove to be rich sources for the knowledge of a phenomenon which, still today, suffers from a structural lack of data.
 
Plea bargaining is one of the procedural tools introduced into the Nigerian Criminal Justice System to ensure quick dispensation of justice, save time and resources that would have been spent on a trial, and solve the problem of prison congestion in the country. This paper examines the application of this procedural tool in the administration of justice in corruption cases in Nigeria. It argues that plea bargaining is used by the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) mainly to recover looted resources from the culprits without giving due consideration to the provisions of the law and the essence and purposes that punishment serves. Also, the application of plea bargaining in various corruption cases has resulted in lighter punishments for the culprits. The paper draws on Deterrence Theory to argue that the way plea bargaining is being applied in corruption cases may encourage corrupt practices, rather than deter offending. Therefore, to achieve a reasonable outcome in fighting corruption in Nigeria, the rule of law must be upheld.
 
Studies of bribery have been heavily infuenced by the cost/beneft calculation, leaving social relationship of the involved parties under-explored. We propose the norm of reciprocity as a complement theoretical lens to explain bribery exchanges and explore diferent types of obligation that induce bribery. Based on qualitative data from a sample of government ofcials in Vietnam, we found that many bribery exchanges are governed by the norm of reciprocity, i.e., obligation-based bribery. In these obligation-based bribery exchanges, the parties extend and return illegal favors based on their senses of obligation to each other, in adjacent to cost/beneft calculation. We also uncovered two types of obligation, including pragmatic and moral, and found that these types of obligation are developed through diferent practices. Failure to address this social element of bribery would hinder much of anti-corruption efort. The study suggests that interactions between the norm of reciprocity and wider ethical norms in governing bribery should be further addressed by both researchers and practitioners.
 
The process of vote buying
The Ekiti Model of Vote Buying
Structured Interview Guide
In Nigeria, politicians and parties have developed a sophisticated vote-buying scheme, which we label, according to the state, where it happens, the Ekiti model of vote buying. Through a qualitative study of the gubernatorial elections 2018 in Ekiti, we describe how the Ekiti model of vote buying works. At the top of this scheme are parties, which have developed a sophisticated money distribution chain. Party members, who participate, get rewards in forms of government jobs or other benefits (should the party win). At the bottom of the chain are the voters, who receive between 10 and 30 dollars for their vote. They can even double dip and get their voting money twice, if they play the system well. The staff at the voting stations and the security personnel also get their fair share to guarantee that the vote buying machinery works. Who wins in such a system of entrenched corruption? It is the party, which hands out the most resources. As such, the vote buying machinery proofed quite effective.
 
Darknet cryptomarkets are a common method of drug procurement and are frequently a focal point for law enforcement intervention as a result. Past works assessing the effectiveness of cryptomarket closures by law enforcement have found a high degree of ecosystem resilience. Previous work, however, has not parsed the potential mediating role that official press statements and media coverage of such events might play on subsequent behavior. Using a new dataset of 27,195 distinct deterrent- or publicity-related sentiment-expressive signals taken from 406 media stories and 47 official press releases between 2013 and 2019, this article traces the potential impact of law enforcement closure of Darknet cryptomarkets on both US Google search activity and US Tor network use. The results generally show: 1) that discussion of certainty and severity of punishment, as deterrent signals, and sensationalism and market resiliency, as publicity signals, are the most forcefully expressed sentiments in the corpus of text; 2) US Google search interest in the Dark Web topic exhibits a fair degree of periodicity that is largely unassociated with the sentiment expressed in media coverage; and 3) US Tor anonymity network usage tends to be somewhat sensitive to how the closure is framed, with drops in Tor client connections in the US following comparatively high deterrence-coverage events and increases in the same following comparatively high publicity closures.
 
The criminal process in the Province of Buenos Aires has been affected by radical reforms in the last decades. Beginning with the complete replacement of the criminal procedure code in 1998 to the introduction of pre-trial hearings and simplified procedures for cases declared in flagrante delicto in 2004 the reforms have impacted more than legal procedures; they have changed the way judicial actors perceive themselves and their relations with the institution. Based on interviews with ten public defenders of the PBA this article offers an exploratory analysis on how public defenders’ perceptions have been impacted by those reforms and to what extent those internal changes have affected the internal dynamics of the PD. Drawing from the sociology of Bernard Lahire and Laurent Thenevot we identify in the public defenders’ responses how these changes affected their personal commitments. Mapping those commitments allow us to describe the subjective folds of the PD through which it is possible to better understand the decisions of public defenders by considering the internalization they make of the judicial world and its relationship with the institutional context.
 
Bubble plot of relative fine (logged) with gross revenue (logged)
In addition to legal considerations, what other factors correlate with and seem to affect fines companies are assessed when they commit an environmental crime? Relying upon the treadmill of crime theoretical framework we hypothesize that companies committing environmental crimes in poor and minority dominated communities will receive lower relative fines because the harms are viewed as less serious by prosecutors and judges, thus resulting in environmental injustice. In addition, from a green criminological framework, a company’s economic situation may be considered in setting fines so as not to slow down the treadmill of production. Using a unique dataset of firms fined for environmental violations in federal criminal courts, we seek to determine if sentencing practices that are consistent with the treadmill of crime perspective produce second-level environmental injustices. We conclude that the sentencing of corporations is handled in a manner consistent with predictions derived from the treadmill of crime theory and find as a result, in limited circumstances, environmental injustices are occurring.
 
Conversation about the alleged true killers' height, supported by documents from external sources
Statement by a tracker referring to the shoeprints found in the murder stall
Activist argues that the word "WAR" is written on the bathroom wall
Looking for information on the alleged murder weapon
Jurors are people who are exposed to legal proceedings and consequently exercise their judgment. A broad literature on law and film discusses the analogy between formal jurors, who are assigned to jury duty by the legal system, and "informal jurors"– "viewers-as-jurors" who encounter the legal system indirectly, through the media. In this paper, we identify a new category of "informal jurors", which refers to public discourse and actions concentrated on social media arenas in reference to legal cases. We argue that this category, which we call "social media jurors", maintains a tight correspondence with existing categories of jurors, but is distinguished from them by their extended abilities for speech and action. This article is based on a netnographic study, by which we illustrate our argument through the online activity in support of Roman Zadorov. Zadorov was convicted of murdering a young girl in Israel, while a large majority of Israelis continue to support his innocence and carry out extensive action on social media in support of this cause.
 
Count of comments per day. (Note: The dotted line represents the appearance of the first QAnon comment)
Density of comments by theme per day. (Note: The dotted line represents the appearance of the first QAnon comment)
Heatmaps for Jaccard Similarity Coefficients: Co-occurrences by Theme. All Comments (n=491). (Note: 1 = Protect and Save; 2 = Cessation of Behavior; 3 = Moral Sentiment; 4 = Government Performance; 5 = Praise for Teams; and 6 = Victimization)
Heatmaps for Jaccard Similarity Coefficients: Co-occurrences by Theme. Before QAnon (n=84) (Note: 1 = Protect and Save; 2 = Cessation of Behavior; 3 = Moral Sentiment; 4 = Government Performance; 5 = Praise for Teams; and 6 = Victimization)
Heatmaps for Jaccard Similarity Coefficients: Co-occurrences by Theme. After QAnon (n=407) (Note: 1 = Protect and Save; 2 = Cessation of Behavior; 3 = Moral Sentiment; 4 = Government Performance; 5 = Praise for Teams; and 6 = Victimization)
The state has encouraged civilians to take control of their own security through partnership and self-governance. Resultantly, civilians involved in the provision of security are attempting to obtain legitimacy for their civilian policing efforts. To investigate the acquisition of legitimacy for civilian policing, this article analyses comments (n = 1036) from an e-petition launched by a pedophile hunting group seeking legality for their enforcement operations. Because the e-petition eventually became dominated by QAnon conspiracy followers, the article also examines the QAnon movement in relation to civilian policing. The findings provide insight into justifications for the legality of civilian policing that are supplied by the general public in their efforts to support such groups, the process of de-legitimatization of the policing capabilities of the state, and the risks of what I call legitimacy tethering , linking civilian policing initiatives to radical groups such as QAnon.
 
Wrongful convictions continue to occur, with over 350 post-conviction DNA exonerations in the United States, and a collection of over 2500 known cases of presumed factual innocence at the National Registry of Exonerations. Conversation with exonerees suggest that at least some innocent individuals have met other wrongfully convicted prisoners while incarcerated. In the current study, we explored formerly incarcerated men’s views of wrongful conviction through the lens of governmentality. Using thematic analysis of interview transcripts with over 50 formerly incarcerated Canadian men on supervised release, we reveal how these released men perceive wrongful conviction, and how their understandings are impacted and shaped by the power dynamics underpinning their social interactions and experiences within the criminal justice system. Two main themes emerged in releasees perceptions of wrongful conviction: (1) that factually innocent people were wrongfully convicted of crimes—whether those crimes occurred prior to, or during, incarceration, and (2) the perceived fairness of legal processes led some individuals to view convictions of even factually guilty individuals to also warrant the label of wrongful conviction.
 
This article examines the gender implications of unjust provocation defence, which received little empirical attention than the theoretical. It focuses on the role of masculinity behind the application of unjust provocation defence in hate-motivated killings of LGBTQI in Turkey. By employing a qualitative content analysis to study four cases from Turkish domestic courts, it aims to provide an empirical background to the current theoretical debate on provocation defence. It argues that the non-recognition of hate crimes and the wide judicial discretion power of the courts jeopardise LGBTQI’s right to access the justice system, thus making them vulnerable to violence. Therefore, this article highlights the need to legislate hate crimes towards LGBTQI members to eliminate hostility towards them.
 
Environmental pollution is regarded as a major environmental crime in most countries ; Iran is no exception. This study examines water and soil polluting behavior among villagers in Jimabad, Mashhad County-a rural area in the Razavi Khorasan province in the northeastern region of Iran. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 315 respondents in the population of the villagers of Jimabad. This article reports on the levels of water and soil polluting behavior among the respondents and the results are discussed in terms of techniques of neu-tralization, religiosity and cultural context.
 
Perceived self-efficacy is often held to be the most focal mechanism of human agency. It has shown strong potential to explain action in multiple areas highly relevant to understanding crime, at least when the concept is formulated in close connection with the conditions that characterize the criminal acts it is supposed to explain. This article introduces the concept in the context of white-collar crime. To advance our understanding of how opportunities for such crime work, self-efficacy is defined with regard to one’s ability to control others’ impression of financially relevant information, or what is called dramaturgical self-efficacy . The presentation of this concept and its various elements is illustrated with contemporary empirical cases of white-collar crime and is preceded by a discussion of how opportunity structures and perceived self-efficacy have been understood in previous research relevant to the field. The article also discusses how the concept can be further developed with regard to the relationship between motivation and opportunity for white-collar crime.
 
This paper examines northbound crossings of personal vehicles and pedestrians from Mexico to the U.S. Sample size from January 1997 to December 2019 includes the period after December 2006 when then inaugurated Mexican government announced the “war on drugs”. We construct a series of border homicide share, which stands for the allocation of homicides in border states relative to the total of Mexican homicides. The series runs from between 15 to 20% to its peak of 48% in 2010 and its recent stabilization with less than 25%. We argue that this represents the intensity of violent crime spread throughout the Mexican border with the U.S., which is the geographic focus of research on border crossings. Employing structural vector autoregressions (SVAR), we estimate a model with homicide share, industrial production and border crossings. We compare the responses of this model to the pure economic model with the real exchange rate. We conclude that the response of border crossings to shocks in industrial production is about the same (positive and statistically significant) across models. However, while border crossings of vehicles and pedestrians respond negatively to positive shocks in border homicides the response of vehicles is prolonged and for pedestrians is immediate.
 
Descriptive statistics: Binomial Logistic Regression -Drug trafficking conviction
Few studies have assessed defense performance in criminal cases in the Latin American context. The current research investigated whether defense type affects the odds of conviction and incarceration length for drug trafficking cases in the Brazilian city of Belo Horizonte. We used a Binary Logistic and a Linear regression model, controlling the results for defendants and case characteristics. From that, we found no difference in the performance of public defenders compared to private and assigned lawyers. Criminal history, firearms seized, and being the only defendant in the process increased incarceration length. Precision scale or plastic bags seizure increased the odds of conviction. Moreover, non-whites and less educated defendants had higher odds of conviction than their counterparts. We attributed these findings to the functioning of the criminal justice system as an assembly line, in which cases are mass treated. In the absence of reflection on the individualities of the processes, court actors end up making decisions based on stereotypes. In the absence of clear criteria in the Drug Law/2006 on who is a user and a dealer, certain social types – perceived as “bandidos” (Misse, Lua Nova 79:15–38, 2010), would be more likely to be labeled as dealers. In this context, the defense can do little to change the process course and its outcomes.
 
This article evaluates the factors impacting support for tough on crime policies in El Salvador. Examining theoretical and empirical scholarly work, we look at how fear, together with social and political contexts drive public appetite for punitive policies towards criminals. We show that President Nayib Bukele is responding to public opinion and has implemented tough on crime policies at the expense of human rights violations and democratic institutions. Society favors candidates who are the “toughest” against criminal actors. Political candidates from all sides of the ideological spectrum tap into the fear of the populace to win votes, leading to punitive Darwinism. We provide an empirical assessment of which theoretically relevant factors are statistically associated with punitivism in the Salvadoran context, using multiple regression analysis of high-quality public opinion survey data from LAPOP.
 
The graphic visualization of N1's egonetwork
sub-clustering dynamics and second-level hubs
Percolation of information along the egonetwork
the chronological scheme of the input-output chain
The paper investigates the role of criminal networks in fostering illegal wildlife trade (IWT), and how these relational structures interact with transnational organized crime. The paper frames these topics within the debate around the opportunistic or organized nature of IWT. The aim is to understand how chaotic behaviors can transform into an ordered and organized strategy. Social network analysis (SNA) and network ethnography were conducted to explore the crime network surrounding a wildlife trafficker based in East Africa. The empirical results suggest that criminal networks operate as "machine of order" that transform opportunistic behaviors at the micro level into ordered strategies at the macro level. Empirical results also suggest that organized crime has an important role in making the process of transforming opportunistic into organized behaviours more efficient and more effective.
 
Using prospect theory as our core descriptive model of the decision-making process, we explore how behavioural economics can be used to expand what can be said about terrorist behaviour and align the inferences about terrorist behaviour that have been drawn from a diverse collection of disciplines. Prospect theory played a key role in the emergence of behavioural economics and provided many leads that were followed up by subsequent generations of researchers to reveal and explain various interesting quirks and anomalies in human decision-making, especially under conditions of risk and uncertainty. The decision-maker that emerges from behavioural economics is one who makes decisions shaped by a mixture of rationality, emotions, aspirations, reference-dependent choices, loss aversion and habits. When we speak of terrorist decision-making and draw inferences about it from different analytical perspectives, behavioural economics can help us to ensure that our inferences are in accordance with each other and, furthermore, help us to deepen our ‘thinking about terrorists’ thinking’.
 
Trends in thefts (left graph) and robberies (right graph) rates in Italy by year. Note: the grey areas indicate years in which SPs were adopted; darker colour indicates years with a higher share of the population affected by SPs
Adoption of SPs (black squares) across Italian provinces and years, represented by their coalitional strength (colour intensity) and political orientation (colour). Note: blue indicates centre-right, red indicates centre-left, grey refers to other combinations
Population average model to predict the adoption of SPs at the local level: predicted probabilities by coalitional strength (left graph) and political orientation (right graph). Note: the estimates are adjusted for the control variables described in the text. The results from the full models are presented in Table A2 in the Online Appendix
We develop a theoretically informed quantitative evaluation of the large-scale policy of security pacts (SPs) in Italy (2007–2012). In particular, we show how Matland’s theoretical model of policy implementation (1995) may help clarify the contextual heterogeneity present in the outcomes of security policies. We build and use a macro-panel dataset in which we exploit variations in the temporal and geographic adoption of SPs to develop a dynamic analysis of the contextual factors that influence the probability of adopting a large-scale security policy at the sub-national government level. We apply a rigorous counterfactual design to assess the effectiveness of SPs in reducing theft and robbery rates. We find that the probability of adopting SPs is positively affected by coalitional strength but not political orientation. In contrast, the effectiveness of SPs in reducing crime relates more to the political orientation of the ruling parties than to coalitional strength.
 
A relatively nascent discipline, the field of hate studies has been explored and theorised from a multiplicity of disciplinary contexts. However, the field is ill-defined, and the relationship between hate crime and other related concepts unexplored. Here, we consider the range of phenomena which might fall within or without the field of hate studies, initiating a discussion of the boundaries of the field. We signal both the continuities and discontinuities among and between an array of strategies intended to sort and maintain hierarchical relationships, with the purpose of provoking scholars in the field of hate studies to reflect on its scope.
 
Estimated Recidivism by Foreign-born Status and Gini Index
Using approximately 30,000 arrest records from the Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office in Florida and neighborhood characteristics from the U.S. Census American Community Survey, this study examines the relationship between foreign-born status and recidivism. In addition, we investigate whether any plausible relationship between foreign-born status and recidivism is conditioned by neighborhood characteristics. The results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses reveal that foreign-born offenders are less likely to recidivate than native offenders. Furthermore, the negative effect on recidivism for foreign-born offenders is amplified in neighborhoods with higher socioeconomic inequality. We discuss implications for policy and future research.
 
Critics of market economies are found among academics, social movements and alliances involving both. One such alliance is constituted by what is known as the degrowth movement, whose analyses of the dysfunctional effects of prevalent economic arrangements and principles relate (implicitly or explicitly) to crime prevention strategies. After briefly examining the concerns of classical theorists such as Karl Marx and Max Weber about infinite growth and its environmental impact, this paper tries to uncover the criminological implications of degrowth and to hypothesize how its strategies can contribute to the reduction and/or prevention of criminal activity.
 
There are endless possibilities of court users seeking to influence judges' decisions on cases in many countries. As a result, authorities often seek to reduce corruption opportunities by regulating judicial conduct and limiting access to judges. Using interview data from 15 judges drawn from a larger study of justice and anti-corruption officials in Ghana, this paper presents judges' interpretation and observation of rules around judicial conduct and the impact on corruption opportunities. The results suggest that judges interpret their obligations under these regulations broadly, including isolating themselves from the public to remove them from the possibilities of corrupt exchanges. However, it was found that instead of decreasing corruption opportunities, regulating judicial conduct in this way can produce unintended consequences. This anti-corruption measure, while well-meaning, can increase corruption opportunities, shift corruption opportunities to lower-level court officials, decrease transparency and guardianship, and even motivate judges to engage in corruption. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the results for preventing corruption in judicial systems.
 
Correctional officer excessive use of force has not been the focus of previous research inquiries, even though it is an inevitable feature of corrections work. Utilizing court cases from the U.S. District Courts and U.S. Courts of Appeals, this study seeks to add to the body of knowledge by examining criminal liability for correctional officer excessive use of force. The most consistent theme influencing correctional officers’ decisions to use excessive force was prisoners’ display of disrespectful or hostile behavior. Correctional officers involved in gang criminal activity, sexually assaulting prisoners, and using force on prisoners with pre-existing medical conditions were other themes that emerged from the analysis. This study expands our knowledge of individual, situational, and organizational characteristics that might contribute to excessive force in corrections settings. Our study shows that correctional agencies can reduce excessive force levels by implementing simulation-based training, administering psychological tests, and creating mandatory reporting laws.
 
As the awareness and extent of white-collar crime increases, the number of prison inmates from the middle and upper classes can be expected to grow. However, existing scholarship on the imprisoned white-collar offenders has geographical and methodological limits, is of a predominantly explorative nature and often employs definitions focused on the offence rather than the perpetrator. This study attempts to advance the current state of research by utilising Bourdieu’s capital theory in the description and explanation of the prison experience of a sample of 13 politicians, businesspersons, and lawyers serving prison terms for corruption and embezzlement in Poland. Deductive analysis of semi-structured interviews reveals how participants used social, cultural, and symbolic capital to secure an advantageous position whilst in prison. Due to varied assets such as their non-criminal identity, interpersonal skills and legal knowledge, the incarcerated elites studied were able to curry favour with guards, win recognition from fellow inmates and, unlike most prisoners, maintain supportive connections with the outside world. When considered within Bourdieu’s framework, these results provide an insight into the workings of capital in carceral settings, support the special resiliency hypothesis and explain it through differences in the social situation of inmates.
 
Governments, businesses, private citizens and even organised crime are increasingly investing in cyber security, with the cyber security industry growing in size and relevance. This paper demonstrates that markets for the buying and selling of cyber security should be subject to many of the same critical inquiries typically targeted at the private security industry. Using a number of illustrative examples of emerging trends in the commodification of cyber security it will be highlighted how these markets create significant social impacts and present similar dilemmas of democracy, justice, sovereignty, and deleterious side-effects for wider society. Key conceptual differences between cyber security commodities and ‘conventional’ security commodities will also be considered before arguing for an inter-disciplinary research agenda into the considerable social implications of the buying and selling of cyber security commodities.
 
This article argues that criminal justice scholars should import the theory of institutional corruption from political science to make sense of a distinct set of problems in the criminal justice system. To make this argument, this article examines the case of Ferguson, Missouri. In Ferguson, the city’s mandate to maximize revenue generation had a corrosive effect on the day-to-day policies and practices of both the Ferguson Police Department and the municipal court, leading to aggressive policing, excessive fines, and a number of unfair and unconstitutional practices. Framed as a problem of institutional corruption, the case of Ferguson is emblematic of a broader set of issues in criminal justice institutions involving policies and practices that are legal but rife with corrupting incentives. Such problems demand further scrutiny from criminal justice scholars and practitioners alike.
 
Effect of gender and perception of potential retaliation for reporting corruption on engagement in bribery
Effect of gender and engagement in bribery on perception of potential retaliation for reporting corruption
continued)
The question as to whether women are less corrupt than men has been the focal point of an intense and ongoing debate. While some studies show that women are more risk-averse than men—and, as a result, less likely to engage in corruption—others point to the contrary. This study aims to answer two key questions: (1) are women more or less likely than men to engage in bribery? And (2) are women more or less likely than men to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation? Our results show that, compared to men, women are less likely to offer bribes, and they are also less likely to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation. Since women are less likely to engage in bribery, it is recommended that women’s representation in positions of power be increased.
 
Causal flow of structural violence
Causal flow of social injury
Criminological and sociological discourse recognizes the impact of structure on crime, but generally eschews the consideration of structural damage and human suffering emanating from malevolent social movements (e.g., the Holocaust). Legal formalism presents conceptual challenges that has hindered analysis of harmful macroscopic phenomena, as it created jurisprudential impediments to be surmounted by the architects of the Nuremberg Tribunals. In considering these issues, a new ‘dark figure’ is identified that is compatible with phenomena examined from the social harm perspective, and to remediate disciplinary myopia, a specification of Edwin Sutherland’s (1945) concept of social injury is suggested and contrasted with Galtung’s (1969) construct of structural violence. Social injury refers to the recursive damage to social structure and human potential through the functional impairment of social institutions.
 
Extensive research has explored public confidence in the criminal justice system and opinions about punishment, but less research has explored attitudes about criminal justice errors, including error related to race and racism. Drawing on the theory of colorblind racism, the current study examines attitudes about whether systemic racism exists in the criminal justice system and, if so, how the issue can best be addressed. Specifically, we examine the rhetoric respondents use to describe the role of systemic racism in the criminal justice system, paying particular attention to the presence of colorblind rhetorical frames. Findings indicate that although a majority of respondents believe systemic racism exists, many respondents attribute the problem to specific individuals or policies rather than institutions and organizations. Moreover, those who believe systemic racism does not exist often rely on colorblind rhetorical frames that justify or minimize existing racial disparities in criminal justice outcomes. These findings suggest reasons for optimism regarding efforts to address racial injustice as well as some potential obstacles.
 
Past behavior regarding tax evasion, tax avoidance, and ITTP
Unlike some areas of crime, participation in illicit tobacco markets is not rare and spans most sociodemographic groups. Measurement of the scale of illicit trade in cigarettes usually is for markets with recently increased (or continually increasing) excise taxes. This study examines survey data from adult cigarette smokers in California at a time when prices and taxes had been fairly stable for many years. Even with no recent price shocks in the market, the results indicate that one-third of cigarette packs may lack a valid tax stamp and that between 18 and 25% of smokers avoided taxes by bringing cigarettes into the state from elsewhere in the past month (36% in the past year). Over 10% of packs were purchased for a suspiciously low price and 24–32% of smokers think they might have bought untaxed cigarettes in the past month. Furthermore, 20% think they may have consumed counterfeit cigarettes in the past month. There is a low incidence of illegal sales of single cigarettes. Men, smokers who roll their own cigarettes, e-cigarette users, younger smokers, and those with more income and education are all more likely to engage in at least some of the suspect market behaviors examined. The results show that many smokers from all segments of society participate in the illicit market for cigarettes—wittingly or not—which complicates efforts to reduce illicit trade.
 
On 20 February 2020, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and the China Coast Guard jointly issued the Notice on Issues concerning Jurisdiction of Maritime Criminal Cases (hereinafter the “Notice”). The Notice aims to ensure the effective performance of maritime right-safeguarding and law enforcement functions by the coast guard agencies, punishing maritime crimes by the law and protecting the State’s sovereignty, security, maritime rights and interests, as well as maritime order. Maritime criminal cases have strong international implications and their jurisdiction is subject to this short discussion. It is observed that by clarifying maritime criminal cases jurisdiction may to some extent reduce potential disputes in the context of law enforcement activities.
 
Age at arrest in years
Number of money laundering methods used
Prevalence of different money laundering methods
Amount of cash seized
To launder money is, by definition, to obfuscate and to hide, which makes it a notoriously difficult topic to study. Data access is another challenge contributing to the underdeveloped base. This paper presents an in-depth exploratory analysis of previously untapped data from the UK’s tax enforcement agency. We examine a sample of money laundering investigations (n = 31) over a three-year period, together involving 52 suspects. Against these cases, we test the applicability of the most widely used international model of money laundering: the three-stage model of placement, layering and integration (FATF, 2019). We also examine who was responsible for the offences and which laundering methods they used. A focus group with professionals helped us explore possible interpretations and implications of our findings. Overall, the results undermine the utility and validity of the ubiquitous three-stage model: it applied in under a third of cases. Cash couriers featured heavily and thus merit further attention, as do the cost-benefit decisions behind choosing between different money laundering methods. This study has relevance for academics, law enforcement, policy-makers and industry professionals alike.
 
Most criminal justice research pertaining to social climate in U.S. prisons has focused on the experiences of incarcerated people and correctional officers, with no studies to our knowledge that explore correctional educators’ significant contributions to prison social climate. Utilizing results from semi-structured interviews and participant observation with correctional educators in institutions managed by eight different state prison administrations, the present study fills this knowledge gap by examining two questions. First, how do correctional educators characterize the life experiences and motivations of incarcerated people who are pursuing an education? Second, how do correctional educators variously regard their respective professional roles as influencing and/or intervening in incarcerated individuals’ lives? Taken together, these findings offer insights into the nuanced ways that correctional educators interpret and understand compound disadvantage among incarcerated people, prison social climate, and motivations for engaging in correctional education. Our recommendations indicate the utility of fostering a collaborative, peer-driven learning environment by including current and former prisoners in education and programming initiatives, and prioritizing sustainable education in a humane institutional environment through recruitment of skilled professional staff willing to engage in cross-professional dialogue.
 
Cognitive model of corruption tolerance
Descriptive statistics of survey responses
Direction of causality (arrows) and sequence of analysis (tables)
While corruption is commonly understood in behavioral terms, the dominance of political and economic approaches has hindered the integration of relevant psychological insights into the (anti-)corruption mainstream, causing a rift between the examination of social determinants and their assessment within a process of individual decision-making. The present study offers a model that combines moral, social, and political factors to explore the cognitive processes behind corruption tolerance, operationalized here as attitudinal, intended, and behavioral responses to a bribery event. Using data from 1651 survey respondents across Latin America, it empirically tests the impact of key variables over the formation of individual attitude, intention, and behavior, taking into account the conditions and situations in which it arises. The results show that the decision to engage in petty bribery responds significantly and consistently to the individual’s tendency toward moral disengagement, and the centrality of their moral identity.
 
Emerging reports are increasingly implicating Christian clerics in array of unlawful and criminal behaviours, thus questioning the deterrence efficacy of Christianity as a religious body in contemporary times. Nevertheless, criminological debates on religion-crime nexus, aside terrorism, continue to be founded on deterrence assumption – the premises that religion promotes morally responsive citizens. We argued that this assumption neglects the role of socio-environmental dynamics in molding religion-crime outcomes from a strain perspective. Anchored on General Strain theory, this study acknowledged the paradox of Christian Clerics’ involvement in crime and sought to qualitatively, understand the socio-environmental realities, acting as strains and contributing to the growing phenomenon of crimes among Christian clerics in Benue state, Nigeria. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Christian clerics, church leaders, legal practitioners and police officers were engaged in in-depth interview while worshipers of different Christian denominations in the state were engaged in different FGDs. The study found that Christianity in Benue state operates within strain-based socio-environment that lures its clerics to crime as a way of fulfilling family, congregational and community expectations. The Christian enterprise in the state was also found to be encoded in deterrence expectations and reverence, which further inhibit the efficacy of existing social control to prosecute suspected Christian clerics. The importance of the findings for inclusive crime control in Nigeria and reorganization of Christianity as a religious institution, to minimize strain were discussed.
 
This paper examines aspects of the relationship between (1) the recently typified form of biodiversity crime, (2) information made available to the public through the Internet, and (3) cultural dynamics quantified through info-surveillance methods through Culturomics techniques. We propose two conceptual models: (1) the building-up process of a biodiversity crime culturome, in some language, and (2) a multi-stage biodiversity conservation chain and biodiversity-crime activities relating to each stage. We use crowd search volumes on the Internet on biodiversity crime-related terms and topics as proxies for measuring public interest. The main findings are: (1) the concept of biodiversity-crime per se is still immature and presents low penetration to the general public; (2) biodiversity-crime issues, not recognized as such, are amalgamated in conservation-oriented websites and pages; and (3) differences in perceptions and priorities between general vs. niche public with particular interest(s) in environmental issues- are discernable.
 
Number of confiscated pesticides or items labelled as pesticides, by Federal Police’s jurisdiction, based on forensic reports from Brazil’s Federal Police: 2008–2017
presents data on the five most confiscated pesticides during the analysed period, suggesting that products may be smuggled at a certain level for some time, but not over longer periods
Pesticide smuggling may intensify public health, occupational health, and environmental risks associated to the use of agrochemicals. Yet, there is little scholarly research about this crime. Using data from around 1,300 forensic reports made by Brazil’s Federal Police between 2008 and 2018, this article demonstrates that the market for smuggled pesticides in Brazil is probably small, smuggled pesticides are rarely counterfeit, smuggling of prohibited pesticides is uncommon, and petty smugglers – rather than organized criminal groups – prevail. For pesticide manufacturers, campaigning against pesticide smuggling – framed as a threat to human health, the environment, and public safety – is important though. Corporations’ emphasis on the problem of pesticide smuggling may be driven not only by concerns about market losses but also by other reasons: interest in improving corporations’ legitimacy, expanding their networks with government officials and police agencies, or preventing tax increases. This can work as a diversionary tactic in response to criticisms against intensive pesticide use or low levels of taxation. This article’s findings indicate that corporations can increase the political salience of a crime alongside police agencies.
 
As many scholars have shown, and other than what is suggested by their legal definition, migrant smuggling and human trafficking are not always easily distinguishable in reality. Acknowledging this grey area between the two phenomena, the Belgian legislature has introduced an alternative approach (referred to as ‘third-way approach’) which would offer migrants who have experienced ‘aggravated forms’ of migrant smuggling the same protective status that is usually strictly reserved for victims of human trafficking. Interestingly enough, migrants don’t seem inclined to make use of this procedure. Through a series of expert interviews, this article shines light on the perspective of key actors within the Belgian criminal justice system and migration control apparatus with regard to this third-way approach and its functioning in practice. In so doing, the article not only reveals how the proper functioning of this third-way approach is hindered by a series of organizational and institutional factors, but it also shows how the different actors are struggling with the inherent tension between the objectives of protecting state security and the protection of the needs of vulnerable groups in precarious life situations.
 
In this study we examine how the process of crime detection by frontline and investigative police can be modified so that the same level of policing inputs (i.e. police strength) can produce more outcomes (i.e. crime detection rate). A pooled frontier analysis method is used to measure the relative efficiency of 18 police districts in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2015 (n = 18 districts × 9 years = 162 decision making units (DMUs)), demonstrating variable returns-to-scale. Findings reveal that 95 of the 162 DMUs were found to be inefficient compared to the benchmark DMUs (those police districts identified by the Free Disposable Hull (FDH) approach as efficient) with an average FDH efficiency score of 95.37 out of a possible score of 100. Efficient districts provide an exemplar on how an inefficient district could achieve an optimal input–output translation for the detection of crime. This evidence can be used to shape police policy at the district level. This study represents the first frontier analysis of police efficiency in the detection of crime in Hong Kong using the most recent efficiency technique. We produce evidence that can inform police policy regarding the deployment of finite resources that improve the efficiency of detection without compromising other institutional targets.
 
Top-cited authors
E.R. Kleemans
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Luca Giommoni
  • Cardiff University
David Décary-Hétu
  • Université de Montréal
Ngoc Minh Nguyen
Binh Tran-Nam
  • UNSW Sydney