Convergence

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1354-8565
Publications
Article
The following papers are included: "Seminar's Focus on Practice Puts Action on the Human Level" (Margaret Gayfer); "Literacy: What Do Definitions Tell Us?" (Carman Hunter); "The Practice of Literacy in the Netherlands" (Ella Bohnenn); "The Approach of Popular Literacy Groups in Quebec" (Louise Miller); "Perspectives and Lessons from the Adult Literacy Campaign in England and Wales" (Alan Wells); "Literacy and Immigrant Communities in Industrialized Countries: The Case of Italy" (Anna Napoli); "Building a National Movement: The Caribbean Experience" (Didacus Jules); "Mother Tongue Literacy" (Meshack Matshazi); "Literacy and Empowerment" (Lalita Ramdas); "Literacy and Women in South Africa" (Nombeko Mlambo); "Literacy and Popular Education: A Latin American Experience" (Cesar Picon); "Community-Based Literacy"; "Meeting the Educational Needs of Workers"; "Women and Literacy: What Are the Hidden Issues?"; "Mother-Tongue Literacy: The Bridge to Learning"; "Literacy and Disabled Persons"; "Breaking the Silence"; "Illiteracy and the Public Education System"; "Literacy and Justice Issues for the Public School System"; "Literacy and Technology"; "Building Coalitions"; "Resolution of Mediterranean Conference on Literacy in Urban Areas"; "Korea's Long March towards a Literate Nation" (Choi Un Shil); "Adult Literacy Work in the Republic of Ireland"; "The Experience of the Soviet Union in the Elimination of Illiteracy" (Volodar V. Kraevskii); "Literacy Work in Belgium"; "Norwegian for Practical Use"; "Illiteracy in Spain" (Luis Espina Cepeda, Oscar Medina Fernandez); and "Literacy Practice in the Philippines" (Eileen Belamide). Recommendations from the seminar and names and addresses of participants are included in the proceedings. (MN)
 
Article
Since the 1965 Teheran Congress 0n functional literacy, 52 nations have asked to participate in the world program, and 38 of them have received planning and consultant missions from UNESCO. (LY)
 
Article
Over the last decade, a series of publications - such as, most notably, Steve Jones's Rock Formations (1992),1 Michael Chanan's Repeated Takes (1995)2 and Paul Théberge's Any Sound You Can Imagine (1997)3 - have offered accounts of the impact of various technological innovations on contemporary music culture. Almost without exception, they have advanced their analyses with near-total reliance on examples drawn from the North Atlantic core of the Western music industry. To date, the impact of various technologies on the music cultures and industries of the rest of the planet have been little examined. While these cultures and industries may 'lag behind' their better-facilitated western counterparts in terms of provision of new equipment and associated creative and industrial practices, the impact of new technologies on these territories is just as marked and complex as it is in the West.
 
Article
This article follows-up a previous study - in the Spring 1995 issue of Convergence 1 - which analysed the early development of music CD-ROMs with particular regard to Australian music industry initiatives. The 1995 study signalled the emergence of the Internet as a threat to the further development and exploitation of music CD-ROMs and noted that 'predictions as to when the Internet will effectively render music CD- ROMs redundant tend to opt for a five to 15-year period'.2 It also suggested that 'the two forms will be able to co-exist and complement each other (at least during a transitional stage).3 This article analyses these characterisations and conclusions with reference to the production and consumption of music CD-ROMs in Australia in the period 1995- 96. While the case studies offered here are specifically national, the analyses and prognoses are more generally applicable to the international music/media industry.
 
Article
Man's greatest problem, at this point in our swiftly changing technological progress, concerns our ability to assimilate change. With the population doubling during the next generation, can we humanize crowded living? The intensive group experience, perhaps the most significant social invention of this century, may help. The magnetism of the new openness and intimacy may prove more powerful than the trend toward treating man as a role or as a mere mechanism. By the year 2000 we shall probably change from the present pattern of action required to prevent conception to one in which infertility is standard and positive action is required to conceive. Parents may increasingly become not the authorities directing youth, but changing persons living in ever-changing interactions with their children. Institutionalized religion is likely to fade out, but the mysteries of life will acquire fresh challenge. Educators seem to show greater resistance to change than do any other institutional group. A revolution in our schools is long overdue. It is ironic that alert industry now does more than do schools to free up communication among persons. But the most tragic trend is the increasing breakdown of communication between the privileged and the ghetto.
 
Article
After coming to power in 1997, the UK’s New Labour Government considered various policy responses to ‘convergence ‘- a perceived communications revolution blurring the boundaries between previously distinct media sectors. The approach decided upon is embodied in the Communications Act 2003 which has ushered in a sweeping programme of regulatory change in the communications industries and is the most comprehensive legislation of its kind in British history. This article assesses the major provisions of the Act, touching on how it has been implemented so far by Ofcom (Office of Communications), and it analyses the implications of this landmark legislation for the future of UK communications and, especially, broadcasting policy.
 
Article
Research studies, statistical reports, and popular press releases report the small numbers of women and minority populations involved with computer-based information technologies. This study examines the epistemological structure of computer science, analyses the historical development of computing with implications for current theory and practice, and explicates field data from a 1994-1996 qualitative survey questionnaire and interview research study searching out barriers particularly in academic computing. The paper summarises the theoretical framework of the inquiry, delineates a three strand methodology, reports findings, suggests strategies for breaking barriers taking into account developing countries, and outlines specific implications and opportunities for the new media arts.
 
Article
A single historical sound file posted on the web by the British Library may reach more listeners in a day than it did in the whole of the pre-internet age of telephone enquiries and listening appointments on the premises. Yet most of the Library’s vast sound archive remains available for consultation only through outmoded facilities. Why is this, and how does a national sound archive respond to rapidly changing and increasingly demanding user expectations?
 
Article
We live in a society where concepts of self, community and 'what is right and wrong' are constantly changing. Consequently, there is a need for learning environments that encourage young people to actively explore their identity as well as the personal and social values they live by. Computational tools have the potential to foster learning about these issues. However, there has been little research in this area. This paper shows how online collaborative environments can serve as tools to facilitate young people's thinking about moral and identity issues. The paper describes two pilot experiences in which bilingual middle and high school students and their teachers, in five different sites around the world, used Kaleidostories, a web-based narrative tool to support the formation of a virtual community to exchange stories about shared values and role models. The goal of this research project is to explore how new technologies can assist young people to discover their own selves as well as the underlying patterns of thought and behaviour that connect the worldviews proposed by different cultures. The project shows how teachers were able to use the online community to complement and augment their face to face activities and interactions by integrating Kaleidostories into different curricular content areas.
 
Article
Reviews the content and intent of the Lifelong Learning Act and criticizes the use of "lifelong learning" as a synonym for "adult and continuing education," contending that lifelong learning should begin in the earliest years. Includes opinions of eight other educators on the act's provisions and impact. (MF)
 
Article
Planned adult educational activities must regard the individual not only as a man of work but also as a man of leisure, freeing him to make choices in both spheres. (MF)
 
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This article addresses the issue of young people and media use in the digital age, more specifically the interconnection between new media pleasures and pedagogy as they relate to the consumption of DVD add-ons. Arguing against the view of new media as having predominantly detrimental effects on young people, the authors claim that new media can enable young people to develop media literacy skills and are of the view that media literacy strategies must be based on an understanding and legitimating of young people's use patterns and pleasures. The discussion is based on a pilot research project on the use patterns and pleasures of use with a sample of Irish teenagers. They found that DVDs were used predominantly in the home context, and that, while there was variability in use between the groups, overall they developed critical literacy skills and competences which were interwoven into their social life and projects of identity construction. The authors suggest that these findings could be used to develop DVDs and their add-on features as a learning resource in the more formal educational setting and they go on to outline the potential teaching benefits of their use across a range of pedagogical areas.
 
Article
Large-scale planning efforts for adult education are beginning to take place in the United States. The article presents a summary of an alternative futures approach developed for one such planning effort at the Center for the Study of Social Policy, and describes three plausible but significantly different future scenarios. (Author)
 
Article
The author contends there are many American myths operating in the schools at a subtle level which keep the poor and disadvantaged uncomplaining and apathetic. Basic adult education has not reached those most in need of it and does not deal with topics relevant to those people. Paulo Freire's approach of consciousness raising would reach that group and achieve radical social change as well as educational change. (AG)
 
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Professor Verner argues that the use of adult education instructional techniques is determined by the nature of specific learning tasks and the experience and ability of learners rather than by cultural settings. (LY)
 
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The libraries of India can play an important role in the education of neo-literates by awakening the interest of potential readers, providing specially developed materials, setting aside a special area staffed by trained, sympathetic personnel, and by fostering discussion groups to raise people's consciousness of their power to effect change. (AJ)
 
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The Adult Education Council of Japan's Ministry of Education is preparing recommendations for further program innovations. Those already in effect include widespread use of educational broadcasting (particularly for foreign language instruction), expansion of audiovisual libraries, and improvement of methods in extension and vocational education. (MF)
 
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A classification system for educational statistics, the International Standard Classification of Education, was created to compare statistics on adult education. However, it is necessary to untangle the terminology associated with adult education in order to utilize ISCED. Authors attempt to restate and refine terms and concepts for that purpose. (Author/RK)
 
Article
An article taken from a state-of-the-art paper given at the UNESCO/UNDP International Workshop on Environmental Education at Belgrade in October 1975. Topics include the media as environmental educators, environmental action, university-related courses, problems and opportunities, and recommendations for action. (JT)
 
Article
This article considers how the emergent commercial televisual aesthetic of a 'windows interface' is linked to changes in programming and the institutional structures of television. The new look of television, the windows aesthetic, strongly resembles the graphical user interface of the now domesticated personal computer, suggesting an interface instead of a surface. Through an examination of relationships between formal elements of television, concepts of interactivity, and modes of address, this essay demonstrates how this new commercial aesthetic is linked to an increasing commodification of television's supertext and a commodification of viewers through their participation in the text. Among the many texts and textual elements analysed are The Eurovision Song Contest, WebTV, station idents, watermarks, and the use of computer graphics in news.
 
Article
Sustained acoustic resonance has been explored by many sound artists and, in some works, it is the central or sole mechanism of sound production. Instances are identified among the work of Ros Bandt, Garlo, Alan Lamb, Alvin Lucier, Gordon Monahan, Roger Winfield and others. In addition to shared formal elements, such works tend to share auditory phenomenological characteristics. It is hypothesised that sustained resonance in general exhibits a type of sound with particular aesthetic connotations, which are largely derived from psychoacoustic factors. This article outlines the terms of and discusses the findings from my experimental investigations into acoustic and psychoacoustic aspects of room resonance. The range of room resonance sounds available from one particular room was explored using a procedure adapted from one of Lucier's works. Listening tests were conducted on the resulting sounds, eliciting descriptive, evaluative and emotional responses from 13 subjects. There are some correspondences between the listening test results and apparent characteristics of resonating sound art.
 
Article
Debate over the ethics of MP3 file sharing has overshadowed intellectual inquiry into the reasons why music has been such a sought after commodity for downloading. This paper proposes a Deleuze/Guattarian inspired conceptualisation of affect to ascertain the drive behind the phenomenon we call the 'MP3 revolution'. The claim is that music has been responsible for the internet's transition from static to dynamic medium as the affective allure of the MP3 codec solicits territorial production through reception. Ritual, rhythms and refrains order our way through the chaos of the web and this paper proposes that MP3 offers temporal potentialities and existential 'becoming' that provide new affective dimensions to the previously static nature of the web. With such a proliferation of writing on MP3 and peer-to-peer networking, this article is concerned with why music is worth downloading and finally, how capital has sought to commodify this territory that MP3 users created.
 
Article
Invented in 1917, the theremin was one of the first musical synthesisers to be used in public performance. Largely forgotten in the 1980s, its 'lost history' was re-examined by Steven Martin's acclaimed documentary Theremin - An Electronic Odyssey (USA 1993). The success of the film, and the re-emergence of the theremin onto the retail market, has stimulated a revival of interest in the instrument. This article examines aspects of the theremin's history, its sonic affectivity and the manner in which it has, through its various uses in music production and cinema soundtrack, become a shifting signifier of modernity, futurism, other-worldliness and, more latterly, a nostalgia for such concepts and perceptions.
 
Article
Album leaks have become a taken-for-granted experience amongst artists, labels, and fans over the past decade. The cultural impact of leaks is obscured through a simple definition of piracy, however. Recordings encoded as mp3 files can escape established distribution networks and circulate in ways that performatively instantiate new interpretive communities with unique practices of anticipation, access, and evaluation. Using two incidents from the weeks leading up to the release of Animal Collective’s highly anticipated 2009 release Merriweather Post Pavilion, I contend that the practices and media technologies governing leaks transfigure the form and function of recordings, raising important questions about music promotion and fandom. In the first incident, a leaked song ripped from a podcast and endorsed on another artist’s blog triggers the involvement of a web security firm, blurring distinctions between promotion and piracy. In the second incident, members of a music messageboard create a fake leak to fool eager Animal Collective fans, exploiting the modular affordances of the mp3 to enforce their own rules of affective propriety for enthusiastic leak-seekers.
 
Aznar addressing the World Jewish Congress (Anzarclub's subtitled version, 2 min 15s).
Aznar addressing the World Jewish Congress (Anzarclub's subtitled version, 17 min 6s).
Article
Media sociologists and cultural globalization theorists have tended to overlook the contribution of translators to the circulation of media content in the era of digital culture. After critiquing the reasons for the invisibility of translation in the literature on global cultural transactions, this article moves on to examine the emergence of new amateur subtitling collectivities in today’s informational society, exploring the role that non-professional translators – specifically, networks of activist subtitlers – play within the participatory media industries. Using examples from a case study of Ansarclub, a Spanish group of engaged amateur translators, this article gauges the extent to which their participation, remediation and bricolage practices – the main components of digital culture (Deuze [2006] Participation, remediation, bricolage: considering principal components of a digital culture. The Information Society 22: 63–75) – fit in or divert from the cocreational dynamics underpinning other domains of the media marketplace. It is argued that the interventionist and ‘monitorial’ quality of activist subtitling lies at the heart of an emerging paradigm of civic engagement, with fluid transnational communities of interest acting as the building blocks of participatory translation.
 
Article
Contrasts the purposes and methods of government-sponsored literacy programs in Latin America, which seek to improve the lot of the poor by developing better skills, with those of popular education movements, which attempt to empower people to change social structures. (SK)
 
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This article reveals that nine out of the ten television newsrooms surveyed in the USA are practising some type of convergence. The majority said they converged by sharing news content with other news organisations. When respondents were asked how they defined convergence, their responses virtually mirrored the way their organisations practise convergence. Interestingly, less than half of the respondents defined convergence as the use of one fully integrated newsroom. The researchers found the most common medium that convergent television news operations are producing content for is online, followed by radio, then newspaper. Those practising convergence reported it to be a positive experience.
 
Article
Smart mobile devices like the iPhone, Android, Kindle Fire, and iPad have energized educators’ interest in using mobile media for education. Applications from clickers to games to augmented reality game creation software are thriving in research settings, and in some cases schools, but relatively little is known about how youth use such devices for learning outside of school. This research study seeks to add to the research literature detailing the technological affordances of such devices by using a Social Construction of Technology (or SCOT) approach, to see how one user group – adolescents – construct the technology particularly in regards to learning. It employs a design intervention approach in which we gave fully operational iPhones with unlimited data plans to three cohorts of youth to use throughout the day. Participants included homeschooled students, students enrolled in alternative schools, and students at a conventional American high school. Participants strongly valued these devices for learning, and constructed them as personalized devices for amplifying learning, specifically through amplifying access to information, social networks, and ability to participate in the world. Access to mobile devices was deeply tied to personal power for these youth, as they were able to function more effectively to meet their goals with employers, teachers, and peers. Although they destabilized relationships, they caused almost no friction, and instead, parents, teachers, and peers reported valuing how youth could participate more fully in the world. The article concludes with implications for how educators and software designers might best capitalize on these social affordances when designing for mobile-enabled classrooms.
 
An alignment created through all actants. Actant X, a limitation of format A, is here presented as an obligatory passage point, allowing the final hybrid to draw strength from all the socio-cultural ties of this limitation.
Article
From a perspective of critical heritage studies and conservation, this article exemplifies how the vocabulary of limitations (Westin, 2012) can be put to work on a translation-in-process; the shift from analogue to digital books. This vocabulary is a continuation of the sociology of translation (Callon, 1986), where limitations of a given format are identified as actants enrolled by stakeholders in the translation process, and, as such, anchor the format to society. Approaching the format as an actant which disciplines socio-cultural expressions through its limitations, this study tries to shed light on how cultural values are either acquired, reinforced or negotiated away in the translation process, when content is brought from one format into another.
 
Article
As a result of the emergence of convergent ‘media houses’ at all levels of news journalism, few modern media organizations publish on only one platform. Changing professional practices related to this raise a number of important questions about the relationship between organizational strategies, new technologies, and everyday news journalism. This article addresses these developments from two perspectives, news work and news texts, through the concept of ‘cross-media’. This concept describes communication or production where two or more media platforms are involved in an integrated way. The article argues that in order to be more precise for theoretical and analytical purposes we have to distinguish between cross-media communication, and cross-media production processes. The article concludes by outlining a model that integrates the perspectives of news work and news texts in convergence journalism.
 
Article
The 29 titles are arranged under seven issue areas presented in Budd Hall's article (CONVERGENCE v8 n2 p82-7) regarding: (1) alternative research strategies; (2) need for beneficial research processes; (3) and (4) aspects of research population involvement; (5) community motivation; (6) research as a dilectic process; and (7) research process objectives. (LH)
 
Article
Information about the Australian Aboriginal musical instrument, the didjeridu, has spread rapidly and widely over the internet. Analysing more than a hundred didj-related web sites, and monitoring the exchanges on a didjeridu mailing list, I found that the information could be roughly grouped into three categories: new age/world music pages; didjeridu musicians' forums; and Aboriginal community sites. The information represented three types of cultural exchange that ranged from the appropriation of aspects of Aboriginal culture to provide for an urban primitivism, to the articulation of new cultural meanings through the sharing of Aboriginal musical practices. While the didjeridu network does exhibit the appropriation of Aboriginality to achieve non-Aboriginal goals, it also demonstrates the creation of new cultural practices through the agency of marginalised groups, and the production of new communities through the linkages between music practices and cultural identity.
 
Article
People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell. Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments. This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces.
 
Article
Following the discussion of silences and absences in user participation, this short paper aims to analyze the limits of participation in defining and evaluating quality of user-generated content. It focuses on user reviews of the fan-made Czech subtitles for the HBO series Game of Thrones on the fan subtitling website titulky.com. It works from the discovery that many users tend not to `review' the subtitles by evaluating them, choosing instead to praise their author or remain in `silent gratitude'. Based mainly on qualitative analysis of user reviews, the case study identifies two main reasons for this lack of participation, mainly the dependency of the non-contributing users on the translator (who is called a `saviour') and his authority and merits in the community. His dominance in the discussion is bolstered by the fact that his work was approved by the local fandom of the show's source material. Based on the case study, I argue that while gratitude drives participation in creating content, it may also thwart attempts at critiquing the content.
 
Article
Contemporary debates concerning hypertext theory often question the place of the written word in visual media. Contrary to this, I argue that hypertext is first and foremost a visual, graphical medium. It is a way of spatialising ideas into discrete units which might be grasped by the mind and efficiently retrieved along lines of connections: association. This technique has a long history. There is a strange continuity in metaphor between early associationist models of memory, classical Greek systems of place-memory loci, sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophies of memory retrieval and the history of hypertext. I argue that hypertext belongs to this lineage.
 
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This debate article notes that there is currently a tendency to focus, understandably, upon what it is that mobile media do, that is to say their functionality. This piece argues that we need to open up our analysis to understand these devices as objects with which individuals may develop an attachment. The piece draws upon literature that uncovers the attachments that people create with everyday objects and suggests that mobile media devices, as prominent everyday devices that are intimately incorporated into routine bodily practices, need also to be thought of in these terms. Here it is argued that it is important that we don’t just think of these devices as portals onto virtual culture, but that we acknowledge that these objects also have a material connection with the owner. These personal attachments with everyday devices are yet to receive sustained attention, yet these connections are actually an important part of how mobile media have become such a prominent and embedded part of contemporary life. The aim of this article is to open up this additional dimension to the study of mobile media and to place it upon the collective analytical agenda for those researching new media forms.
 
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This article concentrates on one particular textual and thematic cluster within the Hollywood feature film Mars Attacks! (1996), Tim Burton's big-budget homage to Cold-War era Science Fiction cinema — the affectivity and significance of musical sounds (and sound technologies). In particular, with reference to the work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari (1987) 1 and the application of aspects of their work to uses of music in contemporary cinema in Murphie (1996);2 it considers the role of sound passages (and their associations) as territorialising refrains which eventually clash to produce the film's narrative denouement.3
 
Article
Over the last five years the CD-ROM has risen to become a prominent new-technology medium and consumer item. This paper documents and analyses the development of CD-ROM software by the international music industry and contextualises this development within a broader history of format successions. It discusses the influential XPLORA 1 disk assembled in collaboration with Peter Gabriel's Real World Company and the manner in which this CD-ROM set what has developed as a standard blueprint for the first wave of music CD-ROMs. The paper then provides a case study of the Australian music industry's exploratory use of the medium during 1994, and the relation of that exploration to national cultural policies. The study concludes by speculating as to the likely obsolescence of the CD-ROM form and its likely dis/re-placement by media such as the Internet
 
Article
This paper traces the development of children’s multiplatform commissioning at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) in the context of the digitalisation of Australian television. Whilst recent scholarship has focussed on ‘post-broadcast’ or ‘second-shift’ industrial practices, designed to engage view(s)ers with proprietary media brands, less attention has been focussed on children’s and young adults’ television in a public service context. Further, although multiplatform projects in the United States and Britain have been the subject of considerable analysis, less work has attempted to contextualise cultural production in smaller media markets. The paper explores two recent multiplatform projects through textual analysis, empirical research (consisting of interviews with key industry personnel) and an investigation of recent policy documents. The authors argue that the ABC’s mixed diet of children’s programming, featuring an educative or social developmental agenda, is complemented by its appeals to audience ‘participation’, with the Corporation maintaining public service values alongside the need to expand audience reach and the legitimacy of its brand. It finds that the ABC’s historical platform infrastructure, across radio, television and online, have allowed it to move beyond a market failure model to exploit multiplatform synergies competitively in the distribution of Australian children’s content to audiences on-demand.
 
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Argues that basic education programs operated as separate systems from existing formal education programs in developing nations will not produce the expected results of rural education at reduced unit costs. (WL)
 
Article
On November 27, 2011, a flash mob took place in the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) train station in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, as a group of mostly young people performed a dance set to a Bollywood song. Soon, videos of the event appeared online sparking lively debates and media coverage. Here, I engage the ‘CST flash mob’ and its use of Bollywood dance to grapple with the democratic potential that lies at the intersection of live performance, popular culture, and new media. Situating the flash mob within Bollywood dance scholarship, I explore the global proliferation and online circulation of Bollywood flash mobs as fandom in performance. I am particularly interested in the implicit political dimensions of these performances and how these play out in local and new media contexts.
 
Article
The intellectual history suggests that desire for intelligence augmentation underlies the idea of virtual reality (VR). The assumption underlying this teleological thrust towards intelligence augmentation is that intellectual advances are made by improving and facilitating human thinking and problem solving. This was thought possible only if computers were integrated effectively into the whole ecology of thought by virtue of a human-computer partnership, or symbiosis. VR media are seen as augmenting intelligence by more direct, intuitive channeling of information through the senses to establish a more direct interface, or experience with knowledge. The history of the idea of virtuality shows that policy, personnel choice and placement, and research and development aimed to implement this vision for VR. Related work led to the internet as focus was placed on networked, cooperative interaction - computers and people working together to augment human intelligence.
 
Article
This article uses qualitative interviews with senior editors and managers from a selection of the UK's national online news providers to describe and analyse their current experimentation with multimedia and video storytelling. The results show that, in a period of declining newspaper readership and TV news viewing, editors are keen to embrace new technologies, which are seen as being part of the future of news. At the same time, text is still reported to be the cornerstone for news websites, leading to changes in the grammar and function of news video when used online. The economic rationale for convergence is examined and the article investigates the partnerships sites have entered into in order to be able to serve their audience with video content. In-house video is complementing syndicated content, and the authors examine the resulting developments in newsroom training and recruitment practices. The article provides journalism and interactive media scholars with case studies on the changes taking place in newsrooms as a result of the shift towards multimedia, multiplatform news consumption.
 
Top-cited authors
danah boyd
  • Microsoft
Alice Marwick
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Mark Deuze
  • University of Amsterdam
Edgar S Huang
  • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
Nico Carpentier
  • Charles University in Prague