The scholarly productivity of educational psychologists, indexed in terms of the number of papers published in professional journals in the field was the focus of this investigation. Five journals considered to be among the "core journals" in the field and, thus, those in which educational psychologists are likely to publish their scholarship were examined for the years 1991-1996. Both institutions (i.e., universities) and individuals were identified. The top-rated institution, in terms of educational psychology productivity, was the University of Maryland and the most prolific individual contributor to the journals was Herbert Marsh. The findings partially replicate several previous productivity studies in psychology and educational psychology. The most productive scholars in the field include both seasoned, established leaders in the discipline, as well as younger individuals who are making their mark. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
This study examined the effects of classroom indegree for ability (the degree to which peer nominations as academically capable show high consensus and focus on a relatively few number of children in a classroom) on first grade children's peer acceptance, teacher-rated classroom engagement, and self-perceived cognitive competence. Participants were 291 children located in 84 classrooms. Participating in sociometric interviews were 937 classmates. Consistent with social comparison theory, classroom indegree moderated the associations between children's achievement and classroom engagement and peer liking. Children with lower ability, relative to their classmates, were less accepted by peers and less engaged in classrooms in which students' perceptions of classmates' abilities converged on a relatively few number of students than in classrooms in which peers' perceptions were more dispersed. High indegree was associated with lower self-perceived cognitive competence regardless of ability level.
With this investigation we tried to validate an economic model of the cognitive and metacognitive abilities involved in Mathematical Word Problems. From the literature we chose seven abilities: text comprehension, problem representation, problem categorization, solution estimate, planning the solution, procedure self-evaluation, calculus self-evaluation. In order to measure these abilities, we devised a series of mathematical word problems (partitioned problem) where, for each ability, subjects have to answer a multiple choice question. A hierarchical regression model with only five variables (excluding solution estimate and calculus self-evaluation) explained more than 50% of the variance of the solution scores of the Partitioned Problems, and 40% of the variance of the solution of a series of problems presented with only the text. The model was validated with five different samples of subjects of different school grade and with a bootstrap procedure. Furthermore the relationship of the variables was tested using a path analysis. The discrimination validity of three different levels of problem solving efficiency give further support to the validity of the model. The model obtained may be utilized in order to devise practical instruments for the analysis of mathematical word problem difficulties. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
The hypothesis that a male advantage in speed of math-fact retrieval underlies the sex difference, favoring males, in mathematical abilities is unique and provocative. However, the hypothesis does not provide an explanation for the male advantage in mathematical domains, such as geometry, that do not require arithmetic, nor does it accommodate the sex differences in social and occupational interests that contribute to the sex difference in mathematical achievement. An alternative hypothesis focusing on the sex difference in three-dimensional spatial cognition is favored over the math-fact retrieval hypothesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Four studies were conducted to examine how instantiation of abstract statements facilitates solutions to insight problems. The first two experiments explored the effects of external instantiation (adding a concrete example to the abstract source information) on transfer. Providing an example along with the abstract source statement fostered transfer of analogous solutions. Moreover, adding a complete concrete instantiation to an abstract statement produced greater transfer than adding only specific items to illustrate the abstract terms. The second two experiments examined the effects of internal instantiation (encouraging learners to generate their own concrete examples of the abstract information) on transfer. This factor, too, facilitated problem solving. Generating examples to instantiate the abstract statement yielded even better transfer than simply informing participants of the relationship between the abstract statements and the target problems. These findings suggest that both external and internal instantiation facilitate transfer by promoting mental processes associated with implementing the source analogs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Goal orientation theory was used to examine changes in student motivation during the transition from elementary to middle school. Surveys were given to 341 students in the fifth grade in elementary and again in sixth grade in middle school. Students were more oriented to task goals (wanting to improve their competency), perceived a greater emphasis on task goals during instruction, and felt more academically competent in fifth grade in elementary school than in sixth grade in middle school. They perceived a greater emphasis on performance goals (an emphasis on relative ability and right answers) in middle school than in elementary school. Several interactions emerged between year (fifth grade, sixth grade), and both student level of ability (higher, lower, based on standardized achievement tests) and subject domain (math, English).
Teacher expectancies can have an impact on students' academic achievement. These expectancies can be based on diverse student characteristics, only one of which is past academic performance. The present study investigated three student individual differences that teachers may use when forming academic expectancies: the sex of the student, the family socioeconomic status (SES) of the student, and the student's after-school activities. Results indicated teachers held higher grade, graduation, and college attendance expectancies for females than for males and for middle-SES than low-SES students. Also, students who participated in extracurricular activities were expected to achieve more academically than either students who were employed after school or who did nothing after school. The latter two groups did not elicit different teacher expectancies. Interactions revealed that (a) lowest expectations were held for low-SES males who did nothing after school and (b) the difference in graduation expectancies between the SES groups was only half as great for students who took part in extracurricular activities than it was for students who had no involvements after school or who had jobs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Researchers using a goal orientation framework have hypothesized that learning goals are associated with adaptive patterns of behavior, regardless of the level of perceived ability. In contrast, perceived ability is hypothesized to moderate the relation between performance goals and patterns of adaptive or maladaptive behavior. We examined this hypothesis in two samples of seventh grade middle school students, focusing on the math domain in one sample and on the English domain in the other. Using two different statistical methods, median split and multiple regression, we found only little support for the role of perceived competence as a moderator between performance goals and patterns of behavior. Contrary to what has been suggested, we found some evidence that perceived competence moderated the relation between learning goals and behavior. Implications of these findings for recent efforts to use goal theory to reform classrooms and schools are discussed. Copyright 1997Academic Press
A previous study showed that pairs of students interacting in a second language produced more words when they were assigned a fictitious expert position in a specific competence dimension than when they were assigned a nonexpert position. It has also been shown that the usual level of expertise has an impact on the assigned fictitious expertise effect. The present study was designed to determine whether the processing capacity allotted to the current task could partly determine performance. A given position of expertise may demand a large or small attentional capacity. Two experiments were conducted using a dual-task paradigm. As expected, the different expertise positions led to different reaction times on the secondary task. The second experiment showed that the impact of assigning a position of expertise to students depends on their usual academic standing. This study supports the idea that in interactive situations, performance variations as a function of the expertise position can be partially explained by differences in the processing resources allocated to the task. Implications for teaching are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Two studies are reported describing the development and validation of the Strategic Flexibility Questionnaire (SFQ): a self-report instrument aimed at eliciting students' beliefs about the need for, and conditional nature of, self-regulatory control over learning. In Study 1, 281 first-year university education students completed a 40-item pilot questionnaire. Factor analysis of responses revealed a 21-item instrument indicating three types of control beliefs: adaptive executive control, inflexible executive control, and irresolute executive control. In Study 2, the predictive validity of these conceptions was tested against the academic performance of 105 third-year university education students. Results indicated that students reporting adaptive executive control beliefs were more successful academically, while those students reporting inflexible or irresolute control beliefs were significantly less successful academically.
This study extends previous research on the relations among students' personal achievement goals, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, and reports of the use of self-handicapping strategies. Surveys, specific to the math domain, were given to 484 7th-grade students in nine middle schools. Personal performance-avoid goals positively predicted handicapping, whereas personal performance-approach goals did not. Personal task goals negatively predicted handicapping. Perceptions of a performance goal structure positively predicted handicapping, and perceptions of a task goal structure negatively predicted handicapping, independent of personal goals. Median splits used to examine multiple goal profiles revealed that students high in performance-avoid goals used handicapping more than did those low in performance-avoid goals regardless of the level of task goals. Students low in performance-avoid goals and high in task goals handicapped less than those low in both goals. Level of performance-approach goals had little effect on the relation between task goals and handicapping. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
This study reports data extending work by Marsh and colleagues on the "big-fish-little-pond effect" (BFLPE). The BFLPE hypothesizes that it is better for academic self-concept to be a big fish in a little pond (gifted student in regular reference group) than to be a small fish in a big pond (gifted student in gifted reference group). The BFLPE effect was examined with respect to academic self-concept, test anxiety, and school grades in a sample of 1020 gifted Israeli children participating in two different educational programs: (a) special homogeneous classes for the gifted and (b) regular mixed-ability classes. The central hypothesis, deduced from social comparison and reference group theory, was that academically talented students enrolled in special gifted classes will perceive their academic ability and chances for academic success less favorably compared to students in regular mixed-ability classes. These negative self-perceptions, in turn, will serve to deflate students' academic self-concept, elevate their levels of evaluative anxiety, and result in depressed school grades. A path-analytic model linking reference group, academic self-concept, evaluative anxiety, and school performance, was employed to test this conceptualization. Overall, the data lend additional support to reference group theory, with the big-fish-little-pond effect supported for all three variables tested. In addition, academic self-concept and test anxiety were observed to mediate the effects of reference group on school grades. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
This study examined the relations between middle school students' self-reported cheating and several indicators of academic and social motivation. It was hypothesized that students' academic self-efficacy and personal and classroom goal orientations would predict cheating. Social motivations were presumed to predict cheating above and beyond achievement motivation. Four dimensions of relationships within schools were measured: participation structure, teacher commitment and competence, teacher respect, and sense of school belonging. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict classification as a cheater or noncheater. Although academic motivation variables predicted cheating, the addition of the relationship variables significantly improved the classification rates. The final model included grade in school, academic self-efficacy, extrinsic goal orientation, participation structure, teacher commitment, and teacher respect. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Engagement in academic work was viewed from a multiple goals perspective. Two studies were conducted in which high school math students completed an instrument measuring five goals students might have for doing academic work (learning goals, performance goals, obtaining future consequences, pleasing the teacher, and pleasing the family), perceived math ability, self-regulatory activities, strategies (deep or shallow) used when studying for math, and the amount of effort and persistence expended on the class. Factor analysis indicated that the five goals scales and the perceived ability scale represented unique factors. The correlations among the variables revealed theoretically consistent interrelationships. Multiple regression analyses indicated that various goals (e.g., learning goals, obtaining future consequences, and pleasing the teacher), perceived ability, and some interactions accounted for significant amounts of variance in the task engagement measures (self-regulation, strategy use, effort, and persistence) and achievement. Results are discussed in relation to current theory and their practical implications.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of informal cooperative learning and the affiliation motive on achievement, attitude, and student interactions. Participants classified as high or low need for affiliation used either an informal cooperative learning strategy or an individual strategy while receiving information, examples, practice and feedback from an instructional television lesson. Results indicated that participants who used the individual strategy acquired significantly more knowledge from the lesson and indicated significantly more continuing motivation for working alone than those who used the informal cooperative strategy. Instructional strategy did not influence performance on the application portion of the test. Results also revealed that high affiliation participants expressed significantly more continuing motivation than low affiliation participants for working with another person. Low affiliation participants expressed significantly more continuing motivation than high affiliation participants for working alone. Finally, results indicated that high affiliation dyads exhibited significantly more on-task group behaviors (taking turns, sharing materials, group discussion of content) and significantly more off-task behaviors than low affiliation dyads. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) is a cooperative learning strategy which capitalizes on the benefit students receive from preparing to tutor one another. In these experiments we investigated the effects of RPT on the academic achievement, academic self-efficacy, and test anxiety of undergraduate students. Undergraduate education majors enrolled in either human growth and development or educational psychology participated in the study. Students developed a series of test questions, used these questions to quiz each other prior to unit examinations, and provided corrective feedback to the questions. Statistically significant findings were inconsistent across the experiments. In short, RPT appears to have, at best, inconsistent effects on achievement, test anxiety, and academic self-efficacy. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Eighty students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups receiving cooperative learning instruction. Geometry achievement was assessed using scores from the IOWA Test of Basic Skills and teacher-made exams. An 83-item questionnaire was used as a pretest, posttest, and post-posttest assessment of efficacy, intrinsic valuing, goal orientation, and cognitive processing. Students in the cooperative treatment groups exhibited significantly greater gains than the control group in geometry achievement, efficacy, intrinsic valuing of geometry, learning goal orientation, and reported uses of deep processing strategies. The implications for cooperative group structures and motivation theory are discussed.
This study focused on comparisons of American and Chinese students in conceptions of ability and achievement goals in physical education. Three hundred eight American students and 371 Chinese students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades completed questionnaires assessing their conceptions of ability and achievement goals. Results indicated that for both American and Chinese students, as they progressed through the grades they tended to develop a differentiated conception of ability and to become more ego-oriented. Achievement goals were related to conceptions of ability. Cultural differences were found in the two variables. The findings offer additional empirical support to the view that goal theory is relevant to physical education settings and that achievement-related cognitions vary as a function of children's age and cultural background. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between preservice teachers' general self-esteem and mathematics achievement through the inclusion of variables that are supported by recent research in psychology and social cognitive theory. A structural equation model is used to examine the paths from mathematics achievement to general self-esteem and vice versa. To this end, the concepts of self-esteem and the relationships between self-esteem and academic achievement are first explained, followed by a description of the baseline model that was used for the analysis of the data. The methodology of the study, with emphasis on the description of the intervening variables, is then summarized. Last, the results of the study are discussed and conclusions are drawn from the main findings. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between achievement goals (task, performance-approach, performance-avoid), motivation constructs, and gender in the areas of middle school writing (N = 497) and science (N = 281). In both studies, task goals were associated positively with self-efficacy, self-concept, and self-efficacy for self-regulation and negatively with apprehension; performance-approach goals were associated positively with self-concept; and performance-avoid goals were associated negatively with self-concept and self-efficacy for self-regulation and positively with apprehension. In writing, performance-approach goals also related positively with self-efficacy, whereas performance-avoid goals related negatively and girls had stronger task goals. Findings related to performance-approach goals suggest that a developmental component may be at work in determining whether these goals serve a facilitative function in fostering motivation. Task goals and performance-approach goals were related, suggesting that they are each grounded in self-regulatory practices that lead to positive outcomes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
We examined the relations between college students' control beliefs and future time perspective (FTP) and their academic achievement and studying using canonical correlation. We identified two statistically significant canonical correlations. One associated primarily competency belief, as reflected by self-efficacy, and FTP connectedness with grades. The other associated primarily contingency beliefs, as reflected by locus of control and causal attributions, and FTP connectedness and valence with studying. Results support a distinction between competency and contingency in personal control beliefs and suggest that these have somewhat different motivational consequences. Results also indicate that future time perspective beliefs play a role in motivating achievement and studying. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Declines in students' achievement motivation across the transition to middle school may be explained by characteristics of both the academic and social environment of the new school. This study proposes that students' sense of belonging in middle school and their endorsement of social responsibility, relationship, and status goals in that setting should explain, in part, changes in their achievement goal orientations between 5th and 6th grades. Longitudinal survey data from 660 students indicated that, on average, endorsement of personal task goals declined, whereas endorsement of ability goals increased across the transition. Increases in task goal orientation were associated with perceiving both a task and an ability goal structure in 6th grade classes, along with sense of school belonging, and endorsing responsibility goals. Increases in ability goal orientation were associated positively with perceiving an ability goal structure in classes, with relationship and status goals, and negatively with school belonging. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Achievement goal theory has emerged as a major new direction in motivational research. A distinction is made among conceptually different achievement goal orientations including the goal to develop ability (task goal orientation), the goal to demonstrate ability (ability-approach goal orientation), and the goal to avoid the demonstration of lack of ability (ability-avoid goal orientation). Scales assessing each of these goal orientations were developed over an eight year period by a group of researchers at the University of Michigan. The results of studies conducted with seven different samples of elementary and middle school students are used to describe the internal consistency, stability, and construct validity of the scales. Comparisons of these scales with those developed by Nicholls and his colleagues provide evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis attests to the discriminant validity of the scales. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
The authors examined the temporal stability of elementary school students' (N = 432) motivation goals (task-mastery, performance, and work-avoidant) for literacy activities in the classroom. Task-specific assessments of students' goals were collected in the fall and spring of Grades 3, 4, and 5. Stability coefficients indicated a reasonable degree of consistency in students' goal responses over time, even though goals were initially assessed in relation to a specific learning assignment. However, there were also significant mean-level changes in students' goals within the school year and significant linear declines in task-mastery and performance goals over time. Changes were consistent across gender groups and across ability levels. Additionally, changes in task-mastery goal ratings explained variations in students' reported use of active learning strategies in reading and writing activities. The important implications of this study for future research are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Academic and social success in school has been linked to children's self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based neuropsychological measure of EF skills. The sample included 74 children (37 females; M = 86.2 months) who participated in two assessments of working memory and inhibitory control: Knock-Tap (NEPSY: Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp, 1998), and participation in event-related potential (ERP) testing that included the Directional Stroop Test (Davidson, Cruess, Diamond, O'Craven, & Savoy, 1999). Three main findings emerged. First, children grouped as high versus low performing on the NEPSY Knock-Tap Task were found to performed differently on the more difficult conditions of the DST (the Incongruent and Mixed Conditions), suggesting that the Knock-Tap Task as a low-cost and easy to administer assessment of EF skills may be one way for teachers to identify students with poor inhibitory control skills. Second, children's performance on the DST was strongly related to their ERP responses, adding to evidence that differences in behavioral performance on the DST as a measure of EF skills reflect corresponding differences in brain processing. Finally, differences in brain processing on the DST task also were found when the children were grouped based on Knock-Tap performance. Simple screening procedures can enable teachers to identify children whose distractibility, inattentiveness, or poor attention spans may interfere with classroom learning.
The aim of this study was to determine whether gender differences in the writing motivation and achievement of middle school students (N = 497) are a function of gender-stereotypic beliefs rather than of gender. Girls reported stronger writing self-efficacy, writing self-concept, self-efficacy for self-regulation, value of writing, and task goals, and they received higher grades in language arts. Boys reported stronger performance-approach goals. All gender differences favoring girls in writing motivation and achievement were rendered nonsignificant when feminine orientation beliefs were controlled. Findings suggest that a feminine orientation is adaptive in the area of writing, whereas a masculine orientation is beneficial when escorted by a feminine orientation. Results are interpreted from the perspective of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
In this study the development of causal attributions about reading within low-income families was examined. Specifically, relations between children's reading achievement and their causal attributions were investigated as well as relations between the children's attributions about themselves and their parents' attributions about them. A total 513 students from Grades 3, 6, and 9, and one parent of each student, all from low-income families, participated. Students and parents independently rated the importance of seven causal variables (effort, intellectual ability, liking for reading, the teacher, help at home, difficulty of reading material, and luck) for the students' good and poor reading outcomes. The major findings were that (a) at each grade, students' attributions were reliably related to their reading achievement on the Gates-MacGinitie reading comprehension test, with attributions to ability, liking for reading, and help at home especially critical; (b) at each grade, parent attributions were reliably associated with student attributions; and (c) as students' grade in school increased, they focused more on themselves and less on others as causal determinants of their reading performance. The implications of these findings for research and education are discussed.
There are a number of important issues raised by Murphy and Alexander in the lead article of this issue. In this response, four general issues are discussed in light of current research and achievement goal theory. The four issues include: (1) the general definition and theoretical clarity of motivational constructs, (2) the accessibility and consciousness of motivational beliefs, (3) the interdependent or independent nature of the relations between motivational constructs, and (4) the stability of motivation over time, domains, and contexts. These issues are considered in the context of current achievement goal theory research with the hope that the discussion will help to clarify the four issues for both motivational theory and research in general as well as for specific theoretical and empirical efforts within goal theory research. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
This study examined how the semantic meanings of rational numbers embodied in graphical representations pose a constraint on children's construction of the concept of fraction equivalence. A test consisting of graphical representations representing the part-whole and measuring semantic meaning was given to 205 fifth-graders and 208 sixth-graders from China. Results showed that the fifth-graders' overall performance on equivalent fraction items was poor across the semantic domains of rational numbers. The sixth-graders showed significantly improved performance on the equivalent fraction items representing the part-whole relation but not on those representing the measure aspect of rational number. The results provide evidence that semantic meanings of fractional numbers in different relevant contexts also constitute a source of difficulty in children's constructing the concept of fraction equivalence, in addition to the multiplicative nature of the concept. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
The literature on keyword training presents a confusing picture of the usefulness of the keyword method for foreign language vocabulary learning by students with strong verbal knowledge backgrounds. This paper reviews research which notes the existence of conflicting sets of findings concerning the verbal background-keyword training relationship and presents the results of analyses which argue against the assertion made by McDaniel and Pressley (1984) that keyword training will have minimal effect on students with high verbal ability. Findings from regression analyses of data from two studies did not show that the relationship between keyword training and immediate recall performance was moderated by verbal knowledge background. The disparate sets of findings related to the keyword training-verbal knowledge relationship and themes emerging from other research suggest that this relationship requires further examination.
This study investigates the influences of print advertisements on the affective and cognitive responses of adolescents. Junior and senior high school males (n = 111) and females (n = 84) were randomly assigned to either a low- or high-elaboration condition to process primarily visual and primarily verbal print advertisements. The students then responded to questions measuring three dependent variables-memory of specific facts, inference, and emotional response. Three-way ANOVA results indicated that predominantly visual advertisements elicited memory of more facts, more inferencing, and more intense emotional responses than predominantly verbal ads. In addition, females remembered more facts, made more inferences, reported stronger emotional responses, and detected the explicit claim of the ad more frequently than males. Finally, students in the high-elaboration condition remembered more details than students in the low-elaboration condition. The results are discussed in terms of implications for advertising media literacy. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
This study examined individual differences in selecting main points according to three types of tasks. In all, 133 students (10th-graders) participated. Each student studied three instructional texts, and each text was preceded by one instruction. In the linguistic task, the students had to underline the author's main points. In the educational task, students had to underline text elements considered to be important by a portrayed teacher. And in the interest task, interesting text fragments had to be underlined. The students were divided into five groups identified by a typical selection pattern. Only 24 students adjusted their selection of main points to each of the tasks (the adaptive group). This group differed in some study strategies and learning conceptions from the nonadaptive groups. In all, this study begins to give more insight into individual differences in selecting main points.
Adjunct question research has typically focused on the effects of adjunct questions on improving the learning of college students. This study investigated the effects of inserted and massed postquestions (inference, main idea, and detail), with and without feedback, on improving the comprehension skills of adolescents labeled as reading disabled. Students practiced using adjunct questions for 6 weeks. The results suggested that inserted questions (and to a lesser extent massed postquestions) were beneficial in improving the comprehension of texts that did not contain adjunct questions. Specifically, the results indicated that (a) inserted questions were more effective than massed postquestions or no questions, (b) massed postquestions were more effective than no questions, and (c) the effects of inserted questions on comprehension increased over the time of treatment. The beneficial effects of feedback were limited to inference and main idea questions. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Although there is evidence that self-regulated learning processes, such as self-efficacy and goal setting, are significantly related to academic success most studies have not included participants from the one third of the entering college students who must take remedial college courses. The purpose of our research was to examine the differences between the self regulation reported by regular admission students and by underprepared students. We hypothesized that self regulating behaviors could predict developmental, that is underprepared, status or regular admission status among postsecondary students. Self regulation processes in randomly selected developmental and regular admission college students were identified using a structured interview. A discriminant function analysis tested the predictive ability of three measures of self regulating behavior. Developmental and regular admission students differed significantly in their self regulatory strategy deployment. The results suggest that self regulation may be a distinguishing characteristic between some developmental and regular admission students. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Psychosocial maturity, gender, intellectual ability, and parenting practices were examined with a group of 344 Korean and 214 American adolescents. American adolescents reported greater self-reliance, work-orientation, and self-identity than did Korean adolescents. In addition, American girls described themselves as more mature in work orientation than did American boys, a trend reversed in the Korean culture. Intellectual ability was associated with adolescents' psychosocial maturity. Differences in parenting style were predictive of psychosocial maturity regardless of ethnic group membership. Authoritative parenting, compared to all other styles, was related to significantly higher means in adolescent maturity. Authoritarian and neglectful styles were almost always associated with lower psychosocial maturity, whereas permissive and mixed parenting styles were more advantageous than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Using six waves of data (Grades 7 through 12) from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), this study investigated the effects of expectation and influence of students, peers, teachers, and parents on participation in advanced mathematics. Results of survival analysis indicated a significant decline in participation rate in the transition from Grades 11 to 12. Students with higher future expectation were more likely to participate in advanced mathematics. Peer influence and teacher expectation did not have strong effects, and the effect of student future expectation was independent of peer and teacher effects. The effect of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were strong, and in their presence, the effect of student future expectation declined. Mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics were the most important factors affecting participation in advanced mathematics. With control over achievement and attitude, (a) the effect of student future expectation declined, (b) the effects of peer influence and teacher expectation disappeared, and (c) the effects of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were reduced. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
This study investigated the effects of organizational signals, need for cognition, and verbal ability on recall and recognition of information from an expository text. Ninety-two undergraduate students completed the Need for Cognition scale (Cacioppo, Petty, & Kao, 1984) and read a text that either: (a) contained organizational signals in the form of an overview, headings, and a summary or (b) contained no signals. Consistent with our primary hypothesis, there was a marginal tendency for organizational signals to interact with need for cognition to influence conditional recall of expository text information. Specifically, need for cognition was related marginally to conditional recall only in the "no signals" condition. Organizational signals, need for cognition, and verbal ability contributed significantly to prediction of performance on three measures of text recall. By contrast, performance on the recognition test was influenced by an interaction between organizational signals and verbal ability. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Associative mnemonic benefits on delayed memory tests have been questioned-especially in the absence of an immediate test (e.g., Wang & Thomas, 1995). In this regard, we recently described a series of experiments that placed delayed mnemonic performance in a more favorable light (Carney & Levin, 1998). Despite the positive findings, a nonstatistically steeper rate of forgetting was observed for mnemonic participants, which led us to search for additional decay-preventive measures. One such measure might be to provide actual pictures of mnemonic interactions rather than just verbal descriptions of them. To test this hypothesis, we assigned undergraduates to one of three conditions to study a set of artists and their paintings: own best method, verbal mnemonic, and pictorial mnemonic. Following study of over 24 paintings, students in the two mnemonic conditions outperformed those in the control condition on both immediate and delayed tests. Further, and in line with our expectation, pictorial mnemonic students exhibited a statistically lower rate of forgetting compared to control students. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
The amount that students read for enjoyment and for school is a major contributor to students' reading achievement and knowledge of the world. Consequently, it is important to identify the factors that predict amount of reading. A literature review revealed that motivation, strategy-use, and past reading achievement all may be expected to predict reading amount. To examine these variables, a total of 251 students in Grades 3 and 5 was administered questionnaires of these constructs and a reading test. Results showed that amount of reading for enjoyment was predicted most highly by motivation, when all other variables were controlled statistically in multiple-regression analyses. In contrast, amount of reading for school was predicted most highly by strategy use, when all other variables were controlled. However, these predictions were different for students in Grades 3 and 5. Findings of the study indicate that amount of reading is multiply determined by cognitive and motivational constructs, which is consistent with an engagement perspective on reading development. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Recent research has suggested that information acquired through the mnemonic keyword method fades rapidly as time goes by-especially in the absence of an immediate test. Five experiments were conducted to investigate various aspects of this issue and our results turned up the "usual suspects." That is, we found consistent mnemonic advantages in acquisition (all experiments) as well as delayed mnemonic advantages in cases where students received an immediate test on studied items (Experiments 2, 3, 4, and 5). Further, and of special interest here, even in the absence of an immediate test, we found delayed mnemonic advantages (Experiments 3, 4, and 5). Nevertheless, these positive delayed findings were tempered by the observation that, in terms of absolute number retained, there was a somewhat faster forgetting rate for mnemonic students in comparison to repetition controls. In our discussion, we examine other delayed-recall indicators (relative differences and conditional probabilities) in an effort to better compare the "forgetting" of mnemonic and repetition participants. A theoretical explanation for the fragility of mnemonic memories, and implications for future research, are provided. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
The benefits of using a comprehensive annotation strategy (employing underlining/circling, making connections, asking questions, and making comments) with knowledge maps (spatial/verbal arrays) and traditional, linear text to improve free recall scores for learners with individual differences in vocabulary and comprehension ability were examined. Types and frequencies of annotations generated were also examined for each stimulus format condition. Multiple regression analyses indicate that the frequency of use of two component annotation strategies, asking questions and making connections, were significant predictors of recall scores, while frequency of underlining/circling and generating elaborations failed to predict recall scores. Text users generated more underlining/circling, while knowledge map users generated more connections between ideas, suggesting that knowledge maps may facilitate the application of more productive annotation strategies. Also examined were the interrelationships between vocabulary ability, comprehension ability, and free recall scores. Copyright 1997Academic Press
The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model by Marsh (e.g., 1990a) assumes two central information sources for the constitution of domain-specific academic self-concepts: (1) social comparisons (external frame of reference), in which students compare their own achievements with those of their classmates; and (2) intraindividual comparisons (internal frame of reference), in which students compare their own achievements in one subject with their achievements in other subjects. In path analyses, it has been found that the latter type of comparison leads to negative paths from achievement indicators in subject A to self-concept measures in subject B. To investigate the actual impact of achievement feedback and of the frames of reference on changes in self-concept variables, we analyzed math and German self-concepts immediately following the announcement of exam results in each subject. Participants were 258 7th- to 9th-graders. Path analyses using structural equation modeling supported the validity of the I/E model with respect to the impact of simultaneously given current exam results. In particular, German achievement had a negative impact on subsequent math self-concept. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
This study compared the effects of two approaches to networking. Two intact classes of college students participated in this study. The major focus of this study was to examine the extent to which the mental construction of networks was sufficient for recall to occur. Two intact classes of students participated in this study. Experimental participants were taught to construct their own networks both on paper and mentally while control participants were not. Recall of ideas was assessed at the pretest and at the posttest using a free-written recall task and a multiple-choice test. The results showed that networking mentally is as effective for recalling ideas and more time-efficient than networking on paper. Moreover, participants used different networking modalities depending on the passage to be read and the level of detail they are attempting to recall. The results are promising as they provide college students with a powerful tool that encourages cognitive processing without unnecessarily depleting their time resources. However, the results of this study also reveal that some initial experience with the strategy is necessary. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
This study was designed to examine whether first-grade boys' use of retrieval and first-grade girls' use of manipulatives reflected gender differences in their abilities to use these strategies or gender differences in preferences for strategy use. Eighty-four first-grade students, 42 boys and 42 girls, from two suburban elementary schools participated in this study. The children solved basic arithmetic problems under two conditions: a free-choice condition in which they were allowed to solve the problems any way they preferred and a game condition in which the children's strategy use was constrained so that all children used the same strategies on the same arithmetic problems. Strategy use during the free-choice session replicated the findings of earlier research indicating that girls tend to use strategies utilizing manipulatives and boys tend to use retrieval. During the game condition, when we controlled the types of strategies children used on different problems we found that boys were as able as girls to calculate solutions using manipulatives. Girls, however, were not as capable as boys in their retrieval of answers to arithmetic problems from memory. No differences were found in error rates or speed of retrieval. Gender differences were found in the variability of correct retrieval, with boys being significantly more variable than girls. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
This study investigated metamemory knowledge related to a professional task and the relationships between metamemory knowledge and memory performance in a simulated professional task, which was a beverage-service job with memory constraints changes. Metamemory knowledge was assessed by interviewing student waiters about hypothetical recall tasks concerning lists of beverages. They then carried out a simulated beverage-service task, including a first paired-associate recall (beverage-customer), then a global recall (order to the bartender), followed by a second paired-associate recall (beverage-customer). Memory constraints were manipulated with table size and perceptive cues. Results revealed that in metamemory knowledge, task-strategy, and strategy were the only variables that were related. Metamemory knowledge produced an effect on all memory performance, whatever the constraints were. The implications of these findings for professional training are discussed in terms of strategy instruction for enhancing professional performance when memory demands change in the work environment. Copyright 1997Academic Press
Students' organization of the knowledge that they acquire is an important factor in determining the degree to which it is retained and used. In the past we have used the "fill-in-the-structure" (FITS) task as a direct method of inferring students' cognitive structures of course content (Naveh-Benjamin, Lin & McKeachie, 1995). This study goes one step further by using the FITS task to assess the flexibility of students' cognitive structures of the material learned; that is, whether students are able to relate the same concepts in different ways when the concepts are embedded in two different conceptual frameworks. We assessed the flexibility of students' cognitive structures in three studies by asking students in an ecology course to complete two different structures, each based on a different major dimension in the course. Results of the first study showed that the FITS technique could be used to assess students' ability to use concepts learned in the course appropriately in two different frameworks. The flexibility measures obtained were positively related to academic performance. The second study demonstrated the usefulness of the technique in measuring the development of conceptual flexibility during the course. Finally, the third study employed the technique to show that students' flexible use of concepts can be enhanced by appropriate instruction. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Four groups of Dutch readers, (a) beginners, second grade elementary school students with 2 years of reading experience, (b) advanced readers, sixth grade elementary school students with 6 years of reading experience, (c) expert readers, university students with 14 years of reading experience, and (d) poor readers, aged 13 years with 2 years of delay in reading skill, were presented with short stories followed by multiple-choice text comprehension questions. Participants were asked to read the stories for meaning and to circle the letter t whenever it occurred in the text. Five types of detection locations were defined: (1) verb suffix, (2) noun final, (3) intra word, second letter, (4) intra word, prefinal letter, and (5) definite article, final t. Differential detection patterns as a function of reading development were obtained. Beginning readers did not differ in detecting the final t in verbs and nouns, whereas expert readers showed a strong attentional bias to verb suffixes as compared with noun endings. Expert readers missed more intra word letters. In all groups prefinal letters were detected better than second letters in words, thus suggesting a general attentional bias for orthographic information in the second part of Dutch words. The t in the definite article was missed most often in all groups, which suggests sensitivity to word frequency at early stages in reading development. Poor readers did not show differential performance patterns as compared to the other reading groups. The overall developmental pattern can be characterized as a shift from attention for single letter information to attention for more complex morphological information in text. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.